0476e Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia - Extracts from a lecture given by Morus Glasln in 1892 on Welsh surnames, with an English translation. Daeth cyfenwau Normanaidd gyntaf i Gymru gyda Robert Fitzhamon a'i ddeuddeg marchog, y rhai y cawn eu bod wedi ymsefydlu ym Mro Morgannwg, adeg marwolaeth William yr Ail, yn y flwddn 1100...

 

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Erthgl Glasln ar gyfenwau Cymreig
Article by Glasln on Welsh Surnames


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Translation of an article in the Welsh-language magazine 'Y Geninen' from a century ago (so far only a couple of extracts)

The Welsh text is followed by an English translation

Observations on the Welsh text:

 1 Some spellings are no longer in use - after each example of archaic spelling we have placed the modern form in square brackets

 2 The letter 'y' is ambiguous. In some cases, it is to be pronounced as a schwa - that is, the vowel in the first syllable of English 'about', 'connect', etc. In others it is pronounced as an 'i' (as in English 'bit', mint', etc). (This is in South Wales; in the North it is an 'i' sound unlike the English sound and the South Wales pronunciation). For ease of reading the Welsh version we have used '' where the letter 'y' is to be pronounced like an 'i'. This is not in the original text; nor is it used in modern Welsh.

 3 Now and then there are commentaries also in square brackets in the text, or footnotes in square berackets, if what is said in the article needs to be explained further.

Darnau o'r erthgl CYFENWAU CYMREIG gan T.E Morris (Morus Glasln)

Extracts from the article WELSH SURNAMES by T.E Morris (Morus Glasln)

[bardic name, Morus from Glasln [a farm name = the blue lake]

(Papyr [papur] a ddarlledwd gerbron Cymdeithas Lenyddol y Tabernacl, King's Cross, Llundain, Mawrth 5ed, 1892)

(Paper read before the Tabernacle (Chapel) Literary Society, King's Cross, London, March 5th, 1892)

 

The article has the following five sections. At present we have only a couple of short extracts from sections 1 and 4

1 HANES CYFENWAU CYMREIG / = The History of Welsh Surnames

2 CYFENWAU CYMREIG YNG NGHYMRU / = Welsh Surnames in Wales

3 CYFENWAU CYMREIG YNG LLOEGR / = Welsh Surnames in England

4 CYFENWAU NORMANAIDD, &C., CYMRU / = Norman Surnames, etc: Wales

5 CYFENWAU BEIBLAIDD CYMRU / = Biblical Surnames in Wales

 

1 HANES CYFENWAU CYMREIG / The History of Welsh Surnames

Gofyna [gofynna] un o gymeriadau Shakespeare, "Beth sdd mewn enw?" ac er fod llawer o drafod ac ysgrifenu [ysgrifennu] wedi bod ar y pwnc er ei amser ef, credwn nad ydm hd yn hn wedi deall pwsigrwdd a phrioldeb enwau pan eu cysylltir phersonau. Gallwn ddwed [ddweud] am Gyfenwau Cymreig, hyn [hynn] w, am enwau teuluoedd Cymru, eu bod yn hynod o ddyddorol [ddiddorol]: ac er mai ychydig mewn cydmariaeth [cymhariaeth] i rif y boblogaeth w rhif ein cyfenwau, eto, y mae iddnt hanes a ddylasai fod yn adnabyddus i'r sawl sdd yn eu gwisgo: ac yn sicr i chwi, y mae eu hanes yn llawn mor ddyddorol [ddiddorol] ac addysgiadol a'r ['r] eiddo cyfenwau unrhw wlad....

TRANSLATION: One of Shakespeare's characters asks: "What's in a name?", and although there has been a lot of discussion and a lot has been written about the matter since his time, I don not believe that as yet we have understood the importance and the apropriateness of names when they are applied to people. We could say about Welsh surnames, that is to say, the family names of Wales, that they are remarakably interesting, and though they are but few in relation to the amount of population, they have a history that should be known to those who carry them. And I can assure you their history is just as interesting and instructive as the surnames of any country...

 _____________________________________

 Yr ydch yn gwbod am yr hanesn hwnw [hwnnw] am rw Sais yn teithio ar geffl dros un o fynyddoedd Cymru ar noson dywll. Wedi mn'd [mnd] ychydig yn mlaen [ymlaen] clywai lais rhwun yn llefain 'i holl egni am gynnorthw [gynhorthw]; a thybiai mai o waelod rhw bwll yn yml y ffordd y codai y llais. Aeth hd yno gan floeddio rhwbeth yn Saesneg; atebwd ef gydag acen gwir Gymreigaidd, 'Help, master, help." "Help! what, who are you?" meddai y teithiwr. "Jenkin-ap-Griffith-ap-Robin-ap-William-ap-Rhs-ap-Evan," oedd yr atebiad. [Siencn ap Gruffudd ap Rhobn ap Wiliam ap Rhs ab Ifan]. O'i gyfieithu i'r Gymraeg, meddai y Sais, gan ar yr un prd sparduno [sbarduno] ei farch - "Y creaduriaid diog, pa reswm sdd i haner [hanner] dwsin ohonoch orfeddian yn y pwll yma! y ffyliaid gwirion, helped y naill godi'r llall!"

TRANSLATION: You know of the story of an Englishman who was travelling on horseback on a dark night over one of the Welsh mountains. After travelling for a while he heard the voice of someone yelling as loud as he could for help, and it seemed to him that the voice was coming from the bottom of a pit at the side of the road. He went there shouting something in English; he was answered in a heavy Welsh accent, 'Help, master, help!' 'Help! What, who are you?' asks the traveller. "Jenkin-ap-Griffith-ap-Robin-ap-William-ap-Rhs-ap-Evan," came the answer. [Siencn ap Gruffudd ap Rhobn ap Wiliam ap Rhs ab Ifan - Siencn/Jenkin son of Gruffudd/Griffith son of Rhobn/Robin son of Wiliam/William son of Rhs son of Ifan/Evan]. The Englishman said (translating his words into Welsh), as he spurred on his horse at the same time, 'You lazy oafs, why on earth are half a dozen of you lying around in the pit! You daft idiots, why don't you help one another up?'

 

4 CYFENWAU NORMANAIDD, &C., CYMRU / Norman Surnames, etc: Wales

Daeth cyfenwau Normanaidd gyntaf i Gymru gyda Robert Fitzhamon a'i ddeuddeg marchog, y rhai y cawn eu bod wedi ymsefydlu ym Mro Morganwg [Morgannwg], adeg marwolaeth William yr Ail, yn y flwddn 1100...

TRANSLATION: Norman surnames first came to Wales with Robert Fitzhamon and his twelve knights who we find settled in the Lowlands of Morgannwg ('Vale of Glamorgan') at the time of the death of William the Second, in the year 1100

Yr ydm yn credu mai aralleiriad ydw yr hen ffurf Gymreig Hu am yr enw cynarach [cynharach] Normanaidd Hugh, a geir yn y "Domesday Book" fel Hugo. Nid oes nemawr sail, os oes dim, dros y dywediad a geir yn y llfr, a elwir "The Norman Pope" (1874), mai enw Cymraeg neu Geltaidd ydw Hugh... Ni cheir yr enw o gwbl yn y Mabinogion; a Normaniaid oedd yr holl bersonau o'r enw yna a grebwllir ym Mrut y Tywysogion. Darllenwn yn y Brut am farwolaeth "hu vras, Iarll kaer llion," yn 1100; a chyfeirir yn y llfr at 'Hu dy la Sai', 'Hu dy Roc, a 'Hu dy Sai'. Cawn hefd y ffurf ddiweddar o Hugh, er engraifft [enghraifft]

'Huw de Andelei'...

Ymdengs fod Huw Huws, neu y Bardd Coch o Fon [Fn], yr hwn a fu fw y ganrif ddiweddaf [ddiwethaf], yn sillebu ei enw fel hn.

TRANSLATION: We believe that the old Welsh form Hu is a variant of the earlier Norman name Hugh, which is found in the Domesday Book as Hugh [a book with the results of a survey of land carried out in 1086 by the commissioners of the Norman king William 1, twenty years after the Conquest of England]. There's little basis, if any at all, for the assertion in the book titled 'The Norman Pope' (1874) that Hugh is a Welsh or a Celtic name. The name is not to be found at all in the Mabinogion [collection of Welsh magic and supernatural tales based on old Celtic legends and mythologies]; and all the people who had the name who are mentioned in Brut y Tywysogion were Normans. ['The Chronicle of the Princes', a Welsh-language translation of a Latin text on six hundred years of Welsh history from the death of Cadwaladr Fendigaid in 682 to the death of Llyweln ap Gruffudd in 1282]. In the Chronicle we read of the death of "hu vras, Iarll kaer llion" = Hu Vras, Earl of Caerllion, in 1100; and there are references to 'Hu dy la Sai', 'Hu dy Roc, and 'Hu dy Sai'. We also find the late form Hugh, for example 'Huw de Andelei'. It seems that Huw Huws, or Bardd Coch o Fn ['The red-haired poet of Mn', the poet's bardic name], who lived in the last century, spelt his name like this [H-U-W instead of H-U-G-H]]

Bu ychydig ysgrifenu [ysgrifennu] ar y cyfenw yma yn y Notes and Queries, flynyddau yn l: a dywedai Mr Gildersome-Dickenson (7fed gyfres, cyf. xi, tud. 334) fod Hughes yn gyfenw beth bynnag mor foreu [fore] 1450-1; a thystiolaetha Mr. Higgins, o Maidenhead, fod y dull Cymreig o gyfenwi y mab yn ol [l] enw y tad mewn bri yn Swdd Amwthig yn foreu [fore] iawn; oherwdd gelwir mab un Hugh Higgons yn John Hughes yn y Visitation of Salop a ysgrifenwd yn 1623. Dywed un ysgrifendd [ysgrifenndd] "na ddefnyddid Hughes fel cyfenw yn [yng] Nghymru cn 1550; a phur anaml y deuir ar draws yr enw beddd Hugh cn yr adeg yma. Y prd hn cawn saith o deuluoedd o'r enw Hughes yn codi, un o dylwth Caradog Freichfras, dau o dylwth Elystan, un o dylwth Cowrd ap Cadfan, un o dylwth Owain Brogyntn, a dau o dylwth Tudor Trefor. Bu farw Hugh ap William, sylfaendd teulu yr Hughesiaid o Gwerclas, yn 1600. Yr oedd Rhs Hughes - yr Hughes cyntaf o Faes y Pand [Faesypand], yn uchel sirdd yn y flwddn 1582:" Nid oes un amheuaeth nad oedd Hugh yn enw beddd cyffredin yn ein gwlad yn yr unfed ganrif ar bymtheg; ac yn ol [l] pob tebg yr oedd yr enw yn un adnabyddus yn [yng] Nghymru yn ystod y tair neu y pedair canrif cn hyn [hynn]. Yr oedd Hugh Lupus, yr hwn a grewd yn Iarll Caer, yn 1070, yn enw adnabyddus yn [yng] Ngwnedd; a bu iarll arall ar ei ol [l], sef Hugh Cyfeiliog (1153-1180) o'r un enw....

TRANSLATION: There was a little bit written in [the magazine] Notes and Queries many years ago; and Mr Gildersome-Dickenson (7th series, vol. xi, p. 334) that Hughes was a surname in any case that went back as early as 1450-1; and Mr. Higgins, of Maidenhead, reports that the Welsh practice of naming the son after the father was in use in Shropshire [an English county bordering mid-Wales, parts of which had a Welsh-speaking population in medieval times] very early on; because one the son of Hugh Higgons was called John Hughes in the Visitation of Salop written in 1623. One writer states that 'Hughes was not used as a surname in Wales before 1550; and one very rarely comes across the first name Hugh before this period. At this time we find the emergence of seven families with the surname Hughes, one from the family of Caradog Freichfras [Caradog Big Arm], two from the family of Elystan, one from the family of Cowrd ap Cadfan, one from the family of Owain Brogyntn, and two from the family of Tudor Trefor. Hugh ap William, the founder of the Hughes family of Gwerclas, died in 1600. Rhs Hughes - the first Hughes from Maesypand, was High Sheriff in the year 1582:" There's no doubt that Hugh was a common first name in our land in the sixteenth century; and very likely the name was known in Wales in the three or four centuries before this. Hugh Lupus, who was made Earl of Chester in 1070, was a name known in Gwnedd [a kingdom in the north-west of Wales ; and an later earl had the same name - Hugh Cyfeiliog (1153-1180), Huw from the district of Cyfeiliog]...

  

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