kimkat0352k Observations On The Welsh Nouns, Adjectives, And Adverbs. Max Nettlau, Ph.D. (Fiena, Ymerodraeth Awstria 1865 - Amsterdam, Yr Iseldiroedd 1944)


● kimkat0001 Yr Hafan

● ● kimkat2001k Y Fynedfa Gymraeg
● ● ● kimkat2194ke Cyfeirddalen yr Adran Ramadeg

● ● ● ● kimkat2194k Y Gyfeirddalen i Ysgrifa Max Nettlau

● ● ● ● ● kimkat0352k Y tudalen hwn



(delwedd 0003)






Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Gal
les i Catalunya
The Wales-Catalonia Website



VOL. IX. 1888. Pp. 259-304.

Y Llyfr Ymwelwyr / El Llibre de Visitants / The Guestbook:

a-7000_kimkat1356kBeth syn newydd yn y wefan hon?


(delwedd 4665)


VOL. IX. 1888.

Wedi eu cywiro
Heb eu cywiro

259:: 260:: 261:: 262:: 263:: 264:: 265:: 266:: 267:: 268:: 269::

270:: 271:: 272:: 273:: 274:: 275:: 276:: 277:: 278:: 279:: 280::

281:: 282:: 283:: 284:: 285:: 286:: 287:: 288:: 289:: 290:: 291:: 292::

293:: 294:: 295:: 296:: 297:: 298:: 299:: 300:: 301:: 302:: 303:: 304


2/ Index to Abbreviations in the Above Article.

Egerton Phillimore.

Y Cymmrodor. Cyfrol IX. 1888.

Tudalennau 287-259




wedd 1410) (tudalen 259)

259 OBSERVATIONS ON THE WELSH NOUNS, ADJECTIVES, AND ADVERBS. By MAX NETTLATJ, Ph.D. [1.] The study of Brythonic declension made very slow progress until it was discovered that certain plural termina- tions are in reality the suffixes of collective nouns, and that j under certain conditions of accent is liable to become d, as in Greek (Rev. Cclt., ii, pp. 115 et seq.). Up to that time its results had been nearly limited to some very obvious identifications of plural endings, and the recognition of a few oblique cases in adverbial formula?. Even since then the phenomena of Brythonic declension have seldom been regarded from any other point of view than the possibility of their throwing some light on the more carefully studied grammar of Irish. It is true that the materials afforded by existing dictionaries and grammars are quite insuffcient for a history of any of the plural terminations, and that each individual word nmst in consequence be followed through the older stages of Welsh, Cornish, and Breton before any opinion can be formed upon it. Analogy was at work at a very early period, and in many later; and in a large number of cases has given the same word several plural forms, creating a difficulty which has been further enhanced by the position which different lexicogra- phers have taken up with regard to these matters. The stems of a number of nouns have been ascertained with tolerable certainty, but nothing final can be undertahen without the publication of trustworthy editions of a much larger quantity of Middle-Welsh texts than is available at present, and the



lwedd 1411) (tudalen 260)

260 OBSERVATIONS ON THE WELSH NOUNS, preparation of a dictionary of the moclern language which shall comprise the dialectal forms. I shall confine myself here to drawing attention to some little-noticed facts which may be at least stated, though at present not always explained. [2.] Lewis Morris, in a letter of 1762 (YCymmr., ii, p. 157), says in his quaint way, " If South Wales men had wrote grammar, we should have proper plural terminations instead of -au, etc, etc, and abundauces of liceuces of the like kind." The first two editions of Owen Pughe's Dict. are criticised in Y Brython, i, pp. 19-20, and also by the editor of the third edition (Pref., p. xi), on the score of his too frequent use of -on ancl -ion instead of -au, even where -au is in general use. He had a preclilection for the apparently more archaic -ion in place of the common -au. By this, as by similar fancies, his work is deprived of much of its valuc. Cf., e.g., L. Giv. Rh.: oc eu gweieu, p. 104; o dyrnodeu, a bonclusteu, a chwympeu, a gweioed, a chellweir, p. 109. Y Drych Chr.: archolhieu, archolhiou, f. 27&. Davies, Dict.: archoll, pl. erchyll; on which L. Morris (Add. MS. 14,944, f. 26a) remarhs: "The coinmon plural is archollion." The word is not used in Glamorganshire, where they employ clwyf. Sp., Dict. 3: nant, nentydd, nannau; L. Morris: neint, nentydd (Add. MS. 14,909, f. 50). E. Lhuyd: asen, eisen plur.: N. W. asenna?, S. W. ais (Arcli. Brit., s. v. ' Costa' 1 ); but asan, 'sena, are the Neath forms too. Rowland: llythyr; N. W. -au, S. W. -on (Gratnm. 4 , p.29); etc. [3.] Monosyllables like march form their plural by the so- called internal i, as meirch. This kind of formation was also used in words of more than one syllable, as in aradr, plur. ereidir (B. of Carm., No. ix 2 ). In these words it was sup- planted at a later period by the apparent change of a into y, as in erydr. Davies, in his Gramm. (pp. 36-38), gives: erydr, old ereidr; old peleidr, rheeidr; becbgyn as the plural of bachgen [Glam. bachcan, bechcyn]; llenncirch (ToloG.)and llennyrch of llannerch; ieirch (Iolo G.) and ' P. 52, col. 1. i Shene, vol. ii, p. 11; MS., f. 17.



lwedd 1412) (tudalen 261)

ADJECTIYES, AND ADVERBS. 261 iyrchod of iwrch [cf. lewot a iyrch, Ll. Gw. Rh,, p. 74, cf. p. 76; ierch, p. 143, froni ieirch]; ceraint, also cerynt, of carant; Id., Dict.: cleifr of dwfr; emyth and emeith of amaeth; heiyrn and heieirn of haiarn (cf. Sp., Gramm. 3 , 28; in Glamorgan dwr, dyfrdd). Here we see the old groups a, plur. ei, a a, plur. e ei, and a c, plur. e y, as well as o,w, plnr.?/(mollt myllt, llwdn trillydn, canllydn, Davies, Gramm,, p. 35), completely mixed up. The general tendency seems to he to extend y over the dissyllables that contain a a, except some like dafad, carant; while the opposite extension of ei over both mono- and dis- syllables containing a e, o, w is much more limited and pro- bably does not now obtain. There are some plural formations existing of words that do not evidently differ in structure from all other regular words, which remain unexplained, and prevent our coming to a really fair view of the neo-for- mations just quoted I mean the North-Welsh plurals, ifinc, llygid, bychin of ifanc, llygad, bychan. Ab Ithel (Dosp. Ed,, 1571) gives llygid from Denbigh, Flint, and Meri- oneth (also bysidd for bysedd, from Denbigh and Flint). I collected in Bcitr., 92, other North-Welsh instances of i for ei, and in Y Cymmr., ix, pp. 67-8, I considered North- Welsh collis, ceris for colleis, cereis from the same standpoint. I have since heard thatthe same forms are used in Glamorgan; cf. ifanc, plur. ifinc (jenctyd, jangach, janga); llycacl, pl. llycid; bychan, pl. bychin; bys, pl. bysidd (but e.g., gwracacld); also merchid; pryfetyn, plur. pryfid; arath, plur. erith (erill). In the CambrianJournal,Y,\>\). 208-9, 1 find the plurals offeirid, merchid, bychin, gwinid ( = gweiniaid),from GwentandMor- ganwg. In the same way rhois is used both there and in North Wales, the regular alteration of Mid.-W. -ci in final syllables in Gwent andMorganwgbeinginto a, just asfinal e becomes a. In fact, ei first became e,as in the Dimetian and Powysian dialects, and later all e's were made into a. I have found also rhois, and



lwedd 1413) (tudalen 262)

262 OBSERVATIONS ON THE WELSH NOUNS, this form only, in mucli older texts than those given in Y Gyminr., I. c, and therefore I consider collis, ceris, etc, as imita- tions of the very old and unexplained type rhois. The plurals with i are also as yet unexplained. I should add that merchid, prylid cannot be compared to bysidd on thescore of a change of e into i, though the literary forms are merched, pryfed. They are identical in formation with offeirid and ifinc, for amongst others William Morris (Add. MS. 14,947, f. 39) gives merchaid, pryfaid from Anglesey, where these forms are still in use. Cf. also Hanesion o'r Hen Oesoedd, 1762: mercheid, pp. 28, 90, etc.; merchad, p. 72 (Carnarvonshire); P. C, No. 28: merchaid (Anglesey); Yr Arw.: merchaid, Feb. 12, 1857; Jan. 23, 1859, etc. Davies, Gramm., p. 37, gives from the works of the old poets e i, as well as the common e y, as a plural form from the singular a e, this being proved by rhymes; e.g., cessig, cerrig, menig; tefill, pedill; llewis, etc. The explanation of these ibrms may be connected with that of the plurals given above. [4.] Daint, daigr, saint, plurals of dant, dagr, sant, are used in N.-W. dialects as singulars. Salesbury, 1567 (Ellis, Early Engl. Pron., p. 747), remarlcs that for epestyl, caith, daint, maip, saint, tait, in his time apostolion, apostolieit, caethion, dannedd or dannedde, maibion, santie or seinie were beeinning to be used, and that in N. W. daint, taid (fathcr, not taid, teidion, grandfathcr), were used as singulars. Davies, Did., has "dant, pl. daint, quae vox apud Yenedotas pro sing. passim usurpatur." L. Morris (Add. MS. 14,909, f. 756) gives N.-W. saint for sant; D. S. Evans, Ltyth., s. r., a sing. and plur. deigr. [f only deigr and daint had been preserved, we might be inclined to consider them as old collective nouns; lmt saint cannot be such, and so the most probable explanation a' them is that they arose at the time wlien the plural character <>f tho older plurals, f'ormed by what we now seo in



lwedd 1414) (tudalen 263)

APJF.CTIYF.s. AND A.DVERBS. 203 its result as an internal change, mab *meib, dagr *deigr, was accentuated by the addition of the constantly extending -au or -on, -iau or -ion, so as to yield meib-ion, *deigr-au, after the analogy of dagr, dagrau. We may suppose that at this time deigr. etc, were erroneously abstracted as singulars from these new plurals, and came into general use in this capacity in certain parts, in this particular case in North Wales. [5.] The plural termination -oedd is commonly assigned to the stems in i, but it has not been successfnlly explained. It would be the outcome of an older *-jes, which may have been the result of analogical operations similar to those which produced the Greek forms like *7ro\r)je<;. We must not consider this as the only ending of the i-stems, for -ydd from *-ijes, and -edd from *-ejes, are also early endings of t-stems, coinciding in sound with the results of thejo-stems, and with collectives in *-ej. As -i and -ydd are phoneti- cally equivalent, and outcomes of the same older j- forms with differing accent, we may assume i also as a termination of the t-stems, either original or due to analogy; and we need not wonder at the analogical extension of these endings of the -stems, considering how they partly coincide with the jo- stems and the collective nouns, and also how far -au, the ending of the much rarer w-stems, and -on, that of the i-stems, were extended. This view of the i-stems is corroborated by a number of words which form different plurals, in -oedd, -ydd, -edd, and -i. Cf. trefi, trefydd, sometimes trefoedd, L. Morris. Add. MS. 14,934, f. 16. Dinas, gwlad, ynys, tir, caer, myiiydd. Add. MS. 19,709: mynyded, f. 57; y kestyll ar kaeroed ar dinassoed, f. 39a; keyryd, f. 396. Ll. Gw. Rh.: dinassoed, dinessyd, p. 22; dinessyd ar keiryd, p. 74; y dinassoedd ae geiryd, p. 74; dinessed, p. 281; keyrod, p. 24, kayroed, p. 33; ceiryd, pp. 45, 48; ceuryd, p. 54; ceyryd. p. 21; gwledi. p. 187; lluoed, p. 22; lluyd, p. 21.



lwedd 1415) (tudalen 264)

264 OBSERYATIONS ON TIIE WELSH NOUNS, Sal., N. T.: dyfroedd, dyfredd, f. 382?;; mynyddedd, f. 3806 j mynyddey, f. 380i; b\vystviledd, etc.; gweithrededd, f. 157b Add. MS. 14,986, f. 37/,: tyredd. Ynys, llys, tir, llawer. -oedd, poet. -edd, Davies, Gramm., p. 30. The Middle-Welsh examples could be greatly multiplied. In most of these words -oedd predominates, more rarely -ydd. -oedd is pronounced -oedd or -dd; c.g., S.-W. gwithredodd, Add. MS. 14,973, f. 102; N.-W. cantodd, mylldyrodd, Yr Arw., May 28, 1857; byth, bythodd, etc. It may be men- tioned that -ioedd, which is not given by Zeuss, also oecurs, although cominonly only in milioedd. Cf. llawer o villtiryoed, B. ofHerg., col. 1112; eithauioed freinh, MS. Cl. B 5, f. 19 (also ff. 61&, 62); eithaueoed, f. 97; tiryoed, L. Gw. Bh., p. 165; iethioedd, Sal., N. T, Giccl. L, f. 3846; brenhinioedd, Add. MS. 14,916, ff. 36, 366; several instances in the Gwentian Add. MS. 14,921; Hanesion or Hcn Oesocdd: ieith- ioedd, p. 59 (twice; ieithia, ib., in rhyme); etc. [6.] In N.-W. dialects -oedd has been partially ousted by an apparent ending -fŷdd, the plural of -fa, from *magos, con- tracted from *-fe-ydd, according to the law which obtains in gwŷdd, for gweydd, ' weaver', and Llŷn for Lleyn, which has lost a *g between the two vowels. Torfŷdd, porfŷdd occur in Anglesey and Carnarvonshire, and in imitation of themllefŷddfor lleoedd. See Caledfryn's Gramm. 2 , p. 59; and cf. rhai llefydd yn y Merica, S. C, i, p. 372 (Merioneth); llefudd, Yr Arw., Feb. 2, 1859; Sweet, p. 429, etc. It is not clear to me why E. Lhuyd, in At y Cymry, Arch. Brit., says: "amryu levy5 jy Ildnry", p. *1, as he otherwise uses S.-W. (Dimetian) forms. On deuwedd see my Beitr., 80, n. 33. [7.] The early consonant-plural *chwior took later the col- lective endings -ydd and -edd. Cf. dw chwored, MS. Tit. D 2, f. 177; chwiored, 7r,p. 100; chwiorydd and -edd, Add. MS. 31,059, f. b; in Neath, whr, whiorydd (ib gwrac-add, modrypodd, commonly " N.-W. mod- rabedd", Richards' Dic.). Chwaer represents *svesr-, if caer represents *-casr-: or else *chwaear (cf. gwaeanwyn) became



lwedd 1416) (tudalen 265)

ADJECTIVES, AND ADVERBS. 265 in its older form chwaer. Chwa-er from *sve(s)er- is a third possibility. Chwaer had its old *ves treated like gwaeanwyn, O.-W. guiannuin, containing *vesant-. Though guiannuin 1 (in Merioneth gwinwyn, Ehŷs 2 ) and chwiorydd exist, we have gwaeanwyn and chwaer, containing *wa, *va, from *vo for *ve; but it is not clear for what reason the syllable *ves became either *vi(s) or *vo(s), wa(s), although it is true the next syllable contains different vowels in both cases; chwaer from *svo(s)er, *sve(s)er, chwior- from *svi(s)or-, *sve(s)or-. Chwi- orydd as an isolated form was altered by analogy; cf. chwae- ored, MS. C. B 5, f. 249, col. 2 (Dares Phrygius); brodur a chwayorydd, Add. MS. 14,987, f. 356 {Araith y Trwstan). In The Bed Dragon, ii, p. 420, chwaeriorydd is men- tioned. This form is actually printed in Llyfr Achau (Her. Vis., ii, p. 12) as chwaerorydd. Pughe gives chweirydd, pro- bably to be considered like meusydd, pl. of maes. [8.] The ending -awr, later -or, is almost completely lost in later Welsh; it is frequent with certain nouns, as llafn, byddin, ysgwydd, gwaew, etc, in the older poems, those printed by Skene and in the Myv. Arch., but it harclly ever occurs in Middle W. prose texts (cf., however, yr ieuawr, Ll. Gho. fih.,]). 7). From O.-W. cf. poulloraur (*pugillr- + -r-), M. Gap? In Breton this ending is still common as -er, -ier; cf. er mneier in aTrc. poem, Rev. de Bret., lst ser., v, p. 408 (mene'io, 4, p. 170), etc, in W. mynyddoedd. The Welsh ending is mentioned in Dosp. Ed., 489, omitted by Zeuss, but exemplified in E. Evans' Stucl. n Cymr. Phil., 12. 4 On its Irish equivalents opinions have been advanced in Thrce Micl.-Ir. Hom., p. 135, and Togail Troi (LL.), Introcl. It is possible that -or has survived in certain plurals for which a new singular was made by means of -yn or -en in 1 Ovid Glosses, 40&; Stokts, Cambrica, p. 236. 2 Lcct. 2 , p. 27. 3 Capella Glosses, No. 28 (rch. Carrib., 4th Ser., iv, p. 7). * lb., p. 141. VOL. IX. T



lwedd 1417) (tudalen 266)

266 OBSERVATIONS ON THE WELSH NOUNS, marwor, marwar, marfor, ' embers', for instauce but as a distinct plural terminatiou it occurs in later Welsh ouly in gwaew, gwaewawr, whence *gwaewor, gwaewar, like gwat- wor, gwatwar, niarwar, chwaer, etc, Cf. gayawar (sic), B. of Ta., xliv (Sk., ii, 199); gwaywar, Ll. Gw. Rh., pp. 59, 67, 69; gaewar, B. of Uerg., cols. 698 (R. B. Mab., p. 82), 1093, etc. Even here it is replaced by -yr; cf. gostng gaewyr, B. of Herg., col. 1093; y gweiwyr, Wms., Hgt. MSS., ii, p. 304; gwewyr, Y S. Gr., p. 230 (gwaywyr et vulgo gwewyr, Davies, Dict.). This -yr can only be the ending -yr (-r) of brodyr, pl. of brawd, analogically transferred. Besides brodyr, broder less ofteu occurs, rhyming with full syllables in -er (passives, etc.) in poets, as in L. Glyn Cothi, pp. 42-3 (see p. 269, infra), etc. [9.] Tai and lloi are older S.-W. plurals, commonly used in S. W., but replaced by teiau, lloiau in N. W. Cf. Hughes, 1823, p. 29; Y Traeth., iii, p. 9; D. S. Evans, Llyth.ỳs. w.;etc. Ll. Gw. Rh., pp. 94, 97, 110: Dagr-eu-oed; Add. MS. 19,709, f. 58&, etc.: blod-eu-oed, llys-eu-oed. Llysieuoedd, Cl. B 5, f. 102&. These forms should be compared with Breton ones like bot-o-ier, bot-o-io, Ernault, De l'urgmce, etc, p. 14; the additional plural-ending seems to convey a more collective sense. Cf. also or dyededigyon llysseue hynny, Add. MS. 14,912, f. lla; o oll dyededigyon llyssyoedd hynny, f. 79 (y for eu, S.-W.); llysewn, Uisiav, Add. MS. 15,049 (17th cent.), ff. Aa, 20a; llissewyn, B. of Herg., col. 436. In Neath, llysewyn, pl. llysa (il>., blotyn, pl. blota). On eu: ew, cf. gneuthur creu yr moch, B. of Herg., col. 754; y creu, col. 766 (R. B. Mab., p. 63, 1. 3; 78, 11. 8, 11, 16): crewyn; gieu: giewyn; ceneu: cenawon, etc. On the words meaning ' day' see Rhŷs, Hibb. Lect., pp. 116-118. Cf. die6-ed, Add. MSS. 19,709, f. 2hb 22,356, f. V2a; diewoed, Cl. B 5, f. 235/;, col. 1; die-oed, f. 2Ub, col. 2; dieuoeddin Davies' Dict.; ew: eu, as in the words above given. A plural ending is also often incorporated in singulatives formed from English loan-words; cf. sklait-s, sing. sklait-s-au ('slate'), tatws, sing. tsan, etc, Sweet, p. 437. On Breton analogies see Rev. Celt, vi, pp. 388-9.



lwedd 1418) (tudalen 267)

ADJECTIVES, AND ADVERBS. 267 It must not be assumed tliat the suffixes -en and -an are of the same phorjetic value in all words which exhibit them in the present state of the language. In a few such words -aen is the older form of the suffx, as is confrmed by other Brythonic languages. So agalen, ogalen: agalayn, ' cos', MS. Vesp. E 11 of the Latin Laws (Owen, p. 851). Cf. 0.- Corn. ocoluin, gl. ' cos' (Stokes, Gambr., p. 241); llamhystaen ( = llymysten); see Zeuss, C C 2 ,p. 291. Cf. also croessaeniait, MS. L, p. 182 ( = croesan, -iaid); maharaen, MS. A, p. 135, pl. meheryn, p. 160; maharen, MS. K, pl. meherein, MSS. C, D, B, E; in the Latin Laws: maharayn, Hgt. MS., p. 791; maharain, Harl. MS., p. 862; maharaen, MSS. Calig. A 13, f. 183&, Tit. D 2, f. 536. Cf. O.-W. maharuin {bis), B. of St. Cliacl, pp. 18, 19. 1 (Lib. Lancl., pp. 272-3, nos. [3] and [4].) This reduction of the fnal unstressed syllable may be com- pared to that in gallel: gallael, cafel: cafael, gadel: gadael, etc, but the details of the process are not all clear. Is maharuin an error for *maharain, or perhaps (cf. ocoluin) the representa- tive of a later *maharwyn, like mollwyn, -od (which might be an imitation of it), gwanwyn, etc.? In other words have we again -an and -ain? Cf. rhiain and rhian, adain and adan (also aden), celain and celan, all fem., and all forming plurals in -edd and -ydd. These are stems in - in which both the 1 Myharan, myheryn, 'wether, ram,' Sp., Dict. 3 L. Morris, Add. MS. 14,923, f. 134, says: S.-W. cig maharen = N.-W. cig mollt (Bret. maout, Ir. molt). Richards, Dlct.: " maharen, in N. W. and in some parts of S. W. as Glam., a ram; in Powis and in the greatest part of S. W., . . . a weather"; Arch. Brit.: Dimet., Powis., 'vervex'; Vene- dot., ' aries', p. 285, col. 2, s. v. 'sheep'; Richards, Dict., s.v. yspawd, ' a shoulder': N. W. 'Spawd mllt. 'Spold gweddar, S. W. [Dimet.]. Palfais gweddar in Monm. Glam. and Prec. Y Gwyl., vi (1828), p. 207: S.-W. hwrdd = N.-W. myharan. Palfais, in Neath palfish, is the shoulder-blade. In Neath, my?haran is a ram, given also in the Cambr. Journ., iv, p. 208 (minharan = hwrdd, fem. dafad), from Monm. and Glam. Cf. Sanskr. msha; mynharan contains myn, 'hid', introduced by popular etymology. T 2



lwedd 1419) (tudalen 268)

268 OBSERYATIONS ON THE WELSH NOUNS, nominative aected by the termination *-i and the other cases not affected by it have been generalised. Ir. anner (fein.) is represented in Welsh by anner, anneir, ' heifer'; ' bucula, junix', Davies, Dict. 1 (anner, anneirod, Sp., DictJ). [10.] So far these notes on nominal declension; to which some details on dialectal difierences in the gender of nouns, in nouns of relationship, etc, may be appended. As rnasc. in N.-W. and fem. in S.-W. I find mentioned: troed, effaith, ysgrif, rhif, nifer, clust, sain, munyd, man, golwg, ystyr, gradd (Dosp. Ed., 471; dwy droed, Williams Pant y Celyn, Y Traeth., 1870, etc); hanes, ciniaw, gwniadur, cyflog, cld, clorian, gr, Rowland, Gramm.*, p. 39; N.-W. pellen y pen glin, S.-W. padell y benln, D. S. Evans, Lhjth., s.v. 'penln'; alarch, /(/., WeM Dict. Braicg, fem., is, according to Rhŷs, Loamcords, s. v. ' brachium', 2 a masc. in Salesbury's language and still so in Carnarvonshire as the spur of a mountain. The same author has recorded the older comm. gender of dyn and the fem. gender of haul (still preserved in some parts, t./7..about Ystradmeurigin Cardiganshire, Rev. Celt.,\i, p. 40), and drawn certain conclusions from them (Hibb. Lect., pp. 92, n. 1, 572, n. 2). Cwpan, perjnill, pontbren, canwyllbren, canrif, clust are given by Rowland, l. c, as masc. in S.-W. and fem. in N.-W. 1 According to Y Geninen, iii, p. 19, Glamorgansh. y dreisiad (in Neath trishad)=N.-W f . yraner; also heffar (' heifer'), YrArw., Feb. 20, 1859. Anner is the Dimetian word, C'ambr. Journ., iii, p. 252. Treisiad is also the S.-W. word for N.-W. bustach, ' steer' (Davies, D'ui.). L. Morris, Add. MS. 14,944, f . 28: llo dyniewed bustach ych are the successiye yearly naraes used in Anglesey. Enderic, Juv. Gl. (8tokes, Cam/r., p. 2UG); W. Lleyn's Vocab.: enderig = bustach. Dyniewed, dyniawed, pl. dyniewyd (dinewyt, Z.-, p. 282), ' steer, heifer', Sp., Dict. 3 It is the old Cornish deneuoit, 'juvencus', Corn. Vocab., f. 9a. It seema to have been submitted to popular ctyinology, if the following notice, taken from Y Cylchgr. (Abertawy), 1853, p. 17, be genuine: " deunawiad", fal y geilw gwŷr Morganwg eidion blwydd a hanner oed (alluding to deunaw, /.<., 1S months old). - Arch. Camb.y Itli Ser., iv. p. 269.



lwedd 1420) (tudalen 269)

ADJECTIVES, AISID ADVERBS. 269 [11.] Nouns of relationship cliffer greatly in the dialects. Cf. Eanes y Ffydd, 1677: N.-W. nain = S.-W. mam gu; do., Y Gwyl, vi (1828), p. 207. R. Morris, Add. MS. 14,945, f . 2476: hendaid in Anglesey = tad cu in Powys; also gorhendaid and hn hendaid = hendad cu. L. Morris, Add. MS. 14,923, f. 1336: S.-W. mam gu a thad cu = N.-W. nain a thaid. ld.,ibid., 15,025, f. 806: in Fowys tad d, mam dd, ' grandf ather, -motlier'; tad c, mam g, ' great-grand- father'; etc.; nain, ' great-great-grandmother'; mam wen, ' step- mother'. Y Traetn., iii, p. 12: Vened. taid, naiu = Powys. tad da, mam dda=S.-W. tad cu, mamgu; Vened. tad yn nghyfraith (mam, mab, merch yn ngh.) = Powys. and S.-W. chwegrwn (chwegr, daw, gwaudd); Vened. tad yn nghyfraith (mam, etc, yn ngb,) also = Powys. tad gwyn (mam wen, etc.) = S.-W. lysdad, llysfam, etc. I may quote from L. Glyn Cothi's Poems, p. 210: Tir yr hynaiv, trwy raniad | A rhau o dir yr hen dad; | Tai'r gorhendad, a'r tad da | Tai'r ewythyr vl Troia. (He uses broder, besides brodyr; cf. Y tri broder lle gosoder | Yr aur doder ar wyrdedwydd, p. 42; broder Rhosser, p. 43; Dau vroder, ryw amser, oedd | A wnaeth Ruvain a'i threvoedd, p. 433, etc.) Daw, pl. dawon, Davies, Gramin., p. 40; and dofion. Altrou, ' victricus', aud altruan, 'noverca', Corn. Vocab., are W. alltraw, ' sponsor', and elltrewen, ' stepmother'; Davies, Dict., has elldrewyn, from W. Lleyn's Vocab. Cefnder, etc, are pronounced at Neath: centar, pl. cenderwydd; cnithtar, pl. cnithterwydd; cyferddar (= cyfyrder); ib.: whr, whiorydd; brawd, brotyr; tad yn nghyfrith. In Breton tad coz is ' grandfather', tad cufi, as in Powys, ' great- grandfather'; tad you, ' great-great-grandfather'. Tad caer, ' father- in-law' aud ' stepfather' (tadec in Vann.), is in imitation of the French name; the Welsh tad gwyn shows the same idea. It is lestad, as in S.-W., in the dialect of Lon. Deufi, gouhez are W. daw, gwaudd. Tadek, gourtadik exist in Batz (Ernault, Batz Dialect, p. 34); cf. W. gorhendad. A list of all possible degrees of relationship, with the Welsh names, will be found in the Cambrian Jonrnal. It was sent to Wales by Lewis Morgan and filled up by Williams ab Ithel. Though Morgan's circular, showing the kind of researches he was making, is printed before the list, Ab Ithel gave him only the literary words, and omitted the dialectal forms, different as they are. Morgan's great work is well known, and so is the German book of



lwedd 1421) (tudalen 270)



Engels, which is based on it, and the perusal of such works would, by the way, induce me at least not to use the words of Kuhn's Zeitschr., xxviii, p. 421, n. 1, if I understand them right, with regard to the Irish old ages in general.


[12.] Common abbreviations, etc, of names are: Jack, Jacky, Jacko, Siac, Siacci; Sion, Sionyn; Jenny, Jinny, Jinno, Jinnten, Sin, Sini, Sieni, Sianten; Wil, Bil, Bilo, Bilws, Bili; Catrin, Kate, Kit, Kitty, Catti, Cadi, Cadan, Cadws, Cadsan, Cadsen, Kitsen (Y Traeth., iii, p. 14); Dai in S.-W.; Palws, Malws. Mali in parts (Mli, Mlen in Dyfed), ' Mary', Cambrian Journal, iii, p. 243; Twm, Shn, Dai, Mocyn, Harri, Wl, Nd, Palws, Sl, Magws (' Margaret'), ib., iv, p. 37.


1/ A passage from this article on the lines of demarcation of the Gwentian dialects may be quoted, as it seems to be based on actual observation, and contains facts on which others may supply further information: "There is a great difference between the dialects of Menevia [= Myn- wy] and Morganwg. Throughout the middle and eastern districts the vowel i has almost its full sound in hundreds of words, as shall be noticed hereafter. Towards the Saxon border, a certain strangeness dwells on the faces of the men, somewhat similar to the gloomy appearance that ensues when the sun is hidden by a cloud previous to its setting in the west. From Ergyng to Talgoed (Caldicot) one meets with heavy, lanky,and very ignorant men; and the old people that are there,especially towards Tre'r Esgob [Bishopston, near Newport], speak Welsh, which is unintelligible to the uui-lingual Cymro. They have so much of the English accent, and occasionally an old word like ebargofi, that they cause a mixture of grief and astonishment in the bosom of the visitor. When he proceeds from Crughywel to Coed y Cymmer, he hears clearly the accent and pronunciation of the Brecknockian; ar yr un [in Glani. dan yr un, sc. awr, 'at the samc time'], lad raig [the infected forms of gwlad, gwraig] ferch y forwn, etc, present themselves there very distinctly. When we go from Coed y Cymmer through Cwmamman to Pont ar Ddulas, we hear the pronunciation of the Brecknockian, and that of the boys of Caermarthen. Here the speech becomes vigorous, and the voice thin; and yn wirionedd fach anwyl i [pron. yn wirione fach anwl i], thinci fawr, come to light; and, in returning, a change will be perceived towards Margam, and a little after towards Pont Faen [Cowbridge]. Then the body of the country is reached, and the tone becomes slow and grave, the tongue lisps a little, and the voice is thick. Abertawy [Swansea], Merthyr, and all the works, Cardiff and Newport contain people from every



lwedd 1422) (tudalen 271)

DJECTIVES, AND ADVERBS. 271 [13.] The feminine forms of the adjectives, as trom, gwen, are beginning to disappear from the living language. Davies, Gramm., p. 54, says that chwyrn, gwymp, gwydn, hyll, syth, tynn, and clyd were then used in N.-W. as masc. and fem. forms; but that in Powys (p. 59) the fem. forms of com- pound adjectives in -lyd, as brycheuled, poethled, were still used (cf. fford lysseulet, ' a fowery road', Y S. Gr., p. 220). The fem. forms sech, gwleb are said, in a letter from John Morgan to Moses Williams, copied in several MSS. (Add. MS. 14,934, f. 1756), to have then been common in Anglesey. On the present language see Eowland, Gramm, p. 41; and Sweet, p. 438. [14.] In the same way the few isolated comparatives and superlatives like iau, lled, etc, are being replaced by modern formations in -ach, -af, as ieuangach. Trechach, given by Davies (Gramm., p. 63) from Sion Tudur, is said in a note to the 2nd ed. (1809) to be quite common at that time (p. 81); and also lletach for lld. Lled is retained by the Gwentian dialects. Cf. Y Traeth., iii, p. 14: lled na'r ddaear, N.-W. lletach. The adverb lled, ' partly, alrnost', takes the position of the N.-W. go. Cf. Hugbes, 1823, p. 33: lled agos, lled dda; Camb. Journ., iii, p. 252: lled od, Monm. and East Glam.; lled hynod, West Glam. go hynod, N.-W.; so lolo Morganwg, Y Cijmmr., iv, p. 105, writes: yn dŷ ffermwr 1 lled dda. [15.] Welsh -ach, compared with Breton -oc'h, may country" (pp. 37-8). These rough notes on sub-dialects, though they may be known to Welshmen, again give rise to the regret that next to nothing has been or is being published on the great variety of dialects in this or, in fact, in any other part of Wales. i S.-W. fferem N.-W. tyddyn, Hughes, 1823, p. 36. On tyddyn (tegdyn, MS. A; tgdỳn, Latin Laws, p. 788), and also on tyn, see Rhŷs, Rev. Celt., vi, p. 49, n. But what are syddyn, eisyddyn, essyddyn, yssyddyn, given by Davies (Dict.) as Dimetian for Vene- dotian tyddyn? They oecur in W. Lleyn's Vocab.: eisyddyn = tyddyn.



lwedd 1423) (tudalen 272)

272 OBSERVATIONS ON THE WELSII NOUNS, have assumed a from -/ of the superlative; but the exist- ence of a similar clistribution of a and o in verbal termina- tions (see Y Cymmr., ix, p. 73) makes tliis doubtful. Neitber the existence of -ac'h in the Bas-Cornouaillais (iselac'h, uhelac'h, brayac'h, etc, given in Eostrenen's Grammar) nor the occurrence of uchof in old Welsli MSS. furthers the solu- tion of this cjuestion, as the phonetics of this Breton sub- dialect, in which the change of o into a may be quite common, are not known, and uchof does not seem to be any- thing but a combination of uchaf and ucho, uchod. Huchof occurs in MS. , pp. 2, 3, 5, 24, 28, 52, etc; uchow, MS. E (Add. MS. 14,931), ff. 35, 42 (cf. sew, f. la = sef). Uwchel occurs more rarely. Cf. MS. Caliy. A 13: wuchot, f. 152&, map wuchelr, f. 177, b; Sal., N. T. j ywchel, ff. 380, 381, ywchter, f. 389; Add. MS. 14,986: ywchel ievstvs, '. 11, ywchel ddydd, f. 12. [16.] -Ied, -iach are used with some adjectives for -ed, -ach; with rhaid, santaidd, etc, nearly always. Cf. Add. MS. 14,869, f. 131a: o welet vy lle ar llet eithyaf; Ll. Gio. fA., p. 75: yn gyiiYonedigeidiet; Y S. Gr.: cynsanteidiet, reidyach, dir(i)eidyach (kyn reittet, ih.); Y Dnjch Chr.: gwelwch reitied yw mefyrio; Davies, Gramm.: rbaid, rheittiaeh, rheitied; Cab. few. T., p. 30: er sauteddied rwyt ti; S. C, i, p. 332: mor brafied, etc. [17.] -Ed, the existing opinions on which will be found in Rhŷs, Lect. 2 , p. 231, and in Toyail Troi (LL.), pp. viii-ix (Lndcx, s. v. ' dubithir'), is by no means a " propria canibrica ilinlccti forma" (Zeuss, G. C. 2 , p. 931), but is also common in the Breton dialect of Vannes. Cf. the Gramm. of J. Guil- lme (1797-1857), recteur de Ivergrist, a native of Malguuac, translator of the extracts of the Annales de la Foi published in the dialect of Vannes, and author ol' />< vr eul labourer, 1849, etc (mentioned in Z. 2 , p. xliv): na brasset- hon puissance, na biannet ha er jou-ce, p. 122: na carret-, p. 125. In Rev. CclL, iii, -ct is given rom Sarzeau, and (iv, p. 145) the



lwedd 1424) (tudalen 273)

ADJECTIVES, AND ADVEEBS. 273 -acl of Lanrodec is taken to be a combination of -et ancl the superl. -a, Cf. Gourhemneu clou ha r en ilis (Vannes, 1879): na brasset- dalledigueah certaen tud ! p. 170. Some examples are also giyen by Loth, Mm. Soc. Ling., vol. v. This comparative in -ed is used in comparisons with cyn (cy), can, in the same sense as mr with the positive (Old W. mortru,gl. 'eheu', morliaus, gl. f quam inultos' 1 ), and mor witli -ecl occurs also in the later language, being commonly attri- buted to the Southern dialects. Cf. Davies, Gramm,, p. 65 Demet.mor hardded = Vened. mor hardd; Dosp. Ecl, p. 259 Vened. and Gwent. mor ln = Dimet. mor laned. Cf. S. G. mor cheped (cheap), i, p. 373; mor gynted, iii, p. 226. Y Fcltcn: morbellad, Dec. 23, 1870; YGweithiwr: mor belled ag w i yn deall, No. 1; this is, however, from Gwentian districts. n the use of -ed, cf. also B. of Herg.: hyhelaethet, col. 570 2; yn gyainlet and yn gynamlet, col. 606; py gy bellet odyma y y cruc a dywedy di, col. 681; ac a dywedaf itt py gy bellet y6, ib. 3; Ll. Gw. Rh.: y gystal na y ganfuanet, p. 127; yr hwnn .... bot yn gynn amlet y wyrda ac yn wychet, p. 2; rac mor ieuanc oed a gwannet y hannyan, p. 16; with er, yr: MS. Tit. D 22, f. 12a (Y Cymmr., iv, p. 120): yr tayred vo yr heul; Y Drijch Chr.: er drycced a fo'r dynion, f. 19; Cab. f'eic. T.: er gwaethet oedden nhwthe, p. 60; er santeiddied rwyt ti, p. 30. Daf. ab Gw., p. 103: Doe ddifiau, cyn dechrau dydd, | Lawned fum o lawenydd ! [18.] The following notes contain some additions to Zeuss' remarks 3 G. G.' 2 , pp. 616-20, on Adverbs of place, time, etc. Diuinid, ib., p. 616 (' sursum'), Lib. Land ,frcq. Ar i fyny, tuag i fyny, Sp., Eng.- W. Dict., 3 s. v. ' upwards'. Y uynyd is the regular form used in the R. B. Mab. (cols. 560, 566, 567, 4 etc), and in otherS.-AV. MSS.; e.cj., MS. U, p. 355; Harl. 4353, f. 35?;, etc. It is later limited to S.-W. dialects, cf. E. Lhuyd, s.v. ' supra' 5; Gwallt. Mech., Worhs, ii, p. 214; i fynydd, Homil., 1606, i, p. 105; 1 Ovid Glosses, 39a; Stokes, Cambrica, p. 235. 2 R. B. Mab., p. 160, 1. 26. 3 Ib., pp. 222, 1. 1; 223, 11. 29, 30. 4 lb., pp. 149, 1. 27; 155, 1. 21; 156, 1. 25. 5 Arci. Brit., p. 159, col. 1: ll Dimet. i vnydh".



lwedd 1425) (tudalen 274)



i fynydd [Monmsh.], Sal., N T, Matt. xvii, 27; Acts xiii, 37; James i, 17; Rev. iv, 1; etc.


Y Traeth., iii, p. 14: N.-W. i fyny, uchod = S.-W. fry, fry ar y lan (glan, in its S.-W. meaning of 'hill'); Rhy^s, Loanwords, s. v. 'altus' (1): N.-W. i fyny i'r allt = S.-W. i'r rhiw, ' up hill'.


Myny has not been explained, for the loss of -dd in this position is, if we except the unexplained eistedd, eiste (perhaps for eisteu, like bore, etc), quite isolated, save in Dimetian dialects (gwirione, dy, towi, etc). I suppose that the last syllable has been assimilated to bry, fry. Mynydd, often written monyth in Salesbury's N. T. (ff. 6b, 75a, etc), a pronunciation given as that of St. David's, Pembrokeshire, is mwni in the present Dimetian dialect; see on this point Dosp. Ed., p. 257, and S. Gomer, i (1814), 19, where idiomatic expressions like myn'd i'r mwni 'r gwartheg (for cae), i'r mwni i aredig (for maes), i'r mwni i hau, i fedi are given, and where it is said that every trofa cyffredin (' common') would be called 'mynydd' in Glamorganshire.


Dirguairet, Z. (2) , p. 616 ('deorsum'), Lib. Land.,freq.; Y Drych Chr., f. 75a: i fyny ag i wered; Y Traeth., iii, p. 14: N.-W. i lawr, isod = S.-W. obry, i waered; L. Morris, Add. MS. 14,944, f. 66a: dobry, common in Cardiganshire for dy obry. Y Traeth., l. c.: N.-W. i lawr, ymaith = S.-W. i bant; i bant ag e; L. Morris, Add. MS. 14,923: S.-W. i bant = N.-W. i ffwrdd, i ffordd, f. 133a; S.-W. godir, 'a hollow place between valleys' = N.-W. pant,f.l33b.


According to S. Gomer, 1814, l. c, godir is the S.-W. word for pant, 'valley'; and pant has so lost its real meaning that one would say: 'bod gwr wedi myned bant i'r mynydd, ac i bant i'r bryn.' Cf. also Hughes, 1823, p. 37: S.-W. i bant = N.-W. y ffordd (i ffwrdd is S.-W., according to Rhŷs, Lect. (2), p. 114); Y Geninen, iii, p. 19: (S. W.) i'w gl i bant = ei symud i ffwrdd.


Y maes, Z. 2 , p. 616 (' foras'), Mb.; L. Morris, Add. MS. 14,944: S.-W. myn'd i faes=myned ymaith, ' to go along'; id. 14,923, f. 133/;: S.-W. troi maes, 'to turn (to windward) out' = N.-W. troi allan, hwylio allan; Y Tracth., iii, p. 12: S.-W. i maes, i faes = N.-W. allan; L. Morris, /. c, f. 133: S.-W. i macs o law, immediately=N.-W. tocc, yu gwit. Cf. N.-W. toc a da, ' presently and in good time', RoAvland, Gramm. 4 , p. 114, and Yr Arw., July 17, 1856: A toc dyma, hi yn mund i dywallt cypanaid de i'rhogun; a dyno fo yn gofun toc; etc. N.-W. allan o law =S.-W. maea o law, ' presently', Rowland, /. c.; for i maes and i faes, cf. N.-W. i mi, S.-W. i fi, Y Cymmr., viii, p. 139. i Arch. Camb., Ith Ser., iv, p. 262.



lwedd 1426) (tudalen 275)

ADJECTIVES, AND ADVEEBS. 275 [19.] Ymywn, Z. 2 ,p. 616 ('in meclium et in medio, intra, in'). Neither the loss of dd in niewn, mywn (Ir. medhon), nor the Venedotian and Powysian forms meawn,miawn,nor the accent which causes S.-W. mwn for mewn, are sufficiently explained. Mwn probably arose from mewn being pronounced as an un- stressed proclitic before nouns. For examples see my Notes on W. Oonsonants (Rev. Celt., ix, pp. 64-76, etc). [20.] Yr meitin, Z. 2 , p. 616 (' paulisper, paulo aute'). Mah.: ysgwers, ystalym (' dudum, iam dudum'); Hughes, 1823, p. 38: N.-W. hawg, yr hawg = S.-W. ys smeityn; but cf. as myitin, Yr Arw., Jan. 20, 1859; es meityn, Cab.f'ew. T, p. 65. Y Traeth., iii, p. 13: N.-W. yr hawg = S.W. enyd o amser; N.-W. yr hawg iawn = am hir amser; Cambr. Journ., iii, p. 252: Monm. and East Glam. smityn, West Glam. smeityn = N.-W. hawg, yr hawg. N.-W. (L. Morris, Add. MS. 14,923, f. 133) ers talwm = S.-W. ers llawer dydd; Y Cymmr., iii, p. 84: colloqu. ystalwm, 'stalwm; Ll. y Resol.: N.-W. ystalm = S.-W. ysdyddie. Cf. Can. y C, p 378: er ys dyddie. Er ys is written ar's, a's in some N-W. texts; cf. Yr Arw.: ars llawar o amsar, Dec. 11, 1856; as talwm, July 17, 1856; May 28, 1857, etc, like ario'd (see 22). In S.-W. os, perhaps not for oes, but f or o'r ys, o'r's; cf. S. C.: ys lawer dy, i, p. 232; 'slawer dy, iii, p. 324, ib.; os dyddie, also os ticyn yn ol, os cettyn bach. L. Morris, Add. MSS.: cettyn, a small matter, Cardigansh., 14,944, f. 46; S.-W. cettyn, a good deal = N.-W. twysgen, 14,923, f. 134a; cf. yn well o getyn he'yd 'na, P. C, 28 (Ebbw Vale). Richards, Dict., however, has: twysgen, ' a small part'; in S. W. twysged, 'a good part, a great deal'. Hughes, 1823, p. xi: S.-W. cettyn = N.-W. darn; Y Traeth., iii, p. 13: N.-W. tipyn o ffordd = S.-W. cetyn o ffordd; N.-W. cryn dipyn o ff . = S.-W. cetyn diogel o ff. Cf. Hughes, 1823, p. 38: N.-W. Gryn = S.-W. iawn; gryn of n = ofn mawr; Yr Arw., Feb. 12, 1857: cryn lawar; Add. MS. 14,923, f. 134a: S.-W. yn ddiogel, 'for certain'= N.-W. siwr, yn siwr, yn ddiammeu. [21.] Drachefen, drachefn, Z. 2 , p. 616 ('trans tergum, retro'). Cf. dramkevyn, Y S. Gr., p. 184; drach dy gevyn, p. 275; drach eu k., pp. 283, 301; drache cheuyn, B. of Herg., col. 866; dracheukeiyn, Add. MS. 19,709, f. 30; darchefyn, Jes. ColL



lwedd 1427) (tudalen 276)

276 OBSERVATIONS ON THE WELSH NOUNS, MS. 141, f. 14&; yno ydd ymchoelodd ef trach i gefyn, Sal., JV. T., f. 266; drachefn, drachgefn, Davies, Dict.; drychgefn, dychgefn in modern dialects, since -gefn bears the accent. Trach occurs in trach lavnawr, B. ofAn., God., St. 79 (Sk., ii, p. 86); oes tragoes, B. of Herg., Sk., ii, p. 230. Tra chaer wydyr, B. of Tal., jSTo. xxx (Sk., ii, p. 182). Cefn gefn, ' back to back' (Anglesey), Add. MS. 15,025, f. 80. Cf. daldal, Mab., ii, p. 54 (R B. Mab., p. 285, 1. 12); benndraphenn, Y S. Gr., p. 344; ben dra mwnwgl. Cf. Add. MS. 15,027, f. 816: fe aeth ein gwlad ni (fal y dywaid trigo- lion Deheubarth) yn bendramwnwgl (Lettcr to Owen Jones); I have met also with a verb formed from this expression. [22.] Eirmoet, eiryoet, Z. 2 , p. 616 (' unquam'). Erioed, Sp., Bict?, yrioed, irioed, Sal., N. T; irioed, Add. MS. 31,055, f. 200a (Dr. Thos. Williams); yrioed, ib. 31,057, f. 169.a; S. O.: ario'd, ii, p. 262; iii, pp. 384, 447; N.-W., yrioud, rioud, Yr Arw., etc. Cf. er and yr (duw), etc, the phonetics of which are also obscure to me as regards their dialectal distribution. Ysgwers, Z. 2 , p. 616('dudum, iam dudum'); Richards, Dict.: gwers, 'a while'; ym pengwers, 'a whileafter', S.-W.; see YCymmr. f viii, p. 152: S.-W. yn awr, 'nawr = N.-W. rŵan; L. Morris, Add. MS. 14,923, f. 133/>: S.-W. ynawr ag eilwaith = N.-W. ynŷan ag yn y man, 'now and then'; YTraeth., iii, p. 12: S.-W. awr ac enyd = N.-W. byth a hefyd. S.-W. awr ac orig (e.g , Can. y C, p. 461, bob amser' in the margin) = N.-W. o hyd, trwy gydol yr amser (ib.). N.-W. yn uuion deg, ' imniediately' (colloqu.), Rowland, Gramin, p. 114. Ilnghes, 1823, p. 35: S.-W. bron, o'r bron = N.-W. yn rhestr (sic). Braidd, 'just, hardly, scarcely; nearly, almost', Sp., Dict. 3; L. Morris, Add. MS. 14,944, f. 386: braidd, ' hardly, scarcely'; braidd na, ' prope', " corrupt in N. and S. W. braint"; a'so ib., . 40a: 1V a 'general corruption''; so: braint na luddasai 'r naill y llall. Brain really occurs; cf. S. Gomer, 1851, p. 99: brain y gaffo i, (ilamorgansh.; P. C, Jan. 22, 1859: brain o beth yw segura fel hyn, Ebbw Vale. 1 suppose that ' braint' is merely an 1 1 yiuologising orthograihy, and that brain represents braidd-na. Anglesey, Add. MS. 14,944, f. 576: ar y cyngyd, ' just a doing'; Can. y C, pp. 379, 400, 569: 'n immwngc, explained in the margin



lwedd 1428) (tudalen 277)

ADJECTIYES, AND ADVERBS. 277 by ' disymwth'; cf. yngo, 'hard by' (Dosp. Ed., 901), e.g., Pettwn hebddo, yngo angerdd, Daf. ab Gw., p. 255; Yngo o Heiwordd hyd yn Nghynvig, L. Glyn Cothi, p. 36; wnc, ' hard by', Dosp. Ed., I. c.; echwng; rhwng, see Y Cymmr., viii, p. 129. Hayach, haeach, haeachen, passim haechen, fere, Davies, Dict., haiach, haiachen, ' instantaneously; almost, most', Sp., Dict. 3; hay- chen, Davies, Gramm., p. 147; hayachen, Mab., ii, p. 247 (R. B. Mb., p. 142); heb wybod haychen, beth yw . . . . , Y Drych Chr., f. (3); ar haychen (marg. agos) boddi, Can. y C, p. 340; haychen (marg. agos, oddieithr, ychydig), ib., p. 350; haychen (marg. ym mron, agos), ib., p. 538. Ychydig, now commonly chydig, is often written bychydic in Middle-W.; on this word (Ychan for Fychan is also often met with) see my Notes on W. Cons. (Rev. Cet., ix, p. 76, etc). Rhagor (subst.) in N.-W. is gwahaniaeth (Ll. y Resol.), ' differ- ence'; in parts of S. W. rhagor (adv., ' more') is [the same as] ychwaneg (chwaneg), Richards, Dict., Hughes, 1823, p. 36, etc. [23.] To emphasise an assertion several adjectives like ofnadwy, cynddeiriog, anghomon ('uncommon'), ffiaidd, etc, with yn are used in vulgar language in different dialects, and sometimes interesting phonetic alterations have been made. Sweet, p. 431, gives novntsan, which he thinhs to be for yn ofnadwy faswn. Ffaswn (Eng. ' fashion'), when unstressed loses its first syllable; cf . y mae bud na welist ti rioud siwn beth yma, Yr Arw., Dec. 11, 1856; welis i rot siwn beth, ib., June 20, 1859; rptswn, ' ever the like, ever' = riyd faswn, Sweet. I do not, however, think that it is contained in ofnadsan, although 1 cannot explain the latter, or do more than give a number of other altera- tions of ofnadwy. Cf. Y Traeth., iii, p. 12: ofnadwy, ofnaswy, in Ardudwy (Meri- oneth) afnadsan; Yr Arw.: ofnadsan, ct. 30, 1856; ofnatsan, March 3, 1859; peth rhyfadd ofnedsan, Feb. 12, 1857 (sic); mi gafodd le da afnadsan, yn rhyfedd afnadsan gini, May 7, 1857; S. Cymru: ofnatsan, iii, pp. 103, 186; Y Gweth.; ofnaclsen, 1858, No. 1 (Aberdare); Y Bed.: wyt ti 'n depyg afnatyw i dy dacl, viii, p. 106 (Monmouthsh.); yn ofnatyw, p. 174. In Neath afnadw; afnaswy, YrArw., Dec. 11, 1856. Yn ofnad- widd (Yr Ams., Jan. 14, 1847, in a S.-W. letter, on which see Y Cymmr., ix, p. 118) is probably more than a varying ortho- graphy (as towi might be said for tywydd, the final -dd not being pronounced), for a native of Anglesey was famihar with it too.



lwedd 1429) (tudalen 278)

278 OBSERVATIONS ON THE WELSH NOUNS, The change of o and o is frequent in the dialects. See on this poit my Beitr., p. 52; and cf. eidrol ( = eidral), Lhuyd, Arch. Brit., p. 279, s.v. ' Ivie'; molwan, pl. molwod in Anglesey (malwan in Carn. = malwen, ' snail'), afol in Anglesey (afal in Carn., like gofol, dafod, Beitr., 57); andros in Arvon and Angl., Rhŷs, Ilibb. Lect., p. 200, n. 1; myolchan in Neath (= mwyalchen), anglodd, ib. (= angladd), etc. But in afnadwy I really think a to be older, since *afan would explain the S.-W. ofan. besides ofon (Beitr., 63). Shoe and shaw are used in the same sense. Cf. ac yr w'i yn eu licio yn she, S. C., i, p. 411; yr ydwi yn ffond shoe o ydrach .... ib., ii, p. 487; a'u bod wedi gueyd shoe o ddrwg, p. 186, etc. (Merio- nethsh. dialect); shoy o Sbarthwr (= dosbarthwr) i chi, dduliwn (= feddyliwn) i, Yr Ams., Nov. 16, 1848. P. C, 29: ac y mae yn shaw o gwiddyl (= cywlydd, like giddyl = gilydd) iddi nhw; y ma' yma beth shaw o de a theisan; shaw o ddioni (= daioni, daoni), Ebbw Vale; Yr Ams., Jan. 14, 1847: 'n show, S.W.; Y Gwron Cymr., May 6, 1852: ma rhwy shew o beth. Shaw, a ' great deal' (afnadw, ofan in Neath). If shoe is not the last syllable of ofnaswy, I cannot explain it. In S. Gomer, i (1814), 19, are quoted from the Dimetian dialects: caru merch yn ofuadwy, yu embydus, edrych yu ofnadwy (= yn graff) ar eu gilydd, merched yn ln (or bert) ofnadwy, embydus (= yn brydweddol, yu landeg iawn). Twenty years before (that is, in the last century) ffamws was often used in these places. In Glam., merch ln fudr, benyw lan fudr. With budr (' dirty, nasty, filthy, foul, vile', Sp., Dict?) cf. Glam. budyr = N.-W. cethin, Ilughes, 1823, p. 34; N.-W. budrog = puttain (S.-W.), Hanes y Ffydd, 1677; S.-W. brwnt = N.-W. budr; S.-W. soga = N.-W. dynes fudr, Y Gicyl, vi (1828), p. 207. Cf. also Cambr. Journ., iii, p. 246: Dimet. mai 'n dewi ŵer iawn, ymbeidis, embydus (in S. C. also printed ombeidus) = West Glam. niai 'n dywydd r (Monm. and E. Glam. gr) iawn (or fine unco- mon); Dimet. merch lu iawn (or odiaeth) yw hi = West Glam. m. ln iawu, sometimes (so Monm. and E. Glam.) ln fudyr. Ebbw Vale, P. C, Feb. 4, 1860: bydd yn dda budr, fe fiiodd slawer dydd yn dotal budr; ib., anghmon and yn greulon are used. Iolo Morganwg remarks, in Cyfrinach Beirdd Yn. P>\, 1829, p. 238: y niae .... yn ymhoffi 'n fawr (nou >/ ffaidd, fal y dywedant ym Meirion; ynfudr yw gair Morganwg). Y Traeth., iii, p. 12: dynes ln arw (garw). Cf. wedi gacl blesser garw iawn, )V Ams., Dec. 3, 1846; bod arni eisio y wlanen garw iawn, ini gcfis helunt garw iawn hefyd hefo dyn, Yr Anc, Dec. 11, 1856;



lwedd 1430) (tudalen 279)



Y Traeth., l. c.: dyma beth clws (for tlws) ofnadwy, gwych aflawen, da gynddeiriog, cryf anafus; cf. also yn rywinol iawn, Yr Ams., Sept. 10, 1849 (gerwinol); yn ryswydus, Nov. 29, 1849 (= arswy- dus), etc. [24.] ISTauiyn, Z. 2 , p. 620 (' tantum'), is the modern form, and also that most frequent in Mid.-W., but atnyn, yn amyn, and namwyn occur also in older texts. Cf. MS. A: anien, p. 46 (4 times); amn, p. 125; also in MS. B (Tit. D 2), f. 37: amn. Namin, A, pp. 57, 58, 59, etc.; in these pages i fory, oftener writtene, is especially frequent; cf. gustil and guestel, gustel, kamrit, idin, aegilid. Namen, pp. 3, 46, etc. Naman, p. 58 (thrice), p. 66. Cf. on these same pages kafreis, llana, kanas, pp. 57, 59, etc.; see my Beitr., 33. Kannas (= canys) occurs also four times in a late 15th century fragment in Hgt. MS. 57 (the frst three pages of an otherwise unlmown Welsh version of, appa- rently, Perceval le Gallois), in which also occur yneidiev and dyrebvd. Namuin, p. 58; namuyn, p. 59, etc.; namun, p. 58. The last (cf. racu, ib. (= raccw), gustlaf) represents namwn from namwyn. On p. 58 alone there thus occur 1 namin, 3 naman. 1 namuin (1 namun). Cf. B. ofCarm.: namuin, Nos. v, ^"yii 1; B. o/Herg.: namwyn, Sk., ii, p. 249; namyn, col. 1186 (Poem of Gynnuard Brecheinyac); Ll. Gw. Bh.: namwyn, p. 135 (Bown o H.); MS. CT.B5: namwyn, ff. 178, 191, 2166; nammwyn, f. 175; Add. MS. 14,869: drudyon a veirtyon (avawl neb dragon)namwyn dreic ae dirper,f. 80 (Cynddelw); namwyn, f. 109; ny chaffad gwrthep namwyn gwyrtheu, f. 113 (Gwynnuart Brycheinyawc); Add. MS. 19,709: amynn, f. 17; MS. S: ynamyn, f. 90. Sal., iV. T.: amyn, ff. 52a, 54, 626, 716, 77, etc.; n'amyn, ff. 526, 1276; yn amyn, f. 305; y namyn, f. 1116; namin, f. 336; namyn often. Iolo MSS., p. 253: namn ei eni (Chwedlau V doethion, No. 32). Pughe gives naniwyn, namyn, nam, amyn; named fi ( cf. Vann. Bret. nemedouf, etc), etc. 1 Ff. llfl and 25a; Sk., ii, pp. 8, 19 (respectively).



lwedd 1431) (tudalen 280)

280 OBSERVATIONS ON THE WELSH NOUNS, The explanation of these words presents great diticulties, and I can only proffer a few guesses. The existence of the Corn. lemmyn (not from *lle-amyn, but from *nemmyn by means of dissimilation) and namnag, Bret. nemet, nemed (Vann. nemeit, meit), with suffixed pronouns, like nem-of in Welsh (see YCymmr., viii, p. 127), make it at least probable that nam-yn, not aniyn (*am-hyn?), is the older form, though the contrary view is not untenable, as mae, explained by ym-ae, has its counterpart in Breton too. The Ir. namm strikes us at frst, but its regular connection with acht, ' but', has suggested the explanation acht na-m-b, containing the relative pronoun; and the Ir. amn, amne, ' so', might ecjually well be taken into consideration. Nam, -au (Sp., Did. z ) is ' a mark, maim, fault, exception', nainu, ' to blemish; to except'. Viewed from this side namyn might be *nam-hyn, like noson from *nos-hon. At any rate, *am or *nam remains, and I will now consider the relation of namwyn to namyn. If I am right in comparing eiswys and eisys (see below, 26), namyn may be the outcome of *namwn from namwyn, the changes being due to the shifting of the accent; for the verbal ending -wys, -ws has never yielded *-ys. However, the frequent position of these ad- verbs as proclitics or enclitics may have produced, under circumstances not exactly known, such doublets as eiswys, eisys. 1 If I am wrong in this, and if aniwyn has also nothing to do with Ir. amn (J and wy from *), then I can only adduce etwaeth, oddynaeth (ynaeth, Rgt. MS. 202 (bis), f. 22b 2; Y Cymmr., vii, p. 125), in which *-ac-to- has been found, and explain namwyn from *nam-wg-n (like dwyn, amwyn). I really think this last the most probable of all these suggestions, 1 Although they are not connected with the prcsent cjucstion, I will mention hcre ellai besidcs fallai (for ef allai, 'perhaps'; in Anglcsey hwrach); acha bora (= ar ucha bore), Glam. Inrheg Urien, 11. 7, 11 = Sk., ii, p. 292, 11.:, 7.



lwedd 1432) (tudalen 281)

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS. 281 and it would not exclude the comiection of nam-yn with namwyn. [25.] Nachaf, nychaf is one of the words in which a pre- fixed preposition ceased to he felt to be a separate word. Cf. ynachaf, nachaf; ynychaf, Ll. Gw. Rh., pp. 21, 25, 28; y nchaf, MS. Gl. B 5, f. 10; Sal., N. T.: nycha, f. 3; nacha, f. 1716; nachaf, 1776. Davies, Dict., has an obsolete ycha, ' en, ecce'. Nachaf is yn with the superlative of ach. Cf. Z. 2 , p. 694: ach y law; ach: ych like am: ym-; B. of An. 1: ech e dir ae dreucl. I look with more confidence on " ech corrupte pro edrych, Car- narvonsh. and Montgomerysh." (L. Morris, Add. MS. 14,909, ff. 52., 69 (thrice) ), since I have found it frequently used in Hanesion o'r Hcn Oesoedd, 1872 (Carnarvonshire dialect), e.g.: mi af yn awr i ech am dano, p. 60; dwydwch y doi i e'ch am dano, p. 66; pan eis i'r tir ac e'ch i fynu, p. 150. Davies' ycha might perhaps belong to it, unless this is abstracted from yn ycha, and has no separate existence at all. [26.] Eisoes, eiswys, eisys, adv., ' lihewise; already', Sp., Dict? Cf.eissoes,eissyoes,the common Middle-W. form; eisys, in MS. Tit.B 22,f.l0, is given by Powel(F Gymmr.,iv, p.107) amongst the Dimetian peculiarities of this MS. Perhaps " South-Welsh" in general might be said, for cf. Ll. Gw, Rh. eisswys, pp. 188, 204, etc.; MS. Gl. B 5 (Gwent. dial.) eissiws, f. 326; eissws, f.41; eisws, f. 50; eisswis, f. 78 Barddas, i: eiswys, p. 78, etc.; Can. y G., p. 430: eiswys (in rhyme with prynwys, pron. prynws?); Sal., N. T.: eisus {marg. esioes), Gwel.L, f. 376; eisius, ff. 786, 309; eusus, f. 3306 (R. D.); E. Llwyd, Arch. Brit., Bref.: etSS, eysys. 2 I cannot explain these words. Arlloesi is in S.-W. allwys; dioer, diwyr are unexplained (see my Beitr., 106). On the possible relation between eiswys and eisys, see 24. [27.] Ysywaeth, adv., ' more the pity/ Sp., Dict? Cf. Corn. 1 God., Sanza xiii; Sk., ii, p. 66. 2 First and Iast pp. VOL. IX. U



lwedd 1433) (tudalen 282)

282 (>BSEBVATIONS ON THE WELSH NOTJNS, syweth, soweth, Breton siouaz (in Vann. siouac'h). As in Corn., ysowaeth, osowaeth are frequent in Welsh. So yssowaith, Add. MS. 14,986, f. 42 (16th cent.); ossoweth, ib. 14,973, f. 107 (Araith Ieuan Brydydd Hir}; osowaith, osywaith, Hope, Pocms (1765); ysowaeth, Can. y C, p. 13; etto 'soweth, p. 325 (y fo gwaeth, p. 393). L. Morris (Add. MS. 14,944, ff. 985, 148&) calls it a N.-W. word; so Davies, Dict, 1: " Venedot. ysywaeth, ' quod magis miserandum'; Demet, gweitheroedd vel gwaetheroedd." Cf. gaethiroed du heb 6j, B. of Hcrg., col. 411 (Yst, cle Car. Mag. 2; and, in the same passage, gwaethiroed duw. lieb wy, ampeu Charlijmaen, Ll. Gw. Ph., p. 51); a gwaethiroed nas lladawd, ib., p. 128; gwaethirodd, Stowe MS. 672, f. 556. A combination of yssywaeth and gwaethiroedd is yssy- waethiroed, Bown o H, Ll. Gw. Ph,, p. 146; Aeth Herast, yswaetheroedd ! | Yn drist, L. Gl. Cothi, Poems, p. 38, v. 15, where the editors note: " yswaetheroedd = yswaetherwydd; ysywaeth, Alas ! " Cf. gwaetherwydd, ' alas,' Sp., Dict. 3 These last forms recall the problem of eisoes and eiswys. On agatfydd, agatoedd, etc, see Y Cijnmr., ix, p. 98. [28.] The preposition oc, o (see Y Cymmr., viii, pp. 135-9), also ac, a, is interesting on various accounts. On its com- position with a pronominal element (*son-?) see /. c. Oc is no longer used, and it is said to have been (iwentian; it is, however, frequent in all earlier Middle W. MSS. Cf. oc eu kereynt, MS. A, p. 41; B, ff. 16a, 37; B. of Carm., i. 3lb (Sk., ii, p. 27): Megittor oc ev guir. v. hir alanas; Hgt. MS. 202: oc eu herwỳd (bis), f. 22b; oc eu korff, f. 26 3; B. of Herg.: oc eu hystoryaeu 6y, col. 229; oc eu hol, col. 202; oc ach gweithretoed, col. G20; Add. MS. 19,709, ff. 9&, 14, 18/): 6ynt a wnaetliant aerua diruar oc eu gelynyon, f. 26; ny orffoyssys Gw. oc eu liymlit hyt pan vei oc eu golut 6y ykyfoethogei ynteu y teulu, f. 66b; LI. Gw. Rh.: at eu diwreido oc eu chwant. ac eu 1 s. v. 'Gweitheroedd'. 2 Cy mmro dorion edition, p. 30. 3 Y Cymmr., vii, pp. 125 (cf. Sk., ii, p. 292) and 135.



lwedd 1434) (tudalen 283)

ADJECTIYES AND ADVERBS. 28." dryc dynyaeth, p. 282; Y S. Gr., pp, 61, 127; MS. Cl. B 5: oc eu parth wynteu, f. 234a, col. 1, etc. On *oc in rhoc, rhac, see Y Cymmr., viii, pp. 127-8; the Breton raok should be considered too. Cf. raok, Le Gonidec; Trc. en he raoc ha var he lerc'h = Vann. en h raug hag h goud (in the Trc. and Vann. translations of Introd. ad vitam devotam); e'rauc, l'A* * *, Dict., s. v. ( devant', e'm-rauc, e'm oun-rauc, etc.); araug hag ardran, Rev. Celt., vii, p. 330 (Vann.); arg, (Bas Vann.). A is frequent in Middle-W. MSS. in expressions like cam a beth, da a was, etc. Cf. B. of Carm.: maur a teith deuthan, f. lb, Sk., ii, p. 231; B. of Herg.: truan a chwedyl a dywedyd, Sk., ii, p. 231; Ll. Gw. Rh.: da a was; mawr a beth, pp. 129, 141, 165; aghywir a beth; glew a beth, p. 125; dewr a was, pp. 125-6; praff a beth, p. 136; truan a beth, p. 156; ys drwc a chwedyl, p. 165. For the modern language, I find given in Rowland, Exerc, p. 143, as S.-W. druan (druan g ef, druan chwi) for druan o'r dyn, druan o hono; and, as used in colloquial language, druan oedd y dyn, druan oeddych chwi, druan oeddynt hwy. Sp. Dict. 3 . s. v. ys, has: ys truan o ddyn wyf fi, 'wretched man that I am.' (Cf. Davies, Dict.: Er asseveratio, Demet. pro Venedot. ys; but perhaps this obseiwation is only abstracted from his "N.-W. ysywaeth, S.-W. gwaetheroedd," see 27.) Druan oedd y dyn looks like a faulty orthography for druan odd y dyn = druan o'r dyn; cf. the S.-W. use of odd for o before the article, Y Gymmr., viii, p. 146. I cannot, however, decide this question. Druan ydy nhw! Yr Arw., Aug. 20, 1857, points, of course, in the other direction. [29.] Ac, a, occurs frequently, and in the modern language regularly, before the relative pronouns a and y, with or without the article, whilst oc, o is the Middle W. form of the preposition in this combination. There occur oc a, ac a, or a (o'r), ar a (a'r), and, later on, also ag alone, infecting the initial consonant of the verb it governs.



lwedd 1435) (tudalen 284)

284 OBSEEVATIONS ON TIIE WELSH NOUNS, Cf. MS. Z, p. 275: o pob iar ac a uo ynny ty = or a uo, MS. ./, = oc a uo, MSS. M, 0, Q, 7 1 , = a uo, MSS. J, S; L, p. 250: ygkyueir pop kymh6t or y kerda6 drosta = oc k. d., MSS. Q, T, = y k. d., MS. S, = a k. d., MSS. J, 0?; L, p. 189: o bop carcharar oc y diotto heyrn y arnna = or y d., MSS. J, 31, P, = y d., MS Q; L, p. 191: ympob ty y del = oc y del, MS. J, = or j del, MS. 31; MS. Q, p. 562: yspeilet ef oc a vo yindana o dillat. Ll. Gw. Rh.: yny diffrwythont oc an gwelo yn ymlad, p. 98. Wms., Hgt. MSS., : pawb oc ae darlleo, p. 297. Y S. Gr.: na dim oc ellit y drossi ar enryded (oc a). B. of Herg.: ba6b or ae gwelei, col. 613; or a uacker. L. Gw. Rh.: ar nyt arbetto idaw ehun, p. 2; or a vei reit, p. 3; or a gaffat, p. 6; drwy arogleu ac eu harogleuei, p. 7 (' for those who would smell them'); ac a uynnwys . . . . ac ar nys mynnawd, p. 22; ac ar nyt ymchwelws a las, p. 22; ac ar ny las . . . . p. 26; pawb or aoed, p. 30, etc. Add. MS. 19,709: o bob keluydyt or y gellit, f. 9b; ym pop lle or y bei reit; ar ny ladadoed onadunt, f. 15. MS. Cl. B 5: or a hanoedỳnt o, f. \ob; ar nỳ las onadunt, f. hb. Sal., N. T.: bop peth ar y wnaethoeddoedd (sic), f. 208a; o pob peth ar y weloedd ef, f. 373a. On this use of y cf. Y Cymmr., viii, p. 150. Marchog Crwydrad (17th cent.): pob dillad ag a archei .... ei gwneuthur, p. 3 (Pt. i, ch. 3); os pob peth ag a gassao y naill fo cr y llall, p. 2 (Ch. 2), etc.; os is used here as in Add. MS. 14,921. Can. y C: pob fflineb ag a wnaetho i, p. 63; nid oes uu dŷn ag 'aner, p. 332; Hope, Poems } 1765: i bob peth ag sydd wrthnebus, p. 83, etc. [30.] Like oc: ac (cf. also YCymmr., viii, p. 117), os, ot,or (' wlien'), which are o, from oc, with pronoininal elements affixed, occur, but rarely, as a, as, at, ar; these latter forms are hardly common in any text but Salesbury's N. T. Cf. a bydd y tuy yn teilwng, f. 15a; a 's byddwch, f. 8a; a 's dugy dy rodd i'r alLor, f. 7a; ad wyf vine yn ei gwneuthur = os ydwyf yn eu gwneuthur, ed. 1873. Ani, anid: any bydd, f. 7a; anid, f. 5a; any darllenasoch, f. 18a (also add ithr, f. 260&, etc.) In some notes on the orthography followed in Llẁer Gw. Gyffr., 1586, as reprinted thence in Llyfr. y C, p. 34, " a ' if or whether' for o", " as for a ys or os'\ are mcntioned. In the spoken language ys before consonants, 's before vowels, also ynd for ond, etc, are used. Cf. Cab.few. T.: ys dechreuith hi son am y beibl, p. 108; 's ydi o'n fyw a tase bosib i mi gael i



lwedd 1436) (tudalen 285)

ADJECTIVES, AND ADVERBS. 285 ddrecsiwn o, p. 80; Caledfryn, Gramm. 2 , p. 114: ouid oes, pro- nounced 'un does; Yr Arw.: 'does yno ddim ynd hen wr, Oct. 2, 1856; peth hawdd ydi dyud tos neb ynd ychunan yn gwbod sut yr odd hi, ib.; ynd ran hyny (' but as to this' ), May 28, 1857, etc. Onide, pron. ont, 'is it?'; nt in Carnarvonsh., Sweet, p. 411. [31.] On behct, bet, see Ehŷs in Rev. Celt., vi, p. 57. Davies (Dict., s.w.) twice mentions fecl Demet. = hyd Venedot., 1 usque ad'. In Dosp. Ed., 543, 925, S.-W. med is given. Sorne further details on divers nominal prepositions (Zeuss, G. C.\ pp. 691-698), etc, are: S.-W. ym mysg = N.-W. ym mhlith, Hughes, p. 33; N.-W. cyfyl = S.-W. yn agos, Y Cyf Dyfyr (Euthin), p. 78; N.-W. ynghylch, oddeutu = S.-W. obeutu, Y Traeth., iii, p. 14 (see YCymmr., viii, p. 159, and add obothtu, or bofftu, used at Neath). Gwent. cera a dos o bothdy dy fisnis, minda dy fusnes = Demet. gofala ani dy fisnis, Camb. Joum., iii, p. 248. This word is too widely spread to be exphiined as an Anglo- Welsh f orm introducing Eng. boii for deu in o-ddeu-tu, so we nmst goback to o-bob-tu, o boptu, and ascribe ph, (Jfov p) to an h developed by the accent. I have, however, no similar examples except dathod, daffod: dattod? L. Morris, Add. MS. 14,923, f. 133: S.-W. gwyddeneb = N.-W, gyferbyn, pron. gwydderbyn (sic); godderbyn, see Y Cymmr., vii, p. 235. S.-W. serch in the sense of tros, er, Eichards, Dict. Liw dydd, liw nos, ' by day, by night', Powel, Y Cymmr., vi, p. 138. [32.] Men, myn (' where') are frecpaently usecl in the poems printed by Skene and in the Myv. Arch. Cf. B. of An.: men na bei, men d nt eilassaf elein, Y God., Stanzas 43, 54, 1 etc. It is an oblique case of man, ' place', and has been retained in the Breton dialect of Vannes (mnn, ' where'). April mii, 1888. i 8k., ii, pp. 76, 79.



lwedd 1437) (tudalen 286)

286 OBSERYATIONS ON THE WELSH NOUNS, ETC. As to cynnagpwy, etc. (see YOymmr. f ix, p. 118-9), I have since found in the Marchog Crwydrad (Y Brython, vol. v, 1863, p. 368 1 ): ein cyfoeth, gynnag p'un a fo genytn ai ychydg ai llawer. In the same text occur: ei dechreuad cynnaf, yn gynnaf, y dechreuad cynnaf p. 7 (cyntaf), of which form two examples are found iu the Add. MS. 14,921, which contains so many exaniples of cynnag pwy. Pwy hynnag and cyntaf occur scores of times in the Marchog Cricydrad; but since the editor states in the preface to his edition that he often introduced modern Welsh orthography, one cannot tell whether gynnag, cynnaf were ordi- narily altered by him into bynnag, cyntaf, or whether they really occur only once or twice in the MS. The editor says (Preface, p . 2) " bod yr ysgrifenydd wedi myned yn fynych i eithafion gwerinaidd y dafodiaith hno [i.e., y Ddeheubartheg]"; the language, as far as the scanty remains of dialect permit nie to judge, agrees more than that of any other text I lcnow of with that of the Gwentian Add. MS. 14,921. Now theoccur- rence of both cynnag pwy and cynnaf (cf. also ond cygynned ag y cywo ef flas pechod, p. 369 2 ) in these two texts renders the suggestion I made /. c. almost certain to me; viz., that pwy gyntaf and pwy bynnag were mixed up, and that, in the Hmited district to which these two MSS. be- long, cynna(f) and bynna, bynnag caused cynnag to be formed; cynnaf itself was probably caused by cyn. Since, however, at present only cynta pwy seems to be used, it remains a question whether the simi- larity of cynna and bynna caused cynnag, cynta being afterwards intro- duced instead of cynna(g), or whether cynta(f) and bynna(g) were directy mixed up, and cynna(g) lived only for a certain time or in a certain dialect, as long as or where cynna(f), for cyntaf, was used. May 28th, 1888. NOTES BY PROFESSOR RHYS. P. 264,1. 24. Llefydd is also the Southwalian form, and is in no way parallel to torfŷdd, etc, as it is accented on the first syllable. It seems to be formed after the analogy of such words as tre\ trefydd. P. 269, 1. 27. Onithtar. In thevale of (lamorgan I have heard this niade into cnfftar. P. 278, 1. 19. Shoe. This word is one of the forms taken in Welsh by the English "show", and we say in N. Eeredigion: 7 sio'e o bobol ' n edrach ar y sie, " there is a sliow (a sight = multitude) of people looking at the show (the menagerie)". For sie o bobol we might also Bay pwr o bobol, where we employ tlie English word " power" as it is sometirnes used in Englisli. 1 Pt. iii, ch. 6; Reprint, p. 50, col. 1. - Jl>.; Rcprint, p. 51, col. 1.



Index to Abbreviations in the Above Article.

Egerton Phillimore.

Y Cymmrodor. Cyfrol IX.

Tudalennau 287-259




lwedd 1438) (tudalen 287)

INDEX TO ABBHEVIA.TIONS, ETC. 287 INDEX TO ABBBEVIATIONS, ETC, IN THE ABOVE AETICLE. By E. P. A: see"MS. A". A * * *: see "PA * * *" Ab Iolo: = Taliesin ab Iolo. See " Cyfrinach, etc", " Iolo MSS." abbrev.: abbreviatiou. Add. MS.: = one of the collection of "Additional MSS." in the British Museuin, which comprises (inter alia) the two great Welsh collec- tions of the Welsh School aud the Cymmrodorion Society. Add. MS. 14,931 (" Welsh School MS."): see " MS. E". Add. MS. 15,055: see " W. Lleyu, Yocab." Add. MS. 22,356 (" Cynnurodorion MS."): see " MS. <S ,M . Add. MS. 31,055: see "Thos. Williams, Dr." Ams.: see " IV Ams." An.: Aneuriu: see "B. of An." Angl.: Anglesea. Apr.: April. Araith Ieuan Brydydd Hir: 'the speech of Icuan Brydydd Hir (Hynaff, who fi. 1440-1470. The copy cited is that iu Add. MS. 14,973. Araith y Trwstan: ' the Awkward One's Speech'. The name of a long poem by Siou Tudur (died 1602). The copy cited is that iu Add. MS. 14,987. Arch. Brit.: Edward Lhuyd's [cdias Lhwyd] "Archieologia Britannica, etc, vol. i, Glossography" [all published] (xford, 1707, folio). Note. The Welsh Preface (At y Cymry) of 6 pages, quoted more than once, is unpaged. Arch. Camb.: " Arch&ologia Cambrensis; the Journal of the Cambrian Archaological Association", 1846, etc. (4 Series completed and a 5th in progress). Ardudwy: This district comprises the littoral of Merionethshire between the Mawddach and the Traeth Bach. Arw.: see li Yr Arw." At y C'ymry: ' To the Welsb.' See "Arch. Brit." Aug.: August. B: see " MS. B\ B.: see " R. B. Mab." B. of An.: Book of Aneurn. B. ofAn., God. (or YGod.): id., The Gododin. The original MS. (13th cent.) was in the late Sir Thomas Philhpps' coliection at Middle



lwedd 1439) (tudalen 288)

288 OBSERYATIONS ON THE WELSH NOUNS, ETC. Hill, Worcestershire (now in the possession of his son-in-law, Mr. Fenwick, of Cheltenham), and contains (1) the Gododin, (2) the Gorchanau, viz., Gorchan Tmlficlch, G. Adebon, G. Cyn- felyn, and G. Maelderw. The editions quoted are (1) that of Mr. Skeue in his Four Ancient Boocs of Wales, vol. ii, pp. 62-107, purportiug to represent the whole of the origiual MS. (Neither lines nor stanzas are nurnbered in this editiou.) (2) Williams ab Ithel's Y Gododn (Llaudovery, 1852, 8vo.), containing only the Gododin without the Gorchanau , and edited from copies of the aboye-named MS. and others. (Both lines aud stauzas are num- bered in this edition.) Other editions of the whole Book are to be found in the Myv. Arch. (lst and 2nd eds.), aud of the Gododin aloue in Stephens' work, " The Gododin of Aneurn Gwawdrydd, 1 * printed by the Cymmrodorion Society. See " Sk. (or Skene), ii." B. of Carm.: This meaus the " Black Book of Carmarthen" (Hengwrt MS. 11). The references are (1) to the pages of Mr. Skeue's edition in qp. cit., vol. ii, pp. 3-Gl; (2) to the folios of the autotype Facsimile of the MS., brought out by J. Gwenogvryn Evans (Oxford, 1888), The MS. is of the late 12th aud. early 13th centuries. See ''Sk. (pr Skene), ii." B. of Herg.: This meaus (not the White, but) the Red Book of Hergest, a MS. of the 14th cent. in the Library of Jesus Coll., Oxford. The references are (1) to the MS numbered (not by folios, but) by coumns; (2) to the pages of the Tcxt of the Mabinogion, ( tc.,from the Hed Book of Hergest, edited by Professor Rhŷs and J. Gwen- ogvryn Evans (Oxford, 1887): see " R. B. Mab."; (3) to the pages of Skene, op. cit., vol. ii (pp. 218-308), where parts of the poetry in this MS. (coll. 577-585 and 102G-105G) purport to be reproduced. See " Sk. (or Skene), ii." B. of S'l. Clad: The Book of St. Chad iu the Library of the Dean and Chapter of Lichield Cathedral: a late 7th- or early 8th-ceutury Irish MS. of the Latin Gospels, with Welsh marginal entries i>t the 8th and 9th centuries. Those cited for the word maharun (p. 2G7 siijj)-a) are of the (? later) ninth century, and by the same scribe. (This book is often cited by Zeu.-s and otliers as the Lichjuhl ('ni/i.r or Codi x Lichf.) Note. The longer Welsh entries in bhis MS. purport to be re- produced as an Appendix to Lih. Land. (<j. v.), pp. *271-4. /;. of TaL: Book nf' Taliessin (Hengwrt .l/.s'. 17, a MS. of about the middle of the 18th cent.). The references are to the pages of Skene, op. cit., vol. ii, pp. 108-217, wliere this MS. purports to be reproduced. See "Sk. (or Skene), ii", and "MS. V, W". - Barddas: or,;i Collection of Original Docuincnts, illustrative of the Theology, Wisdom, and Usagesof the Bardo-Druidic Systein of the



lwedd 1440) (tudalen 289)

INDEX TO ABBIIEYIATIONS, etc. 289 Isle of Britain; . . . . by the Kevd. J. Williams ab Ithel. For the Welsh MSS. Society, Llaudovery, etc, 1862" (vol. i). Note. Only part of vol. ii published. Bas-Cornouaillais: = the Breton dialect of Lower (i.e., Western) Cor- nouaille, comprising the S.W. of the Dpt. of Finistre. Bas Vanu.: Bas-vannetais, i.e., the Breton dialect of the lower (=: western) part of the Pays de Vannes, including (roughly speahing) the couutry betweeu the rivers Scorff (on the E.) and Ell (on the W.), in the Dpt. of Morbihan. Batz: means the Bourg de Batz, near the mouth of the Loire (De'pt. of Loire-Dfrieure), not the Ile de Batz, in the Pays de Le'on (Dpt. of Finistre). Ernault has written on the isolated Breton dialect of Batz in Rev. Celt., iii. Bed,: see " Y Bed. v Beitr.: " Beitrge zur cymrischen grammatik. (einleitung und voca- lismus.) der philosophischen facultt der universitt in Leipzig als dissertation zur erlangung der philosophischen doctorwrde eiu- gericht von Max Nettlau, aus Neuwaldegg iu Niedersterreich. Leipzig, mrz-april 1887." Bibl. Bodl.: (see " Cambrica") Bibliotheca Bodleiana. Bodl.: = one of the Bodley MSS. in that Library. Bown o H.: Bown o Hamtwn; i.e., the Welsh version of Sir Bevis of Hampton, preserved in the Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch (see under " Ll. Gw. PJi.") and the Red Booh of Hergest. Brec.: Breconshire, alias Brecknockshire. Bret.: see " Rev. de Bret." Brit.: see "Arch. BriO C: (1) Cymru. See " Can. y C", " Llyfr. >j C", " S. C." C: (2) Cymreig. See " P. C" C: see " MS. C". C 2: see " G. 6'. 2 ", " Zeuss". Cab. few.T.: Caban fewythr Tomos. The work cited is: " Aelwyd fewythr Robert, neuhancs Caban feuythr Tomos, gan William liees [Gwilym Hiraethog], Dinbych [Denbigh], 1853." Note. Not to be confounded with Caban fewyrth Twm, the Welsh translation of Uncle Toni's Cabiu (Cassell, London, 1853, and other editions). Caledfryn, Gramm. 2: = the second edition of the Grammadeg Cymreig of Gwilym Caledfryn CWilliam Williams), 1870. Calig.: see " MS. Calig." Camb.: Cambrensis: see " Arch. C?/ti." Cambr. (1): Cambrian: see " Cambr. Journ. v Cambr. (2): Cambrica [by Whitley Stokes], in the " Transactions of the Philological Society for 1860-1", comprising, " i. (pp. 20-1-232), The Welsh Glosses and Yerses in the Cam-



lwedd 1441) (tudalen 290)

290 OBSERVATIONS ON THE WELSH NOUNS, ETC. bridge Codex of Juvencus" [9th cent.]; " u. The Old Welsh Glosses at xford, Bibl. Bodl. Auct. F. 4-32": viz., " 1 (pp. 232-4), Glosses on Eutychius" [since proved to be ld-Breton]; ' 2 (pp. 234-6), Glosses on Ovid's Art of Love"; "3 (pp. 236-7), British Alphabet"; "4 (pp. 237-8), Note on Measures and Weights"; [5] (pp. 238-249), [The glossed portion of] "Bodl. 572" [since proved to be Old- Cornish]; "m (p. 249), [Some of] The Middle-Welsh Glosses in Cott. Vesp. A. xiv . . . . fo. II 1 " [the last 3 from fo. 13 b ]; and iv, " Addenda et Corrigenda'' (pp. 288-293). Cambr. Joum.: " The Cambrian Journal, published under the auspices of the Cambrian Institute": 12 vols. (last one unfiuished), Tenby (printed), 1854-1865. Campeu Charlymaen: ' The Exploits of Charlemagne.' Of the Welsh version of this work two MSS. have been published. For the one quoted underthe above title, see "LL Gw. /." For the other, see " Yst. de Cnr. Mag." Both MSS. are of the 14th century, but represent different editions. Can. y C.: " anwyll y Cymru [by Rice Prichard, Vicar q Llando- very; 1579-1644] yubedair rhan, Llundaiu, 1672" (2nd edu., 8vo.). Capella Glosses: = " M. Cap. 1 ', q. v. Card.: Cardiganshire. Carm.; see " B. of Carm." Carn.: Carnarvonshire. Celt.: see " Rev. Celt." cent.: century. Chad: see " B. of St. Chad." Chr.: see " Y Drych Chr." Chwedlau V Doethion: ' The Wise Men's Sayings'; a collection of Welsh proverbial Tripleta (oldest MS., about 1330-1350, in Jes. Coll, O.foii., MS. No. 20). Tie editiou of these referred to is tlmt in the loh MSS. (pp. 251-9), q. v. cf.: conj't r. Ch.: chapter. Cl., Cleop.: = " MS. Cleop.", 7. v. col.: colunm; coll.: coluinns. comm.: of common gender. Corn.: Cornish. See also " O.-Corn." ' Corn. Vocb.: The ancient (Latin-) Cornish Vocbulary, in the begiu- ning of C'o/t. Vesp. A. xiv (very early 13th cent.; transcribed from a considerably older MS.), printed in Zeus8' Grammatica Celtica, lst ed., pp. LlOO-1124, 2nded.,pp. 1065-1081; and, in alphabetical order, by Edwin Norris in vol. ii of liis Ancient Cornish Drama (Oxford, at the University Press, 1859, 8vo.), pp. 819-432.



lwedd 1442) (tudalen 291)

INDEX TO ABBREVIATIONS, ETC. 291 Cott.: = Oue of the MSS. of tlie Cottonian collection in tlie British Museum. See " MS. Calig.", etc. " MS. A, etc." Cyf.: see " Y Cyf., etc" yfrinach Beirdd Yn. Pr. (Abertawy, 1829): Cyfrinaeh Beirdd Ynys Prydain (edited by the late Iolo Morganwg, and brought out by his son, Taliesin al> Iolo), Abertawy [Swansea], 1829. Cychgr.: see " Y Cylchgr." Cymmr.: Cymmrodor; see " 1' Cymmr." Cymmrodoron Society (Works published by): see " B. of An.", " Hgt. MS. 202", "L. Glyn Cothi", " MS. Tit. D xxii", Yst. de Car. Magno And cf. " MS. S". Cymr.: (1) Cymric (i.e., ' Welsh'), see " Stud., etc." Cymr.: (2) Cymreig; see " Y Gicron Cymr." D: see"MS. J D". d.: died. D. S. Evaus, W. Dict.: " A Dictionary of the Welsh Language, by the Revd. D[auiel] Silvan Evans" (Parts i, contaiuing " A", and ii, containing " B", are out), Wm. Spurrell, Carrnarthen, 1887-8. Id.: see "Gwallt. Mech.", "Llyth.", "Llyfr. y C.", "Marchog Crwydrad? Dares Phrygius. The Welsh version quoted is the one in Cleop. B. V. Daf. ab Gvv.: Dafydd ab Gwilym. The edition of his poems cpuoted here is the frst one, by Owen Jones (Myfyr) and William Owen (afterwards Dr. W. O. Pughe), London, 1789, 8vo. Davies: = The Revd. Dr. Joliu Davies of Mallwyd (1570-1644). See " Ll. y Eesol." Davies, Dict.: = IIis Welsh-Latin and Latin-Welsh Dictionary, entitled " Antiqua3 Linguse Britannicse . . . . et Lingua Latiuse Diction- arium duplex, etc, Londini, etc, 1632" (4to.). Davies, Gramm.: The^Vs<edition of his Gramtnar, intituled: " Antiquse Liugua Britannicse, etc, Rudimenta, etc." (London, 1621, 12mo.). Note. The second (and last) edition (Oxon, 1809) is also ouce quoted co nomitie (p. 271, supra). De r Urgence, etc.: " De l'urgence d'une exploration philologique en Bre- tagne, ou la langue bretonue devant la science. Extrait des Mmoires de la Socit cV Emidation des Ctes-du-Nord ,, (St. Brieuc, 1877, 8vo.; pp. 18) [par Emile Ernault]. Dec.: December. Demet.: Dr. John Davies' occasional abbreviation for Demetie, Demetas, Demetic, etc, ' the Demetians, Demetiau', i.e., the people or (in) the language of Demetia (Dyfed). The otherform is "Dimet.", q. v. Denbigh: = Denbighshire. Dpt.: Dpartement. Dict.: Dictionary. See " Davies", " D. S. Evans", " l'A * * *", " Owen Pughe", " Richards", " Sp."



lwedd 1443) (tudalen 292)

292 OBSERVATIONS ON THE WELSH NOUNS, ETC. Dimet.: Dirnetian, etc. Davies uses " Dimetian" to indicate ' S.-Welsh'; it is less improperly used by most writers to nclude the dialects o Pembrokeshire, Carmartheushire, and Cardiganshire, embraciug the old divisions of Dyfed, Ceredigion, and all Ystrad Tywi but Gower, which is now in Glamorganshire. Dosp. Ed.: "Dosparth Edeyrn Davod Aur; or the Ancient Welsh Grammai; . . . . by Edeyrn the Golden-tongued, etc, etc, with English translatious and notes, by the Rev. John Williams Ab Ithel, etc. Pubd. for The Welsh MSS. Society, Llandovery, 1856." Note. The " translation" of the Grammar, quoted by Dr. Nettlau, is virtually a uew Welsh Grammar by the Translator (see his Pref., p. xv). Dr. Thos. Williams: see " Thos. Williams, Dr." Drych, etc.; see " Y Drych, etc." Dyfed: The Welsh for Dimetia. See " Demet.'\ " Dimet." E: see " MS. E." E. Glam.: Eastern Glamorganshire, comprising all the couuty east of a line drawn from Merthyr Mawr (near Bridgeud) to Aberdare (Camb. Journ., iii, p. 2JT). E. Evans: (The late) Evander Evans. See " Stud., etc." E. Lhuyd: Edward Lhuyd. See " Arch. Brit." e.g.: exempli grati. Early Engl. Pron.: Early Engsh Pronuncation, by Alexauder J. Ellis. Ed.: see " Dosp. EdP VA.: edited; edn.: edition; eds.: editious. , , , ' \ see " Early Enal. Pron." Engl.:) * J Emj.-W. Dict.: see "Sp., etc." Ergyng (p. 270, n.): = Erging, now the Deanery of A rchenfield, compris- ing the S.E. portion of Herefordshire E. of Wye. Ernault: = M. Emile Ernault. See " Batz", " De l'Urgence, etc." Evans: (1) see " D. S. Evans, etc" Evans: (2) Evander Evans. See " Sttid., etc." Evans: (3) J. Gweuogfryn Evans. See ' B. of CannJ', " R. B Mab." Exli-i\: Exercises. See " ltowlaud, Exerc." F: see "MS. F. f.: folio (of a MS. or book). Feb.: February. fem.: femininc f'eic.: see " Cab.fcw. T." if.: fulios (of a MS. or book). .//'.: see " Hanes //.//'." //.: joruit. Flint: Flintsbire.



lwedd 1444) (tudalen 293)


freq.: freqventer. (This abbrev. is always quoted from Zeuss, G. C. 2 ).

G.: see "Iolo G." G: see "MS. (?".

G. C. 2 (also " Z 2 ", " Zeuss'').= The second edition of Zeuss' Grammatica

Celtica, by Ebel (Berlin, 1871, 4to.).
GL, gl.: Glosses, gloss. See " Juv. GL", " Camlrca", " M. Cap."
Glamorgansh.: \ Glamorgan or Glamorganshire. See " E. Glam.", " W.
Glam.: Glam."

God. (also Y God.): The Gododin. See " B. of An."
Gramm.: Grammar. See " Caledf ryn", " Davies", "Rowland","Spurrell."
Greal: see " Y S. Greal."

Gw.: (1) see " Ll. Gic. Rh. v Gw.: (2) see " Lliccr, etc v
Gwallt. Mech., Worl-s; " Gwaith y Parch. Walter Davies, A. C.

(Gwallter Mechain), etc." (Ed. by the Revd. D. Silvan Evans,

3 vols., Carmarthen, 1868, 8vo.)
Gweith.: see " Y Gweith."

Gwenogfryn: ) (= J. Gwenogfryn Evans), see " R. B. Mb", " B. of
Gwenogvryn: ) Carm."
Gwent.: Gwentian, i.e., of Gwent or in its dialect. Used conventionally

of the dialect of Gwent and Morganwg, i.e. (roughly speaking)

Monmouth- and Glamorgan-shires. (Gwynllywg, between the Usk

and Rumney rivers, though cow in Monm., was anciently in Mor-

ganwg. The name is now corrupted into Giuentllwg.)
Gwyl.: see Y Gwyl.

H: see " MS. E". H.: see " Bown o H
Hanes y ff., 1677: " Y Ffydd Ddi-fvant. sef, Hanes y Ffydd Gristi-

anogol, etc." (3rd ed., Oxford, 1677, 8vo.), by Charles Edwards.
Hanesion o'r Hen Oesoedd, 1762 [alias 1872): (quoted on pp. 262, 264,

and 281 supra).
Harl. MS.: = Harleian MS. 1796, a MS. of the Latin codification of

the Welsh Laws. See " Latin Laws".
Harl. MS. (with number following): = One of the Harleian collection

of MSS. in the British Museutn.
Harl. MS. 958: see " MS. T, and cf. " Ll. Gw. Rh.", " Hgt. MS. 202."
HarLMS. 4353: see " MS. F".
Hengwrt MSS.: see " Hgt. MS.", etc, " Wms., Hgt. MSS., ii." (For

various other Hengwrt MSS. see under " B. of, etc", " Latin

Laws", "Ll. Gw. Rh.", "MS. A, etc", " W. Lleyn".)
Her. Vis.: " Heraldic Yisitations of Wales and the Marches in the time

of Queen Elizabeth and James I, by Lewis Dwnn" (edited for the
Welsh MSS. Society by the late Sir S. R. Meyrick; Llandovery,

1846, 2 vols., imp. 4to.). See " Llyfr Achan".
Herg.: see " B. of Herg."

Hgt. MS. (Latin Laws): = Hcngwrt MS. 7. See " Latin Laws".
Hgt. MS. 57: The unique fragment quoted hence (p. 279 supra) occurs



lwedd 1445) (tudalen 294)


q the niiddle of the MS., on three pp. whence the original writing
has been obliterated.

fgt. MS. 202: = A Fragment from Hengwrt MS. 202, edited in Y
Cymmrodor, vol. vii, pp. 89-154. The folios by which this MS. is
cited supra are (1) not those of the MS. rolumc, but of the frag-
ment stitched into it, which has nothing to do with the rest of its
contents, (2) quoted by the numbers as first printed, subsequently
found tobe wrongly read, and corrected in Y Qammr. } vii, pp. 20-1-6.
This fragment is in the same style of hand as the Mabinogion in Ll.
Gw. Rh. (Hgt. MS. 4), q. v. and Harl. MS. 958 ("MS. T"), q. v.
All are of late 13th or early 14th century date.

Hgt. MSS.: see " Wms., Hgt. MSS., ii."

Hibb. Lect., Rhŷs: " The Hibbert Lectures, 1886. Lectures on the Origiu
and Growth of Religion, as illnstrated by Celtic Heathendom, by
[Professor] John Rhŷs .... Londou, etc, 1888."

Hom.: see " Three, etc."

Homil.: " Pregethau a osodwydallan trwy awdurdod i'w darllein ymhob
Eglwys blwyf a phob capel er adailadaeth i'r bobl annyscedig.
Gwedi eu troi i'r iaith Gymeraeg drwy waith Edward James"
(London, 1606, small 4to.). [The first edition of the Welsh transla-
tion of the Homilics.~\

Hope, Poems (1765): The work from which these poems are quoted
is: " Cyfaill i'r Cymro; neu, Lyfr o Ddiddanwch Cymhwysol, Ei
dowys Dyn ar Ffordd o Hyfrydwch: Yn Ganeuon, a Charolau, ag
Englynion hawdd yw deuall. O waith Prydyddion Sir y Flint, a
Sir Ddimbech. O Gasgliad W. Hope, o Dre Fostyn. Caerlleon
[Chester]: Argraphwyd gan W. Read a T. Huxley yn y Flwyddyn
1765; ag ar werth gan W. Hope, yn Sir y Flint."

Note. William Hope of Mostyn (in Welsh Tre Fo.<;ty),Flintshire,
was one of the eight authors of the poems contained in this book.

Hughes (1823): == "An Essay, on the ancient and present state, of the
Welsh Language: with particular reference to its dialects. Being
the subject proposed by the Cambrian Society, for the year 1822.
By John Hughes, author of Horat Britanncs0' (8vo., London, 1823).

T: see " MS. 7". I.: see " Sal, N. T, Gwel. /."
Introd.: Tntroductio.

ib.: ibidem; id.: idem.

Iolo G.: Iolo Goch (died after 1402). Tle is sometimes cited as " Iolo",
sometimes as " I. G.", in the works of Dr. John Davies of Mallwyd.

lolo MSS.: " Iolo M(i>t)isrr//,ts. A Selection of Ancient Welsh Mumi-
scripts, in Prose and Yerse, from the collection made by tlie late
Edward Williams, Jolo Morganwg . . . . l>y liis son, the late
Taliesin Williams (Ab Toh) of Merthyr Tydfil Published for Tlc
Welsh MSS. Society, Llandovery .... 1848.



lwedd 1446) (tudalen 295)


J: see " MS. J".

Jes. ColL, 0x0%., MS.: = One of the MSS. in the Library of Jesus
Coliege, xford.

J. Gwenogvryn Evans: see " B. of Carm", " R. B. Mab."

Jan.: January.

Jur. Gl.: Juvencus Glosses. See " Cmbrica".

Kuhn's Zeitschr.: Kuhn's Zeitschrift.
l'A * * *, Dict.: " Dictionnaire franois-breton ou franois-celtique du
dialecte de Vannes. Enrichi de thmes .... par Monsieur
L'A * * *.
(Supplment considrable aux Dictionnaires franois-
bretons) - ', Leide, 1744, 8vo.

L: see " MS. L".

L. Glyn (or Gl.) Cothi: " Gwaith Leicis Giyn Cothi .... Oxford, for
the Cyramrodorion .... 1837'' (2 vols., 8vo., but with onepagina-
tion runniug throughout). L. G. C. died after 1486.

L. Morris: Lewis Morris (Llywelyn Ddu o Fn; d. 1765), brother to
Richard and William Morris.

Latin Laics: The Latin codifications of Welsh Laws, printed in Aneurin
Owen's Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales, frora the MSS., and
at the pages of vol. ii of the 8vo. editiou, raentioned below:
Hengwrt MS. 7 (early I3th cent.); pp. 749-814.
MS. C'ott. Vesp. E. xi (early 14th cent.); pp. 814-892.
Harleian MS. 1796 (13th cent.); pp. 893-907.
N.B. Dr. Nettlau's paginal references are to the folio edition.

Lect.: see " Hibb. Lect."

Lect. 2 , Rhŷs: " Lectures on Welsh Philology, by [Professor] John Rhŷs.
Second edition .... London, 1879."

Lewis: see " L. Morris", " L. Glyn Cothi."

Lhuyd: see " E. Lhuyd", " Arch. Brit."

Lib. Land.: " The Liber Landavensis, Llyfr Teilo, or the Ancient
Register of the Cathedral Church of Llandaff .... Published for
The Welsh MSS. Society, Llandovery: . . . . 1840.*' (Original MS.
written in about 1132. R. W. Haddan.)

Ling.: see " Mm. Soc. Ling." LL.: The Leabhar Laigneach, or Book of Leinster, a MS. of the 12th
century, in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy. Ll. Gw. Rh.: Llyfr Gicyn Rhydderch, ' Rhydderch's White Book',
(Hengwrt MSS., Nos. 4 and 5). This consists of parts of two
separate MS. collections bound together, the older one (in the same
style as the Fragment from Hengwrt MS. 202 and Hetrl. MS. 958)
of the late 13th or early 14th century, and containing the " Mab-
inogior" (all but Rhonabwy), the other of somewhat later date.
The " pages" to which reference is made as those of this MS. are
those of the Revd. Canon Williams' Selections from the Henrpnt



lwedd 1447) (tudalen 296)


MSS., vol. ii, pp. 1-284 (Parts IV and V of the whole work, Part
VI being unpublished), in which portions of the MS. (all, but Boicn
o Hamtum, taken from the niore modern part) pnrport to be repro-
duced. The followiug are the works printed by Canon Williams
from his transcripts of this MS.:

Campeu Charlymaen, Hengwrt MSS., vol. ii., pp. 1-118.

Bown o Bamtwn ,, 119-188.

Purdan Padrc ,, 189-211.

Buched Meir Wyry 212-237.

YSeithPechawtMarwawl,, 237-242.

Euangel Nicodemus ,, 243-250.

YGroglith 250-266.

Hanes Pontius Pilatus) 9fi

Historia Judas } " " " " /b '"^ 4 -

Arwydon cyn dydbrawt (o weih Lywelyn vard) ,, 274-275.

Prophwydolyaeth Sibli Doeth 276-284.

The rest of the contents of Canon Williams' 2nd volume are

referred to supra as from " Wms., Hgt. MSS., ii", q. v.
Ll. y Resol.: " Llyfr y Resolusion .... Wedi ei gyfieithu yn Gymraeg

gan y Dr. I[ohn] D[avies] er lls i'w blwyfolion . . . ." (2nd ed.,

London, 1684, 8vo.)

A translation of the English work by Father Parsons, the Jesuit.
Lleyn: see ' AV. Lleyn".
Llicer Gw. Gy)'., 1586: Ll'wer Gweddi Gyffredin, etc London,

1586, 4to.
Llyfr Achau: (' Pedigree-Booh'). This i-efers to the one by Hopkin ab

Eignon of Brecon (1602), printed in " Her. Fẃ." (q. v.), vol. ii.
Jjifr. y C.: Llyfryddiaeth y Cymry, or Cambrian Bibliography, by the

Revd. Wm. llowlands (Gwilym Lleyn). Edited and enlarged by the

Revd. D. S. Evans (Llanidloes, 1869, 8vo.).
Llŷn: = Ijleyn.
Llyth., D. S. Evans: " Llythyraeth yr Iaith Gymraeg, gan [y Parch.]

D. Silvan Evans. Caerfyrddin [= Carmarthen], W. Spurrell, 1861."
Loanwords: " Welflh Words borrowed from Latin, Greek, and Hebrew"

by Professor Rhŷs), in Arch. Camh., 4th Series; vol. iv (878)i

pp. 258-270 and 355-365; vol. v (1874), pp. 52-9, 224-232, and

71/: see "MS. M".
M.Cap.: ="The Old Welsh (losses on Martianus Capella['s h

Nuptiis Philologia ci M< ^^n

ii~\ ,, , edited (and numbered) by Whiey

Stokes from the original in MS. C.C.C.C. 153 (8th cent.), in Arch.

Camb. for 1873, No. 13 of 4th Series [vol. iv], pp. 1-21.



lwedd 1448) (tudalen 297)


Mab.: Mbinogon. "The Mbinogion froin the Llyfr Coch o Hergesf,

etc., by Lady Charlotte Guest" (3 vols., Llandovery and London,
1849). See also " B. of Herg.", " Ll. Gw. Eh.", " R. B. Mab."

Note. (Where " Mab." follows a quotatiou from Zeuss, it really
forrns part of the quotation from that work.)

Marchog Crwydrad (Reprint): " Y Marchocj Crwydrad: Ilen Ffnglith
Gymreig. Cyhoeddedig dan olygiad y Parch. D. Silvan Evans.
Tremadog: R. I. Jones [Alltud Eijon]; Caerfyrddin: W. Spurrell,
1864." (8vo.)

Note. This was first published in parts in Y Bryihon, vol. v
(1862-3), pp. 1-17, 138-153, 257-267, and 361-374, whence Dr.
Nettlau quotes, but concordances are appended to the above
edition wherever the pagiuations differ. Chapters 1 to 6 of Book i
are similarly paginated (pp. 1-17) in both editions.

masc.: masculine.

Me'm. Soc. Ling.: Mmoires de la Socit de Linguistique de Paris.

Menevia: used in an article quoted from Cambr. Journ., iii, iv, for
Mynwy, ' Monmouthshire'. Properly it means Mynyw, 'St. David's'.

Merioneth: Merionetbshire.

Mid.-I.: Middle-Irish. See " Three, c/c."

Mid.-W., Middle W.: Middle-Welsh.

Monm., Monmsh.: Monmouthshire.

Morganwg: see " Gwent."

Morris: see u L Morris", " R. Morris".

MS.: Manuscript. See " Add. MS.", " Harl. MS", etc, " IJr/t. MSJ',
etc, " Latiu Laws"; and the following entries.

MS. C.C.C.C: (see "M. Cap.") one of the MSS. in the Library of
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.

ne of the MSS. designated Caligula, Cleopatra,

Titus, or Vespasian, respectively, in the Cottoniau

"i collection at the British Museum. (For various of

these MSS. see under " Dares Phrygiis", " Latin

Laws n , "MS. .1, etc")

MS. Tit. D xxii: A MS. of the early 15th cent. (part is dated 1439),
some of which (fos. 1-19, comprising A Description of the Day of
Judgement) was edited, with notes, by Prof . Thos. Powel in Y Cymm-
rodor, vol. iv, pp. 106-138.

MS. A, etc: These MSS. are those mainly used by Aneurin Owen for
the Welsh part of his Aucient Laws and Institutes of Wales (London,
1841), and distinguished by him for critical purposes by the suc-
cessive letters of the alphabet. The pages appended to the citatious
of the MSS. supra are those of thefolio editionof the printed work,
which was also published simultaneously in two large vols. 8vo.
The following is a list of the MSS. in question:

MS. Calig.:
MS. Cleop.(orCl.)
MS. Tit.:
MS. Vesp.:



lwedd 1449) (tudalen 298)


[I. MSS. of Venedotian Code.] Dates of MSS.

MS. A: (Part of) Hengwrt MS. 26 (" Llyfr du o'r PTaera") (about 1241)
., J5: Cott. Titus D. II. - - (13th cent.)

,, C: Calnj.A.lU. - - (about middle of I3th cent.)

(Parts of two distinct MSS. bound together.)
,, D: Hengwri MS. 311, and (3 pp. misbound) part of

Henywrt MS. 8 (" Llyfr Tg") - (Do. 14th cent.)

E: Add. MS. 14,931 (" Welsh School MS.") (middle of 13th cent.)

F: Hengwrt MS (perhaps No. 5 of Hgt. MS.

39; see next entry).
G: Hengwrt MS. 39 (No. 2 or No. 5?).

Note. This MS. vol. comprises five separate MSS.:

(1) Dimetian Laws, MS.,pp. 1-25.

(2) Yenedotian Laws, pp. 26-50.

(3) Llyfr Cynghawsedd (also in MS. B), pp.

52-71 - - - - (early 13th cent.)

(4) Llyfr Cynog, pp. 73-76.

(5) Venedotian Laws, pp. 76-119.

Nos. 1-4 are intituled "Cyn'\ and No. 5 " Adcyu"..
H: (Part of) Hengwrt MS. 26 (see above) - - (16th cent.)

[II. MSS. of Dimetian Code.~]
MS. /: Hengwrt MS. 19 (" Beta 19") - (about middle of 14th cent.)
J: Jesus Coll. Oxon. MS. No. . . . (late 14th or early lth cent.)
K: (Part of) Hengwrt MS. 18 ("Ealan.") - (about 1469)

(Said to contain poems in the autograph of L. Glyn Cothi.)

L: Cott. TitusD. IX - (late 13th or early 14th cent.)

., . , t* , j, (before end of I4tli cent.

M-.HeugirrtMSAl ("Beta47") - | v W.WE.W.)

N: (Partof) Hengwrt MS. 312 ("Beta") - (Uth cent.)

: Do. (" Bedu") - (about 14th cent.)

/\- (Part of) Hengwrt MS. 6 (" Befol") - (early 15th cent.)

Q: A Wynnstay MS. (burnt in 1858) - (about 1401)

r. tt iro oo /nro r i 7,ri ,, (mddle of 14th Ceilt.

R: Hengwrt MS. 23 (MS. Maredudd Llwyd) y T T1/ TTr

,, S: Add. MS. 22,356 (" Cymmrodorion MS.") (about 15th cent.)

(Written in South Cardiganshire.)
T: Harleian MS. 958 - - (late 13th or early 14th cent.)

(In the same style of writing as the Mbinogion of Hengwrt
MSS. 4 and 5, and the Fragment in Id. 202.)

[III. MSS. of Gwentian C'ode.]
MS. U: Hengwrt MS. 31 (" Morg.") - (about middle of Mtli cent.)
V: Harleian MS. 4353 - - - (13th cent.)

(In siine style, if not band, as B. of 'l'al. and fengwrt MS. . f >9.)

I see " Sal., N. 7Y



lwedd 1450) (tudalen 299)


MS. W: Cott. Cleop. A. XIV. - - - (13th cent.)

(n same style as MS. V.)
X: Cott. Cleop. B. V. - (about middle of 14th cent.)

Y: MS. of (the late) Neath Literary and Philosophical Society

(lost since before 1860. 2?. P.) (middle of 14th cent.)

Z. (Part of) Hengwrt MS. 6 ("Pomf.") - (about 1480)

Note.- -Some of the above MSS. contain not only the three
Codes, but various parts of the Anomalous Laws, printed in vol. 2
of the 8vo. edition. The three other MSS. used by Owen for the
Welsh Laws are notcited by Dr. Nettlau; for the MSS. of the Latin
Codes used by Owen, see " Latin Laics".

Myv. Arch.: "The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales", 3 vols., 8vo.,
London, 1801. A new edition in one vol., published by Gee. Den-
bigh, 1870.

-V: see "MS. N\

n.: note.

N. T, Sal.:

N Test., Sal.

N. W.: North Wales; N.-W.: North-Welsh.

Nov.: November.

O: see "MS. 0".

O.-Corn.: Old Cornish. The words so designated are from the Bod-
lcy MS. 572. See under " Cambrica".

Oct.: October.

op. cit.: opere citato.

Ovid Glosses: see under " Cambrica".

Owen: =: Aneurin Owen's Folo edn. of the Welsh Laws. See " Latin
Lau-s", " MS. A, etc."

Owen Pughe, Dict.: " A Dictionary of the Welsh Language, etc.
Second edition, by W. Owen Pughe, D.C.L., etc.; Denbigh,
Thomas Gee, 1832" (2 vols. 8vo). The quotations are made from
this edition: the lst (1803) bears the name of " William Owen"
(Dr. P.'s then name); the so-called 3rd edition (Gee, 1866) is
virtually a different work, based on Pughe, by Mr. R. J. Pryse.

P: see " MS. P".

p.: page; pp.: pages.

P. C: Punch Cymreig (Holyhead, 1858).

Phil.: Phihlogy. See " Lect. r \ " Stud., etcP

pl., plur.: plural.

Powel (or Powell): = Professor Thos. Powel, see " B. of An."\ " MS.
Tit. D 22", " Yst. de Car. Mag. n

Powis. or Powys.: Powysian; i.e., belonging to the dialect of Powys.
(Used to include all Montgomeryshire and the S.E. parts of Flint-
shire and Denbighshire.)

x 2



lwedd 1451) (tudalen 300)


Pr.: see " Cyfrinach, etc."
Pref.: Preface.

Pughe: = " Owen Pughe'', q. v.
pubd.: piblished.
Q: see " MS. Q".
q. v.: quod riilc.
R .- see " MS. R'\

R.B.Mah.: Red Booh Mabinogion, i.e., " Y Llyvyr Coch o Hergest, Y

Gywol I, Y Mabinogion, etc. The Text of the Mabinogion and

other Welsh Tales from the Red Book of Hergest, edited by John

Rhŷs .... and J. Gwenogvryn Evans, Oxford, 1887."

R. Morris: Richard Morris (d. 1779), brother to Lewis Morris and

William Morris.
Resol.: see tl Ll. y ResoU'

Rev. Celt.: Rerue Celtigue, Paris, 1870, etc.
(8 vols. and part of a9th out).
Rev. de Bret.: Revue de Bretagne et de Yendc.
Rh.: see " Ll. Gw. 2A."
Rhŷs: Professor John Rhŷs, See "Hibb. Lec', " Lect.-\ "Loanwords",

Richards, Dict.: " Antiquse Linguse Britannicse Thesaurus . . . . by
Thomas Richards, curate of Coychurch" [Wallic Llangrallo, Gla-
morganshire], Bristol, 1753.

Note. This is the first edition of the work, and that from which

the quotations are made.

Rowland, Gramm*: "A Grammar of the Welsh Language . . . . by

[the lateRevd.] Thomas Rowland,4th edn. . . . Wreiham [1876]."

Rowland, Exerc.: "Welsh Exercises' ! (by the same), Part I. Bala,

1870 (all published).
S: see " MS. ST\ S.: Seint, Sant [' Iloly 1 ]: see " Y S. Gr."
S. C. or S. Cymru: " Seren Cymru. Newyddiadur Teuluaidd Pythef-

nosol" (Caerfyrddin [Carmarthen], 1856-1860).
S. Gomer: Scren Gomer, Caerfyrddin [Carmarthen], 1814, etc.
s. v.: sub voce; s. w.: sub vocibus.
S. E.: South-East; S. W.: (1) South-West.
S. W.: (2) S. Wales: South Wales. S.-W.: South-Welsh.
Sal., N. T.: Salesbury, New Testament; i.e. f "Testament newyddein
Arglwydd Eesu Christ. Gwedy ei dynnu, yd y gadei yr ancyfiaith
'air yn ei gylydd or Groec a'r Llatin, gan newidio ffurf llythyreu
gairise-dodi. Eb law hynny y mae pob Gair a dybiwyi y vot yn
andeallus, ai o ran Llediaith y 'wlat, ai o ancynefinder y deunydd
wedi ei noti ai eglurhau ar 'ledemyl y tu dalen gydrychiol."
(By William Salesbury, London, 15G7.)
Notc A reprint published a1 Carnarvon in 1850 (8vo.).



lwedd 1452) (tudalen 301)


Sal., N. T, Gioel. I.: = id., Giceled'ujaeth Ieuun, .c., 'The Bookof Reve-
lation' in Salesbury'sabove-named work (translated by John Huet,
a resident and incumbent in the neighbourhood of Builth).

Sanskr.: Sanskrit.

Sept.: September.

seq.: sequentia.

ser.: series.

Sk. (or Skene), ii: Skene, vol. ii; i.e., the second volume of " The Four
Ancient Books of Wales, .... containing the Cymric Poems
atti'ibuted to the Bards of the Sixth Century, by William F. Skene,
Edinburgh .... 1868" (contaming the Welsh Texts of the Blach
Booh of Carmarthen, and Boolcs of Aneurin and Taliessin, and >ome
of the poetry from the Rsd Booh of Herg< st). See " B. of An.",
" B. of Carm.", " B. ofHerg.", " B. of Tal?

Soc.: see " Mm. Soc. L'ing."

Sp., Dict. 3: " A Dictionary of the Welsh Language .... by William
SpuiTell. Srd Editiou, Carmarthen, 186G."

Sp., Eng.-W. Dict. 3: " An English-Welsh pronouncing Dictionary
.... (by) William Spurrell." (Third Editiou, Carmarthen, 1872.)

Sp., Gramm. 3: " A Grammar of the Welsh Language, by William Spur-
rell. Third Edition, Carmarthen .... 1870."

St. Chad: see " of St. Chadr

Stokes: = Whitley Stokes. See " Cambrica", " M. Cap/\ " Three Mid.-
Irish Homilies", " Toga Troi (LL.)'\

Stowe MS.: ne of the collection of the MSS. formerly at Stowe, since
the Earl of Ashburnham's, and now (all but the Irish and a few
other MSS.) in the British Museum.

Note. The numbers cited are those, not of Charles O'Conor's
Bibliotheca MS. Stowensis (2 vols., 4to.),but of the " Sale Catalogue"
used at the Museum pendingthe completion of an official Catalogue.

Stud. in Cymr. Phil.: Evander Evaus' Studies in Cymric Philolojy,
priuted, with a continuous numbering, in ihtArch. Camb., 4th Ser.;
No. i in vol. iii (1872), pp. 297-314; No. ii in vol. iv (1873), pp.
139-153; No. iii in vol. v (1874), pp. 113-123.

sup.: supra.

superl.: superlative.

Sweet: = Dr. Henry Sweet's Siiolcen North-Welsh, printed iu the Trans-
actions ofthe (London) Philological Society for 1882-4.

T.: (1) see "Sal., N. T"; T: (2) see " Cab.few. T."
T: see " MS. T".
Tal.: see " B. of TaW

Thos. Williams, Dr.: Dr. (sometimes called " Sir") Thomas ^illiams (or
Ap Wiliem"), of Ardde 'r Myneich (now YrArdda), Trefriw



lwedd 1453) (tudalen 302)


(Ji. 1573-1620), quoted above as the scribe of Add. MS. 31,055, a
collection of transcripts from the Recl and White Boohs of Hergest
and other sources.
Three Mid.-Tr. Hom.: " Three MddU-Irsh Homlies on the Lives of
Saints Patrick. Brigit, and Columba. Edited by Whitley Stokes.
(ne hundred copies privately printed.) Calcutta, 1877.''
Tit.: see " MS. Tit."

Toyal Troi (LL.): "Togail Troi. 'The Destructionof Troy', transcribed

from the Facsimile of theBooc o Leinster, and translated with a glos-

sarial index of the rarer words by Whitley Stokes, Calcutta, 1882."

Traeth.: see " Y Traeth."

Trc.: trcorois, i.e., in the Bretou dialect of the Pai/s de Trguier

(Breton Landreger), in the modern Dpt. of Ctes-du-N ord.
U: see"MS. ".
V: see "MS. V".
Vann.: vannetais, i e., in the Breton dialect of the Pays de Yannes.

The conventioual vannetais of books represents the dialect of the
neighbourhood of the town of Vannes (in Breton Gwsned). See
also " Bas Vann."
Vened.: Venedotlan, .e in the dialect of the district of Gwynedd, em-

bracing all N. Wales not included in " Powys", q. v.
Vesp.\ see " MS. Vesp."
Vis.: see " Her. Vis."

Vocab.: Vocabulary. See " Corn. Vocab.", " W. Lleyn".
vol.: volume.
W: see " MS. W".

AV.: (l)WalesorWelsh. See "N.W.", "S. W.", "O.-W." W.: (2)West.
W. (ilam.: Western Glamorganshire, i.e., all of the county lying west
of a line drawn from Merthyr Mawr (near Bridgend) to Aberdare.
(Camhr. Journ., iii, p. 244.)
W. Lleyn, Vocb.: The Vocabulary of the poet William Lleyn (or
Llyn; 1540-1587). The autographformsHenw MS. 122; L.Munis'
transcript in Add. MS. 15,055 has been used by Dr. Nettlau.
Williams: see " Caledfryn", "Thos. Williams", " Wms., Hgt. MSS."
Williams ab Ithel: see " Barddas, etc", " Dosp. Ed."
Wms., /////. MSS., ii: = the parts of Canon Robert Williams' Selectipns
from the 1 1<

n;/irrt MSS., vol. ii, that are not taken from fche Llỳfr
tiiri/n Rhydderch, i.e., all from p. 284 to the end of Part V at
p. 34o. (MS. sources unknown, but can hardly be earlier fchan 15th
cent.) For the earlypart of fche vol., see "/./. Gw. /i'A."; Part VI,
corapleting the vol.,is unpublished.
Il'. Il'. /;. II'.: =The initials of fche late Mr. Wynne of Peniarth,
quoted under "MS. A, etc." (</. v.) as an authority for the dates of
some MS3. in his collection of Hengwrt MSS.



lwedd 1454) (tudalen 303)


X: see "MS. A".
Y: see"MS. F".

Y Bed.: Y Bedyddiwr, Caerdydd [Cardiff], 1849, etc.

Y Cylchgr.: Y Cylchgrawn.

Y Cymiar.: " Y Cymmrodor; the Transactions [and Magazine] of the

Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion", Loudon, 1877, etc.

Y Cyf. Dyfyr (Ruthin): Y Cyfaill Dyfyr [i.e., Difyr].

Y Drych Chr.: Y Drych Christianogawl. Ed. by Rosier Sinith. 1585.
F God. (or God.): Y Gododin. See " B. of An."

Y Gweith.: Y Gioeithiwr, Aberdare.
F Gwrou Cymr.: Y Gwron Cymreig.

Y Gwyl: Y Gwyedydd. Bala, 1823-1837, 14 vols.

F S. Greal: " F Seint Greal .... Edited with a Translatiou aud [so-
called !] Glossary, by the Revd. Robert Williams" (London, 1876).

Note 1. This text was transcribed from Ifengiurt JIS. 49, a
MS. of about 1380-1390.

Note 2. The printed work comprises Parts -IIl (forming vol. i)
of the Editor's Selections from the Hengwrt MSS. See for the
remaining Parts, " Ll. Gw. Rh. 1 ' and " Wms., Hgt. MSS., ii".

F Traeth.: Y Traethodydd. Dimbych [= Denbigh], Treffynnon
[= Holywell], 1845, etc.

Yn.: see " Cyfrinach, etc."

YrAms.: Yr Amserau.

Yr Arw.: Yr Arweinydd, sef Newyddiadur wythnosol, Pwllheli, 1856-9.

Yst. de Car. Mag.: Ystorya de Carolo Magno, from the Red Book of
Hergest [transcribed by Mrs. John Rhs, and] edited by Thomas
Powell [sic], M.A. London; Printed for the Honourable Society
of Cymmrodorion, 1883." (Anotheredition of Campeu Charlymaen,
q, v. See also " of Herg. v )

Z: see "MS. Z v .

Z 2: The second edition of Zeuss' Grammatica Celtica.

Zeuss., G.C 2: ) Also " G. C?\ q. v.

Zeitschr.: Zeitschrift. See " Kuhn".

Note'. I have compiled the above rough Index to Dr. Nettlau's
abbreviations, etc. (which makes no pretensions to completeness of
detail), from such books and other authorities as I had access to here,
in order to make his learned article more generally useful to the readers
of F Cymmrodor. E. P.

Darowen, Cyfeiliog; Medi 30, 1888.







a A / / e E / ɛ Ɛ / i I / o O / u U / w W / y Y /
Ā / ǣ Ǣ / ē Ē / ɛ̄ Ɛ̄ / ī Ī / ō Ō / ū Ū / w̄ W̄ / ȳ Ȳ /
ă Ă / ĕ Ĕ / ĭ Ĭ / ŏ Ŏ / ŭ Ŭ /
ˡ ɑ ɑˑ aˑ a: / : / e eˑe: / ɛ ɛ: / ɪ iˑ i: / ɔ oˑ o: / ʊ uˑ u: / ə / ʌ /
ẅ Ẅ / ẃ Ẃ / ẁ Ẁ / ŵ Ŵ /
ŷ Ŷ / ỳ Ỳ / / ɥ
ˡ ɬ ŋ ʃ ʧ θ ʒ ʤ / aɪ ɔɪ əɪ uɪ ɪʊ aʊ ɛʊ əʊ /

ә ʌ ẃ ă ĕ ĭ ŏ ŭ ẅ ẁ Ẁ ŵ ŷ ỳ Ỳ

gw_gytseiniol_050908yn 0399j_i_gytseiniol_050908aaith δ δ
wikipedia, scriptsource. org




Ffynhonnell / Font / Source:

Creuwyd / Creada / Created: 04-11-2017

Adolygiadau diweddaraf / Darreres actualitzacions / Latest updates: 22-09-2017 05 12 2002

Delweddau / Imatges / Images:




Archwiliwch y wefan hon
Adeiladwaith y wefan
Beth sydd yn newydd?

Ble'r wyf i? Yr ych chi'n ymwld ag un o dudalennau'r Wefan CYMRU-CATALONIA
On sc? Esteu visitant una pgina de la Web CYMRU-CATALONIA (= Galles-Catalunya)
Where am I? You are visiting a page from the CYMRU-CATALONIA (= Wales-Catalonia) Website
Weə-r m ai? Yu a-r vziting ə peij frm dhə CYMRU-CATALONIA (= Weilz-Katəluniə) Wbsait

Free counter and web stats