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Y Cymmrodor Volume IX Part i 1888






■ 39 
By J. E. LLOYD, B.A., 
Professor of Welsh in the University College of Wales. Aberystwith. 
If out of any Welsh mediaeval document we take at random 
a personal name, the following statements will probably be 
found to hold good concerning it. 
(1) It is a compound word, easily resolvable, for the most 
part, into two co-ordinate elements or roots; 
(2) These elements are members of a large class of similar 
forms, which may be combined almost at pleasure, in sets of 
two, to form personal names; 
(3) In origin these elements are nouns, brought together 
in the relation of nominative and genitive, and with a due 
regard to sense. In course of time, however, the system 
becomes more mechanical; elements are united, to form new 
personal names, in a purely arbitrary manner, and without 
reference to their meaning. 
We take Gurgeneu (modern Gwrgeneu), for instance, from 
Version B of Annales Cambriae, under the year 1079 (Rolls 
Edition; the actual date is 1081). This resolves itself 
without difficulty into Gwr + ceneu (modern cenaw); from 
the former element we have the names Gwr-gant, Gwr-gi, 
Gwr-nerth, Gwr-fyw, Gwr-ddelw, Gwr-wared; from the latter 
Mor-geneu, Gwyn-geneu, Rhi-geneu. Gwr meaning a man, 
a hero, and ceneu a whelp, it is clear that the name is not 
intended to make strict sense: Welsh warriors of the olden 
time were accustomed to hear themselves admiringly styled 
"gwyr" and "cenawon", (1) and so the two epithets were 
strung loosely together to make a name which might 
appropriately he borne by a pugnacious young Welshman. 
A few names of undoubtedly British origin depart from 
this, the all but universal type, so far as to substitute for the 
second element an adjectival suffix. Thus Buddug (the 
Boudicca of Tacitus, and the Boadicea of modern writers) is 
probably an adjectival form obtained from Budd (=victory, 
advantage). Even in cases of this kind, however, the noun- 
element usually comes from the common stock; Budd, for 
instance, does duty, in one form or another, not only in 
Buddug, but also in Budd-fan, Budd-wallon, Cad-fudd, and 
A little investigation reveals to us the fact that this 
method of forming personal names runs through eyery age of 
Welsh history, coming to light, in fact, in the earliest 
historical records which tell us anything of the inhabitants 
of Britain. To make this clear, it is only necessary to trace 
one of our name-elements from century to century, 
beginning with comparatively modern times, and working our way 
back until the materials for further investigation fail us. 
CYN- is perhaps the element which in all ages of Welsh 
history has been the most popular, and which therefore 
illustrates most vividly for us this continuity in the personal 
name-system. In the 
XV Cent, we have Cyn-frig ab Gronw, a leading minstrel 
in the Carmarthen Eisteddfod of 1451. 
XIV Cent.  Cyn-frig Cynin, the name traditionally given 
to the "Eiddig" of Dafydd ap Gwilym. 
XIII Cent.  Kyn-an (Brut y Twysogion  Myvyrian 
Archaeology, 2nd edition, p. 650). 
(1) Cynawon cadud, cadrfeib Maredud.  Gwalchmai: Marwnad 
Madawg ab Maredudd. 
XII Cent.  Ken-ewricus (Giraldus Cambrensis, Itinerarium, 
lib. II, cap. iv. = Cynwrig). 
XI Cent.  Ken-win (Ann. Camb., vers. B, sub anno 1068 
[true date, 1069]. = Cynfyn). 
X Cent.  Cin-cenn (Ann. Camb., vers. B, sub anno 946. 
= Cyngen). 
IX Cent.  Cin-nen (Ann. Camb., vers. B, sub anno 854. 
In vers. C, Cengen. = Cyngen). 
VIII Cent.  Cin-cen (mentioned as father to Griphiud in 
Ann. Camb., vers. B, sub anno 814. = Cyngen). 
VII Cent.  Cin-gien (Cadfan's Pillar at Towyn, ascribed to 
this or the following century). 
VI Cent.  A period singularly rich in examples of CYN-. 
(a) Gildas has Cune-glase and Maglo-cune (both 
(b) The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gives us Com-mail and Con-didan (sub anno 577); 
(c) Tradition has handed down, through the medium of triads, saints' genealogies, and romantic tales, a multitude of other instances, as Cyn-haiarn, Cyn-deyrn, Cyn-felyn, Cyn-drwyn. 
Beyond the sixth century the chain of evidence is less 
complete; but this is simply due to the absence of 
historical records. Such testimony as we get from inscriptions 
only confirms the theory that the Welsh inherited their 
personal name-system from the earliest historical times. We 
find the name Cuna-lipi, for instance, on a Carnarvonshire 
stone (Rhys, Celtic Britain, p. 294), and Cuno-cenni on one 
found at Trallong in Brecknockshire (Arch. Camb., 3rd 
Series, viii, 52-56). In this way we succeed in partially 
bridging over the gap that divides the CYN- names of the 
sixth century from the Cuno-belinos of the age of Augustus 
and the Con-victolitavis of Ceasar (Bell. Gall., vii, 37), the 
first undoubtedly, the second in all probability, but older 
forms of this element CYN-. 
If this reasoning be correct, and the Welsh personal 
name-system be actually traceable as far back as the time of 
Caasar, then we are naturally led to expect that we shall find 
a similar system to prevail among the other branches of the 
Kymric family; for we have carried our investigations up to 
a point at which that family may practically be regarded as 
homogeneous. As a matter of fact, Cornish and Breton 
names of the older class are formed precisely like Welsh 
ones; more than this, the same roots are used in all three 
languages, though, of course, in varying proportions and in 
slightly different forms. CYN- appears in Breton as Con- 
and sometimes Cun-. It forms such names as Con-woion, 
Con-atam, Cun-march; the Chono-moris of Gregory of Tours 
carries it back to the sixth century (Zeuss, Grammatica 
Celtica, 2nd edition, p. 93). Cornish records supply us with 
Con-an, Cen-myn, Con-redeu, Cen-huithel, Ceen-guled (Haddan 
and Stubbs, Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents, vol. i, pp. 
676-681), while an early Cornish inscription gives us Cuno- 
vali (Celtic Britain, p. 297), and thus links the recent 
evidence with that of the pre-Roman period. 
By means of the special example CYN- we have thus been 
enabled to realise the historical continuity of the system 
throughout ages widely differing from each other. Let us 
now turn to another aspect  the general prevalence of the 
system in each and every age, its lateral extension, so to 
speak, as distinguished from its vertical extension through 
time. This it will be easiest to illustrate by drawing up a 
list of the name-elements most commonly employed, and 
ranging under each one the names, whether Welsh, Breton, 
Cornish, Gaulish, or old British, which seem to be referable 
to it. The following is an attempt at such a list, with no 
pretensions, however, to completeness, which could scarcely 
be secured without a larger expenditure of time and patience 
than the importance of the results would warrant. 
ARTH-.  Arth-bodu (Liber Landavensis, ed. 1840, p. 77); 
Arth-cumaun (Lib. L., p. 137); Arth-ual (Lib. L., p. 182); 
Artb-bleid (Lib. L., p. 236); Arth-gen (Ann. Camb., vers. A, 
sub anno 807). To these we may probably add the well known Arth-ur. 
=bear: as a name-element possibly of totemistic origin. 
-BELIN or -FELYN.  Cuno-belinos; later forms, Con-velin 
(Lib. L., p. 135) and Cyn-felyn. Llywelyn is also believed 
to contain the same root (Celtic Britain, p. 287). 
Belenus is mentioned by Ausonius (Burdig. Prof. x) as a 
Gallic god. 
BLED-, BLEIDD.  Bled-ris (Lib. L., p. 176); Bled-ud (Lb.L., p. 195); 
Arth-bleid (supra); Bled-bui (Lib. L., p. 190); Bleid- 
van (Myv. Arch., 2nd Ed., p. 6); Bled-gur (Lib. L., p. 233). 
= wolf: another animal-name. 
-BRAN.  Con-uran (Lib. L., p. 69); Lou-bran (Lib. L., p. 
135); Mor-bran (Lib. L., p. 191). 
= raven. 
BUDD-.  Arth-bodu (supra); Gur-vodu (Lib.L., p. 153); 
Bud-van (Myv., p. 6); Bud-gualan (Lib. L., p. 156); Cat- 
uud (Lib. L, p. 191); Bud-ic (Lib. L, p. 123). Earlier 
forms are Boduo-gnatus (Caes., B. G., ii, 23), Ate-boduus, and 
Bodicus (Gregory of Tours), the last being the masculine 
form of the Boudicca of Tacitus. Breton documents yield 
Cat-wodu, Eu-bodu, Tri-bodu (Zeuss, p. 22). 
= victory, advantage. Cf. Irish buaid and modern Welsh 
-BYW, -BWY, -ABWY.  Jun-abui (Lib. L., p. 71); Coll-bui 
(Lib. L., p. 70); Lou-bui (Lib.L., p. 71); Gwern-abui (Lib. L., 
p. 72); Gur-bui (Lib. L, p. 142); Ubel-uui (Lib. L., p. 154); 
Jou-bui (Lib. L., p. 166); Biu-hearn (Lib. L., p. 166); 
Conuiu (Lib. L., p. 169); Bled-bui (supra). 
-CAR, CAR-.  At-gar (Lib. L., p. 138); Cyn-gar (Iolo MSS., 
p. 109); Car-wen (Myv., p. 68). Cf. Breton Guethen-car, 
Cowal-car, and Comal-car, cited by Zeuss, pp. 116, 132. 
Connected with caru = to love. Caradog and Ceredig are 
adjectival forms. 
CAT-, CAD-.  Cat-gen (Lib. L., p. 124); Cat-gualatyr (ibid.); 
Cat-maili (ibid.); Cat-guocaun (Lib. L., p. 126); Cat-gual 
(Lib. L., p. 132); Cat-leu (ibid.); Guen-cat (Lib. L., p. 137); 
Cat-gueithen (Lib. L., p. 174); Cat-guaret (Lib.L., -p. 188); 
Cat-uud (supra); Din-cat (Lib. L., p. 194); Cad-farch (Myv. } 
p. 420); Cad-afael (Myv., p. 403). Cad-fan and Cad- 
wallon, two popular Welsh names, appear early in our 
history, the former in the Cata-manus of the Llangadwaladr 
inscription (Arch. Camb., Old Series, i, 165), the latter as a 
tribal name in the Catu-vellauni of Caesar's day. Breton 
parallels are Cad-nou, Cat-wodu, Mael-cat (Zeuss, p. 137): 
similarly in Cornish documents we find Cat-gustel, Cat- 
uutic (Bodmin Gospels, apud Haddan and Stubbs, i, 681, 682). 
= battle, and therefore to be compared with Aer- in Aerthirn 
(Lib. Land., p. 142), and Gweith- in Gweith-gno. 
-CANT.  Mor-cant (Lib. L., p. 137)  the original form of 
Morgan; Guor-cant (Lib. L., p. 194); Mei-gant (Myv., 
p. 121); Jud-cant (Lib. L., p. 203). Cf. Cornish Cant- 
gethen, Wur-cant, Grat-cant, and Mor-cant (H. and Stubbs, 
ut supra). 
-CENEU.  Mor-cenou (Lib. L., p. 136); Gur-ceniu (Lib. L., 
p. 142); Ri-geneu (Myv., p. 68); Gwyn-genau (Myv., p. 426). 
= whelp. 
-CI Gwr-gi (Myv., p. 398); Hoew-gi (Myv., p. 6). 
= dog. 
CYN-, CON-, -CWN, etc.  Con-uran (supra), Cen-guariu 
(Lib. L., p. 70); Cin-uin (Lib. L., p. 70); Cin-uarch (Lib. L., 
p. 77); Con-gual (Lib. L., p. 77); Con-hail (Lib. L., ]. 137); 
Con-cenn (Lib. L., p. 124); Con-daf (Lib. L., p. 132); Con-guare 
 (Lib. L., p. 133); Con-velin (ut supra); Cyn-uetu (Lib. 
L., p. 139); Con-uiu (ut supra); Con-uor (Lib. L., p. 177); Con- 
gueithen (Lib. L., p. 179); Cyn-ric (Myv., p. 5, v. 11. Kyn-ri 
and Cyn-frig); Cin-tilan (Myv., p. 66); Cyn-drwyn (Myv., 
p. 87); Cyn-ddilig (Myv., p. 95); Cyn-llug (ibid.); Kyn- 
delu (Myv., -p. 129); Cyn-gar (supra); Cyn-an; Con-thigirn[us] 
(Ann. Camb., vers. A, s. a. 612); Cyn-llo (Myv., p. 422); 
Cyn-wrig; Cune-glasus (Gildas, Epistola); Maglo-cunus (ibid.), 
modern Maelgwn; Tan[g]-gwn (Iolo MSS., p. 104); Cyn- 
van (Myv., p. 7); Cyn-was (Mabinogion, Oxford edition, 
p. 107). 
Zeuss connects this element with the root cwn-, to rise, as 
though it meant a summit, an elevation (Gram. Celt., p. 92). 
Professor Rhys, while establishing a connection with the German 
Hun-, leaves the meaning an open question (Celtc Britain, 
p. 28(3). Possibly, however, we have here one of these dog- 
deities (cf. cŵn and Greek kun-s) to which elsewhere (p. 260) he 
alludes. Such a form as Cyn-fab might then be equated with 
-DELU.  Kyn-delu (supra). 
= image. 
DYFN-.  Dun-guallaun (Lib. L., p. 191); Dyfn-ual (Myv., 
p. 17); Domn-guaret (Lib. L., p. 199); Dofn-garth (Lib. L., 
p. 160). The frst of these names finds an exact parallel in 
the Domnoellaunos of the Ancyran Monument; other early 
instances of the element Dumno- are Dumno-rix (Bell. Gall., 
i, 3), Concenneto-dumn[us] (ib., vii, 3), Domno-taur[us] (ib., 
vii, 65), and Dumn-acus (ib., viii, 26)  an adjectival form, 
which in modern Welsh would be written Dyfn-og. 
This element is probably to be connected with the old Irish 
domun = world, and either originally meant simply tribe, or 
was applied to themselves by tribal rulers who had an 
exaggerated sense of their own importance. 
EL-.  El-hearn (Lib. L., p. 77); El-guoredus (Lib. L., p. 77); 
El-iud (Lib.L., -p. 138); El-guid (Lib. L., p. 138); El-bodg 
(Ann. C, vers. A, s. a, 809); El-gnou (Lib. L., p. 193); 
El-wyddan (Myv., p. 91); El-gan (Myv., p. 45); El-fan (Iolo 
MSS., p. 100); El-ian (Iolo MSS., p. 101). 
ERP-, YRP- appears as a name by itself in Lib. L., p. 72, 
and Myv., p. 391. It forms at least one compound name, viz., 
Urb-gen (Nennius), afterwards written Urien. 
EU-. Eu-tigirn (Lib., L., p. 136); Eu-dolen (Lib. L., p. 190); 
Eu-tut (Lib. L., p. 264); Eu-dem (Lib. L., p. 181); Eu-daf 
(Iolo MSS., p. 118). In the modern name Owain, this eu- 
(originally ou) has become o-; the process of change may be 
traced in the examples Ou-gen (Ann. Camb., vers. A, s. a. 
736), Eu-guen (Lib. L., p. 196), Yugein (Lib. L., p. 230), 
Ywein, and Owain. In Breton charters we find Eu-bodu, 
Eu-hoiarn, Eu-monoc (Zeuss, p. 82). 
Zeuss compares avi- in the Avi-cantus of an inscription at 
Nismes (p. 82). 
EUR-. Eur-dil (Lib. L., p. 75); Eur-gain (Myv., p. 424); 
Eur-olwen (Mab., Oxf. ed., p. 112). 
= gold. Used in the formation of female names only, gold 
being for women, as iron for men, the specially honourable 
-GEN.  Cat-gen (Lb. L., p. 124); Guid-gen (ibid.); Gueith- 
gen (Lib. L., p. 136); Sul-gen (Lib. L., p. 137); Anau-gen 
(Lib. L., p. 194); Haern-gen (Lib. L., p. 197); Urb-gen 
(supra); Arth-gen (supra); Guern-gen (Lib. L., p. 203); 
Mor-gen (Lib. L., p. 254). 
Cf. the Reitu-genus of an inscription referred to by Zeuss 
(p. 32), and the Camulogenus and Verbigenns pagus of Cresar 
(Bell. Gall, vii, 62). 
-GWAS.  Con-guas (Lib. L., p. 165); Mel-guas (Lib. L., 
p. 174); Drut-guas (Lib. L., p. 265). 
= youth, serving lad. 
-GWAL.  Con-gual (Lib. L., p. 73) = Cynwal; Cat-gual 
(Lib. L., p. 132); Dyfn-ual (supra); Arth-ual (Lib. L., 
p. 182); Tud-aual (Ancient Laws of Wales, vol. i, p. 104). 
Cf. Breton forms Clutgual, Dungual, Tutgual, and Guidgual 
(Zeuss, p. 132). 
In the earliest Welsh this element appears as -VAL-, as in the 
Cunovali of a Cornish inscription. Professor Rhys identifies it 
with the Teutonic wolf (Celtic Britain, p. 282). 
-GWALLON.  Ri-uallaun (Lib. L., p. 138); Jud-guallaun 
(Lib. L., p. 168); Dun-guallaun (Lib. L., p. 191); Cat- 
guollaun (Ann. C, vers. A, s. a. 629). Cf. Breton forms 
Roenwallon, Maenwallon Tutwallon, Kintwallon, and Cat- 
wallon (Zeuss, p. 87). 
Beyond a doubt connected with the ancient -VELLAUN-, seen 
in Cassivellaunus, Vercassivelaunus (Caes., Bell. Gall., vii, 76), 
and Vellaunodunum. Identified by Professor Rhys (who, however, 
distinguishes velaun-, with one l, from the veljon-, which 
he supposes to be the archetype of -wallon) with the Irish follnaim 
(= regnare) and the Welsh gwlad. 
-GWARED.  El-guored[us] (Lib. L., p. 77); Ri-uoret (Lib. L., 
p. 194); Cat-guaret (Lib. L., p. 206); Gur-wareth (Ann. C., 
vers. B, s. a. 1252). Cf. Breton forms Sulworet, Catworet, 
Worethoiarn (Zeuss, p. 132), and Cornish Guruaret (H. and Stubbs, i, 682). 
= protection, bulwark, the original force of gwaredu being 
"to defend", rather than "to deliver". 
GWEITH-.  Gueith-gno (Lib. L., p. 137); Gueith-gual (Lib. L., 
p. 170). 
= battle. Cf. aer- and cat-. 
GWEN-.  *Guen-garth (Lib. L., p. 138); Car-wen (Myv., 
p. 68); Gwen-ddwyn (Myv., p. 91); Gwen-abwy (Mah., 
p. 109); *Gwen-dolen (Mab., p. 301); Gwen-hwyfar (Mab., 
passim); Guen-hwyfach (Mab., p. 301); Bran-wen (ibid.); 
Gwen-llian (Mab., p. 113); Guenn-wledyr (Mab., p. 112); 
*Guenn-uynwyn (Mab., p. 298); Dwyn-wen (Myv., p. 423). 
Occurs chiefly, but not exclusively, in female names. In the 
above list, names of men are marked with an asterisk. No doubt 
the feminine of Gwyn. 
-GWOCAUN.  Cat-gucaun (Lib. L., p. 126); Ri-ogan (Myv., 
p. 68). Cf. Breton Rinwocon, Iudwocon, Iarnwocon (Zeuss, p. 132). 
Cf. Voconius, a name cited by Zeuss from an inscription 
(p. 773). 
GWYDD-.  Guid-gar (Ann C, vers. A, s. a. 630); Guid-gol 
(Lib. L., p. 69); Guid-ei (Lib. L., p. 70); Guid-gen (supra); 
Guid-nerth (Lib. L., p. 137); Guid-con (Lb. L., p. 155); 
Gwydd-no (Myv., p. 69); Gwydd-uarch (Myv., p. 426); 
Saturn-guid (Lib. L., p. 273); Auall-guid (Lib. L., p. 217). 
The last instance given seems to point to gwydd = trees, as 
the root made use of in names of this kind. So Zeuss, p. 128. 
But gwydd also means knowledge, nsight (Lat. vid-[eo], Greek 
fid, Sans. vid, Germ. wiss[en], and Eng. wit), a meaning which 
has far more point than the other as applied to personal names. 
GWYN-.  Ked-wyn (Myv., p. 420); Gwyn-lleu (Myv., p. 
426); Gwyn-genau (Myv., p. 426); Tec-wyn (Myv., p. 430); 
Gwenwyn-wyn (supra); Gwyn-gat (Mab., p. 107); Coll-wyn 
(Iolo MSS., p. 229). 
The masculine form of Gwen. It does not appear to have 
been a popular name-element in primitive times, inasmuch as all 
the instances here given are from comparatively modern sources. 
-GWYSTL.  Ar-guistil (Lib. L., p. 69); El-gistil (Lib. L., 
p. 70); Gur-guistil (Lib. L., p. 137); Tan-gwystyl (Myv., 
p. 724). Cornish forms are Tancwoystel, Anaguistl, and 
Methwuistel (H. and Stubbs, i, 677-082). 
= pledge, surety. Thus, when a Welshman named his daughter 
Tangwystl, he called her, prettily enough, a "pledge of peace". 
GWR;-.  Gur-docui (Lib. L., p. 74); Gur-dilic (Lib. L., 
p. 137); Gur-guistil (ibid.); Gur-haual (ibid.); Gur-vodu 
(supra); Gwr-gi (swpra); Gur-march (Lib. L., p. 176); 
Guor-hoidil (Lib. L., p. 180); Gur-bui (supra); Gur-cant 
(supra); Gur-ceniu (supra); Gur-wareth (supra). This form 
is variously written in Breton, as Guorgomet, Worlowen, 
Wrmaelon, Gurwant, Gorloios, and Vurwal (Zeuss, p. 133). 
In Cornish it appears as Wur, e.g., in Wurlowen, Wurcant, 
and Wurdylic (H. and Stubbs, ut supra). 
The Vercassivelaunus and Vercingetorix of Caesar (Bell. Gall., 
vii, 76, 4) make it fairly certain that we have here the intensive 
prefix ver-, represented in modern Welsh by gor-. So, too, we 
should gather from the older Welsh names Guorthigern (Nennius), 
and Guortepir (Pedigree of Owain ap Plywel Dda in Williams's 
edition of Ann. Camb.). In later times, however, to judge from 
the fact that Gwr and not Gor is the popular form of the root, a 
confusion arose between this prefix and another Gwr (Lat. vir), 
the oldest form of which was probably VIRO-, as in Viromanus 
(Zeuss, p. 773. = Gwrfan). 
-HAFAL.  Guor-haual (Lib. L., p. 196); Kyn-haval (Myv., 
p. 421). In Breton we get Wiuhamal and Leuhemel (Zeuss, 
p. 111). 
Hafal is the Irish samal, Lat. simil-is, = same, like. Hence as 
a name-element it probably stands for "likeness, image". Cf. 
-delw above. 
-HAIARN.  El-hearn (supra); Haern-gen (supra); Biu- 
hearn (Lib. L., p. 166); Cun-hearn (Lib. L., p. 176); Tra- 
haearn (Myv., p. 142); Tal-haiarn (Nennius); Llwchaearn 
(Myv., p. 427). A very common element in Breton and 
Cornish names: thus among the former we have Wiuhoiarn, 
Worethoiarn, Iarnguallon (Zeuss, p. 132), Iarnhaitou (p. 149), 
Roienhoiarn (p. 152), and Hoiargen (p. 137); among the 
latter Iarnwallon (H. and Stubbs, ut supra). 
= iron, the material out of which the best weapons were made. 
The epithet probably came into fashion in the prehistoric period, 
when, as we learn from Caesar (Bell. Gall., v. 12), iron was scarce, 
and reckoned a precious metal. 
IUD.  Iud-ris (Ann. C., vers. A., sub anno 632); Ind-guoll 
(Ann. C., vers. A., s. a. 842); Iud-nou (Lib.L., p. 70); Iud-on 
(Lib. L., p. 71); Id-nerth (Lib. L., p. 124); Iud-guallon (Lib. 
L., p. 145); Iud-hail {Lib. L., p. 166); Iud-guoret (Lib. L., p. 
174); Iud-cant (supra); Id-loes (Myv., p. 426). Cf. Cornish 
Iudhent (H. and Stubbs, i, 682), and Breton Judlowen and 
Judwocon (Zeuss, p. 132). 
LOU-, LEU.  Lou-bui (supra); Lou-bran (supra); Lou-ronui 
(Lib. L., p. 175); Lou-march (Ann. C, vers. A., s. a. 903); 
Cat-leu (Lib. L., p. 132); Mor-leu (Lib. L., p. 193); Gwyn- 
lleu (supra); Lewelin (Ann. C, vers. B., s. a, 1023); Leu- 
haiarn (Lib. L., p. 153). Cf. Cornish Loumarch and Lywci 
(H. and Stubbs, ut supra), and Breton Leuhemel (Zeuss, 
p. 111). 
= lion. 
-MAN.  Gor-uan (Lib. L., p. 09); Bud-van (Myv., p. 6); 
Bleid-van (ibid.); Cyn-van (Myv., p. 7); Tec-uan (Myv., p. 
430); Doc-van (Myv., p. 423); El-fan (Iolo MSS., p. 100); 
Cad-fan (supra). 
MAEL-.  Broc-mail (Lib. L., p. 124); Maglo-cun[os] (Gildas); 
Teyrn-uael (Myv., p. 67); Caran-mael (Myv., p. 91); Fern-uail 
(Lib. L., p. 186); Mael-daf (Ancient Laws of Wales, i, p. 104); 
Mor-fael (Myv., p. 425); En-vael (Myv., p. 404)'; Doc-vael 
(Myv., p. 423); Cyn-fael. Common in Breton, as Arthmael, 
Maeloc, Gurmahilon (Zeuss, pp. 114, 102). 
This element was originally dissyllabic, and contained a g, as in 
the Taximagulus of Caesar (Bell. Gall., v, 22). Other ancient 
instances are Maglus (Livy), Magalus, Conomaglus, Vinnemaglus, 
and Senemaglus in various inscriptions; Professor Rhys 
identifies it with the Irish mal, a hero (Celtc Britain, p. 297). 
-MARCH.  Cin-uarch (Lib. L., p. 77); Cad-farch (supra); 
Gwydd-uarch (supra); Gur-march (supra); Lou-marcli 
(supra); Eyth-march (Myv., p. 608). 
= horse. Another totemistic name. 
MOR-.  Mor-guid (Lib. L., p. 115); Mor-bran (supra); Mor- 
caut (supra); Mor-cenou (supra); Mor-gen (supra); Mor- 
leu (supra); Mor-fael (supra); Cin-uor (Lib. L., p. 177); 
Mor-daf (Mab., p. 304); Mor-deyrn (Myv., p. 428); Mor- 
march (Lib. L., p. 273); Mor-eitig (Myv., p. 191). Cf. the 
Cornish names Morhath, Morcant, and Moruiw, and the 
Iireton Morwethen (Zeuss, p. 152), Morman, and Mormoet 
(p. 111). 
Zeuss identifies this element with the Irish mr, Welsh mawr, 
and the suffix -marus, so common in old Celtic names (pp. 94 and 
16). But (1) -marus is invariably a final element, as in Vindomarus 
(Caes., Bell. Gall., vii, 39), and Comboiomarus (Livy), while mor- 
usually precedes, as in Morgan and Mordaf. (2) Adjectival 
name-elements are rare in Welsh, teg and gwyn being almost the 
only instances. (3) mor-, and not mar- or mawr-, is the spelling 
employed in the oldest Welsh, e.g., in the Cunomori of the Fowey 
stone (H. and Stubbs, i, 163). On the whole we seem to be 
on safer ground in connecting mor- with the Moritasgus of 
-NERTH.  Guid-nerth (supra); Id-nerth (supra); Tut-nerth 
(Lib. L., p. 150); Gwr-nerth (Myv., p. 123); Cyf-nerth (Anc. 
Laws, i, p. 622). 
= strength. Cf. -wared. 
-NO, -GNOU, -NOU.  Iud-nou (supra); El-gnou (supra); 
Gueith-gno (supra); Gwydd-no (supra); Clid-no (Anc. Laws, 
i, p. 104); Tud-no (Myv., p. 430); Mach-no (Iolo MSS, p. 81. 
Cf. Penmachno in Carnarvonshire). The Breton form is 
-nou, as in Haelnou, Budnou, Arthnou, Cadnou (1) (Zeuss, p. 
-RI. Tut-ri (Lib. L., p. 271); Jud-ri (Lib. L., p. 273); Ri- 
geneu (supra); Bi-guallaun (Lib. L., p. 138); Bi-uoret (Lib. 
L., p. 194); Clot-ri (Lib. L., p. 168); Ri-hoithil (Lib. L., p. 
141); Mou-ric (Ann. C, vers. A., s. a. 849); Bot-ri (Ann. C, 
vers. A., s. a. 754); Bled-ri (Myv., p. 603). The Breton forms 
are Ri- (Rianau: Zeuss, p. 133), Rin- (Rinwocon: ib., p. 132), 
Roin- and Roiant- (Roinwallon and Roiantwallon: ib.). 
= king. Exemplified in many of the older names, e.g., Ambi- 
orix, Cingetorix, Orgetorix (Caesar). 
(1) Cadno, a personal name of the ordinary type, is curiously enough 
in many parts of Wales the regular name for a fox, elsewhere known 
as " llwynog". As the name itself bears no obvious reference to the 
qualities of the animal (" battle hero" would perhaps render it 
roughly), it is possibly of the same type as the Teutonic Reynard, 
coming to us from a Welsh beast epic of which we have no other 
SUL-.  Sul-gen (supra); Sul-uui (Lib. L., p. 151); Sul- 
haithuai (Giraldus Cambr., Itin., ii, 1); Sul-idir (ib.). This is 
an element which also appears in Cornish (Sulmeath, Sulcaen, 
H. and Stubbs), and Breton (Sulworet, Sulwoion, Zeuss, p. 
This element must be identified with the god Sul, whose name 
appcars in Dydd Sul (Sunday). In support of this view it is only 
necessary to quote instances of the way in which other 
day-deities are simarly laid under contribution. We have (1) Llun- 
werth Bishop of St. David's in the ninth century; a doubtful 
instance, inasmuch as Ann. Camb. (vers. B., s. a. 874) has Llan- 
werth, and Brut y Tywysogion Lwmbert. R. de Diceto, however, 
has Lunverd. (See H. and Stubbs, i, p. 208.) Luncen (a Cornish 
instance, H. and Stubbs, i, p.681). (2) Ioubiu (Lib. L., p. 163). 
Ioude (Lib. L., p. 254). (3) Saturnguid (Lib. L., p. 273). Saturnhia 
(ib.). One is tempted to inquire whether this British sun-god is 
not the Sul of Aquae Sulis. 
-TAF.  Con-daf (supra); Eu-daf (supra); Gwyn-daf 
(supra); Mael-daf (supra); Mor-daf (supra); Cawr-daf 
{Myv., p. 389); Dall-daf (Mab., p. 106). 
This element appears in the Cunatami of an Irish inscription 
(Zeuss, p. 92). 
TANG-.  Tang-wystl (supra); Tang-wn (supra); Tang-no 
(father of Collwyn, the founder of one of the xv Tribes of 
= peace. 
-TEYRN.  Con-thigirn[us] (supra); Teyrn-uael (supra); 
Mor-deyrn (supra); Eu-tegirn (Lib. L., p. 130); Aer-thirn 
(Lib. L., p. 142); Vor-tigernus (supra). Cf. Cornish Wendeern 
(H. and Stubbs, ut supra). 
TUT-. Tut-bulc (Lib. L., p. 271); Eu-tut (supra); Tud-wal 
(supra); Tut-nerth (supra); Tud-no (supra); Tut-ri (supra); 
Tut-hed (Lib.L., p. 191); Tut-mab (ib.). Cf. Cornish Tidherd 
(H. and Stubbs, ut supra), and Breton Tutwallon (Zeuss, p. 
87) and Tutgual (p. 132). 
= country, tribe. Hence Caesar's Teutomatus (Bell. Gall., 
vii, 46) probably means "good to the nation". 
In its main features the Welsh name-system is of course 
by no means peculiarly Welsh, but rather Aryan. Greek 
names, for instance, were formed on a plan closely 
resembling that which has just been described; in Demo-sthenes, 
Demo-kritos, Neo-kles, and Nausi-kles we recognise the 
same shuffling together of the stock of 
name-elements as we see in Tud-nerth 
(the Welsh equivalent of Demo-sthenes, 
Tud-ri, Rhi-wallon. and Cad-wallon. Anglo-Saxon 
nomenclature is of the same type: Aethel does duty in a host of 
compounds, such as Aethel-berht, Aethel-red, Aethel-stan, 
Aethel-wine, and Aethel-wulf; -wine enters into a number of 
others, such as Ead-wine, Os-wine, and Aesc-wine. Similarly 
in German we have Gott-fried and Gott-lieb, Fried-rich and 
Hein-rich, Mein-hard and Bern-hard, all formed on the 
samee general principle; and a great number of Irish and 
Gaelic names also conform to the same model. Thus, among 
the results of an examination of the Welsh 
personal name-system, we may place first  
(1) The establishment of a fresh link of connection between 
the Brythonic or Kymric race and the Aryan world at large. 
But this in itself is scarcely more valuable than if we were 
to discover a new proof of the Copernican theory: it is only 
making "assurance double sure". A more instructive result 
of our inquiry is 
(2) The proof afforded of the solidarity of Welsh, Cornish, 
and Breton as members of one Brythonic family. 
Nothing can help us better to realise the intimacy of the 
connection existing between the comnmnities speaking these 
three languages than the fact that they had a stock of name-elements 
in common, not merely inheriting from common 
ancestors a particular method of forming new names, but 
using in the application of that method precisely the same 
A third result is 
(3) The establishment of unbroken continuity between 
the mediaeval Welsh and the Britons and Gauls of the 
earliest historic times. 
The interval between the Claudian conquest and the final 
delimitation of Wales under Offa is filled with 
race-movements and revolutions, as yet only partially understood. 
How Roman supremacy affected the tribes of the mountain- 
ous west; what part was played by the Northern Kymry in 
the general dissolutiun and rearrangement of communities in 
the fifth century; who the Welsh were, ethnologically 
speaking, in the time of Alfred the Great - these are questions 
which the industry and skill of historians and ethnologists 
may yet answer, but which so far have had little light 
thrown upon them. Here is one fact, however, which in 
any inquiry of the kind must be taken into account  the 
personal name-system of the Britons is identical with that of 
the Welsh, running right through the period of confusion. 
No explanation of that period, then, can be satisfactory 
which neglects to provide for the due maintenance of 
continuity between prae-Roman and mediaeval Wales. 
In conclusion, let me add that I am far from supposing 
that the system described above includes all that can be 
said about Welsh personal names. There are, indeed, several 
other classes of names, each with its tale to tell about the 
past of the race  the monosyllabic names, such as Nudd, 
Pwyll, Math, and Don; the borrowed names, such as Emrys, 
Edern, Tewdwr, and Dafydd; the adjectival names, such as 
Madog, Caradog, Buddug, and Dyfrig. In any endeavour to 
evolve the history of the Welsh people out of their personal 
names, these must be taken into account; they must not, 
however, be allowed to obscure the central system, that of 
widest prevalence, the continuity of which is the main thing 
to be vindicated. 
Perhaps I should add, in self-defence, that I do not 
pretend to be a philologist, and that all I have attempted to 
do in this paper has been to collect the materials which 
philology supplies in illustration of an historical problem  
the origin of the Welsh personal name-system. 




Adolygiad diweddaraf: 2011-02-15 23.48;

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