Place-names. Origin of the name Brunswick, a town in Missouri.
Enwau lloeoedd. Tarddiad enw Brunswick, tref yn nhalaith Missouri
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A circuitous journey to investigate the origin of the the town name BRUNSWICK, Missouri.
1/ “Brunswick, England” (1)
2/ James Keyte
3/ “Brunswick, England” (2)
4/ What is Brunswick?
5/ Why Brunswick and not Braunschweig?
6/ Is there a Brunswick Terrace in Manchester?
7/ Why are streets called “Brunswick”? Brunswick Terrace
8/ Why is it “Brunswick Chapel?” Brunswick Wesleyans
9/ Brunswick Terrace Wesleyan Church, Pendleton
1/ “Brunswick, England” (1)
While researching the history of Welsh settlements or places with Welsh communities in Missouri (1) I came across a repeated explanation for the name Brunswick, which lies south of the Welsh settlements, and seeing an obvious error, I decided to look into it.
(1) (these are listed as the following in an 1872 handbook for would-be Welsh emigrants to America : St. Louis, New Cambria, Bevier, Callao, Macon City, Brookfield, Chillicothe, Utica, Dawn). Hanes Cymry America yn y Gorllewin Pell yn Nhalaethau Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, California, Oregon a’r Tiriogaethau; 1872; Y Parch. R[obert] D[avid] Thomas, g. Llan-rŵst
map below shows southern Iowa and noerthern Missouri, with the Welsh
settlements in red, above Brunswick.
Many websites which give a history of Brunswick, Missouri, note that James Keyte, a Methodist minister, founded the town in 1836. They then explain that the reason for the name “Brunswick” is that he was a native of “Brunswick, England”, – as one of these websites puts it, he named it “for his beloved hometown Brunswick, England”.
Unfortunately this is inaccurate - there was no town or village called Brunswick in England at that time.
Below are neighbourhoods or villages called Brunswick at the present day, noted in wikipedia (12-03-2011).
However these are all fairly recent names – certainly from after the time that James Keyte emigrated from England.
As we shall see, it is said that the Brunswick he came from was in Manchester. Intriguingly, it would seem not to be the Brunswick in Manchester marked on this map.
1 Brunswick Village (Map Reference: Ordnance Survey grid square NZ2732). Near Newcastle on Tyne. Brunswick Village is a name which replaced the original village name of Dinnington Colliery. The Colliery site is now Brunswick Industrial Estate.
2 Brunswick (SJ8596) is an area around Brunswick Street in Chorlton-on-Medlock in Central Manchester, south of Manchester Piccadilly railway station. However as a district name it seems to be quite recent.
3 Brunswick (SO9995), Wednesbury. This seems to be used as a short form of Brunswick Park to refer to the district around the park. The park was opened to celebrate Queen Victoria’s Golden Jubilee in 1887. It was built on
4 Brunswick (SS6493) A district in the city of Abertawe in Wales (Swansea in English) is (according to Wikipedia) called Brunswick (though as a former resident of Abertawe, from Y Brynhyfryd / Mount Pleasant, next to this supposed district, I never heard it so called. At best “ardal Heol Brunswick” by careful Welsh speakers, and maybe some call it “the Brunswick Street area” in English).
5 Brunswick Town, Hove, in the city of Brighton and Hove. Building began in 1825. Here there are the street names Brunswick Terrace and Brunswick Square.
2/ James Keyte
The following is known about the Rev. Keyte (from information garnered from various websites):
He was born on 1 February
James Keyte left England around 1814 (that is, when he was 14 or 15); he was in St. Louis in 1818 (when he was 18 or 19). On another website it is said he arrived in the USA in 1819.
He came along with his mother Rebecca (or Rebeckah) Keyte, a sister called Sara and a brother called William A.
They were Wesleyans; the mother had been converted to the faith in City Road Chapel (2) in London through the preaching of John Wesley.
(2) Opened in 1778. The chapel is still in use. Also here is the Museum of Methodism and John Wesley’s House. (Source: Wikipedia. Wesley’s House)
Sara and James had been converted to the Wesleyan faith through the preaching of Dr. Adam Clarke (3).
(3) Adam Clarke, (1760 / 1762 – 1832) Born in Maigh Beag Corr Liath in Ireland. Methodist theologian and Biblical scholar, author of a famed Biblical Commentary.
In St. Louis James Keyte was involved in merchandising, with John O'Fallon, as well as being a Methodist preacher.
In 1821 (at the age of 21 or 22) he was appointed to the Boonslick Circuit, serving as a pastor to the scattered population of Chariton County, Howard County, and part of Randolph and Boone Counties. He moved from St. Louis to Chariton. As a circuit-riding preacher he came to know Chariton County well, and he began to purchase land there in 1830 (at the age of 30 or 31).
The town of Chariton (now referred to as “Old Chariton” and no longer in existence), the county seat, was sited at the mouth of the Chariton river where it flows into the Missouri. It was too near the water’s edge, and repeated flooding eventually led to its complete abandonment by 1840.
Keyte offered the county higher land for a new county seat. Here he founded Keytesville in 1832 (at the age of 32 or 33), becoming its postmaster. In 1833 Keytesville was designated as the county seat of Chariton County.
(Historical, Pictorial and Biographical Record of Chariton County, Missouri. Salisbury. Pictorial and Biographical Publishing Co., 1896) Keytesville, the county seat of Chariton county, and a beautiful and substantial city of enterprise, happy homes and cultured people, situated near the central part of the county,
Four years later, in 1836 (at the age of 36 or 37), James Keyte founded Brunswick. He gave over the Keytesville post office to his sister, and became postmaster of Brunswick.
It seems that from 1828 (at the age of 28 or 29) onwards he had become more of an entrepreneur and less of a preacher. He died of cholera in 1844 (at the age of 44 or 45) when travelling by steamboat from St. Louis to back to Brunswick.
3/ “Brunswick, England” (2)
Why is it said in modern publications or on websites that James Keyte is from a town called Brunswick in England, although there is no town of this name?
The error can be traced to a book from 1883:
HISTORY OF HOWARD & CHARITON COUNTIES, MISSOURI, WRITTEN AND COMPILED FROM THE MOST OFFICIAL AUTHENTIC AND PRIVATE SOURCES. NATIONAL HISTORICAL COMPANY. 1883
This town (= Brunswick) was laid out by James Keyte, in 1836, on the northwestern quarter of section 11, township 53, range 20, which was at that time one mile below the mouth of the Grand river. James Keyte was also the founder of Keytesville, the county seat of Chariton county, for whom the town was named. Brunswick, when originally laid out, was located in the bottom, on the banks of the Missouri river, and about four hundred yards south of the present site... Mr. Keyte, who was an Englishman, named the town after Brunswick (Tennis), near Manchester, England. The first house built in Brunswick, was a log house, erected by James Keyte, which was used as a store of general merchandise.
It is repeated in a book from 1896:
HISTORICAL, PICTORIAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD OF CHARITON COUNTY, MISSOURI. 1896 Part II, pp. 231;
Brunswick, the second town in Chariton county, in point of population an age, was laid out in section 11, township 53, range
The meaningless “Brunswick (Tennis)” seems to be a curious misreading of “Brunswick Terrace”.
An enquiry posted on the LANCSGEN genealogy website (1999-02 > 0919266319) Wed, 17 Feb 1999 “Surname KEYTE in Manchester early 1800's” refers to “Brunswick Terrace”.
Perhaps someone can put me on the right track to gain new information. What I have is James KEYTE, born in Manchester, 1 February 1799. We know that he went to the US with his mother and sister, got to Virginia and obtained a wife, and was in St. Louis, Missouri, by 1818. The Keytes were Methodists. In references to him a place called Brunswick,or Brunswick Terrace, in or near Manchester, always appears.
4/ What is Brunswick?
As a mark of deference or respect to the English monarch, names alluding to them were often given to buildings and streets in England, and the neighbouring countries incorporated into the English state (Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, Ireland). Monarchical names were also given to settlements and territories in the English colonies.
Brunswick was used (along with Hanover and George) to honour English monarchs who were of the German House of Hanover, especially George I, George II and George III.
Georg Ludwig (1660-1727) was born in Osnabrück, in what today is Germany, son of Ernst August, Duke of Braunschweig und Lüneburg. The Duchy was so called from the names of the two largest towns within it.
On the death of Ernst August, in 1698, his son Georg Ludwig became the new Duke of Braunschweig und Lüneberg, at the age of 38.
In 1714, Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland died. She had been brought up as a Protestant. England now regarded itself as a Protestant country, and a successor who was not a Catholic was sought.
The Act of Settlement of 1701 prohibited Catholics from ascending to the English throne, and so although there were over fifty Catholics who by their blood relationship had more right to become King or Queen of England, Georg Ludwig was the nearest in the line of succession who was a Protestant.
At the age of
This German family was known as the House of Hanover, and also House of Brunswick, Hanover Line (the name has only one ‘n’ in English; in German it is Hannover, with two ns).
one hundred and twenty-three years, from 1814-1837, the King of England was
also the King of Hanover
Six English monarchs were members of this German family:
George I (king 1714-1727)
George II (king 1727-1760)
George III (king 1760-1820)
George IV (king 1820-1830)
William III (king 1830-1837)
Victoria (queen 1837-1901)
Hanover is to be found as the name of a town or township in many states of the USA – in Indiana, Illinois, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Maryland, Massachussetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia., and in the provinces of Ontario and Manitoba in Canada.
Many of these Hanovers are from the pre-Independence era and honour the figure of the English King in what was at the time English territory.
After 1776 such names given to new settlements would seem to have been given by German immigrants (As in Hanover, Minnesota – founded in 1877 by the Vollbrecht brothers, named after their place of birth in what is now Germany). (Minnesota place names / Warren Upham).
This display of loyalty to the English monarch is found in the names King George County, Virginia, (from George I). Also Georgetown in South Carolina, and the state of Georgia (1732), both for George II of England.
In the same way, Brunswick was also used as the name for this same royal house.
The town of Brunswick in South Carolina was laid out by Maurice Moore, the son of the governor James Moore, in 1725. He named it in honour of King George I.
New Brunswick in New Jersey was granted a Royal Charter in 1730 by King George II.
is also the province name of New Brunswick in Canada. The area
was previously part of the French territory of Acadie, and became an English possession
after the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763), during the reign of George III.
In Australia, an inner northern suburb of Melbourne, in the state of Victoria, is called Brunswick. It seems that although this is also named after the same German royal house, in this case it is Caroline of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, for the wronged wife of George IV.
In 1839 the Australian government had the land surveyed and marked out, and then put it up for sale. Speculators bought most of it.
Just one buyer settled on the land he had bought, and that was only temporarily, in order to supervise its division into lots. James Simpson marked out two streets, which he called after two Welsh towns : Carmarthen (the Englished form of Caerfyrddin) and Llandillo (an Englished form of Llandeilo).
But his land was marshy and he was unable to sell the lots. A certain Thomas Wilkinson bought part of this land (in 1840?) which had already been divided into lots, and renamed the streets Victoria Street and Albert Street. Victoria had become the Queen of England in 1837, and had married her German first cousin Albert in 1840.
In 1841 the first church was opened on land donated by Thomas Wilkinson. It was a Wesleyan Chapel.
The town was called Brunswick. (A plaque in Brunswick says, “Brunswick was named in 1846 from a house built on this site, which was owned and occupied by Thomas Wilkinson “Father of Brunswick” and named after Caroline Duchess of Brunswick wife of King George IV of England.”)
A wikipedia article on the town states that Wilkinson had been an active campaigner for the rights of Caroline of Brunswick and had named his estate in her honour. Caroline (1768-1821) had been popular with the English public and supported by them in her oppostion to her husband George IV, who was extremely unpopular for his extravagant and dissolute way of life, his unreliablity and lack of leadership, and for the contempt in which he held his wife.
5/ Why Brunswick and not Braunschweig?
The modern German language is really a “Shriftsprache” (basically a common written language with which it was possible to bridge the differences between the many German dialects) which became a “Lautsprache” (it began to be used as a spoken medium).
The present-day German language owes much to Martin Luther (1483 – 1546), the priest and theology professor who was the initiator of the Protestant Reformation
The Catholic Church believed that the Bible could only be revealed to the populace through its own officers, and that the language could be no other than Latin.
The Protestant reformers believed that the Church had no right to prevent ordinary people from reading the Bible themselves, and in their own language.
The Luther translation of the Bible (printed in 1534) created modern German. Luther based the language which he intended to be accessible to all Germans partly on his own speech – he was from Saxony, born in Eisleben (east of Leipzig on the map below) and living in Wittenberg, and the language of the area was east-central German. The language of the Bible was also partly based on a form of this same Saxon dialect of German used by some adminstrations in the German-speaking territories as a proto-standard or referential German (sächsische Kanzleisprache, also known as Meissner-Deutsch, after the city of Meissen – noeth-west of Dresden on the map).
As such it formed a bridge between Upper German and Lower German.
Central German and Upper German could be considered as a unit in contrast to Lower German, which was quite different.
language that Luther used in the Bible was not a kind of German that anybody
spoke at that time, but it has shaped modern German in its own image. Standard
German has replaced local German in the big cities, and in the Lower German
speech area (arguably a different language) standard German is quickly taking
the place of Lower German.
Lower German has lost prestige over the past couple of centuries and is rapidly being abandoned as the usual spoken form. The exception is in the Netherlands and Belgium, where this language is known as Nederlands, the language of the “Lower Lands” or the Low Countries, or to us as Dutch.
Until a century or so ago, the population of this area of what is today Germany would all have spoken Lower German, known also as Plattdüütsch (Flat German, or German of the northen flatlands).
Place names of the area are nowadays written in Standard German, though locally, in Lower German, they have a different form, or are pronounced differently even though they might be spelt the same in Standard and in Lower German e.g. Rostock.
Here is a list of the Lower German (or Lowland German) names which appear on the map side by side with the Standard German equivalent:
Brannenborg / Brandenburg
Bremen / Bremen
Bronswiek [ˡbrɔˑnsviːk] / Braunschweig
Hamburg / Hamborg
Hannober (also: Hannower) / Hannover
Kiel / Kiel
Lümborg / Lüneberg
Meideborg / Magdeburg
Mönster / Münster
Ossenbrügge / Osnabrück
Rostock / Rostock
Wulfenbüttel / Wolfenbüttel.
As the list shows, Braunschweig is Bronsweik locally (there are a couple of slight variants of this); in Dutch, an eastern form of Lowland German, it is Brunswijk.
Brunswick, the English name of today’s Braunschweig, is ultimately from a Lowland German or Dutch form of the city’s name.
6/ Is there a Brunswick Terrace in Manchester?
Although there is nowadays a district called Brunswick near Manchester Piccadilly railway station, it refers really to the area around Brunswick Street (that is, Brunswick Street is not so called because it is in a district called Brunswick, but rather Brunswick referring to the area is a clipped form of Brunswick Street. Whether or not the name is in general use as a district name would need to be confirmed). This is not the origin of Brunswick, Missouri, however. There was no Brunswick Terrace here.
Not far from here, though, in Pendleton, to the north-west of Manchester city centre (top left in the map below), there was at one time a street with this name.
Two miles from the centre is what was the village of Pendleton – until
Nowadays there is no Brunswick Terrace here, but such a street appears, for example, in the 1871 Census, and the name is also to be seen in trade directories of the time. It was part of Broad Street (which still exists) at its junction with Strawberry Road (also still in existence), though the old buildings have disappeared and the houses there are all fairly new.
7/Why are streets called “Brunswick”? Brunswick Terrace
Many streets in England from the late 1700s to the early 1800s have the element Brunswick. Such are: Brunswick Street, Brunswick Road, Brunswick Square, Brunswick Terrace, Brunswick Place, etc.
Examples of Brunswick Terrace
Examples of it are to be found in: Accrington, Bacup [Stacksteads], Bradford, Cheltenham, Devonport, Doncaster, Hove, Hull [Springbank], Leamington, Leeds, Liverpool [Kirkdale], London [Lambeth], Manchester [Pendleton], Norwich, Plymouth, Scarborough,. Stafford, Torquay, Tunbridge, Uxbridge, Wednesbury, and Weymouth. Also in Scotland: Edinburgh
“Terrace” was a common name for terraced streets (American: row-houses) built for workers in the 1800s, and such streets were usually poorly set out and of inferior construction. The examples of “Brunswick Terrace” above are probably all from an earlier period – pre-1800 – when a terrace was altogether grander, built in an elegant Georgian style, and for the well-off.
However, it seems that some streets may have been called after Wesleyan Methodist Chapels, many of them being known as “Brunswick Chapel”.
And it may be that Brunswick Terrace in Pendleton was built at the same time as the Wesleyan Chapel that was there, and that it took its name from the chapel.
It seems that in Bramley, Leeds, where the Brunswick Wesleyan Chapel was built in 1823, houses and chapels were constructed at the same time. Next to the chapel is Wesley Terrace – this would be an example of the chapel being the origin of surrounding street names.
Bramley terraces are for the lower classes, and are not the grand terraces of
8/ Why did the Wesleyans call their churches “Brunswick Chapel?”
Searching here and there on the Internet a number of “Brunswick Wesleyan Methodist Chapels” appear. In some cases the date of their founding is mentioned.
Brunswick Methodist Chapel, Colt Road, Limehouse, London (1819—1965)
1823 LEEDS Brunswick Wesleyan Chapel, Upper Town Street (Bramley)
Brunswick Chapel in Upper Berkley Street, London.
Brunswick Wesleyan Methodist chapel opened
In 1861 the foundations where laid for one of the largest churches in Oldham: Brunswick Wesleyan Methodist church which opened in 1862.
Other “Brunswick Wesleyan Methodist Chapels” are to be found in in Whitby, Bristol, Birkenhead, Liverpool, Stockton on Tees, Sutton by Macclesfield, Newcastle upon Tyne.
In the Welsh Wesleyan magazine Bathafarn (Journal of the Historical Society of the Methodist Church in Wales; Cyfrol / Volume 3; 1948) there is a paragraph that refers to this use of the name Brunswick.
Ond ynglŷn â'r mudiad i estyn y bleidlais, a symud ymlaen tua democratiaeth yn y wlad hon, yr oedd arweinwyr Wesleaeth yn gadarn yn ei erbyn o'r cychwyn. Pan fu farw John Wesley, yr oedd y Chwyldro yn Ffrainc newydd ddechrau, a'r Llywodraeth yn erlid pob symudiad amheus, ac yr oedd y Wesleaid yn bryderus iawn yn ceisio argyhoeddi y Llywodraeth fod yr enwad yn ffyddlon i‘r brenin, ac nid yn dilyn y bobl wyllt hynny yn Ffrainc. Dyna paham y mae gennych gymaint o Gapeli Brunswick yma a thraw o gwmpas y wlad, wedi eu henwi ar enw'r teulu brenhinol,Brunswick. (Wesleaeth a Chymdeithas Hyd at 1848.David Thomas, M.A. Bangor)
But as for the movement to extend the vote, and to move towards democracy in this country, leaders of Wesleyism were strongly against it from the start. When John Wesley died , the French Revolution [1789-99] had just started , and the government clamped down on every suspicious movement, and the Wesleyans were very worried trying to convince the government that the denomination was loyal to the king, and didn’t follow those wild people in France. That’s why you have so many Brunswick Chapels here and there around the country, called after the name of the royal family, Brunswick.
9/ Brunswick Terrace Wesleyan Church, Pendleton
This Pendleton chaoel is mentioned in a book entitled Manchester: its political, social and commercial history, ancient and modern. James Wheeler (of Prestwich) 1836, under the main heading of ”CHAPELS, &C., IN MANCHESTER AND SALFORD”, and the sub-heading of “Wesleyan Methodists”.
The list of Wesleyan chapels is as follows:
Where Situate. / Sittings.
Oldham-street / 1700
Great Bridgewater-street / 800
Oldham-road / 800
Gatrix’s Gardens / -
Ancoats / 1000
Oxford-road / 1000
Grosvenor-street, Oxford-road / 1100
Irwell-street, Salford / 1000
Gravel-lane, d[itt]o / 1200
Brunswick-terrace, Pendleton 600
Interestingly, there is a passage from the same book noting visits to Salford by John Wesley himself, in 1747, and thrity-five years later in 1782, and in Manchester yet again in 1783 and 1787, and on later occasions too. But this was some time before Brunswick Chapel was built (in 1814).
About the year 1746-7 Methodism had its origin here, when some young men “begun [sic] a society and took a room” near the Irwell river, on or near the present site of Bateman’s Buildings. Wesley had previously visited the town on several occasions. He had a friend in the Rev. J. Clayton, Chaplain and afterwards Fellow of the Collegiate Church, whom he first met in 1732, and induced to join a Methodist Society in Oxford, then having only about a dozen members. He was also intimate with Mr. John Byrom, of Kersal Hall. In 1733 he visited Manchester twice, and preached both at the Collegiate Church and at St. Ann’s. In 1735, on the occasion of a visit to consult his friends on a newly-formed project of going out a missionary to Georgia, he preached in Salford Chapel. Whitfield also visited the town about the same time. Methodists obtained several disciples in this county and Cheshire, but few persons joined the society in Manchester; its members were in bad odour with the populace, who suspected that they were emissaries of the Pretender (4) . Wesley himself was indecorously treated by the multitude: preaching at Salford Cross in 1747, he looked with great apprehension on the “unbroken spirits” around him, one o whom threatened to “bring ou the engine” and play it upon him. In April, 1782, we read of his again being in Manchester; in May, 1783, he preached in Oldham-street Chapel; in July 1787, he held his annual conference in Manchester, which 150 preachers attended. A local print states that “Mr. Wesley preached on Sunday last in the Meeting House, and waiving all religious opinions, it was truly pleasing to see a clergyman at the great age of eighty-five delivering a discourse without notes, clear and rational in itself, with the strength of voice of a man thirty years younger; and what is more extraordinary, he does not use glasses to assist his sight in reading. Though so far advanced in life, he still continues his course of travelling, and in all probability by the regularity which he has pursued so long his health and faculties may be preserved for a number of years.” He paid subsequent visits to Manchester and to neighbouring districts. In a sermon which he preached at Bradford in 1788, he predicted the world would end in 1836!
(4) Charles Edward Stuart, “Bonnie Prince Charlie”, (in Scottish Gaelic, Prionnsa Teàrlach Eideard Stìubhart, Prionnsa Teàrlach Bòidheach) the would-be Charles III of England, Scotland and Ireland, barred from becoming king because he was a Catholic
On the website “Churches - Lancashire OnLine Parish Clerk Project” There appears the note (referring to this same chapel in Brunswick Terrace): Brunswick Chapel, Broad Street, Pendleton, M6. Brunswick Chapel is located at OS Grid Reference - SJ 813993. Founded in 1814. Closed in 1977.
The Wesleyan chapel in Brunswick Terrace, Pendleton, Manchester was built in 1814.
the chapel built in a street already known by the name of Brunswick Terrace, in
honour of George III (king for sixty years from 1760-1820), and so took its
name from the street?
Or was the chapel a “Brunswick Wesleyan” chapel which conversely gave its name to the street?
If, as it appears, Brunswick, Missouri, takes its name from Brunswick Terrace in Pendleton, Manchester, it would seem to be for some connection with the Wesleyan Methodist chapel. Possibly the family had attended it after its inauguration, shortly before emigrating.
James Keyte is said to have been born in 1799, and to have emigrated to the USA sometime around 1814 (according to one source) and 1819 (according to another), and the chapel had been inaugurated in 1814. Inauguration and emigration dates coincide if there is a connection to be made.
Might this in fact have been the place of worship that James and his sister Sara, as adolescents, had attended after being converted to the Wesleyan faith through the preaching of Dr. Adam Clarke (1760 / 1762 – 1832)?
It seems fair to assume that Brunswick, Missouri, has a link to the now demolished Wesleyan chapel in the street called Brunswick Terrace, which no longer exists either, in Pendleton, Manchester.
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