2012-08-30 15.00

kimkat0991e Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia. To what extent was Welsh holding its ground in such and such a place in such and such a year? A list of place names with quotes from various writers at various times. "Crucywel (Crickhowell) 1878 - At Crickhowel, on the Usk, it is spoken only by old people, and Welsh services are no longer heard in the Parish Church, though still continued for Dissenting chapels. The neighbouring parish of Llangenny has become completely Anglicised."

 
 
 

 

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Welsh-speaking territories - index
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Collir heniaith. Where Welsh is and was spoken.Observations on the Welsh language in villages and towns in Wales and in Welsh settlements abroad, especially in the 1800s.

To what extent was Welsh holding its ground in such and such a year at such and such a place?

Observations on the Welsh language in villages and towns in Wales and beyond
(1) The items are to be found under the Welsh name of a place;
(2) English names are cross-referenced to the Welsh name (Newport: see Casnewydd)
(3) usually the present county name (post-1996) has been given (Llanidloes, county of Powys)
(4) the year in which the observation was made follows the place name.
(5) The source of the item quoted is given, or else a link is added to a page within our website with the original article
(6) Our comments are added between braces {....}
(7) Items in Welsh are followed by an English translation

Abergavenny: See Y Fenni

Aberhafesp, county of Powys 1878
Aberhafesp 20 per cent {i.e. in 1878 20% of the population of Aberhafesp spoke Welsh}
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at 0805e kimkat0805e

Aberhonddu
, county of Powys (= "Brecon") 1822
This town contains many Dissenters, and they have four places of worship, which are well attended; the service is mostly in Welsh, except among the Wesleyans. In the churches the service is generally English, in St. Mary's entirely so, and in St. John's and St. David's entirely. Here, as in some other towns of South Wales, the English language has increased of late, although it cannot be admitted, that the Welsh has diminished to the extent that has been affirmed, though it has few admirers among the more respectable part of the inhabitants... I remain, Sir, With great respect, IEUAN. (Editor's Footnote: "We regret to hear this unnational account of the good people of Brecon, but hope, that the ensuing Eisteddvod will introduce our native tongue a little more to their favour- ED.) The Cambro-Briton, Volume 3, 1822. Page 470.

Aberhonddu, county of Powys (= "Brecon") 1878
Brecknock {Aberhonddu} , the capital, in the very centre of the country, has become a fourth focus {after Llanfair ym Muallt ("Builth Wells"), Y Gelligandryll ("Hay on Wye") and Y Fenni ("Abergavenny")}, whence English spreads in all directions. It is used there only by the older people, and declining rapidly.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Aberhonddu, county of Powys (= "Brecon") 1910
Yn Aberhonddu sieryd y rhieni Gymraeg, a'r plant Saesneg. Yr wyf wedi crwydro llawer hyd y cymoedd prydferth o amgylch y dref hon, sydd ar lawer cyfrif y dlysaf yng Nghymru. Nis gwn am un ardal yn meddu Cymraeg mor bur a llenyddol, byddaf yn wastad yn hoffi ei glywed; ond, heb ddeffro, collir ef o lannau'r Wysg cyn diwedd y ganrif ieuanc hon. Y mae pobl cymoedd Aberhonddu yn bobl ddeallgar, hoff o wybodaeth; ond tyf eu plant o'u hamgylch yn gymharol amddifad o'u meddylgarwch a'u chwilfrydedd hwy. Ychydig o gyfarwyddyd, a deffry'r bobl i weled y cam y mae'r plant yn gael. Apelier atynt, esbonier iddynt gymaint allent wneyd, a blodeua'r Gymraeg eto yn hen ardaloedd John Penry a Theophilus Evans.
"I Godi'r Hen Iaith yn ei Hol", Cymru, Cyfrol 38, Mai 1910, tudalen 245.

OUR TRANSLATION: In Aberhonddu ("Brecon") the parents speak Welsh, and the children English. I've walked a good deal through the beautiful valleys around the town, in many ways the prettiest in Wales. I don't know of any district in Wales which has such pure and literary Welsh, I always like to hear it; but without an awakening it will be lost from the banks of the Wysg ("Usk") before the end of this young century. The people of the valleys of Aberhonddu are an intelligent people, fond of learning; but their children grow up around them lacking in comparison their keen thinking and their intellectual curiosity. A bit of instruction, and the people will wake up to see the disservice they are doing to the children. Let us appeal to them, and explain to them how much they could do, and the Welsh language will flourish again in the old districts of John Penry a Theophilus Evans. "I Godi'r Hen Iaith yn ei Hol", (= "to restore the old language") Cymru, Volume 38, Mai 1910, page 246.


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Aberllynfi, county of Powys (= "Three Cocks") 1878
Hay, on the Hereford frontier, and the neighbouring parishes of Llanigon and Aberllunvey, are likewise English, Welsh being spoken only by a few old people and immigrants.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Abertawe, county of Abertawe ("Swansea") 1925
Anglicised Schools in Swansea. Changes Brought About by Housing Schemes. Hafod Becomes English.
As recently as 20 years ago, Cwmbwrla, Manselton and the Hafod districts and all the districts to the north and east of these were mainly Welsh. Today Hafod has become English. Out of 1024 children, only 17 were reported as coming from homes where Welsh was the home language. Manselton and Cwmbwrla were rapidly following. At Manselton, out of 941 children, only 65, and at Cwmbwrla, out of 798 children, only 47 came from families where Welsh was the home language.
Mid-Glamorgan Herald, 7 November 1925.

Aberystwyth, county of Ceredigion 1878
Cardiganshire is Welsh throughout. Even at Aberystwyth, its principal town, the services in 11 out of 16 places of worship are conducted in Welsh, and though most of the inhabitants speak English, there are few who do not also understand Welsh. But while Welsh is slowly losing ground there, it is said firmly to maintain its hold upon the people throughout the rest of the county
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Bangor, county of Gwynedd 1878
In the town of Bangor, 3,500 persons speak Welsh only. English is employed in one church and two small chapels, whilst the services in three large churches and seven chapels are conducted in Welsh. The Board of Guardians, the Vestry, and the two School Boards of the district, transact their business in Welsh, and the circulation of the two weekly papers is four times that of their two English contemporaries. In Bangor Welsh is spoken except by about 300 natives of England.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Bangor Is-coed, county of Wrecsam ("Bangor on Dee"), 1730 .
When Defoe visited Bangor Monachorum, about 1730, he failed to procure a guide capable of giving the explanation required. At the present day (1878) English alone is spoken.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Bangor on Dee = Bangor Is-coed

Bers, Y county of Wrecsam (= Bersham) 1878
In the parishes of Bersham, Broughton, Brymbo, Minera, and Esclusham above to the West of Wrexham, which have a total population of 13,250 souls, Welsh is spoken by seven-eighths of the population, and English by the same number, but further in the interior of the country, and more especially in those parts which are at some distance from railroads, the knowledge of English is still very limited, scarcely more than half of the inhabitants being able to express themselves in it.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Bersham = Y Bers

Bishton = Trefesgob

Blaenau Gwent, county of Blaenau Gwent c1900
The Welsh language was spoken in every parish of Monmouthshire down to the early part of the 18th century, when it began to recede westward from the Wye. During the latter half of the 19th century it finally disappeared from the parishes east of the river Usk, and, in this county, is now practically confined to the Blaenau Gwent (the West Monmouthshire hills) and the district between Newport and Cardiff.
'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911) (John Hobson Mathews, Mab Cernyw)

Y Bontnewydd ar Wy, county of Powys ("Newbridge on Wye") 1845
Ychydig o enghreifftiau o brawf mor ynfyd yw y rhai a gymmerant arnynt fod yn dysgu y Saesonaeg idd eu plant, pan yn gorfod arfer y cyfryw gymmysgfa a ganlyn, mal y clywsom lawer o'r cyffyleb...
"Evan," meddai un hen
ŵr wrth y Bontnewydd, yn swydd Faesyfed, ag oedd yn tybied ei fod yn gryn dalp mewn gwybodaeth Seisnig., "go, and fetch me the bar harn bach from the beudy." "Daid," meddai y bachgenyn, "which shall I bring from the beudy, the bar harn bach or the bar harn mawr?" Onid ydynt y cyfrai faldorddion ag uchod yn ddigon i beri i Gymro wridaw gan gywilydd, am fod ei gydwladwyr yn ymddwyn mor anweddaidd tuag at eu plant, gan ei dysgu i fod yn ffyliaid, ac yn chwerthinfa gyffredin eu cymmdogion, am nad oes ganddynt eu hiaith gynhenid ac nad ynt alluog i siarad un o'r ddwy iaith, na rhoddi atebiaid i estron-ddyn o Sais na Chymro, mewn modd gweddaidd, yn yr iaith, (?), meddynt, y cawsant eu haddysgu ynddi gan eu rhieni an wybodus a beilchion?"
At y Werin Weithyddwl Gymreig / Lythyr 1 / Seren Gomer Ebrill 1845 / tudalen 108

OUR TRANSLATION: A few examples of proof of how idiotic are those people who pretend to be teaching English to their children, when they are obliged to use such a mixture as follows, as we have heard many things of this kind: 'Evan,' says an old man by Bontnewydd (= Y Bontnewydd ar Wy, "Newbridge on Wye"), in the county of Maesyfed ("Radnorshire"), who believed he had a great knowledge of English ("who believed he was a considerable portion in English knowledge"). "Go and fetch me the bar harn bach from the beudy." "Father," said the little lad, "which shall I bring from the beudy, the bar harn bach or the bar harn mawr?" Aren't such prattlers as the ones above enough to cause a Welshman to blush with shame, since his compatriots behave in such an unseemly way with their children, teaching them to be fools, and a general laughing stock among their neighbours, because they do not have their native language and they are not capable of talking either of the two languages...
(1) bar harn, literary Welsh = bar haearn, = iron bar;
(2) bar haearn bach = little iron bar,
(3) bar haearn mawr = big iron bar,
(4) beudy = cowhouse).

At y Werin Weithyddwl Gymreig / (= to the Welsh working people) Lythyr 1 (= letter one), Seren Gomer (magazine = 'the star of Gomer'), Ebrill (= April) 1845, tudalen (= page) 108

Y Bontnewydd ar Wy, county of Powys ("Newbridge on Wye") 1895
Dywed John Jones... yn ei 'History of the Baptists in Radnorshire', a gyhoeddwyd yn 1895, yr arferid Cymraeg gan mwyaf yng nghapeli'r Dolau, Nantmel a'r Bontnewydd-ar-Wy pan oedd ef yn blentyn ond 'now... Welsh... is not understood in these places, except by a few aged people'.
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed, 1968, tudalennau 95, 96

OUR TRANSLATION: John Jones says... in his 'History of the Baptists in Radnorshire', published in 1895, Welsh was used mostly in the chapels of Y Dolau, Nantmel and Bontnewydd-ar-Wy {'Newbridge on Wye'} when he was a child but 'now... Welsh... is not understood in these places, except by a few aged people'.
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed ('wandering (through) (the) county (of) Maesyfed, (through) Radnorshire') 1968, pages 95, 96

Brecon = Aberhonddu

Breconshire = Sir Frycheiniog

Brychdyn, county of Wrecsam 1878
In the parishes of Bersham, Broughton, Brymbo, Minera, and Esclusham above to the West of Wrexham, which have a total population of 13,250 souls, Welsh is spoken by seven-eighths of the population, and English by the same number, but further in the interior of the country, and more especially in those parts which are at some distance from railroads, the knowledge of English is still very limited, scarcely more than half of the inhabitants being able to express themselves in it.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Brymbo, county of Wrecsam 1878
In the parishes of Bersham, Broughton, Brymbo, Minera, and Esclusham above to the West of Wrexham, which have a total population of 13,250 souls, Welsh is spoken by seven-eighths of the population, and English by the same number, but further in the interior of the country, and more especially in those parts which are at some distance from railroads, the knowledge of English is still very limited, scarcely more than half of the inhabitants being able to express themselves in it.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Bryn-mawr, county of Blaenau Gwent 1878
The only large town {in Breconshire} {became part of Blaenau Gwent in 1974} in which Welsh is spoken by a majority is Brynmawr {Bryn-mawr} , on the Monmouthshire frontier.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Builth, or Builth Wells, = Llanfair ym Muallt

Caerffili, county of Caerffili ("Caerphilly") 2000
Ffyniant y Gymraeg yng Nghaerffili. Penodwyd swyddog datblygu i Fenter Iaith Caerffili - prin chwe mis ers i griw o bobl gwrdd am y tro cyntaf i sefydlu Menter Iaith yn yr ardal. Yn ystod y misoedd diwethaf, bu pwyllgor rheoli'r fenter yn paratoi ar gyfer y penodiad, sy'n gam ymlaen eto yn adfywiad y Gymraeg yn y De-ddwyrain. Bydd Lowri Catrin Pugh sydd wedi ei geni a'i magu yn yr ardal, yn cychwyn yn y swydd llawn amser, ddiwedd mis Gorffennaf. Daw o aelwyd ddi-Gymraeg ond penderfynodd ei theulu ar addysg Gymraeg i'w plant, Aeth Lowri i Gylch Meithrin Mudiad Ysgolion Meithrin ym Mhenpedairheol, cyn cael e haddysg gynradd yn Ysgol Gymraeg Gilfach Fargoed. Yna aeth i Ysgol Gyfun Cwm Rhymni cyn graddio o Brifysgol Aberystwyth y llynedd. Ar hyn o bryd mae'n dilyn cwrs MA ym Mhrifysgol Caerdydd. "Roedd sefydlu'r Fenter i'w weld fel y cam nesa wedi'r twf aruthrol sydd wedi digwydd yma yn y nifer o blant sy'n derbyn eu haddysg drwy gyfrwng y Gymraeg," meddai llefarydd ar ran Cyngor Bwrdeistrefol Sirol Caerffili. "Roedd yr ardal hon yn rhan o Eisteddfod Genedlaethol yr Urdd Islwyn a oedd yn llwyddiant ysgubol yn 1997. Mae aelodaeth yr Urdd yn yr ardal hon wedi cynyddu'n sylweddol hefyd yn ystod y blynyddoedd diwethaf ymysg plant a phobl sy'n dysgu Cymraeg fel ail-iaith, yn ogystal 'r rhai sy'n mynychu ysgolion Cymraeg eu cyfrwng. Cynyddu hefyd fu'r galw am gyfleoedd i ddysgu Cymraeg fel oedolion."
Y Cymro, 29 04 2000

OUR TRANSLATION: Thriving situation of Welsh in Caerffili. A development officer has been appointed to the Caerffili Language Venture - just six months since a group of people met for the first time to set up a Language Venture in the area. In the last few months, the Venture's ruling committee has been making preparations for the appointment, which is a another step forward in the revival of Welsh in the South-east. Lowri Catrin Pugh who was born and brought up in the area will begin in the full-time job at the end of July. She comes from a non-Welsh-speaking home but her family decided on Welsh-language education for their family. Lowri went to the Nursery School Movement's (Mudiad Ysgolion Meithrin) nursery circle in Penpedairheol, before receiving her primary education in Ysgol Gymraeg Gilfach Fargoed (the Gilfach Fargoed Welsh-medium school). Then she went on to Ysgol Gyfun Cwm Rhymni (the Cwm Rhymni Welsh-medium Comprehensive School) before graducatiin last year at the university in Aberystwyth. At present she is doing an MA course at the university in Caerdydd. "The establishment of the Venture was to be seen as the next step after the spectacular growth that has occurred here in the number of children who receive their education through the medium of Welsh," said a spokeman on behalf of Cyngor Bwrdeistrefol Sirol Caerffili (Caerffili County Borough Council). "This area was part of Eisteddfod Genedlaethol yr Urdd Islwyn (the Welsh League Of Youth Nationa Eisteddfod at Islwyn) which was a major success in 1997. Membership of the Urdd in this area has increased substantially also in the last few years amongst children and people learning Welsh as a second language, as well as people who attend Welsh-medium schools. The demand for opportunities for adults for learning Welsh has also increased." Y Cymro, 29 04 2000

Caerfyrddin, county of Caerfyrddin (= "Carmarthen") 1879
The older names of the streets have their Welsh equivalents; as, Heol y Prior (the prior's street), Heol y Brenin, Heol Spilman, Heol y Bont, Heol y Cai, Heol Dwr, Heol Awst (Calan Awst being the Welsh term for Lammas-day), while the newer streets are spoken of in Welsh under their English names; indicating a greater prevalence of Welsh in the town in former years. William Spurrell, Carmarthen and its Neighbourhood, 1879, page 11

Caergybi, county of Ynys Mn (= "Holyhead") 1878
{In Anglesey} Welsh is almost exclusively used in all churches, chapels, and Sunday schools, those of the Roman Catholic Irish, who are numerous at Holyhead, excepted
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Capelisaf, county of Powys 1910
Yn Aberhonddu sieryd y rhieni Gymraeg, a'r plant Saesneg. ...Ychydig o gyfarwyddyd, a deffry'r bobl i weled y cam y mae'r plant yn gael.... Gwnaed hynny'n ddiweddar yn un o'r cymoedd, cwm y Capel Isaf. Cynhaliwyd cyfarfod gan Ddosbarth Cymraeg yr ardal ddygwyl Dewi. Daeth y delyn yno. Canodd merch ieuanc gn o waith Myfyr Hefin, yr hon (yn l y "Brecon and Radnor Express") a gododd frwdfrydedd y dorf yn uchel iawn.
Ynddi enwir y cartrefydd yn y cwm lle delir i siarad Cymraeg. Canwyd hi ar alaw "Bugeilio'r Gwenith Gwyn." A dyma hi:
"I Godi'r Hen Iaith yn ei Hol", Cymru, Cyfrol 38, Mai 1910, tudalen 246.

OUR TRANSLATION: In Aberhonddu {= Brecon} the parents speak Welsh, and the children English... A bit of instruction, and the people will wake up to see the disservice they are doing to the children.... This was done lately in one of the valleys, the valley of Capelisaf {= "lower chapel"} The meeting was held by the Welsh class (= ?Welsh Bible reading class) in the area on Saint David's Day. The harp came there. A young girl sang a song by Myfyr Hefin, which, according to the "Brecon and Radnor Express", raised the enthusasism of the crowd very high. In it are named the homes in the valley where Welsh is still spoken. It was sung to the tune of "Bugeilio'r Gwenith Gwyn." {= watching over the white wheat} . And here it is: (See the full article at 1054)
"I Godi'r Hen Iaith yn ei Hol", (= "to restore the old language") Cymru, Cyfrol 38, Mai 1910, tudalen 246.

Capel-y-ffin, county of Powys 1878
It {the Welsh language} appears to have survived longest at Capelyffin, an outlying hamlet of Llanigon, near the head of the Afon Honddu.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Cardiganshire = Sir Aberteifi

Carnarvonshire = Sir Gaernarfon

Cas-bach, county of Casnewydd (= "Castleton") 1835
Sefydliad Cymdeithas Gymroaidd yn y Casbach
Mr. Gomer - Gan fod yn ddywenydd o'r mwyaf genych glywed, yn nghyd 'ch plant gwasgaredig, am y Cymdeithasau Cymroaidd sydd yn cael eu sefydlu, o bryd i bryd, gan feibion Gomer, yr ydym ni, tua Mynwy, wedi bod yn hir megys yn cysgu mewn llonyddwch a difaterwch am ein Hiaith a'n cenedl, pan oedd canwyllau yn cael eu goleuo mewn amryw fanau ar hyd y Dywysogaeth, a thrwy fod y cyfryw ganwyllau yn taflu ychydig ddefnynau o'r goleu hyd atom ni, trwy gyfrwng y Cyhoeddiadau clodwiw, deffrowyd rhai o honom er ys tymmor hir yn nghylch codi Cymdeithas Gymroaidd, ond o herwydd digalondid, yr oeddym yn oedi, ac yn dysgwyl yn barhaus i ychwaneg o Omeriaid ddyfod i'r golwg; ac o'r diwedd gwelwyd ychydig rhagor yn deffro ac yn teimlo gwaed Gomeraidd yn curo yn fwy nerthol yn eu rhedwelau; ac ar yr 8fed o Ebrill, 1835, ymgynnullodd tua 35 o'r rhai mwyaf awyddus dros ein Hiaith a'u cenedl, i'r Gwestdy adnabyddus wrth arwydd y Cerbyd a'r Meirch, yn y Casbach; ac ar yr achos, y Parch. E. Jones, ac ereill o'r cyfeillion, a areithiasant yn y fath fodd nes peri i'r wreichionen ag oedd yn y cyfeillion ennyn yn fflam.. Yr ydym y cynnyddu bob cyfarfod... Seren Gomer 1836, tudalen 340

OUR TRANSLATION: The founding of a Welsh Society in Cas-bach ("Castleton"). Mr. Gomer, since you are extremely glad to hear, along with your scattered children, of the Welsh Societies which are being set up, from time to time, by the sons of Gomer (= by Welsh people), we, in Mynwy (= Monmouthshire), have been for a long time as if we were sleeping calmly and indifferent to our Language and nation, when candles were being lighted in various places in the Principality, and since these selfsame candles have been sending glimmers of light in our direction, through the commendable publications (= editions of Seren Gomer magazine), some of us for some long time have been awake to the idea of setting up a Welsh Society, but as a result of low spirits, we were delaying, and waiting constantly for more Welsh people to appear, but eventually a few more were seen to awake and feel Welsh blood pulsing more strongly in their veins; and on the 8th of April, 1835, 35 of the most zealous for our language and nation gathered together in the inn known as the Coach and Horses, in Cas-bach ("Castleton"), and on the subject the Reverend E. Jones, and others of the friends, made speeches in such a way that it caused the spark that was in our friends to burst into flame. We are increasing in every meeting. Seren Gomer 1836, page 340

Casnewydd ar Wysg See: Gwynll
ŵg

Castleton: See Cas-bach

Ceredigion: See Sir Aberteifi

Cheshire: See Swydd Gaer

Chirk: See Y Waun

Coddington (Swydd Gaer / Cheshire, England), 1362
But it is not only in anglicized Flintshire that there was a Welsh resurgence. There is ample evidence for Welsh settlements in Cheshire, not only in areas on the border like Schochlach {Shocklach, 5km north-west of Malpas} with names like David son of Iorwerth son of Gruffydd, and David Bolgrach in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but further east also in Coddington (Iorwerth son of Madog son of Einion in 1288, Gwenllian daughter of Gwilym ap John in 1362) and even in Tushingham (Lleucu daughter of Ithel in 1305)
Page 86; The Population of the Welsh Border - Melville Richards. Pages 77-100, Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, Session 1970 (Part 1), published 1971

Conwy, county of Conwy ("Conway") 1878
In Conway {Conwy} only 50 persons are stated not to be able to speak Welsh
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Craig-cefn-parc, county of Abertawe circa 1840??
Yr oedd dau frawd o'm cartref {yng Nghraig-cefn-parc} yn yr ysgol yn Llansawel... yr oeddwn wedi sylwi fod chwe mis yn ysgol Llansawel wedi gwella y ddau frawd... ac yr oeddwn yn sylwi eu bod yn awr ac eilwaith yn torri allan i siarad Saesneg yn neilltuol y brawd o Dy-yn-y-waen. Yr oedd fod ysgol yn gallu gwneud Saeson o fechgyn y Graig o bawb, a hynny mewn lleied o amser, i mi yn wyrthiol. Doedd pobl y Graig yn gwybod dim am Saesneg, yr oedd pob Sais ddaethai yno erioed wedi gorfod gallu siarad Cymraeg, oherwydd fedrai neb yno siarad Saesneg hwynt. Ond yn awr dyma fechgyn o'r Graig yn dychwelyd o ysgol oedd wedi gwneud Saeson go "clever" ohonynt! Rhaid ei bod yn dda.
Atgofion y Parch D.W. Hopkins, Castell-nedd; yn "Blodeuglwm i goffa y Parch. Jonah Evans", 1881.

TRANSLATION: There were two comrades from my home village {Craig-cefn-parc, also known as Y Graig} in school in Llansawel ("Briton Ferry")... I noticed that six months in Llansawel school had improved the two comrades... and I noticed that now and then they broke into English, especially the comrade from Tyn-y-waun. The fact that a school could make boys from from Y Graig, of all people, into English-speakers and in such a short time was to me nothing short of a miracle. The people of Y Graig didn't know any English at all, every Englishman who'd ever come there to live had had to be able to speak Welsh, because nobody there could speak English with them. But now here were boys from Y Graig coming back from a school that had made them into quite proficient English-speakers. It must have been good.
Reminiscences of the Reverend D.W. Hopkins, Castell-nedd ("Neath").
In "Blodeuglwm i goffa y Parch. Jonah Evans" {= Anthology in remembrance of the Reverend Jonah Jones} , 1881.

Crucywel, county of Powys (= "Crickhowell") 1878
At Crickhowel, on the Usk, it {Welsh} is spoken only by old people, and Welsh services are no longer heard in the Parish Church, though still continued for Dissenting chapels.
The neighbouring parish of Llangenny has become completely Anglicised.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Crucywel, county of Powys (= "Crickhowell") 1886
Mae Sir Frycheiniog yn cael ei Saisonegu yn gyflym. Mae Cymraeg wedi darfod, fel iaith crefydd, er ys dros 60 mlynedd, yn y Gelli; ac, ers amryw flyneddau bellach, yn Llanfair-yn-muallt. Haner-yn-haner yw y gwasanaeth Sabbathol yn nghapeli yr holl Anghydffurfwyr yn Nhalgarth a Chrughywel; a chyn diwedd y ganrif, Saisoneg fydd iaith y cysegr yn mhob tre' yn y sir.
J. R. Kilsby Jones, Ychydig o Hanes Sir Frycheiniog, Y Geninen, Cyfrol 4, 1886

OUR TRANSLATION: Breconshire is quickly being anglicised in language. The Welsh language disappeared, as the language of religious services, over sixty years ago, in Y Gelli (= Hay on Wye) {i.e. circa 1826} ; and, some years ago now, in Llanfair ym Muallt (= Builth Wells). The Sabbath service is half and half in the chapels of all the non-Conformists in Talgarth and Crucywel; and before the end of the century, English will be the language of the sacraments in every town in the county.
J. R. Kilsby Jones, Ychydig o Hanes Sir Frycheiniog (A Brief History of Breconshire), Y Geninen (The Leek), Cyfrol (Volume) 4, 1886

Cwmbwrla, county of Abertawe 1925
Anglicised Schools in Swansea. Changes Brought About by Housing Schemes. Hafod Becomes English.
As recently as 20 years ago, Cwmbwrla, Manselton and the Hafod districts and all the districts to the north and east of these were mainly Welsh. Today Hafod has become English. Out of 1024 children, only 17 were reported as coming from homes where Welsh was the home language. Manselton and Cwmbwrla were rapidly following. At Manselton, out of 941 children, only 65, and at Cwmbwrla, out of 798 children, only 47 came from families where Welsh was the home language.
Mid-Glamorgan Herald, 7 November 1925.

Cwm Efyrnwy, county of Powys 1878
Welsh has also disappeared from the valley of Lower Vyrnwy {Efyrnwy} next to the Severn, the most important river of the county.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Cwmteuddwr, county of Powys 1878
At Rhayader (976 inhabitants) 200 persons still speak Welsh, but the younger people have altogether forgotten it. In the neighbouring parish of Cwmto{iddwr? = Cwmteuddwr - unreadable} Welsh is somewhat more general, especially in the valley of Elan, above Nantgwilt, and there are even two or three farmers who understand no English.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Cwmteuddwr, county of Powys 1907
In Radnorshire, during the construction of the Elan Valley reservoirs between 1892 and 1907 the importation of workers from Ireland, Scotland and England resulted in a very rapid recession in the speaking of Welsh around Rhaeadr.
Melville Richards, The Population of the Welsh Border; Page 97, Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, Session 1970, Part 1 (Cyhoeddwyd / Published 1971)

De-ddwyrain Cymru (South-east Wales) 1902
A hundred years from now not only Glamorgan but South Wales also will be overwhelmingly Gwentian in speech. Every Welsh dialect is now spoken here, but the children of the immigrants talk and play in Y Wenhwyseg, the Gwentian dialect. The speech of the English settlers in Welsh communities becomes also Gwentian in pronunciation. No other dialect survives one generation here. The ruined conditions of former hives of industry in some parts of Glamorgan and Monmouth remind us that the limit of our industrial development will be reached sooner or later. With the inevitable ebbing of the tide of immigration, and with any stand-still-ness in our communal life, the Gwentian will re-assert itself.
THE GWENTIAN OF THE FUTURE John Griffiths, Nant-y-moel, 1902. For a fuller version, see kimkat0948e


Dinbych, county of Dinbych (= Denbigh) 1878
In Denbigh (6,323 inhabitants) it is employed in eleven out of fourteen places of worship. Very little English is spoken in the country districts.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Diserth / Y Ddiserth yn Elfael county of Powys (= "Disserth, also Disart"), 1746
A Welsh Wakes. A wakes at "Dysart" in Radnorshire, is thus described by a Visitor at Llandrindod in 1746: "The churchyard, though large, was filled with people of almost all ages and qualities. The church is a strong building and pretty large, against the tiles of which were a dozen lusty young fellows playing at Tennis, and as many against the steeple at Fives. They played very well, but spoke (as indeed almost every one else did) in the Welsh tongue. On one side the church were about six couple dancing to one violin, and just below three or four couple to three violins, whose seat was a tombstone. In short, the whole was something whimsically odd. We here saw common games of ball against the sacred pile, and there the musick playing over the bones of the deceased." - A. N. S.
August 27 1873, "Bye-Gones Relating to Wales and the Border Counties".

Dolau, Y county of Powys 1840
1 km west of Llanfihangel Rhyd Ieithon
Yma yn y Dolau, cyn iddo ddyfod yn bregethwr adnabyddus, y cadwai Samuel Breeze ysgol yn ystod y flwyddyn 1793-4. Yn l Jonathan Williams, hanesydd y sir, aethai plwyf Nantmel yn ddwyieithog tua 1820 ac yr oedd y Saesneg yn dechrau ennill ar y Gymraeg. Arferid Cymraeg yn y capel hyd 1840, fodd bynnag... Dywed John Jones... yn ei 'History of the Baptists in Radnorshire', a gyhoeddwyd yn 1895, yr arferid Cymraeg gan mwyaf yng nghapeli'r Dolau, Nantmel a'r Bontnewydd-ar-Wy pan oedd ef yn blentyn ond 'now... Welsh... is not understood in these places, except by a few aged people'.
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed, 1968, tudalennau 95, 96

OUR TRANSLATION: Here in y Dolau, before he became a well-known preacher, Samuel Breeze kept a school during the year 1793-4. According to Jonathan Williams, the county historian, the parish of Nantmel became bilingual towards 1820 and the English language began to gain ground at the expense of Welsh. Welsh was used in the chapel until 1840, however... John Jones says... in his 'History of the Baptists in Radnorshire', published in 1895, Welsh was used mostly in the chapels of Y Dolau, Nantmel and Bontnewydd-ar-Wy {'Newbridge on Wye'} when he was a child but 'now... Welsh... is not understood in these places, except by a few aged people'.
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed ('wandering (through) (the) county (of) Maesyfed, (through) Radnorshire') 1968, pages 95, 96

Y Drenewydd, county of Powys (= "Newtown") 1878
At Welshpool and Montgomery Welsh has been extinct among the natives {?during - unreadable} these fifty years. At Newtown, however, about thirty per cent of the inhabitants are still able to converse in Welsh, and a similar proportion of Welsh speakers is met with as far as Llanidloes beyond which the Severn valley penetrates a territory which is still wholly Welsh.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Ergyn, Swydd Henffordd, Lloegr (= Archenfield, Herefordshire, England) 1860
Archenfield was still Welsh enough in the time of Elizabeth for the bishop of Hereford to be made responsible together with the four Welsh bishops for the translation of the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer into Welsh. Welsh was still commonly spoken here in the first half of the nineteenth century, and we are told that churchwardens' notices were put up in both Welsh and English until about 1860 (Transactions Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club, 1887, page 173). Welsh was spoken by individuals until comparatively recently.
Page 95; The Population of the Welsh Border - Melville Richards. Pages 77-100, Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, Session 1970 (Part 1), published 1971 0978

Fenni, Y county of Powys (= "Abergavenny") 1910
Y mae cyfaill i mi yn cofio capel Cymraeg y Bedyddwyr yn y Fenni yn llawn o Gymry yn oedfa'r bore; ond, er fod Cymry lawer yn y dref brydferth honno, nid oes addoliad yn Gymraeg ond gwasanaeth gwyl Dewi yn Eglwys Fair. "I Godi'r Hen Iaith yn ei Hol", Cymru, Cyfrol 38, Mai 1910, tudalen 245.
OUR TRANSLATION: A friend of mine remembers the Welsh-language Baptist chapel in Y Fenni full of Welsh people in the morning service; but, although there are many Welsh people (i.e. Welsh-speakers) in that fair town, there is no service in Welsh except for the St. David Day's service in Eglwys Fair / St. Mary's Church .
"I Godi'r Hen Iaith yn ei Hol", (= "to restore the old language") Cymru, Cyfrol 38, Mai 1910, tudalen 245.

Ffestiniog, county of Gwynedd 1890
CYMRAEG YN SIR FEIRIONYDD. Cymeraf y dynfyniad nesaf o ysgrif ddyddorol gan Treborfab yn y Faner. Dywed:- Cymraeg y mae pawb, ond ychydig eithriadau, yn siarad yn Ffestiniog. Cymraeg ydyw iaith y wlad ar chwarelau, a Chymraeg y mae y creigiau, ar defaid a borant ein llechweddau, wedi ei ddysgu. Tybiodd y Saeson fod modd gweithio ein chwarelau tynu y ceryg ar creigiau, eu hollti au naddu yn Saesneg, a gwneud cymaint ddwywaith o bob peth ag a arferid yn yr un faint o amser. Ond ddaw i ddim fu hanes aml i gorgi o Sais gorchestol a ddaeth in plith; a da fu iddo gael myned adref iw wlad ei hun ar ol gwario canoedd o filoedd o bunau i ddim, a gwaeth na dim! Cymraeg yw iaith Arfon a Meirion; ond pan ddaeth y trn yma, y mae hwn eto yn meddwl i ni newid ein hiaith.
Cyvaill yr Aelwyd 1890 tudsalen 294

OUR TRANSLATION: The Welsh language in Sir Feirionydd / Merionethshire. I take the next quote from an interesting article by Treforfab in the Faner. Welsh is what everybody, apart from a few exceptions, speaks in Ffestiniog. Welsh is the language of the countryside and the quarries, and Welsh is what the rocks, and the sheep who graze our slopes, have learnt. The English thought that it was possible to work our quarries to take the stones and rocks, to split them and work them in English, and to do twice as much in the same time (to do twice as much as everything which was usually done in the same amount of time). But it wont come to anything has been the story of many an boastful English cur who has come into our midst; and it was good that he could go home to his own land after spensing hundreds of thousands of pounds for nothing, and worse than nothing! Welsh is the language of Arfon a Meirion; and when the train came here, that too thought it could change our language.

Fflint, Y county of Y Fflint (= "Flint") 1878
In Flint and St. Asaph it is gradually being superseded by English.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Flintshire = Sir y Fflint

Foreston (Iowa, USA) 1895
We said at the beginning, that Foreston is the center of the Welsh community. So it is in location, but as far as prominence and influence are concerned, the "center of gravity" has been of late years moving toward the town of Lime Springs. Of the future of this Welsh settlement we dare not speak. The Welsh language is used about as extensively as it was a quarter of a century ago. Yet the older people, natives of Wales, are dying; and their places taken by the young people, natives of America. Though the same language is used by them it is less pure. In the course of time, judging from the history of Welsh settlements in the east, the Welsh here will give place to the language of the land; and at some period, in the future, the language of Cambria "will not be living, even "in song." It is to be hoped, however, that the churches will be kept up, and that the pure, scriptural religion, introduced by the pioneers, will hold its ground from age to age and flourish from generation to generation.
"History of the Welsh in Minnesota, Foreston and Lime Springs, Iowa. Gathered by the Old Settlers. Edited by Revs. Thos. E. Hughes and David Edwards, and Messrs. Hugh G. Roberts and Thomas Hughes"
(We have included this extremely interesting history on our website. Click here 0876 to find out more about Foreston and to find the links to the rest of the book)
(See also in this list: Lime Springs)

Y Gelligandryll, county of Powys (= "Hay on Wye") circa 1826
Mae Sir Frycheiniog yn cael ei Saisonegu yn gyflym. Mae Cymraeg wedi darfod, fel iaith crefydd, er ys dros 60 mlynedd, yn y Gelli; ac, ers amryw flyneddau bellach, yn Llanfair-yn-muallt. Haner-yn-haner yw y gwasanaeth Sabbathol yn nghapeli yr holl Anghydffurfwyr yn Nhalgarth a Chrughywel; a chyn diwedd y ganrif, Saisoneg fydd iaith y cysegr yn mhob tre' yn y sir.
J. R. Kilsby Jones, Ychydig o Hanes Sir Frycheiniog, Y Geninen, Cyfrol 4, 1886

OUR TRANSLATION: Breconshire is quickly being anglicised in language. The Welsh language disappeared, as the language of religious services, over sixty years ago, in Y Gelli (= Hay on Wye) {i.e. circa 1826} ; and, some years ago now, in Llanfair ym Muallt (= Builth Wells). The Sabbath service is half and half in the chapels of all the non-Conformists in Talgarth and Crucywel; and before the end of the century, English will be the language of the sacraments in every town in the county.
J. R. Kilsby Jones, Ychydig o Hanes Sir Frycheiniog (A Brief History of Breconshire), Y Geninen (The Leek), Cyfrol (Volume) 4, 1886

Y Gelligandryll, county of Powys (= "Hay on Wye") 1878
Hay, on the Hereford frontier, and the neighbouring parishes of Llanigon (= Llaneigon) and Aberllunvey {= Aberllynfi}, are likewise English, Welsh being spoken only by a few old people and immigrants... It appears to have survived longest at Capelyffin, an outlying hamlet of Llanigon, near the head of the Afon Honddu.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat 1805e (via Google; remove space and join together)


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Gwynll
ŵg, ("Wentloog") 1856
{In South-east Wales: district, formerly a cantref, now (since 1996) split between the counties of Casnewydd, Caer-dydd and Caerffili. See definition of the area in the separate entry below Gwynll
ŵg 1900} .
Great many phrases like these may be culled out of the conversation of the people of Gwent and Morganwg, and it would be difficult to decide whether in Gwent or Morganwg is the greatest corruption, and which of the two countries has received most English words. It is certain that in the sequestered agricultural districts a purer dialect is spoken than in the vicinities of railroads and canals. There is less English mixed with the Cymraeg of Gwentllwg than there is with that of the country along the railway from Newport to Tredegar, and along the canal from the same place to Fenni, &c.
A Treatise on the Chief Peculiarities that Distinguish the Cymraeg, as Spoken by the Inhabitants of Gwent and Morganwg Respectively, Pererindodwr, Archaeologia Cambrensis, Volume 2, date? (Volume 3 is 1856).
pp305-314
0947
(See also Llaneirwg, Year 1841)


Gwynll
ŵg, ("Wentloog") c1900
Defined in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911) (John Hobson Mathews, Mab Cernyw) as: A hundred and lordship in south-west Monmouthshire, lying along the Severn {Hafren} shore from the Usk {Wysg} westward to the Rhymny {Rhymni} . Anciently it was sometimes considered as extending to the Taff {Taf}.
Mab Cernyw notes: The Welsh language was spoken in every parish of Monmouthshire down to the early part of the 18th century, when it began to recede westward from the Wye. During the latter half of the 19th century it finally disappeared from the parishes east of the river Usk, and, in this county, is now practically confined to the Blaenau Gwent (the West Monmouthshire hills) and the district between Newport and Cardiff.

Hafod, county of Abertawe ("Swansea") 1925
Anglicised Schools in Swansea. Changes Brought About by Housing Schemes. Hafod Becomes English.
As recently as 20 years ago, Cwmbwrla, Manselton and the Hafod districts and all the districts to the north and east of these were mainly Welsh. Today Hafod has become English. Out of 1024 children, only 17 were reported as coming from homes where Welsh was the home language. Manselton and Cwmbwrla were rapidly following. At Manselton, out of 941 children, only 65, and at Cwmbwrla, out of 798 children, only 47 came from families where Welsh was the home language.
Mid-Glamorgan Herald, 7 November 1925.

Harlech, county of Gwynedd 1878
A "man of Harlech," 60 years of age, writes that "there is a great increase in the knowledge of English as long since I remember, but I do not think that there is any diminution in Welsh speaking, reading, writing, or preaching. Nearly all religious services, included those of the Church of England, are conducted in Welsh."
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Hay-on-Wye / Hay on Wye = Y Gelligandryll

Hob, Yr county of Y Fflint (= "Hope") 1878
In the Western portion of the parish of Hope (Hope Mountain, beyond the river Alyn), Welsh still keeps its ground, but with difficulty
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Holyhead = Caergybi

Holywell = Treffynnon

Knighton = Trefyclo

Lime Springs (Iowa, USA) 1895
This language, though known to but few "foreigners," is the language of Wales, and is the language in daily use in thousands of families in America. It is the language in use in the settlement - of which we now undertake to give a short sketch.
The Welsh settlers of Lime Springs are to be found in six townships,
{1} Bristol, {2} York and {3} Beaver, (Southern Fillmore county, Minnesota)
and {4} Albion, {5} Forest City and {6} Chester, (Northern Howard county, Iowa).
The settlement, therefore, is divided into two parts by the state line, and into nearly two equal parts by the Upper Iowa river. Lime Springs is a town of 600 inhabitants...
"History of the Welsh in Minnesota, Foreston and Lime Springs, Iowa. Gathered by the Old Settlers. Edited by Revs. Thos. E. Hughes and David Edwards, and Messrs. Hugh G. Roberts and Thomas Hughes" (We have included this extremely interesting history on our website. Click here 1200 to find out more about Lime Springs and to find the links to the rest of the book)
(See also in this list: Foreston)

Llanandras, county of Powys (= "Presteigne") 1675
Hoffwn, er hynny, ychwanegu gair parthed hanes y Gymraeg yma gan na ellir derbyn sylw Mr. Howse yn ei lyfr "Presteigne Past and Present" nad oes i'r Gymraeg na doe na heddiw yma. Ni raid sn am heddiw: yn l cyfrifiad 1961, deg ar hugain o bobl a fedr yr iaith allan o boblogaeth o 1149 ac y mae'n sicr mai pobl ddyfod ydynt. Ond fel arall yr oedd hi yn y gorffennol. Ni welais ddim i awgrymu i foneddigion yr ardal gefnu ar y Gymraeg yn gynt na boneddigion ardaloedd eraill y gororau. Dangosir y sefyllfa ymhlith y werin gan restrau a gyhoeddodd Miss M. G. Jones yn nawfed cyfrol 'Bwletin y Bwrdd Gwybodau Celtaidd'. Rhestrir plwyfi 'in which the poorest of the Welsh children are put to school to learn English'. Yn 1675 yr oedd ugain o blant felly ym mhentref Maesyfed, deugain yn Nhrefclawdd, a deugain yn Llanandras. Tair blynedd wedyn yr oedd yr un nifer ym Maesyfed, ugain yn Nhrefclawdd, a deg ar hugain yn Llanandras. Er chwilio gryn dipyn yn y maes hwn ni welais yr un reswm dros dybio na fu hanes y Gymraeg yn y dref hon yn hollol yr un fath ag yn nhrefi eraill y ffin. Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed, 1968, tudalen 17
OUR TRANSLATION: Despite that, I would like to add a word as regards the history of the Welsh language since the comment of Mr. Howse in his book "Presteigne Past and Present" cannot be accepted - that the Welsh language has neither a today nor had it a yesterday here. There's no need to mention today - according to the 1961 census, 30 people out of a population of 1149 can speak the language and it's pretty certain that they are incomers. But it was a different situation in the past. I have seen nothing to suggest that the nobility of the area turned their back on the Welsh language earlier than did the nobility in other districts on the borders.. The situation among the common people is shown by the lists which Miss M. G. Jones published in the ninth volume of 'Bwletin y Bwrdd Gwybodau Celtaidd' (Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies). Parishes are listed 'in which the poorest of the Welsh children are put to school to learn English'. In 1675 there were twenty such children in the village of Maesyfed {Radnor} , forty in Nhrefclawdd {Knighton} , and forty in Llanandras {Presteigne} . Three years later there were the same number in Maesyfed, twenty in Nhrefclawdd, and thirty in Llanandras. In spite of much searching in this field I haven't seen any reason not to think that the history of the Welsh language in this town was exactly the same as that of other border towns.
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed ('wandering (through) (the) county (of) Maesyfed, (through) Radnorshire') 1968, page 17

Llanddewi'r Cwm, county of Powys 1878
The immediate neighbourhood of Builth, including villages having such thoroughly Welsh names as Maesmynis and Llanddewi'rcwm, has become quite English, and only on rare occasions can a Welsh sermon be heard there.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Llandecwyn, county of Gwynedd 1895 SH6338
Gellir dweyd am Landecwyn ei fod yn un o'r lleoedd mwyaf Cymreig yn y byd. Nid oes ond un Sais o'i fewn. Mae llawer hen wr a hen wraig a adwaenom wedi treulio dros bedwar ugain mlynedd o fywyd iach, yn ur un fan ag y gwelsant oleuni gyntaf, oddifewn i'r plwyf. D. Evans. Cymry'r Plant. 1895. Tudalen 90.
OUR TRANSLATION: It can be said of Llandecwyn that it's one of the most Welsh places in the world. There is but one Englishman there. Many an old man and old woman we know have lived a healthy life of eighty years, in the same place that they first saw daylight, within the parish.
D. Evans. Cymry'r Plant. 1895. Page 90.

Llandinam, county of Powys 1878
Llandinam 27 per cent {i.e. in 1878 27% of the population of Llandinam spoke Welsh}
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Llandudno, county of Conwy 1878
At the favourite seaside town of Llandudno 250 persons speak Welsh only, 2,312 Welsh and English, and 200 English, the Welsh services being four times more numerously attended than the English ones.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Llandysilio, county of Powys 1878
Welsh has also disappeared from the valley of Lower Vyrnwy {Efyrnwy} next to the Severn the most important river of the county. In Llandysilio it is not spoken at all;
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Llaneirwg, county of Caer-dydd (Saint Mellons; formerly an independent village in Monmouthshire) 1841
Wedi iddo ddyfod i ddechreu siarad, ni chollodd ei fam ddim amser cyn dechreu dodrefnu ei feddwl tyner ag adnodau, penillion, darnau o'r Hyfforddwr. Gosodid ef i adrodd y rhai hyn o flaen dyeithriaid, y rhai a roisent ganmoliaeth fawr iddo. Ymfalchiai yntau, ac awyddai am ddysgu rhagor; ac fel yr awgrymwyd o'r blaen, pan yn bum' mlwydd oed, nid oedd iaith ei fam yn ddigon iddo, a dechreuodd ddysgu Saesneg. Gan fod ei fam yn medru yr iaith hono yn dda, ni bu David James yn hir cyn dod i ddarllen Saesneg. (Cofiant a Phregethau y Diweddar Barch. David James Llaneurwg. Thomas Rees, D.D, a D. M. Phillips. 1896. t20)
OUR TRANSLATION:
After he started talking his mother lost no time in furnishing his tender mind with Biblical verses, stanzas, and pieces from the Hyfforddwr (Book of Instruction in the Principles of the Christian Religion, T. Charles, 1807). He was made to (put to) recite these before strangers who gave him great praise. This was a source of pride for him, and he was keen to learn more, and as has been suggested previously, when he was five years old (i.e. in 1841), the language of his mother was not sufficient for him, and he began to learn English. (Biography and Sermons of the Late Reverend David James of Llaneirwg (born 1836). Authors: Thomas Rees, D.D, a D. M. Phillips. 1896. Page 20)


Llanfair ym Muallt, county of Powys (= "Builth Wells") 1878
The immediate neighbourhood of Builth, including villages having such thoroughly Welsh names as Maesmynis and Llanddewi'rcwm, has become quite English, and only on rare occasions can a Welsh sermon be heard there.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Llanfair ym Muallt, county of Powys (= "Builth Wells") 1886
Mae Sir Frycheiniog yn cael ei Saisonegu yn gyflym. Mae Cymraeg wedi darfod, fel iaith crefydd, er ys dros 60 mlynedd, yn y Gelli; ac, ers amryw flyneddau bellach, yn Llanfair-yn-muallt. Haner-yn-haner yw y gwasanaeth Sabbathol yn nghapeli yr holl Anghydffurfwyr yn Nhalgarth a Chrughywel; a chyn diwedd y ganrif, Saisoneg fydd iaith y cysegr yn mhob tre' yn y sir.
J. R. Kilsby Jones, Ychydig o Hanes Sir Frycheiniog, Y Geninen, Cyfrol 4, 1886

OUR TRANSLATION: Breconshire is quickly being anglicised in language. The Welsh language disappeared, as the language of religious services, over sixty years ago, in Y Gelli (= Hay on Wye) {i.e. circa 1826} ; and, some years ago now, in Llanfair ym Muallt (= Builth Wells). The Sabbath service is half and half in the chapels of all the non-Conformists in Talgarth and Crucywel; and before the end of the century, English will be the language of the sacraments in every town in the county.
J. R. Kilsby Jones, Ychydig o Hanes Sir Frycheiniog (A Brief History of Breconshire), Y Geninen (The Leek), Cyfrol (Volume) 4, 1886

Llanfair ym Muallt, county of Powys (= "Builth Wells") 1910
Yn Llanfairmuallt y mae rhai hen weddiwyr hyawdl yn dal i gyfarch gorsedd gras yn Gymraeg, ond nis gwyr y plant beth y maent yn ddweyd.
"I Godi'r Hen Iaith yn ei Hol", Cymru, Cyfrol 38, Mai 1910, tudalen 245.

OUR TRANSLATION: In Llanfair ym Muallt some eloquent old worshippers still use Welsh in the chapel services (literally: greet the throne of grace in Welsh), but the children don't know what they are saying.
I Godi'r Hen Iaith yn ei Hol", = To restore the old (= native) language', an article in "Cymru", Volume 38, May 1910



(delw 7380)


Llangenni, county of Powys 1878
At Crickhowel, on the Usk, it {Welsh} is spoken only by old people, and Welsh services are no longer heard in the Parish Church, though still continued for Dissenting chapels.
The neighbouring parish of Llangenny has become completely Anglicised.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Llangenny = Llangenni

Llaneigon, county of Powys ("Llanigon") 1878
Hay, on the Hereford frontier, and the neighbouring parishes of Llanigon and Aberllunvey, are likewise English, Welsh being spoken only by a few old people and immigrants... It appears to have survived longest at Capelyffin, an outlying hamlet of Llanigon, near the nead of the Afon Honddu.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Llanelwy, county of Dinbych (= "St Asaph") 1878
In Flint and St. Asaph it is gradually being superseded by English.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Llanfihangel Rhyd Ieithon, county of Powys 1827
Dywed gohebydd yn y Gwyliedydd am Fedi 1827 fod hen bobl Llanfihangel Rhyd Ieithon yn parhau i siarad Cymraeg
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed, 1968, tudalen 28

OUR TRANSLATION: A correspondent in the 'Gwyliedydd' {the sentinel} for September 1827 that the old people of Llanfihangel Rhyd Ieithon still spoke Welsh
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed ('wandering (through) (the) county (of) Maesyfed, (through) Radnorshire') 1968, page 28

Llangurig, county of Powys 1828
Writing in the year 1828, the late Gwalter Mechain stated (Gwalter Mechains Works, iii, 438) that 'the population of Llangurig and Llanidloes on the southern side of the Severn are mostly Welsh, and the Welsh service predominates in these churches; but whether English be read every third or fourth Sunday, I cannot say. T
Montgomeryshire Collections 5, 1872. A Parochial Account of Llanidloes. Page 17.
See: Llanidloes 1828

Llanidloes, county of Powys 1828, 1833, 1872
The inhabitants of the parish are essentially Welsh, but within the present century, more especially during the last twenty years, immigration has tended greatly to alter the former characteristics of the people. The development of the flannel-trade, improvement in the prospect of the mines of the locality, and lastly, the construction of the Cambrian and Mid Wales systems of railways, may be mentioned among the chief causes of this alteration. Writing in the year 1828, the late Gwalter Mechain stated (Gwalter Mechains Works, iii, 438) that 'the population of Llangurig and Llanidloes on the southern side of the Severn are mostly Welsh, and the Welsh service predominates in these churches; but whether English be read every third or fourth Sunday, I cannot say. This statement is not borne out by the Rev. John Davies (who was vicar of the parish in 1828, in his evidence before the Municipal Commission in the year 1833, as far as Llanidloes is concerned. Mr. Davies then stated: - "I reside at Llanidloes; I perform the service twice on Sunday. There is a morning service and and a sermon every other Sunday in Welsh. Four or five hundred persons attend the church ordinarily, but there are not so many on the Welsh Sundays; there is not above half then. There is a Sunday-school connected with the church.... No instruction is given in Welsh. There is not any school within the parish in which children are instructed in the doctrines of the Church of England in the Welsh language."' Welsh was the language ordinarily used at that time in all the dissenting chapels of the town, and continues so down to the present iime. with the exception of one chapel, which was built a few years ago, where the service is conducted in the English language. At present there is a Welsh service and sermon every Sunday afternoon in the parish church. About three-fourths of the present habitants understand Welsh, one half are fairly conversant with both languages, a fourth able to speak Welsh alone, and a similar proportion who have no knowledge whatever of that language.
Montgomeryshire Collections 5, 1872. A Parochial Account of Llanidloes. Page 17.

Llanidloes, county of Powys 1910
Gwelir yn awr fod bri ar y Gymraeg... Ar ororau Maldwyn a Brycheiniog a Mynwy, yn enwedig, gwneir ymdrech i roddi bywyd newydd ynddi. Ar ochr Seisnig Llanidloes cefais nifer o blant yn chware yn Saesneg. Cyfarchais hwy yn Gymraeg, ac wedi peth petrusder siaradasant Gymraeg gloew. "Ai gartref y dysgasoch Gymraeg?" gofynnais. "Nage," oedd yr ateb. "Ai yn yr ysgol?" "Nage." "Ymhle, ynte?" "Yn y capel." Cyfodant i fendithio enw y gweinidog hwnnw a'r athrawon hynny.
"I Godi'r Hen Iaith yn ei Hol", Cymru, Cyfrol 38, Mai 1910, tudalen 245.

OUR TRANSLATION: It is seen now that Welsh has prestige... On the (western) edges of Maldwyn (= Montgomeryshire) and Brycheiniog (= Breconshire) and Mynwy (= Monmouthshire) especially, an effort is being made to give it new life. On the English side of Llanidloes I found a number of children playing in English. I greeted them in Welsh, and after some hesitation they spoke in excellent Welsh. "Was it at home that you learnt Welsh?" I asked. "No," was the answer. "At school?" "No." "Where, then?" "In the chapel."
"I Godi'r Hen Iaith yn ei Hol", (= "to restore the old language") Cymru, Volume 38, Mai 1910, page 245.

Llanigon = Llaneigon

Llanilltud Fawr, county of Bro Morgannwg (= "Llantwit Major") 1892
Beth bynag, ond rhoddi tro i fynwent yr hen eglwys blwyfol, edrych ar llawer o'r ceryg beddau, ceir prawfion diamheuol o henafiaeth y lle, canys y mae yno rai yn gorwedd er's canoedd o flynyddau. Mae yma bedwar o gapelau Ymneillduol - un gan y Bedyddwyr, y Wesleyaid, y Methodistiaid, a'r Annibynwyr. Fel yr ydym yn deall, Saesoneg ydyw y gwasanaeth crefyddol sydd yn cael ei gario yn mlaen yn mhob un ohonynt. Mae Cymry y Fro wedi myned yn Seisonigaidd. Mae y plant a'r bobl ieuainc yn Saeson o ran iaith, ond y mae y bobl mewn oed yn eithaf medrus yn y Gymraeg; ond nid ryw fynychwyr selog ydynt yn yr addoldai, ac felly, i gyfarfod y plant a'r bobl ieuainc, cerir y gwasanaeth ymlaen yn Saesoneg. Mae Bethesda y Fro, hen gapel cysegredig iawn ryw ddwy filldir o'r lle hwn, yn gysylltiedig ac o dan yr un weinidogaeth a'r capel Annibynol. Nid oes yma eto weinidog. Deallwn hefyd fod dyn ieuanc o Bala Bangor wedi cael gwahoddiad, ond nis gwyddom a ydyw wedi ateb. Beth bynag, mae yna faes rhagorol iawn i ddyn ieuanc o ysbryd cenadol cryf, ac yn fedrus yn y ddwy iaith. Gall wneyd gwaith rhagorol dros Grist. .
Y Tyst 09 09 1892

OUR TRANSLATION: However, merely by going for a walk to the cemetery of the old parish church, looking at many of the gravestones, there is irrefutable proof to be had of the antiquity of the place and some have been lying there for hundreds of years. There are four Nonconformist chapels - one belonging to the Baptists, the Wesleyans, the Methodists and the Independents. As we understand, English is the religious service which is carried out in each one of them. The Welsh people of the Vale (= Bro Morgannwg) have gone English. The children and the young people are English people as regards language, but the older people are quite fluent in Welsh; but they're not very avid attenders of the houses of worship, and so, to meet the needs of the children and young people, the services are carried out in English. Bethesda y Fro, a very sacred old chapel some two miles from this place, is connected with and under the same ministership as the Independent chapel. There is no minister here yet. We also understand that a young man from Bala Bangor has received an invitation, but we don't know if he has replied. However, there is splendid scope here for a young man of strong missionary spirit, and able to speak the two languages. He can do splendid work for Christ.
Y Tyst ("the witness") 09 09 1892

Llansantffraid ym Mechain, county of Powys 1878
Welsh has also disappeared from the valley of Lower Vyrnwy {Efyrnwy} next to the Severn the most important river of the county. In Llandysilio it is not spoken at all; in the parish of Llanymynech only by a few old people, and it is only when we enter the parish of Llansantffraid ym Mechain that Welsh is heard more frequently.
That parish is divided by the river Vyrnwy into two parts, in the northern part about one half of the older people (say one-third of the population) speak Welsh, which is generally used in the services of the Nonconformists, and once a month by the Established Church. The young people rapidly forget Welsh; in one Sunday school, out of eleven classes there are only two in which religious instruction is imparted in Welsh and these two classes are attented by adults. In the southern part of the parish very little Welsh is spoken. Proceeding {?up} the Vyrwy we first enter the Welsh districts on approaching Meifod.
Ravens
tein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Llansilin, county of Powys 1878
In the parish of Llansilin, on the boundary of Shropshire, the children are said to know Welsh very imperfectly, and the information I have received tends to show that along the Dee, and in the valley of the Clwyd, up to Llanelidan, it is slowly losing ground, the railways proving its most powerful enemy.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Llanwrtud, county of Powys 1878
In the districts to the north of the Usk {Wysg} it {Welsh} is spoken by about 80 per cent, and in the valley of the Yrfon {Irfon} , in the north-west, by 75 per cent; Lanwrtyd {Llanwrtud} , however, on the Carmarthen {Caerfyrddin} border, being wholly Welsh.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Llanwrtyd = Llanwrtud

Llansanffrid ym Mechain, county of Powys 1895
Yn wir, fel y mae Cymry Llanddwyn wedi ail-feddiannu Llansanffraid-ym-Mechain a throi yr hen gappel Seisnig yn gappel Cymreig, felly y dyle Cymry pob mann, trwy gynnorthwyo'u gilydd i brynnu tai a thirodd, ne trwy ryw foddion eryll, geisio ail-feddiannu yr holl oror hyd at yr Hafren a Weaver, fel ag i wneyd Cymru Fydd yn gyfartal eu maint Chymru Fu.
(Prif Ddinas i Gymru. Emrys ap Iwan, Y Geninen Rhif 2. Cyfrol. XVI. Ebrill, 1895).

OUR TRANSLATION: Indeed, just as the Welsh of Llanddwyn have reoccupied Llansantffrid ym Mechain and have turned the old English chapel into a Welsh chapel, so the Welsh everywhere, through helping each other to buy houses and lands, or through other means, should try to reoccupy the whole borderland as far as the Hafren (Severn) and the Weaver, so that the Wales of the future is the same size as Wales in former times.
(Prif Ddinas i Gymru (= a capital city for Wales). Emrys ap Iwan, Y Geninen (= the leek) Rhif (= number) 2. Cyfrol (= volume). XVI. Ebrill (= April), 1895).

Llanyblodwel, Swydd Amwythig / Shropshire, England 1878
In Llanyblodwell Welsh preponderates, in the west English, and the children of Welsh parents are often unable to speak Welsh. The Welsh service in the parish church has been discontinued since 1875, owing to a paucity of attendance.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Llanymynech, county of Powys 1878
The few Welsh in the neighbouring parts of Llanymynech are immigrants,
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Maesmynys, county of Powys 1878
The immediate neighbourhood of Builth, including villages having such thoroughly Welsh names as Maesmynis and Llanddewi'rcwm, has become quite English, and only on rare occasions can a Welsh sermon be heard there.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Maesyfed, county of Powys (= "Radnor" i.e. the town of that name) 1675
Hoffwn, er hynny, ychwanegu gair parthed hanes y Gymraeg yma gan na ellir derbyn sylw Mr. Howse yn ei lyfr "Presteigne Past and Present" nad oes i'r Gymraeg na doe na heddiw yma. Ni raid sn am heddiw: yn l cyfrifiad 1961, deg ar hugain o bobl a fedr yr iaith allan o boblogaeth o 1149 ac y mae'n sicr mai pobl ddyfod ydynt. Ond fel arall yr oedd hi yn y gorffennol. Ni welais ddim i awgrymu i foneddigion yr ardal gefnu ar y Gymraeg yn gynt na boneddigion ardaloedd eraill y gororau. Dangosir y sefyllfa ymhlith y werin gan restrau a gyhoeddodd Miss M. G. Jones yn nawfed cyfrol 'Bwletin y Bwrdd Gwybodau Celtaidd'. Rhestrir plwyfi 'in which the poorest of the Welsh children are put to school to learn English'. Yn 1675 yr oedd ugain o blant felly ym mhentref Maesyfed, deugain yn Nhrefclawdd, a deugain yn Llanandras. Tair blynedd wedyn yr oedd yr un nifer ym Maesyfed, ugain yn Nhrefclawdd, a deg ar hugain yn Llanandras.
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed, 1968, tudalen 17

OUR TRANSLATION: Despite that, I would like to add a word as regards the history of the Welsh language since the comment of Mr. Howse in his book "Presteigne Past and Present" cannot be accepted - that the Welsh language has neither a today nor had it a yesterday here. There's no need to mention today - according to the 1961 census, 30 people out of a population of 1149 can speak the language and it's pretty certain that they are incomers. But it was a different situation in the past. I have seen nothing to suggest that the nobility of the area turned their back on the Welsh language earlier than did the nobility in other districts on the borders.. The situation among the common people is shown by the lists which Miss M. G. Jones published in the ninth volume of 'Bwletin y Bwrdd Gwybodau Celtaidd' (Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies). Parishes are listed 'in which the poorest of the Welsh children are put to school to learn English'. In 1675 there were twenty such children in the village of Maesyfed {Radnor} , forty in Nhrefclawdd {Knighton} , and forty in Llanandras {Presteigne} . Three years later there were the same number in Maesyfed, twenty in Nhrefclawdd, and thirty in Llanandras.
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed ('wandering (through) (the) county (of) Maesyfed, (through) Radnorshire') 1968, page 17

Maesyfed, county of Powys (= "Radnor" i.e. the town of that name) 1787
Ecclestiastical returns, and the evidence of Welsh nonconformist records show that the county was largely Welsh-speaking in the eighteenth century. In 1787 there was an advertisement in the Hereford Journal for an articled clerk in Radnor; 'if he understands the Welsh language, the more acceptable'. The really rapid decline came in the second half of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth. From about 1850 Welsh was confined to the north-western corner adjacent to Cardiganshire.
Page 95; The Population of the Welsh Border - Melville Richards Pages 77-100, Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, Session 1970 (Part 1), published 1971

Manselton = Tremansel

Merthyrtudful 1908


(delw 7380)

(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Wythnos neu ddwy yn l, gwelais nodyn o eiddo Cynog yn cwyno oherwydd y diystyrwch y mae y Gymraeg ynddo yn Merthyr. Hyderaf y daw yr ywmared a ddymuna o rywle, ac y gwelir yr hen iaith eto mewn bri. Bm yn y dref yn ddiweddar, a theimlwn inau fod ei heinioes mewn perygl; anaml y clywid gair o Gymraeg ar yr heol yno

(MODERN SPELLING) Wythnos neu ddwy yn l, gwelais nodyn o eiddo Cynog yn cwyno oherwydd y diystyrwch y mae y Gymraeg ynddo yn Merthyr. Hyderaf y daw yr ywmared a ddymuna o rywle, ac y gwelir yr hen iaith eto mewn bri. Bm yn y dref yn ddiweddar, a theimlwn innau fod ei heinioes mewn perygl; anaml y clywid gair o Gymraeg ar yr heol yno
A week or two back, I saw an item by Cynog in which he complained of the disregard for the Welsh language in Merthyr. I hope the salvation that he desires comes from somewhere, and that the old language will once again be in vogue. I was in the town lately, and I too felt that its continued existence was threatened. I rarely heard a word of Welsh on the street there.

(ORIGINAL SPELLING) Nid felly yr oedd Merthyr bum mlynedd ar hugain yn l. Gwyddelod a Saeson oedd yr adeg hono yn gorfod dysgu Cymraeg, ac adwaenwn lawer o honynt, a siaradent Gymraeg cystal a minau. Oddiar hyny y mae tuedd rhieni i siarad Saesneg u plant wedi cynyddu, a rhyw wendid wedi codi i benau llawer o bobl ieuainc, a pheri iddynt feddwl bod rhywbeth diraddiol mewn siarad Cymraeg. Y mae llawer o starch a Saesneg rywsut yn tynu at eu gilydd.
(MODERN SPELLING) Nid felly yr oedd Merthyr bum mlynedd ar hugain yn l. Gwyddelod a Saeson oedd yr adeg honno yn gorfod dysgu Cymraeg, ac adwaenwn lawer ohonynt, a siaradent Gymraeg cystal minnau. Oddiar hynny y mae tuedd rhieni i siarad Saesneg u plant wedi cynyddu, a rhyw wendid wedi codi i bennau llawer o bobl ieuainc, a pheri iddynt feddwl bod rhywbeth diraddiol mewn siarad Cymraeg. Y mae llawer o startsh a Saesneg rywsut yn tynnu at eu gilydd.

Merthyr wasnt like this twenty -five years ago {i.e. around 1883}. Irishmen and Englishmen in those days were obliged to learn Welsh, and I knew many of them who spoke Welsh as well as I do. Since then the tendency for parents to speak English with their children has increased, and something has got into the heads of many young people which makes them think that there is something demeaning about speaking Welsh. Somehow starch (pompousness) and the English language attract each other.
See article at
●kimkat0852k or ●kimkat0853e (reachable via Google)

Minera = Mwynglawdd

Mold = Yr Wyddgrug

Montgomery = Trefaldwyn

Mwynglawdd, county of Wrecsam (= "Minera") 1878
In the parishes of Bersham, Broughton, Brymbo, Minera, and Esclusham above to the West of Wrexham, which have a total population of 13,250 souls, Welsh is spoken by seven-eighths of the population, and English by the same number, but further in the interior of the country, and more especially in those parts which are at some distance from railroads, the knowledge of English is still very limited, scarcely more than half of the inhabitants being able to express themselves in it.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Nantmel, county of Powys 1840
1 km west of Llanfihangel Rhyd Ieithon
Yma yn y Dolau, cyn iddo ddyfod yn bregethwr adnabyddus, y cadwai Samuel Breeze ysgol yn ystod y flwyddyn 1793-4. Yn l Jonathan Williams, hanesydd y sir, aethai plwyf Nantmel yn ddwyieithog tua 1820 ac yr oedd y Saesneg yn dechrau ennill ar y Gymraeg. Arferid Cymraeg yn y capel hyd 1840, fodd bynnag...
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed, 1968, tudalen 95

OUR TRANSLATION: Here in y Dolau, before he became a well-known preacher, Samuel Breeze kept a school during the year 1793-4. According to Jonathan Williams, the county historian, the parish of Nantmel became bilingual towards 1820 and the English language began to gain ground at the expense of Welsh. Welsh was used in the chapel until 1840, however...
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed ('wandering (through) (the) county (of) Maesyfed, (through) Radnorshire') 1968, page 95

Nantmel, county of Powys 1878
The existence of Welsh Black Letter Bibles like that at Nantmel, which dates back to the year 1620, shows that the extinction of Welsh {in Radnorshire} is not to be measured by centuries... As to Nantmel, Welsh seems to have been g{?} about a hundred years ago. The Vicar now tells me that it is wholly extinct, whilst another informant makes it linger in the north-western part of the parish, towards Rhayader.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Nantmel, county of Powys 1895
1 km west of Llanfihangel Rhyd Ieithon
Dywed John Jones... yn ei 'History of the Baptists in Radnorshire', a gyhoeddwyd yn 1895, yr arferid Cymraeg gan mwyaf yng nghapeli'r Dolau, Nantmel a'r Bontnewydd-ar-Wy pan oedd ef yn blentyn ond 'now... Welsh... is not understood in these places, except by a few aged people'.
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed, 1968, tudalennau 95, 96

OUR TRANSLATION: John Jones says... in his 'History of the Baptists in Radnorshire', published in 1895, Welsh was used mostly in the chapels of Y Dolau, Nantmel and Bontnewydd-ar-Wy {'Newbridge on Wye'} when he was a child but 'now... Welsh... is not understood in these places, except by a few aged people'.
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed ('wandering (through) (the) county (of) Maesyfed, (through) Radnorshire') 1968, pages 95, 96

Nantmel, county of Powys 1961
1 km west of Llanfihangel Rhyd Ieithon
Yn l Cyfrifiad 1961, allan o 652 o blwyolion Nantmel 31 oedd yn medru Cymraeg
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed, 1968, tudalen 96

OUR TRANSLATION: According to the 1961 Census, out of 652 of Nantmel parishioners, 31 were able to speak Welsh
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed ('wandering (through) (the) county (of) Maesyfed, (through) Radnorshire') 1968, page 95

Newtown = Y Drenewydd

Radnor = Maesyfed

Pen-y-bont Rhyd y Cleifion, county of Powys c1740
Ym mhen draw'r rhos ymuna'r ffordd 'r A44 yng nghanol pentref Pen-y-bont. Pen-y-bont Rhyd-y-Cleifion oedd yr enw gynt, ac wrth lwc bodlonodd y pentrefwyr yn nechrau'r ganrif ddiwethaf ar gwtogi'r enw yn lle'i gyfieithu hefyd, fel y gwnaed 'r Mynydd Bach draw ar y dde sydd bellach yn Little Hill... Sylwodd Lewis Morris o Fn {1701-1765} , a fu yma tua chanol y ddeunawfed ganrif, ar Gymraeg da y trigolion. 'The woman told us,' ebr ef, 'we might have some "Golwythion ac wyau", rashers and eggs; "Pa un a fynwch ai cig moch ai cig eidion tew"... They have better Welsh here than in Montgomeryshire, and much better English, for all their children learn that language first. This is a branch of the North Wales Welsh and they make a distinction between themselves and "gwyr y Deheudir"'.
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed, 1968, tudalen 28

OUR TRANSLATION: At the far end of the moorland the road joins the A44 {a main road} in the centre of the village of Pen-y-bont {"(the) end (of) the bridge} . The former name was Pen-y-bont Rhyd-y-Cleifion {Pen-y-bont (by) Rhyd y Cleifion, (the) ford (of ) the lepers), and luckily the villagers at the beginning of the nineteenth century were content to shorten the name instead of translating it as well, as was done with Mynydd Bach over on the right which is now Little Hill... Lewis Morris {1701-1765} from Mn {= island of Anglesey} , who was here towards the middle of the nineteenth century, commented on the good Welsh of the inhabitants. 'The woman told us,' he said, 'we might have some "Golwythion ac wyau", rashers and eggs; "Pa un a fynwch ai cig moch ai cig eidion tew" {which one will you have - pork or fat beef} ... They have better Welsh here than in Montgomeryshire, and much better English, for all their children learn that language first. This is a branch of the North Wales Welsh and they make a distinction between themselves and "gwyr y Deheudir" {(the) people (of) the south'}.
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed ('wandering (through) (the) county (of) Maesyfed, (through) Radnorshire') 1968, page 28

Pen-y-bont Rhyd y Cleifion, county of Powys c1790
Y mae amheus iawn ai'r Saesneg oedd iaith y plant i gyd yna'r pryd hwnnw oblegid bod digon o Gymry yma o hyd ymhen hanner canrif pan ymsefydlodd Ioan Thomas yn y pentref yn 1790.
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed, 1968, tudalen 28

OUR TRANSLATION: It's very doubtful whether English was the language of all the children at that time because there were plenty of Welsh speakers here still half a century after when Ioan Thomas settled in the village in 1790
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed ('wandering (through) (the) county (of) Maesyfed, (through) Radnorshire') 1968, page 28

Presteigne = Llanandras

Rhaeadr-gwy, county of Powys (= "Rhayader") 1878
At Rhayader (976 inhabitants) 200 persons still speak Welsh, but the younger people have altogether forgotten it.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Rhaeadr-gwy, county of Powys (= "Rhayader") 1907
In Radnorshire, during the construction of the Elan Valley reservoirs between 1892 and 1907 the importation of workers from Ireland, Scotland and England resulted in a very rapid recession in the speaking of Welsh around Rhaeadr.
Melville Richards, The Population of the Welsh Border; Page 97, Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, Session 1970, Part 1 (Cyhoeddwyd / Published 1971)

Rhayader = Rhaeadr-gwy

Y Rhath, county of Caer-dydd (= "Roath") 1896
Notes of Information orally given to the Archivist by Mrs. MARY HARRIS and Mr. JOB RICHARDS, both of Tai Cochion, Roath {= Y Rhath} , 17 October 1896: I found Mrs. Harris a hale and intelligent woman, aged 81 years. She was born at Rumney, but had lived at Roath nearly all her life. She spoke Welsh much more readily than English, having known no English till she was a full-grown woman. Her daughter, aged about fifty, also spoke Welsh, but less fluently than English. Mr. Richards was then a hearty, clear-headed man of about 70 years. He was born in the parish, at Ffynon Bren cottage. He spoke Welsh and English with equal fluency.
(Cardiff Records (1889-1911), author John Hobson Mathews, pseudonym "Mab Cernyw")

Rhiwabon, county of Wrecsam (= "Ruabon") 1878
Ruabon (15,150 inhabitants in 1871, 18,000 now) lies within the Welsh boundary, all, or nearly all religious services are conducted there in Welsh, and "more Welsh is spoken every day," owing no doubt to the emigration of labourers. Only 600 persons are said to speak English, and 2,000 Welsh and English.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Rhuthun, county of Dinbych (= "Ruthin") 1878
In Ruthin (3,298 inhabitants) Welsh is spoken by 85 per cent. of the inhabitants.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Roath = Y Rhath

Ruabon = Rhiwabon

Rumney = Tredelerch

Ruthin = Rhuthun

Saint Harmon, county of Powys 1878
In the parish of St. Harmon {?some - unreadable} fifty years ago, when one of my contributors was a boy, {?all of the unreadable} services, with rare exceptions were in Welsh. At the present day Welsh is only spoken by the older people, and a m{?ajority} speak it only in that part of the parish which abuts upon the river Wye.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Saint Asaph = Llanelwy

Selatyn, Swydd Amwythig / Shropshire, England (= "Selattyn") 1878
In Selattyn Welsh is spoken now only by the older people, but there are still {? - unreadable} services in Welsh to five in English. In the township of Sychtyn, the Welsh are in a majority.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Shocklach (Swydd Gaer / Cheshire, England), c1400
But it is not only in anglicized Flintshire that there was a Welsh resurgence. There is ample evidence for Welsh settlements in Cheshire, not only in areas on the border like Schochlach {Shocklach, 5km north-west of Malpas} with names like David son of Iorwerth son of Gruffydd, and David Bolgrach in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but further east also in Coddington (Iorwerth son of Madog son of Einion in 1288, Gwenllian daughter of Gwilym ap John in 1362) and even in Tushingham (Lleucu daughter of Ithel in 1305)
Page 86; The Population of the Welsh Border - Melville Richards. Pages 77-100, Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, Session 1970 (Part 1), published 1971

Shropshire = Swydd Amwythig

Sir Aberhonddu (= "Breconshire") 1809
The language of the inhabitants of Brecknockshire holding small farms, as well as of the lower rank of people, is principally British or Welsh, except upon the borders of the Wye in the hundred of Talgarth, where the vile English jargon, some time back introduced into Radnorshire, has crept into use, of late years indeed, the English language has become more general throughout the county than it was during the former and greater part of the last century; it is pronounced in tones and accents difficult to be described, though easily perceived by the ear, yet in general it is free from grammatical inaccuracies, there are however a few peculiarities arising from prejudices or the difference of idiom between their own vernacular tongue and that of their fellow subjects of England, which like the Shibboleth of the Ephraimites, instantly discover the Briton.
Theophilus Jones, History of Brecknockshire, published 1805 -1809.


Sir Aberteifi (= "Cardiganshire") 1878
Cardiganshire is Welsh throughout. Even at Aberystwyth, its principal town, the services in 11 out of 16 places of worship are conducted in Welsh, and though most of the inhabitants speak English, there are few who do not also understand Welsh. But while Welsh is slowly losing ground there, it is said firmly to maintain its hold upon the people throughout the rest of the county.... Only immigrants and a few "aristocrats" do not understand it. Only in 3 places of worship are the services of the Established Church conducted in English; in 44 they are carried out in Welsh; in 39 in both languages. The Dissenting bodies make but little use of English. At the same time there exists a very general desire to acquire a knowledge of English, which is spoken, more or less fluently by a majority of the inhabitants in the towns, and by many country people. In the more remote districts, however, not 10 in a 100 are able to read and write English correctly. Upon the whole, I believe we may assume that rather more than one half of the inhabitants are able to express themselves in English.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Sir Ddinbych (= "Denbighshire") 1878
Denbighshire, with the exception of territory of limited extent, but including the important town of Wrexham, is wholly Welsh.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Sir Drefaldwyn (= "Montgomeryshire") 1878
Montgomeryshire is one of those border counties in which Welsh is visibly losing ground. In the valley of the Severn {Hafren} up to within a mile or two of Llanllwchaiarn and Newtown {Y Drenewydd} {... - unreadable} to the east of that river, Welsh is heard only in the mouths of immigrants and of a few very old people... Along the whole of the Severn, from Llanidloes down to and beyond Newtown, Welsh is gradually being forgotten, although still largely employed in the religious services of the Dissenters and occasionally even in the Established Church... The linguistic boundary on crossing the northern boundary passes between Llansaintffraid and Llanferchain, strikes the Vyrnwy {Efyrnwy} below and follows that river up to Meifod, thence it runs south to Castle Caereinion, crosses the river Rhiw between New Mills and Llanwyddelan, leaving Manafon to the south. It then proceeds by Gregynog Hall and Bwlchyffridd to Llanwnog, crosses the Cambrian railway at the Pont-dol-goch station, intersects the parish of Trefeglwys, approaches close to the Severn at Dollys, passes to the west of Llanidloes, and finally reaches the Radnorshire boundary to the east of the Wye. In the districts which border upon this line in the east Welsh is still spoken, but not by a majority, but to the west of it Welsh is slowly losing ground on the eastern watershed of the county, but on the western slope, in Cyfeiliog, its hold is firm, even immigrants and their children frequently acquire it, and English is used very little in religious services.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Sir Faesyfed (= "Radnorshire") 1700-1800
Ecclestiastical returns, and the evidence of Welsh nonconformist records show that the county was largely Welsh-speaking in the eighteenth century. In 1787 there was an advertisement in the Hereford Journal for an articled clerk in Radnor; 'if he understands the Welsh language, the more acceptable'. The really rapid decline came in the second half of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth. From about 1850 Welsh was confined to the north-western corner adjacent to Cardiganshire.
Page 95; The Population of the Welsh Border - Melville Richards Pages 77-100, Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, Session 1970 (Part 1), published 1971

Sir Faesyfed (= "Radnorshire") 1878
As in the Highlands, the natives of the county emigrate in considerable numbers to England, whilst natives of England settle in the county. In 1871 no less than 14% were natives of England. Welsh still lingers in the extreme north-western corner of the county, but elsewhere it is spoken only by a few immigrants.... The services of the Church of England throughout the county are conducted in English with one curious exception - "at Rhayader, where four Welsh sermons must annually be delivered, under a bequest."... Practically it is extinct. I believe that a line which crosses the Wye from Rhayader and then runs south at some distance from it, t{?o the} Vale, where there is the only Welsh Baptist Chapel in the county, will be found to include that small portion of Radnosrhire where Welsh is still the language of the majority. This small territory embraces 54 square miles, wiht 713 inhabitants of whom 470 speak Welsh. Outside of it lies a smaller district of 20 square miles, with 2,000 inhabitants, inclusive of the {?parish} of Rhayader, within which about 530 speak Welsh. All the {?rest} of Radnorshire is as completely English as any county in the land.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Sir Feirionnydd (= "Merionethshire") 1878
Merioneth is quite as Welsh as Carnarvon {Caernarfon} , although a knowledge of English is more general. All speak Welsh, with the exception of immigrants and a few persons of the upper classes. All, or nearly all, speak English in towns, and among many of the younger people in the country districts Welsh maintains its ground.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Sir Fn (= "Anglesey") 1878
Anglesey, in spite of its Saxon name, is thoroughly Welsh, and the knowledge of English is more restricted in that county than in any other portion of similar extent throughout Wales. I am even assured that Welsh "is studied to a greater extent by the younger generation than formerly, and that even English immigrants learn a little Welsh." Welsh is almost exclusively used in all churches, chapels, and Sunday schools, those of the Roman Catholic Irish, who are numerous at Holyhead, excepted
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Sir Frycheiniog (= "Breconshire") 1878
Breconshire is much influenced by its contact with English speaking districts, but for the present the language of the majority is Welsh. English is invading the county from three points, viz., from Builth, from Hay, and Abergavenny, on the Usk...Throughout the remainder of the county Welsh remains to the present day the language of the vast majority, it being heard the most frequently in the country extending from the river Usk {Wysg} towards Glamorganshire. In the districts to the north of the Usk {Wysg} it {Welsh} is spoken by about 80 per cent, and in the valley of the Yrfon {Irfon} , in the north-west, by 75 per cent; Lanwrtyd {Llanwrtud} , however, on the Carmarthen {Caerfyrddin} border, being wholly Welsh. The only large town in which Welsh is spoken by a majority is Brynmawr {Bryn-mawr} , on the Monmouthshire frontier. Welsh is said to lose ground, in some cases rapidly, nearly throughout, but in the south and extreme west it is said to maintain itself, though English is coming into more general use
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Sir Fynwy, (= "Monmouthshire") 1890
Cymraeg yn Sir Fynwy: Ofer i ni ddisgwyl ir Gymraeg i fyw, tra cael ei bradychu yn nhy ei charedigion. Gwaeddwn hir oes ir Iaith Gymraeg, ond ni symudwn law na throed iw cynorthwyo i fyw, yn hytrach or tu arall, ymdrechwn ei chladdu yn fyw. Yr wyf wedi bod yn siarad yn ddiweddar a rhieni yn Sir Fynwy, a gofyn pa beth yw y rheswm na fuasent yn dysgu Cymraeg iw plant, ac yn ei dysgu i siarad Cymraeg yn y ty? Beth bynag, dywedodd amryw wrthyf eu bod wedi gwneud eu gorau i ddysgu Cymraeg iddynt, ac nad oedd eu plant hynaf yn gwybod dim ond Cymraeg cyn myned ir ysgol; ond wedi mynd i ysgolion Seisnig ein gwlad, lle y mae y Gymraeg nid yn unig yn cael ei diorseddu yn hollol, eithr lle y cosbir y plant am ei siarad; troent yn hollol i siarad Saesneg, a gwrthodent siarad Cymraeg, a byddai y plentyn hynaf yma, yr hwn oedd wedo cael ei wneud yn Sais gan yr ysgol Seisnig ddyddiol, yn gwneud yr holl blant eraill yn Saeson ar waethaf y tad ar fam: felly, os ydym fel Cymry am gadw iaith ein tadau yn fyw yn ein gwlad, rhaid i ni fynu ei chael ir ysgolion dyddiol yn ddioedi. Y mae rhaglen Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg yn burion, mor bell ag y mae yn myned, ond nid yn myned haner digon pell. Dylai yn y man lleiaf fned mor belled a chynhyrfu er cael y Gymraeg iw dysgu yn ein hysgolion dyddiol ar ei phen ei hun, er mwyn ei hun, ac er mwyn gwireddu prophwydoliaeth Myrddin:-
Eu hiaith a gadwant,
Eu tir a gollant,
Ond gwyllt Gwalia.
Gwnaeth y Llywodraeth Doriaidd ac Undebol hon roddi hawl i ni ddysgu Cymraeg yn yr ysgolion dyddiol yn Nghymru, a thalu am hyny; ond mor bell ag yr wyf wedi clywed, y neaf peth i ddim wnaed o ddefnydd or hawl hono, o herwydd Dic Shon Dafyddiaeth. Arholwyr ac awdurdodau ysgolion dyddiol Cymru, ac o herwydd o bosibl analluogrwydd yr ysgolfeistri i ddysgu Cymraeg iw plant, fel y mae yn gywilydd ganddynt ddangos eu hanwybodaeth ir plant. Y nesaf peth i ddim wyr llawer o ysgolfeistri Cymru am y Gymraeg, hyd yn nod y rhai hyny syddwedi cael eu dwyn i fyny yn y Gymraeg; ac heblaw hyny , y mae llawer o Seison yn ysgolfeistri yng Nghymru na wyddant ddim b yn Gymraeg. Dyma rai cyfaddas i ddysgu plant sydd yn gwybod dim ond y Gymraeg! ond o bosibl, ei fod yn drefniant campus ir CYmry hyny sydd yn gwneud pobpeth, er lladdd y Gymraeg yr iaith eu magwyd ynddi yn yr hon y swniasant eiriau gyntaf, ttra y gwnant bobpeth er dyrchafu y Seisneg ir seithfed nefoedd; a diameu y credant eu bod yn gwneud gwasanaeth i Ddduw drwy wneud hyny. O ynfydion, a deillion yn meddwl mai llesiant yw dinistrio nodweddion da gwahanredol unrhyw gendl ar allor unrhywiaeth annaturiol. Os oes rhywun yn anghrediniol ar y pwnc, cydmared y CYmry hyny sydd wedi colli eu hiaith ar Cymry sydd yn ei chadw hyd hedyw; a gwelir y gwahaniaeth dirfawr sydd ynddynt. Ymddengys fod gadael y Gymraeg am y Seisnig yn fynych yn ddinystr crefyddol iddynt; collant y bywiogrwydd hwnw sydd yn nodweddu y Cymro. Wrth wadu yr iaith, gwadant hefyd yn fynych eu cariad ar y Beibl ac at bynciau crefyddol, a deuant yn llawer mwy materol yn eu meddyliau. Pwy ysgolfeistr gawsai gadw ysgol ddyddiol yn Lloegr, heb ei fod yn gwybod Seisneg? Dim neb, ond yr ydym ni, y Cymry, mor wasaidd, fel y cyflogwn estron heb fod yn gwybod yr iaith i ddysgu ein plant. Os ydym fel Cymry am gadw ein hiaith yn fyw, mae yn bryd i ni godi at ein gwaith. Mae lluoedd yn yr ardal yma yn dweyd wrthyf y buasai yn dda ganddynt pe buasent yn gwybod y Gymraeg, a dylem fel gwladgarwyr ofalu fod yr oes nesaf yn gwybod Cymraeg yn fwy cyffredinol nar oes hon. Buasai yn fwy o anffawd i ni golli y Gymraeg na phe buasem yn colli y Saesneg.
Cyfaill yr Aelwyd 1890 tudalen 294

OUR TRANSLATION:

Sir Gaernarfon (= "Caernarfonshire / Carnarvonshire") 1878
Carnarvon {Caernarfon} is quite as Welsh as its southern neighbour, although owing to the larger number of English immigrants, the number of persons speaking Welsh is relatively smaller. Nearly all religious services are conducted in Welsh, and Welsh maintains its ground amongst young and old. English is "understood by many, spoken by very few." The majority of the older inhabitants do not understand it, except in the principal towns of the south, where its use, for business purposes, is universal. The children of immigrants, I am informed, learn Welsh in most cases.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Sir y Fflint (= "Flintshire") 1878
Flintshire has a mixed population, but that portion of the county which lies within the linguistic boundary is as purely Welsh as any other part of Wales. Im Maelor Saesneg, the Saxon land (43 square miles, 5,948 inhabitants), a detached portion of the county, Welsh has wholly disappeared since the days of Henry VIII... The linguistic boundary which separates the county proper in two portions of very unequal size begins at Wepre, at the mouth of the river Dee, runs south-weast, crossing the river Alyn above Hope, and then follows closely the right bank of the river mentioned. All to the south-east of that line, with the exception that a large number of Welsh labourers are employed in the hamlets of Chemistry, Shotton, Queensferry, Pentre, and Sandycroft, all of them near the Dee, in the Saltney township of Hawarden. These labourers, forming about 40% of the population of the township, are immigrants, and their children do not learn Welsh.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

St Asaph = Llanelwy

Swansea = Abertawe

Swydd Amwythig (= Shropshire) 1878
Shropshire is an English county, but a small portion of the western extremity is Welsh, including the parishes of Selattyn, Llanyblodwel, and the township of Sychtyn, which have an area of 19 square miles and 2,469 inhabitants, of whom 900 speak Welsh. The linguistic boundary is formed by Offa's Wall, and by a {?line - unreadable} running through the townships of Sychtyn to Garth-uchaf {?o} Afon Tanat, in the parish of Llanyblodwel. To the west of the line Welsh preponderates, to the east English... Welsh immigrants are indeed numerous throughout Shropshire, and there are Welsh chapels at Oswestry, Shrewsbury, Houlston, Coed {unreadable} , Bomer Heath, and Cyrnybwch.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Swydd Gaer (= Cheshire)
See Coddington, 1362; Shocklach, c1400, Tushingham, 1305

Talgarth, county of Powys 1809
The language of the inhabitants of Brecknockshire holding small farms, as well as of the lower rank of people, is principally British or Welsh, except upon the borders of the Wye in the hundred of Talgarth, where the vile English jargon, some time back introduced into Radnorshire, has crept into use, of late years indeed, the English language has become more general throughout the county than it was during the former and greater part of the last century; it is prnounced in tones and accents difficult to be described, though easily perceived by the ear, yet in general it is free from grammatical inaccuracies, there are however a few peculiarities arising from prejudices or the difference of idiom between their own vernacular tongue and that of their fellow subjects of England, which like the Shibboleth of the Ephraimites, instantly discover the Briton.
Theophilus Jones, History of Brecknockshire 1805/1809.

Talgarth, county of Powys 1878
At Talgarth Welsh was common many years ago, but is now spoken by only a minority.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Talgarth, county of Powys 1886
Mae Sir Frycheiniog yn cael ei Saisonegu yn gyflym. Mae Cymraeg wedi darfod, fel iaith crefydd, er ys dros 60 mlynedd, yn y Gelli; ac, ers amryw flyneddau bellach, yn Llanfair-yn-muallt. Haner-yn-haner yw y gwasanaeth Sabbathol yn nghapeli yr holl Anghydffurfwyr yn Nhalgarth a Chrughywel; a chyn diwedd y ganrif, Saisoneg fydd iaith y cysegr yn mhob tre' yn y sir.
J. R. Kilsby Jones, Ychydig o Hanes Sir Frycheiniog, Y Geninen, Cyfrol 4, 1886

OUR TRANSLATION: Breconshire is quickly being anglicised in language. The Welsh language disappeared, as the language of religious services, over sixty years ago, in Y Gelli (= Hay on Wye) {i.e. circa 1826} ; and, some years ago now, in Llanfair ym Muallt (= Builth Wells). The Sabbath service is half and half in the chapels of all the non-Conformists in Talgarth and Crucywel; and before the end of the century, English will be the language of the sacraments in every town in the county.
J. R. Kilsby Jones, Ychydig o Hanes Sir Frycheiniog (A Brief History of Breconshire), Y Geninen (The Leek), Cyfrol (Volume) 4, 1886

Three Cocks = Aberllynfi

Y Trallwng, county of Powys (= "Welshpool") 1878
At Welshpool and Montgomery Welsh has been extinct among the natives {?during - unreadable} these fifty years. At Newtown, however, about thirty per cent of the inhabitants are still able to converse in Welsh, and a similar proportion of Welsh speakers is met with as far as Llanidloes beyond which the Severn valley penetrates a territory which is still wholly Welsh.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Y Trallwng, county of Powys (= "Welshpool") 1910
Cerdd llawer pererin o bell i gael Ysgol Sul Gymraeg yng nghapel yr Annibynwyr yn y Trallwm, ond troir yr addoliad yn Saesneg yng nghapelydd bychain y wlad o leiaf gan mlynedd yn rhy fuan.
"I Godi'r Hen Iaith yn ei Hol", Cymru, Cyfrol 38, Mai 1910, tudalen 245.

OUR TRANSLATION: Many a pilgrim walks from afar to attend Sunday School at the Independents' Welsh in Y Trallwm (= "Welshpool"), but the (act of) worship is becoming English in the small country chapels at least a hundred years too soon.
"I Godi'r Hen Iaith yn ei Hol", (= "to restore the old language") Cymru, Volume 38, Mai (May) 1910, page 245.

Tal-y-bont, county of Ceredigion, circa 1848
Af am dro, yn fy adgofion, i hen amaethdŷ a elwir y Winllan, lle y treuliais ddwy flynedd o foreu fy oes yn was bach neu hogyn cadw. Saif y Winllan yng nghwmwd Geneur Glyn, rhwng y Geulan ar Leri, a thua hanner y ffordd rhwng Cors Fochno a Phumlumon, ac yn sir Aberteifi. Gwlad fynyddig a bugeiliol yw hon; a thua hanner can mlynedd yn ol yr oedd mor Gymreig, h.y. mor amddifad o Saesneg ag unrhyw barth o Gymru.
Hela Hen Eiriau. Gan Spinther. Seren Gomer 1898, tudalennau 238-245

OUR TRANSLATION: I shall go for a walk, in my memory, to the old farmhouse called Y Winllan {plantation; vineyard}, where I spent two years of my youth as a farm servant gwas bach {servant of lowest status} or hogyn cadw {kept lad}. The Winllan stands in the kumud of
Geneur Glyn, between (the rivers) Geulan and Leri, half way between Cors Fochno (the bog of Mochno) and Pumlumon (name of uplands), and in the county of Aberteifi (Cardiganshire). This is hilly sheep-rearing country and fifty years ago it was as Welsh, that is, so devoid of English, as any (other) area of Wales.
Hela Hen Eiriau (hunting down old words).
By Spinther. Seren Gomer (magazine name) 1898, pages 238-245

Tredelerch, county of Caer-dydd (= "Rumney") 1896
Notes of Information orally given to the Archivist by Mrs. MARY HARRIS and Mr. JOB RICHARDS, both of Tai Cochion, Roath {= Y Rhath}
, 17 October 1896: I found Mrs. Harris a hale and intelligent woman, aged 81 years. She was born at Rumney, but had lived at Roath nearly all her life. She spoke Welsh much more readily than English, having known no English till she was a full-grown woman. Her daughter, aged about fifty, also spoke Welsh, but less fluently than English. Mr. Richards was then a hearty, clear-headed man of about 70 years. He was born in the parish, at Ffynon Bren cottage. He spoke Welsh and English with equal fluency.
(Cardiff Records (1889-1911), author John Hobson Mathews, pseudonym "Mab Cernyw")

Trefaldwyn, county of Powys (= "Montgomery"), 1878
At Welshpool and Montgomery Welsh has been extinct among the natives {?during - unreadable} these fifty years. At Newtown, however, about thirty per cent of the inhabitants are still able to converse in Welsh, and a similar proportion of Welsh speakers is met with as far as Llanidloes beyond which the Severn valley penetrates a territory which is still wholly Welsh.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Trefesgob (= "Bishton"), county of Casnewydd ar Wysg 1856
There is a great difference between the dialects of Menevia and Morganwg. Throughout the middle and eastern districts the vowel i has almost its full sound in hundreds of words, as shall be noticed hereafter. Towards the Saxon border, a certain strangeness dwells on the faces of the men, somewhat similar to the gloomy appearance that ensues when the sun is hidden by a cloud previous to its setting in the west. From Ergyng to Talgoed (Caldicot) one meets with heavy, lanky, and very ignorant men; and the old people that are there, especially towards Tre'r Esgob {in modern Welsh Trefesgob, in English Bishton, 5 miles / 8 kilometres east of Casnewydd / Newport} , speak Welsh, which is unintelligible to the uni-lingual Cymro. They have so much the English accent, and occasionally an old word like ebargofi , that they cause a mixture of grief and astonishment in the bosom of the visitor.
A Treatise on the Chief Peculiarities that Distinguish the Cymraeg, as Spoken by the Inhabitants of Gwent and Morganwg Respectively. Pererindodwr. Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1856. Full text at 0959.

Treffynnon, county of Y Fflint (= "Holywell"), 1878
In the towns of Welsh Flintshire English is of course the language of business, but Welsh is spoken by the bulk of the people. In Holywell (3,540 inhabitants, of whom 95 per cent speak Welsh),... it is said to maintain its ground,
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Trefyclo (earlier form: Trefyclawdd), county of Powys (= "Knighton"), 1675
Hoffwn, er hynny, ychwanegu gair parthed hanes y Gymraeg yma gan na ellir derbyn sylw Mr. Howse yn ei lyfr "Presteigne Past and Present" nad oes i'r Gymraeg na doe na heddiw yma. Ni raid sn am heddiw: yn l cyfrifiad 1961, deg ar hugain o bobl a fedr yr iaith allan o boblogaeth o 1149 ac y mae'n sicr mai pobl ddyfod ydynt. Ond fel arall yr oedd hi yn y gorffennol. Ni welais ddim i awgrymu i foneddigion yr ardal gefnu ar y Gymraeg yn gynt na boneddigion ardaloedd eraill y gororau. Dangosir y sefyllfa ymhlith y werin gan restrau a gyhoeddodd Miss M. G. Jones yn nawfed cyfrol 'Bwletin y Bwrdd Gwybodau Celtaidd'. Rhestrir plwyfi 'in which the poorest of the Welsh children are put to school to learn English'. Yn 1675 yr oedd ugain o blant felly ym mhentref Maesyfed, deugain yn Nhrefclawdd, a deugain yn Llanandras. Tair blynedd wedyn yr oedd yr un nifer ym Maesyfed, ugain yn Nhrefclawdd, a deg ar hugain yn Llanandras.
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed, 1968, tudalen 17

OUR TRANSLATION: Despite that, I would like to add a word as regards the history of the Welsh language since the comment of Mr. Howse in his book "Presteigne Past and Present" cannot be accepted - that the Welsh language has neither a today nor had it a yesterday here. There's no need to mention today - according to the 1961 census, 30 people out of a population of 1149 can speak the language and it's pretty certain that they are incomers. But it was a different situation in the past. I have seen nothing to suggest that the nobility of the area turned their back on the Welsh language earlier than did the nobility in other districts on the borders.. The situation among the common people is shown by the lists which Miss M. G. Jones published in the ninth volume of 'Bwletin y Bwrdd Gwybodau Celtaidd' (Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies). Parishes are listed 'in which the poorest of the Welsh children are put to school to learn English'. In 1675 there were twenty such children in the village of Maesyfed {Radnor} , forty in Nhrefclawdd {Knighton} , and forty in Llanandras {Presteigne} . Three years later there were the same number in Maesyfed, twenty in Nhrefclawdd, and thirty in Llanandras.
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed ('wandering (through) (the) county (of) Maesyfed, (through) Radnorshire') 1968, page 17

Trefyclo (earlier form: Trefyclawdd), county of Powys (= "Knighton"), 1823
Ni wn pryd y darfu'r Gymraeg yma, ond y mae'n debyg iddi barhau yn ddiweddarach nag y tybir. Bu'r Parchedig G. J. Freeman, awdur 'Sketches in Wales' yma yn 1823, ac fe geir a ganlyn yn y llyfr hwnnw: 'my friend... longed to hear a foreign tongue spoken fluently. He had soon an opportunity of gratifying himself in this particular from some idlers in the town streets'. Yn l Cyfrifiad 1961 y mae ychydig dros hanner cant o bobl y dref yn medru Cymraeg heddiw. Y mae'n sicr gennyf nad yw'r un ohonynt, ar wahn i blentyn neu ddau, yn frodor o'r dref.
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed, 1968, tudalen 48

OUR
TRANSLATION: I don't know when the Welsh language ceased here, but it is likely that it lasted later than is thought. The Reverend G. J. Freeman, author of 'Sketches in Wales' was here in 1823, and the following is found in that book: 'my friend... longed to hear a foreign tongue spoken fluently. He had soon an opportunity of gratifying himself in this particular from some idlers in the town streets'. According to the 1961 Census there are a slightly over fifty people of the town who speak Welsh today. I'm certain that not one of them, apart from a child or two, is a native of the town.
Ffransis George Payne, Crwydro Sir Faesyfed ('wandering (through) (the) county (of) Maesyfed, (through) Radnorshire') 1968, page 48

Tremansel, county of Abertawe (= "Manselton") 1925
Anglicised Schools in Swansea. Changes Brought About by Housing Schemes. Hafod Becomes English.
As recently as 20 years ago, Cwmbwrla, Manselton and the Hafod districts and all the districts to the north and east of these were mainly Welsh. Today Hafod has become English. Out of 1024 children, only 17 were reported as coming from homes where Welsh was the home language. Manselton and Cwmbwrla were rapidly following. At Manselton, out of 941 children, only 65, and at Cwmbwrla, out of 798 children, only 47 came from families where Welsh was the home language.
Mid-Glamorgan Herald, 7 November 1925.

Tushingham (Swydd Gaer / Cheshire, England), 1305
But it is not only in anglicized Flintshire that there was a Welsh resurgence. There is ample evidence for Welsh settlements in Cheshire, not only in areas on the border like Schochlach {Shocklach, 5km north-west of Malpas} with names like David son of Iorwerth son of Gruffydd, and David Bolgrach in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but further east also in Coddington (Iorwerth son of Madog son of Einion in 1288, Gwenllian daughter of Gwilym ap John in 1362) and even in Tushingham (Lleucu daughter of Ithel in 1305)
Page 86; The Population of the Welsh Border - Melville Richards. Pages 77-100, Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, Session 1970 (Part 1), published 1971

Waun, Y county of Wrecsam (= "Chirk") 1878
In the parish of Chirk, the Western portion of which is intersected by Offa's Dyke, there is a Welsh chapel, poorly attended, and Welsh is now understood only by a few old people.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Wentloog = Gwynll
ŵg

Wrecsam, county of Wrecsam (= "Wrexham") 1878
Within it lies the town of Wrexham, which had 8,576 inhabitants at the last census, but now has 10,000, and where Welsh is used by three or four congregations, English by twelve.
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e

Welshpool = Y Trallwng

Wrexham = Wrecsam

Wyddgrug, Yr county of Y Fflint (= "Mold") 1878
In the towns of Welsh Flintshire English is of course the language of business, but Welsh is spoken by the bulk of the people. ...In Mold (3,976 inhabitants) it is said to maintain its ground
Ravenstein, E.G. "Celtic Languages of the British Isles" (1878); see article at kimkat0805e



COUNTY NAME, and places mentioned in the county
Abertawe:
Abertawe;
Craig-cefn-parc;
Cwmbwrla;
Hafod;
Tremansel;

Blaenau Gwent:
Blaenau Gwent;
Bryn-mawr

Bro Morgannwg:
Llanilltud Fawr

Caer-dydd:
Rhath, Y
Tredelerch

Caerffili:
Caerffili

Caerfyrddin:
Caerfyrddin

Casnewydd:
Cas-bach;
Gwynll
ŵg;
Trefesgob

Ceredigion:
Aberystwyth
Tal-y-bont (Y Winllan)

Conwy:
Conwy;
Llandudno

De-ddwyrain Cymru (South-east Wales)

Dinbych:
Dinbych;
Llanelwy;
Rhuthun;

Fflint, Y:
Fflint, Y;
Hob, Yr;
Treffynnon;
Wyddgrug Yr;

Gwynedd:
Ffestiniog;
Harlech;
Llandecwyn;
Bangor;

Mn:
Caergybi;

Mynwy:
Fenni, Y;

Powys:
Aberhafesp;
Aberhonddu;
Aberllynfi;
Bontnewydd ar Wy, Y;
Capelisaf;
Capel-y-ffin;
Crucywel;
Cwm Efyrnwy;
Cwmteuddwr;
Diserth / Y Ddiserth yn Elfael;
Dolau, Y
Drenewydd, Y;
Gelligandryll, Y;
Llanandras;
Llanddewi'r Cwm;
Llandinam;
Llandysilio;
Llaneigon;
Llanfair ym Muallt;
Llanfihangel Rhyd Ieithon
Llangenni;
Llangurig;
Llanidloes;
Llansantffraid ym Mechain;
Llansilin;
Llanwrtud;
Llanymynech;
Maesmynys;
Maesyfed;
Nantmel;
Pen-y-bont Rhyd y Cleifion;
Rhaeadr-gwy;
Saint Harmon;
Talgarth;
Trallwng, Y;
Trefaldwyn;
Trefyclo;

Swydd Amwythig:
Llanyblodwel;
Selatyn;

Swydd Gaer;
Coddington;
Shocklach;
Tushingham;

Swydd Henffordd:
Ergyn;

Wrecsam:
Bangor Is-coed;
Brychdyn;
Brymbo;
Mwynglawdd;
Rhiwabon;
Waun, Y;
Wrecsam;

United States of America:
Foreston, Iowa;
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

THE YEAR IN QUESTION:

1305

Tushingham

1362

Coddington

1400 (circa)

Shocklach

1675

Llanandras

1675

Maesyfed

1675

Trefyclo

1700-1800

Sir Faesyfed

1730

Bangor Is-coed

1746

Diserth / Y Ddiserth yn Elfael

1750 (circa)

Pen-y-bont Rhyd y Cleifion

1787

Maesyfed

1809

Talgarth

1809

Sir Aberhonddu

1822

Aberhonddu

1823

Trefyclo

1826 (circa)

Gelligandryll

1827

Llanfihangel Rhyd Ieithon

1828

Llanidloes

1833

Llangurig

1833

Llanidloes

1835

Cas-bach (Casnewydd)

1840 (circa)

Craig-cefn-parc

1840

Dolau, Y

1845

Bontnewydd ar Wy, Y

1856

Trefesgob

1856

Gwynllŵg,

1858 (circa)

Tal-y-bont (Ceredigion)

1860

Ergyn, Swydd Henffordd,

1872

Llanidloes

1878

Wyddgrug, Yr

1878

Wrecsam

1878

Waun, Y

1878

Treffynnon

1878

Trefaldwyn

1878

Trallwng, Y

1878

Talgarth

1878

Swydd Amwythig

1878

Sir y Fflint

1878

Sir Gaernarfon

1878

Sir Frycheiniog

1878

Sir Fn

1878

Sir Feirionnydd

1878

Sir Faesyfed

1878

Sir Drefaldwyn

1878

Sir Ddinbych

1878

Sir Aberteifi

1878

Selatyn

1878

Saint Harmon

1878

Rhuthun

1878

Rhiwabon

1878

Rhaeadr-gwy

1878

Nantmel

1878

Mwynglawdd

1878

Maesmynys

1878

Llanymynech

1878

Llanyblodwel

1878

Llanwrtud

1878

Llansilin

1878

Llansantffraid ym Mechain

1878

Llangenni

1878

Llanfair ym Muallt

1878

Llanelwy

1878

Llaneigon

1878

Llandysilio

1878

Llandudno

1878

Llandinam

1878

Llanddewi'r Cwm

1878

Hob, Yr

1878

Harlech

1878

Gelligandryll, Y

1878

Fflint, Y

1878

Drenewydd, Y

1878

Dinbych

1878

Cwmteuddwr

1878

Cwm Efyrnwy

1878

Crucywel

1878

Conwy

1878

Ceredigion

1878

Capel-y-ffin

1878

Caergybi

1878

Bryn-mawr

1878

Brymbo

1878

Brychdyn

1878

Bangor

1878

Aberystwyth

1878

Aberllynfi

1878

Aberhonddu

1878

Aberhafesp

1879

Caerfyrddin

1886

Talgarth

1886

Llanfair ym Muallt

1886

Crucywel

1890

Ffestiniog

1892

Llanilltud Fawr

1896

Y Rhath

1896

Tredelerch

1895

Bontnewydd ar Wy, Y

1895

Dolau, Y

1895

Llansanffrid ym Mechain

1895

Llandecwyn

1895

Nantmel

1895

Foreston, Iowa

1900 (circa)

Gwynllŵg,

1900 (circa)

Blaenau Gwent,

1902

De-ddwyrain Cymru (South-east Wales)

1907

Rhaeadr-gwy

1907

Cwmteuddwr

1910

Trallwng, Y

1910

Llanidloes

1910

Capelisaf (Powys)

1910

Llanfair ym Muallt

1910

Aberhonddu

1910

Fenni, Y

1925

Tremansel

1925

Hafod

1925

Cwmbwrla

1925

Abertawe

1961

Nantmel

2000

Caerffili



Aberystwyth = Aberystwyth
Brychdyn = Brychdyn
Bryn-mawr = Bryn-mawr
Casnewydd ar Wysg: = Casnewydd ar Wysg:
Conwy = Conwy
Cwm Efyrnwy = Cwm Efyrnwy
Dinbych = Dinbych
Ergyn = Ergyn,
Llandecwyn = Llandecwyn
Llanelwy = Llanelwy
Llanfihangel Rhyd Ieithon = Llanfihangel Rhyd Ieithon
Llanwrtyd = Llanwrtud
Maesmynys = Maesmynys
Mwynglawdd = Mwynglawdd
Rhaeadr-gwy, = Rhaeadr-gwy,
Selatyn = Selatyn
Sir Ddinbych = Sir Ddinbych
Sir Drefaldwyn = Sir Drefaldwyn
Sir Feirionnydd = Sir Feirionnydd
Swydd Amwythig = Swydd Amwythig
Swydd Gaer = Swydd Gaer
Trefaldwyn = Trefaldwyn
Wyddgrug, Yr = Wyddgrug, Yr

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX






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