0926e Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia. Some features of the Gwentian dialect of Wales (south-east Wales). One of the striking characteristics is the devoicing of b,d,g at the beginning of a final syllable - cadair (= chair) > catar, digon (= enough) > dicon, etc.

http://www.theuniversityofjoandeserrallonga.com/kimro/amryw/1_gwenhwyseg/gwenhwyseg_nodweddion_y_wenhwyseg_0926e.htm

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Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Gal
les i Catalunya

Y Wenwhyseg (tafodiaith y de-ddwyrain)
Gwentian (the dialect of the south-east)


Features of the Gwentian dialect

Dim ond tudalen Saesneg sydd gennym ar hn o brd
Tan sols en angls ara per ara

Adolygiad diweddaraf - latest update 27 10 2000



Some features of the Gwentian dialect compared to standard Welsh. Many can be regarded as further developments of features found in south-western Welsh.

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01) Long a [aa] becomes [] (similar to the standard English of England fair, hare, wear)

In dialect writings, as there is no symbol for this, it is written , as it resemble a long e.

Also written as ash (that is, the digraph , that is, a and e combined)

In this website we prefer the spelling

when it replaces [aa] spelt as single a in standard Welsh (tad, bach),

when it replaces [aa] spelt as (tn, gln)

when it replaces aa, southern form of ae [ai] in monosyllables (traad < traed, maas < maes)

 

Standard Welsh

Translation

Gwentian

bach

small, little

bch

tn

fire

tn

traed

feet

trd

gln

clean, pure, holy

gln

i maes

outside (motion to, position)

ms

tad

father

td

cae

field

c

llaeth

milk

llth

gwaed

blood

gwd

 

PLACE NAMES:

Aber-dare

(confluence of the Dr stream and the Cynon river)

Aber-dr

(the English form of the name - Aberdare - preserves the local pronunciation)

Tre-gaer

(a village in the county of Mynwy (Monmouth))

Tre-gr

(the English form of the name - Tregare - preserves the local pronunciation)

Nyth-brn (nyth y brn - [the] nest [of] the crow). Farm in Llanwynno parish.

Nyth-brn


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02) in a penult syllable, reduction of [ui] > w  [u].
wbod [GUI-bod] = know, gwbod [GU-bod]
cwmpo [KUIM-po] = fall, cwmpo [KUM-po]

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03) reduction of intial consonant cluster chw [khw] > hw  [hw] (South-west) > w  [w] (South-east)
chwech [khweekh] = sis > (South-west) hwech [hweekh] > (South-east) wech [weekh] 
chwarae
[KHWA-rai] = to play > (South-west) hware [HWA-re] > (South-east) wara [WA-ra] 

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04) reduction of the cluster dl > ddl > l

(final position)

anadl [A-nadl] = breath, > anaddl > anal [A-nal]
banadl [BA-nadl] = broom bushes > banaddl > banal [BA-nal]

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05) Simplification of aea [ei + a]  

aea [ei + a]  > ae [aai]  > a [a]
haearn [HEI-arn] = iron > haern > harn [harn], or more usually arn [arn] (with the loss of the h)  

aea [ei + a]  > ae [aai]  > aa [aa] > []
daear [DEI-ar] = foxs earth > daer > daar [daar] > dr [dr]
traean [TREI-an] = third > traen > traan [traan] > trn [trn] (in place names in Tonyrefail)

related changes:
gaeaf [GEI-av] = winter > gaef, in the place name Gaefd [GEIV-di] winter house
cynhaeaf [k-NHEI-av] = autumn; Cynheidre = autumn farm, Lalnelli, Sir Gaernarfon
maerd > mardi
= various place names in the south-east
Llanilltud Faerdre > Llanilltud Fardre

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06) many disyllabic forms lose the first syllable (a feature common to all dialects of Welsh)
yma [-ma] = here > ma [ma]

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07) loss of an initial vowel (especially initial y-) or an initial syllable (a feature common to all dialects of Welsh)
ymenn [-ME-nin] = mantega > menn [ME-nin]
afalau
[a-VA-lai] = pomes > (South-west) fale [VA-le] > (South-east) fala [VA-la]

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08) reduction of the diphtnong in the accented syllable ei [i] > i [ii]
gweithio [GWITH-yo] = treballar > gwiitho [GWII-tho]

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09) in monosyllables, reduction of oe [i] > oo [oo] 
coed [kid] = wood > cood [kood]. "

PLACE NAMES:

Pen-coed

< pen y coed ((the) end / side (of) the wood)

A village by Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr.

Pen-cood

Nant-y-moel

((the) valley (of) the bald man / the tonsured man / the monk)

A village by Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr.

Nant-y-mool

 

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10) metathesis, or transposition of sounds - in some words, this is common to the whole of Wales; in others, restricted to the south-east, such as - l-dd > dd-l)
cywildd [k-WI-lidh] = shame > cwildd [KWI-lidh] > cwiddl [KWI-dhil] 
gildd
[GI-lidh] = companion > giddl [GI-dhil]  (in the expression i gildd / i giddl - each other)
PLACE NAME: Llanhiledd [lhan-HI-ledh]> Llanhiddel [lhan-HI-dhel]

casglu [KA-skli] = collect > clasgu [KLA-ski] 

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11) in monosyllables in the South-west and South-east, retention of the diphthong ou [oi] from Middle Welsh, which in other parts of Wales has become eu [ei] > au [ai] 
clou [kloi] = quick > (Standard Welsh) clau [klai]
dou
[doi] = twos > (Standard Welsh) dau [dai]

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12) In monosyllables, aa [aa] > [long open e, rather as in English face] 
haf [haav] = summer, f [v]

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13) Also in monosyllables, which in the south are reductions of ae [i] > aa [aa]  > [] 
i maes [i MIS] = outside, maas [maas] (South-west) > ms [ms]

 

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14) loss of intial h [h] 
hen [heen] = old, en [een]
chwech
[khweekh] = six > (South-west) hwech [hweekh] > (South-east) wech [weekh] 
Typical of the English of this part of Wales - on the ill, in the
Igh Street

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15) Unvoicing of the initial consonant of a final syllable if it is g, d, b
g
[g] > c [k],
d
[d] > t [t],  
b [b] > p [p]


eglws [E-gluis] = church > (South-west) eglws [E-glus] > (South-east) eclws [E-klus]
cadair
[KA-dair] = chair > (South-west) cader [KA-der] > (South-east) catar [KA-tar]

 

PLACE NAMES:

b > p

Llanfable

a village in the parish of Llan-arth Fawr, Sir Fynw

This would have been *Llanfapla

(as suggested by the English form of the name - Llanvapley)

Final e would have become a (Llanfaple > Llanfapla)

t > d

Llangadog (as in the Sir Gaerfyrddin village name). the church of Cadog

Llangatwg - name of five villages in the south-east,

 

 

 

Final o has become w [u]

b > p

Yr Aber - the local name of Abertyleri

Yr Rapar > Rapar

Final e has become a

 

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16) Any final e [e] > e [a]. (this happens too in the North-west)
mesen [ME-sen] = acorn, mesan [ME-san]

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17) (South-west Wales) In polysyllables, in the final syllable, ae [aai] , ai [ai] , au [ai] > e [e]. In the south-east there is a further change of e > a


chwarae [KHWA-rai] = play, hware [HWA-ra] > hwara [HWA-ra]
cadair
[KA-dair] = chair, cader [KA-der] - in the South-east > catar [KA-tar]
pedair
[PE-dair] = four (feminine form), peder [PE-der] - in the South-east > petar [PE-tar]
pethau
[PE-thai] = thing, pethe [PE-the] > (South-east) petha [PE-tha]
parthau [PAR-thai] = places, area > partha [PAR-tha]

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19) loss of the final f [v] in polysyllables (a feature common to all dialects of Welsh)
cyntaf [KN-tav] = first > cynta [KN-tav]

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20) loss of final r [r] or final l [l] in polysyllables after a consonant (t, b, g) (a feature common to all dialects of Welsh)
ffenestr [FEN-nestr] = window > (South-west) ffenest [fe-nest] > (South-east) ffenast [fe-nast]
posibl [PO-sibl] = possible > posib [PO-sib]

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21) in a pretonic suyllable, loss of a vowel between some combinations of consonants, espellay the loss of y [] (a feature common to all dialects of Welsh)
cywildd [k-WI-lidh] = shame > cwildd [kwi-lidh]
Caradog
[ka-RA-dog] = (mans name; surname) > Cradog [KRA-dog]

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22) palatalisation; s [s] > sh [sh] before and after the vowel i
eistedd [I-stedh] = sit down > ishte [I-shte] (South-west) > ishta (South-east)
llais
[lhais] = voice > llaish [lhaish]
mis
[miis] = month > mish [miish]
Lleision formerly [LHIS-yon] = mans name > Lleishon / Lliishon [LHII-shon] (Leyshon is the Englished form)

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23) loss of consonantal i at the beginning of a final syllable, especially noticeable in the plural -iau [ye], and the verbal ternmination -io [yo]

Typical of all southern Welsh

bryniau [BRN-ye] > brynne [BR-ne] (South-west) > brynna [BR-na] (South-east)
As in the village name (Y) Brynna
stopio [STOP-yo] = parar > stopo [STO-po]
Einion [EIN-yon] > Einon [EI-non] (mans name)

This is probably also the reason for English Brecknock for the county of Brycheiniog, via Brycheinog

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24) in a final syllable, reduction of [ui] > w  [u].
ofnadw [ov-NA-dui] = terrible, > (South-west) ofnadw [ov-NA-du] > (South-east) ofnatw [ov-NA-tu]
Ebw > Ebw [E-bu] (river name)
Mynw > Mynw [M-nu] (river name, origin of the English form Monnow)


(as yet incomplete; to be continued)

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