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CYNNWYS Y TUDALEN HWN:

The Welsh Interpreter; or an English and Welsh Vocabulary, 
JOHN THOMAS. 1824

 

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xxx-i
 
The Welsh Interpreter; 
OR AN ENGLISH AND WELSH VOCABULARY, 
WITH FAMILIAR DIALOGUES: 
 
DESIGNED TO BE 
Useful and Interesting 
TO ENGLISH TRAVELLERS 
Through the Principality
 
BY JOHN THOMAS, 
PERPETUAL CURATE OF LLANGENNECH, AND CURATE OF LLANDILO TALYBONT. 
THE SECOND EDITION. 
 
Camermarthen; 
PRINTED BY J. EVANS, IN LOWER MARKET-STREET. 
And Sold by Messrs. Longman, & Co,; and Hatchard, & Sons, London, 1824 
 
[PRICE ONE SHILLING.] 
 
xxx-ii
 
xxx-iii
 
THE CONTENTS. 
 
PAGE:
The Alphabet 1 
Numbers 3 
Months of the Year 6 
Days of the week 7 
Seasons of the year ib. 
Holidays, &c ib. 
Of Time 8 
Of Man 10 
Of the Parts of the Body 11 
The inward Parts of the Body 13 
Of the Senses, &c 14
Colours 15 
Of Kindred ib. 
Of Victuals 17 
Of Earthly Dignities 19 
Ecclesiastical Things 20 
Of Arts, $c 21 
Of War 23 
Of Beasts 24 
Of Birds 26 
Reptiles 29 
Of Fishes 30 
Minerals ib. 
Husbandry 31 
Of Trees 32 
Of the Elements 34 
 
xxx-iv 
 
PAGE. 
Of Coin 35 
Counties and principal Towns in Wales ib. 
 
DIALOGUES. 
The Time of the Day 37 
Of the Weather 38 
Two Friends saluting, &c 40 
Upon a Journey 42 
To speak to a Blacksmith 44 
At an Inn 45 
Names of Towns In Wales 48 
 
xxx1
 
A VOCABULARY, &c. 
 
The Welsh Alphabet with the Pronunciation of the Letters. 
 
LETTERS. PRONOUNCED. 
 
A a 
As A English in man, can; circummflexed as in cane, pale. 
 
B b 
As B English. 
 
C c 
As K English; or as C in can, come; never soft as in city, cedar. 
 
Ch 
As X Greek rightly pronounced. The English having no sound similar to it. 
 
D d 
As D English. 
 
Dd dd 
As Th English in though, they. 
 
E e 
As E English in men, ten; circumflexed as Ea in bear, tear. 
 
F f 
As V English. 
 
Ff ff 
As F English in fan, faith. 
 
G g 
As G English in gain, gone; never as in gin, gender. 
 
Ng ng 
As Ng English in long, thong. 
 
H h 
As H English in Hand.* 
 
 
*H is only an auxiliary serving as an aspiration of the letter with which it is joined, equivalent with the aspirate (') in Greek, as ρος pronounced horos. 
 
xxx2 
 
I i 
As I English in hid, bid; circumflexed as Ee in keen, deed. 
 
J j 
As J English. 
 
K k 
As K English. 
 
L l 
As L English. 
 
Ll ll 
Is L aspirated, and has a sound peculiar to the Welsh.  
 
M m 
As M English. 
 
N n 
As N English. 
 
O o 
As O English in gone, don; circumflexed as bone, tone. 
 
P p 
As P English. 
 
Ph ph 
Is P aspirated. As Ph English in physic, philosophy. 
 
Q q 
As Q English. 
 
R r 
As R English; when a radical is always aspirated. 
 
Rh rh 
Is R aspirated, as Rh English in rheum. 
 
S s 
As S In sense, such. 
 
T t 
As T English. 
 
Th th 
Is T aspirated, as Th English in think, thick; never as in they, then. 
 
U u 
As I English in bliss; circumflexed as Ee in queen, ween. 
 
W w 
As O English in to, or Oo in good; when circumflexed as Oo in boon, moon. 
 
 This Letter is pronounced by fixing the tip of the tongue to the roof of the mouth, and breathing forcibly throagh the jaw-teeth; as if written in English Llh. The Spanish language has the double 
L in form, but not in sound. The Italian Gl approaches mnch nearer in sound than that. 
 
xxx3
 
X X 
As X English. 
 
Y y 
As Y English in myrrh, also as in Scythia; or 
when circumflexed, as the circumflexed U. 
 
Z z 
As Z English. 
 
Every letter in Welsh, as well as in Greek and Latin, is to be fully pronounced; and the accent on all words (of what quality soever) consisting of more than one syllable, is either on the ultima, or penultima; never on the antepenultima. It is much more frequently on the penultima; when on the ultima it is circumflexed. 
 
 The Letters J, K, Q, X, and Z, are properly no Welsh Letters; nor are they wanted in words purely Welsh; but are used in writing exotic words. 
 
---
 
Numbers. :: Rhif. 
One :: Un 
Two :: Dau,/fem. dwy 
Three :: Tri, fem. tair 
Four :: Pedwar, fem. pedair 
Five :: Pump 
Six :: Chwech 
Seven :: Saith 
Eight :: Wyth 
Nine :: Naw 
Ten :: Deg 
Eleven :: Un ar ddeg  
Twelve :: Deuddeg 
 
--- 
 
 Q.d. One upon ten. 
 
xxx4 
 
Thirteen :: Tri ar ddeg, fem. tair ar ddeg. 
Fourteen :: Pedwar ar ddeg, fem. pedair ar ddeg 
Fifteen :: Pumtheg 
Sixteen :: Un ar bumtheg 
Seventeen :: Dau ar bumtheg, fem. dwy ar bymtheg 
Eighteen :: Tri ar bumtheg, fem, tair ar bumtheg
Nineteen :: Pedwar ar bumtheg, fem. pedair ar bumtheg 
Twenty :: Ugain
Twenty-one :: Un ar hugain 
Twenty-two :: Dau ar hugain, fem. dwy ar hugain 
Twenty-three :: Tri ar hugain, fem, tair ar hugain 
Twenty-four :: Pedwar ar hugain, fem. pedair ar hugain 
Twenty-five :: Pump ar hugain 
Twenty-six :: Chwech ar hugain 
Twenty.seven :: Saith ar hugain 
Twenty-eight :: Wyth ar hugain 
Twenty-nine :: Naw ar hagain 
Thirty :: Deg ar hugain 
Forty :: Deugain 
Fifty :: Deg a deugain, vulgo hanner cant, half a hundred 
Sixty :: Triugain 
Seventy :: Deg a thriugain 
Eighty :: Pedwar ugain 
Ninety :: Pedwar ugain a deg 
Hundred :: Cant 
 
xxx5
 
A tbousand :: Ml
First :: Cyntaf 
Second :: Ail 
Third . :: Trydydd 
Fourth :: Pedwarydd 
Fifth :: Pummed 
Sixth :: Chwechfed 
Seventh :: Seithfed 
Eighth :: Wythfed 
Ninth :: Nawled 
Tenth :: Degfed 
Eleventh :: Unfed ar ddeg 
Twelfth :: Deuddegfed 
Thirteenth :: Trydydd ar ddeg 
Fourteenth . :: Pedwarydd ar ddeg 
Fifteenth :: Pumthegfed 
Sixteenth :: Unfed ar bumtheg 
Seventeenth :: Daufed ar bumtheg 
Eighteenth :: Trydydd ar bumtheg, or deunawfed 
Nineteenth :: Pedwarydd ar bumtheg 
Twentieth :: Ugeinfed 
Twenty-first :: Unfed ar hugain 
Twentj-stfcond :: Dwyfed ar hugain 
Twenty-third :: Trydydd ar hugain 
Twenty-fourth :: Pedwarydd ar hugain 
Twenty-fifth :: Pummed ar hugain 
Twenty-sixth :: Chwechfed ar hugain 
Twenty-seventh :: Seithfed ar hugain 
Twenty-eighth :: Wythfed ar hugain 
Twenty-ninth :: Nawfed ar hugain 
 
xxx6 
 
Thirtieth :: Degfed ar hugain 
Fortieth :: Deugeinfed 
Fiftieth :: Degfed a deugain, vulg. hanner canfed
Sixtieth:: Tri ugeinfed 
Seventieth :: Degfed a thri ugain 
Eightieth :: Pedwar Ugeinfed 
Ninetieth :: Degfed a phedwar ugain 
Hundredth :: Canfed 
Thousandth :: Milfed 
 
---
 
Months of the Year :: Misoedd y Flwyddyn. 
A year :: Blwyddyn 
January :: Ionawr 
February :: Chwefror 
March :: Mawrth 
April :: Ebrill 
May :: Mai 
June :: Mehefin 
July :: Gorphenhaf 
August :: Awst 
September :: Medl 
October :: Hydref 
November :: Tachwedd 
December :: Rhagfyr 
xxx7
 
Days of the Week :: Dyddiau yr Wythnos. 
Sunday :: Dydd Sul 
Monday :: Dydd Llun 
Tuesday :: Dydd Mawrth 
Wednesday :: Dydd Mercher 
Thursday :: Dydd Iau 
Friday :: Dydd Gwener 
Saturday :: Dydd Sadwm 
 
The Seasons of the Year. :: Tymmorau y Flwyddyn. 
 
The Spring :: Y Gwanwyn 
The Summer :: Yr Haf
The Autumn :: Yr Hydref 
The Winter :: Y Gauaf 
 
Holidays :: Dyddiau Gwylion, or Gwyliau.
Christmas Day :: Nadolig 
St. Stephen's Day :: Dydd Gwyl Stephan 
New Year's Day :: Dydd Calan 
Circumcision :: Enwaediad 
Epiphany :: Ystwyll 
Shrove Tuesday :: Dydd Mawrth Ynyd 
Ash Wednesday :: Dydd Mercher y Ludw 
Lent :: Grawys 
 
xxx8 
 
Ember Week :: Wythnos y Cydgoriau 
St. David's Day :: Dydd Gwyl Dewi 
Palm Sunday :: Dydd Sul y Blodau 
Good Friday :: Dydd Gwener Croglith  
Easter Day :: Dydd y Pasc 
Low Sunday :: Pasc Bychan 
Rogation Sunday :: Sul y Gweddiau 
Ascension Thursday :: Dydd Iau Dyrchafael 
Whit Sunday :: Sul Gwyn 
Trinity Sunday :: Sul y Drindod 
St. Barnabas :: Dydd Gwyl Barnabas 
St. John's Day :: Dydd Gwyl Ifan 
St. Peter :: Dydd Gwyl Bedr 
Michaelmas Day :: Dydd Gwyl Mihangel 
St. Andrew's :: Dydd Gwyl Andreas 
Advent Sunday :: Sul yr Advent 
 
Of Time. Am Amser 
 
An Opportunity :: Cyfleusdra 
A Day :: Dydd, or diwrnod, pl. 
dyddiau, or diwrnodau. 
Break of the day :: Toriad y dydd 
The dawn :: Gwawr, or Y wawr 
Sun rising :: Codiad yr haul 
Morning :: Borau
 
---
 
 Croglith Lit. Lectio de Christo crucifixo. - Dr. Davies 
 
xxx9
 
Noon :: Canol dydd, or hanner dydd 
Evening :: Prydnhawn 
Sun set :: Gostwng haul, or Machlud haul
Night :: Ns 
Midnight :: Canol ns 
A dark night :: Noswaith dywyll 
Moonlight :: Goleu leuad 
To-day :: Heddyw 
Yesterday :: Dde, or de 
The day before yesterday :: Echde 
To-morrow :: Yforu 
The day after to-morrow :: Trenydd 
To-night :: Heno 
Last-night :: Neithiwr 
To-morrow night :: Ns y foru 
An hour :: Awr, pl. oriau 
Half an hour :: Hanner awr 
Quarter of an hour :: Chwarter awr 
A minute :: Munud 
A week :: Wythnos 
A fortnight :: Pythefnos 
A month :: Mis 
A year :: Blwyddyn 
Leap year :: Blwyddyn naid 
An age, or century :: Oes, neu canrif 
Beginning :: Dechreu, or dechreuad 
Middle :: Canol 
End :: Diwedd 
xxx10 
 
Of man. :: Amddyn. 
A man :: Dyn pl. dynion 
A male :: Gwrryw 
A womaa :: Benyw 
Husband :: Gŵr 
Wife :: Gwraig 
An old man :: Hen ddyn 
An old woman :: Hen fenyw 
A young man :: Dyn ieuanc, or gŵr ieuanc 
A young woman :: Dynes ieuanc, or merch ieuanc
A Batchelor :: M&b gweddw 
An old batchelor :: Hen fb, or hen fb gweddw 
An old maid :: Hen ferch weddw 
A servant maid :: Morwyn, or gwasanaethferch 
A boy :: Bachgen, pl. bechgyn 
A girl :: Merch, pl. merched 
A child :: Plentyn, pl. plant 
An infant :: Baban, pl. babanod 
Infancy:: Babandod 
Childhood:: Mebyd 
Youth:: Ieuenctyd 
Old age:: Hen oedran 
A giant:: Cawr 
A handsome man:: Dyn gln 
An ugly man:: Dyn hagr 
 
xxx11 
 
Of the Parts of the Body. :: Am rannau`r corph. 
The skin :: Y croen 
The body :: Y corph, pl. cyrph 
A member :: Aelod 
The members :: Yr aelodau 
The head :: Y pen 
The hair :: Y gwallt 
The forehead :: Y talcen 
The crown of the head :: Coryn, or coppa pen 
From the sole of the foot to the crown of the head :: O'r gwadn hyd y coryn 
The hinder part of the head :: Y gwegil 
From head to foot :: O'r pen hyd y traed 
The face :: Yr wyneb, pl. wynebau 
The ear :: Y clust, pl. clustiau 
The eye :: Y llygad, pl. llygaid 
The eyebrow :: Ael, pl. aelau 
The eyelid :: Amrant, pl. amrantau 
The apple of the eye :: Canwyll y llygad 
The eyesight :: Y golwg 
The temple :: Arlais, pl. arleisiau 
The nose :: Y trwyn 
The nostril :: Y ffroen, pl. ffroenau 
The tip of the nose :: Pen y trwyn 
The lip :: Y wefus, pl. gwefasau 
The upper lip :: Y wefus uchaf 
The under lip :: Y wefus isaf 
The chin :: Gn 
The cheek :: Boch, pl. bochau 
The mouth :: Genau 
A tooth :: Dant 
 
xxx12
 
The teeth :: Dannedd 
The foreteeth :: Rhag-ddannedd, or y dannedd blaen
The grinders :: Cilddannedd
The tongue :: Tafod, pl. tafodau
The palate, or roof of the mouth:: Taflod y genau
The beard :: Barf
The neck :: Gwddf, pl. gyddfau
The throat :: Cg, pl. cegatu
The bosom :: Mynwes
A breast :: Bron, pl. bronau
The shoulder :: Ysgwydd, pl. ysgwyddau
The arm :: Braich, pl. breichiau
The right arm :: Braich ddeau
The left arm :: Braich chwith, or aswy
The armpit :: Cesail, or twll cesail
The elbow :: Penelyn
The wrist :: Arddwrn, pl. arddyrnau
The hand :: Llaw, pl. dwylo, dwylaw
The right hand :: Llaw ddeau
The left hand :: Llaw chwith, or aswy
The back of the hand :: Cefn y llaw
The palm of the hand :: Tor y llaw, or cledr y llaw
Finger :: Bys, pl. bysedd
The thumb :: Bawd fys, or Bys bawd
The fore finger :: Myneg fys
The middle finger :: Hir fys
The fourth finger, or ring finger :: Meddyg fys, or Bys y fodrwy 
The little finger :: Bys bach, or Byrfys 
A joint :: Cymmal, pl. tymmalau 
 
xxx13 
 
The fist :: Dwrn, pl. dymau 
The nail :: Ewin, pl. ewinedd 
The belly :: Bol, pl. boliau 
The navel :: Bogail 
The back :: Y cefn 
The back bone :: Asgwm y cefn 
The reins :: Yr arenau 
The side :: Ochr, pl. ochrau 
A rib :: Asen, pl. asenau 
The waist :: Mein-gorph 
The thigh :: Morddwyd, pl. morddwydydd. 
The knee :: Penlin, pl. penliniau 
The leg :: Coes, pl. coesau 
The calf of the leg :: Croth y goes 
The shin :: Crymmog, pl. crymmogau 
The ancie :: Migwrn, pl. migyrnau 
The foot :: Troed, pl. traed 
The sole of the foot :: Gwadn y droed 
The heel :: Sawdl, pl. sodlau 
A toe :: Bys troed, pl. bysedd traed. 
 
___
 
The inward Parts of the Body. :: Rhanau tufewnol y corph
The flesh :: Cnawd 
A bone :: Asgwrn, pl. esgyrn 
The marrow :: Mr 
The fat :: Brasder 
The blood :: Gwaed 
 
xxxx14 
 
A vein :: Gwythen, pl. gwythenau 
The pores :: Chwysdyllau 
A sinew :: Gewin, pl. gewinion 
An artery :: Rhedweli 
The skull :: Siol, or Penglog 
The brain :: Ymenydd 
The gall :: Bustl 
The kidney :: Aren, pl. arenau 
The liver :: Afu 
The bowels :: Ymysgaroedd, or coluddion 
The breath :: Anadl 
The heart :: Calon, pl. calonau. 
 
___
 
Of the Senses, &c. :: Am y Synhwyrau, &c. 
 
The sight :: TY golwg, or Y gweled 
The hearing :: Y clywed, or Clybod 
The smelling :: Yr arogliad 
The taste :: Yr archwaethiad 
The feeling :: Y teimlad 
Common sense :: Synwyr naturiol 
The light :: Y goleu, or Y goleuni 
Colour :: Lliw 
Shadow :: Cysgod 
A sound :: Sŵn 
A voice :: Llais 
A noise :: Trwst 
A smell :: Arogl 
A sweet smell :: Per-arogl 
Ill smell :: Drewi, or Drewdod 
 
xxx15 
 
Hunger :: Newyn, or Chwant bwyd 
Hungry :: Newynllyd
Thirst :: Syched 
Thirsty :: Sychedig
Heat :: Gwres 
Cold :: Oerfel
The understanding :: Dall 
Memory :: Cf 
Will :: Ewyllys 
Affection :: Serch, pl. serchiadau 
Conscience :: Cydwybod. 
 
---
 
Colours. Lliwiau. 
 
White :: Gwyn, fem. gwen 
Black :: Du, fem. ddu 
Red :: Coch, fem. goch 
Green :: Gwyrdd, fem. gwerdd 
Blue :: Glas, fem. las 
Yellow :: Melyn, fem. felen 
Grey :: Llwyd, fem. lwyd 
___
 
Of Kindred. :: Am Garennydd. 
A father :: Tad, pl. tadau 
A mother :: Mam, pl. mamau 
A relation :: Perthynas, pl. perthynasau 
A child :: Plentyn 
Children :: Plant 
 
xxx16 
 
A son :: Mab, pl. meibion 
A daughter :: Merch, pl. merched 
A grandfather :: Tadcu, or Taid 
A grandmother :: Mamgu, or Nain 
A great grandfather :: Hen dadcu, or Gorhendaid 
A great grandmother :: Hen famgu 
A grandson or grand-daughter :: Wyr. pl. ŵyrion 
A brother :: Brawd, pl. brodyr 
A sister :: Chwaer, pl. chworydd 
The eldest son :: Mab hynaf 
The eldest brother :: Brawd hynaf 
The eldest daughter :: Merch henaf 
The youngest daughter :: Merch ieuaf 
Twins :: Gefeilliaid, or Dau efell 
An uncle :: Ewythr, pl. ewythredd 
An aunt :: Modryb, pl. modrybedd. 
A nephew :: Nai, pl. neiaint 
A niece :: Nith, pl. nithod 
A cousin :: Cefnder, pl. cefnderwydd. 
 Fem. :: Cyfnither, pl. cyfnitherod. 
Second cousin :: Cyferdder, pl. cyferdderon 
Ancestors :: Hynafiaid 
A kinsman :: Carwr, or Cr 
A kinswoman :: Cares 
A lover :: Carwr, or Cariad 
Matrimony :: Priodas 
The bridegroom :: Priodfab 
Th bride :: Priodferch, or Priodasferch 
A husband :: Gŵr, or Gŵr priod 
A wife :: Gwraig, or Gwraig briod 
 
xxx17 
 
A father-in-law :: Tad yn nghyfraith 
A mother-in-law :: Mam yn nghyfraith
A brother-in-law :: Brawd yn nghyfraith
A sister-in-law :: Chwaer yn nghyfraith
A son-in-law :: Mab yn nghyfraith
A danghter-in-law :: Merch yn nghyfraith
A stepfather :: Llysdad 
A stepmother :: Llysfam 
A stepson :: Llysfab 
A stepdaughter :: Llysferch 
A christening :: Bedydd 
A godfather :: Tad bedydd 
A godmother :: Mam fedydd 
A godson :: Mab bedydd 
A god daughter :: Merch fedydd 
An heir :: Etifedd, pl. etifeddion 
An heiress :: Etifeddes, pl. etifeddesau 
A widower :: Gŵr gweddw 
A widow :: Gwraig weddw 
An orphan :: Ymddifad 
A nurse :: Mammaeth 
Neighbour :: Cymmydog, pl. cymmydogion 
Friend :: Cyfaill, pl. cyfeillion 
 
___
 
Of Victuals. :: Am Fwydydd. 
Bread :: Bara 
Crust :: Crofen, pl. crofenau
A crumb :: Briwsionyn, pl. briwsion
 
xxx18 
 
Cheese :: Cosyn, pl. caws 
Bread and cheese :: Bara a chaws 
Butter :: Ymenyn 
Salt :: Halen 
Beef :: Cig eidion 
Veal :: Cig llo 
Mutton :: Cig maharen, vulgo. cig gwedder
Pork :: Cig moch 
Milk :: Llaeth 
Cream :: Hyfen 
Egg :: Wŷ, pl. wŷau 
Sool :: Enllyn 
Water gruel :: Cawl dwfr 
Broth :: Cawl 
Pudding :: Potten 
A morsel :: Tamaid 
Breakfast :: Boreufwyd, vulg. Brecwast 
Dinner :: Ciniaw 
Supper :: Cwynos, vulg. Swpper 
A feast :: Gwledd 
A butdier :: Cigydd 
A table :: Bwrdd, pl. byrddau 
A knife :: Cyllell, pl. cyllyll 
A fork :: Fforch, vulg. Fforc 
A spoon :: Llwy, pl. llwyau 
The meal :: Blawd 
The flour :: Cann 
The bran :: Rhuchion, vulg. bran 
The dough :: Toes 
A loaf :: Torth, pl. torthau 
 
xxx19 
 
A penny loaf :: Torth geiniog 
A dish of meat :: Dysglaid o fwyd 
Roast neat :: Cig wedi bobi 
Salted meat :: Cig hallt 
A pie :: Pastai 
Peas pottage :: Cawl pŷs 
Milk porridge :: Cawl llaeth, or Twym llaeth
Pap :: Uwd 
Drink :: Diod, pl. diodydd 
Water :: Dwfr 
Small bter :: Diod fain 
Strong beer :: Cwrw 
Wine :: Gwin 
New wine :: Gwin newydd 
Old wine :: Heu win 
Port wine :: Gwin coch 
A goose :: Gwydd, pl. gwyddau 
A duck :: Hwyad, pl. hwyaid 
Wing :: Aden, pl. adenydd 
Leg :: Coes 
 
___
 
Of Earthly Dignities. :: Am Fawredd Daearol. 
An emperor :: Ammherawdwr, pl. ammherawdwyr 
A king :: Brenin, pl. breninoedd 
A qneen :: Brenines, pl. breninesau 
A prince :: Tywysog, pl. tywysogion 
A princess :: Tywysoges, pl. tywysogesau
 
xxx20
 
A duke :: Dg 
An esquire :: Yswain 
A lord :: Arglwydd, pl. arglwyddi 
A lady :: Arglwyddes 
A gentleman :: Gŵr bonheddig 
A gentlewoman :: Gwraig fonheddig 
A mayor :: Maer 
The Parliament :: Senedd 
The House of Lords :: Tyr Arglwyddi 
The House of Commons :: Ty'r Cyffredin 
Judge :: Barnwr, pl. barnwyr 
A Counsellor :: Dadleuwr, pl. dadleuwyr. 
___
 
Ecclesiastical Things. :: Pethau Eglwysig. 
A cathedral :: Eglwys gadeiriol 
A church :: Eglwys, pl. eglwysi 
A chapel :: Capel, pl. capeli 
The altar :: Allor, pl. allorau 
The pulpit :: Areithfa, vulg. pulpid 
The scripture :: Ysgrythyr, pl. ysgrythyrau 
The Old Testament :: Yr Hen Destament 
The New Testament :: Y Testament Newydd 
The prophets :: Y proffwydi 
The Gospel :: Yr Efengyl 
A book :: Llyfr, pl. llyfrau 
A chapter :: Pennod, pl. pennodau 
A verse :: Adnod, pl. adnodau 
A psalm :: Salm, pl. Salmau 
 
xxx21 
 
A prayer :: Gweddi, pl. gweddiau
A sacrament :: Sacrament, pl. sacramentau
The communion :: Y cymun 
Alms :: Elusen, pl. elusenau 
Singng :: Canu 
A steeple :: Glochdŷ, pl. clochdai 
A bell :: Cloch, pl. clychau 
A clock :: Awrlais, vulg. Cloc 
A churchyard :: Mynwent, pl. mynwentydd 
A grave :: Bedd, pl. beddau 
A funeral :: Angladd, pl. angladdau 
Diocese :: Esgobaeth 
An archbishop :: Archesgob, pl. archesgobion
A bishop :: Esgob, pl. esgobion
A priest :: Offeiriad, pl. offeririad
A dean :: Don, pl. donau 
A deacon :: Dacon, pl. daconiaid
A rector :: Person, pl. personau
A vicar :: Ficer, vulgo 
A curate :: Vulgo, Curad pl. cuiadlald 
A bellman :: Clochydd 
___
 
Of Arts, &c.:: Am Gelfyddydau, &c. 
An art :: Celfyddyd 
A trade :: Crefft 
Divinity :: Dnwinyddiaeth 
Astronomy :: Seryddiaeth 
Philosophy :: Athroniaeth 
Philosopher :: Vulgo, Philosophydd 
 
xxx22 
 
Physic :: Meddygyniaeth 
Physician :: Meddyg 
Law :: Cyfraith 
Lawyer :: Cyfreithwr 
Poetry :: Prydyddiaeth, or Barddoniaeth 
Poet :: Prydydd, pl. prydyddion, or Bardd, pl. beirdd 
A Printer :: Argraffwr, pl. argraffwyr 
A Merchant :: Marchnatawr, pl. marchnatawyr 
A Shopkeeper :: Siopwr, pl. siopwyr 
A Goldsmith :: Gf aur 
A Silver-smith :: Gf arian 
A Bookseller :: Gwerthwr llyfrau 
A Bookbinder :: Rhwymwr llyfrau 
A Barber :: Eilliwr, vulg. Barber 
A Watchmaker :: Oriorydd 
A candle :: Canwyll 
A Chandler :: Canhwyllwr 
A Glover :: Menygwr 
A Smith :: Gf, pl. gofaint 
A Tailor :: Taeliwr 
A Shoemaker :: Crydd; pl. cryddion 
A Carpenter :: Saer, pl. Seiri 
A Mason :: Maeswn, pl. maeswniaid 
A Baker :: Pobydd, pl. pobyddion 
A Batcher :: Cigydd, pl. cigyddion 
A Weaver :: Gweydd, pl. gwehyddion 
A Dyer :: Lliwiwr 
Coal :: Glo 
 
xxx23 
 
A Collier :: Glo-wr 
A Beggar :: Cardottyn 
An instrument :: Offeryn, pl. offer 
A hammer :: Morthwyl, pl. morthwylion 
A trowel :: Llwyarn 
A saw :: Llif, pl. llifau 
An anvil :: Eingion 
An axe :: Bwyall, pl. bwyill 
A mattock :: Caib, pl. ceibiau 
To dig with a mattock :: Ceibio 
A chisel :: Gaing 
A knife :: Cyllell, pl. cyllyll 
A fork :: Fforch 
An oar :: Rhwyf 
A boat :: Cwch, or Bd, pl. cychau, badau
A ship :: Llong, pl. llongau
 
___
 
Of War. Am Ryfel 
 
A soldier :: Milwr, pl. milwyr 
A general :: Cadfridog 
A captain :: Cadpen 
Horsemen :: Gwŷr ceffylau 
Footmen :: Gwŷr traed 
An archer :: Saethydd, pl. saethyddion 
A trumpet :: Udgorn, pl. udgyrn 
A drum :: Tabwrdd, pl. tabyrddau 
A flute :: Chwibanogl
 
xxx24
 
A camp :: Gwersyll 
A war :: Rhyfel, pl. rhyfeloedd 
A gun :: Dryll, or, Gwn, pl. drylliau, or, gynau 
A battle :: Brwydr, pl. brwydrau 
Gun-powder :: Pylor, vulg. pywdwr 
A sword :: Cleddyf, pl. cleddyfau 
A helmet :: Helm 
A shield :: Tarian, pl. tarianau 
Armour :: Arfogaeth 
A fortification :: Amddiffynfa, pl. amddiffynfeydd 
A castle :: Castell, pl. cestyll 
Wall :: Mar, pl. muriau 
A gate :: Porth, pl. pyrth. 
 
---
 
Of Beasts. :: Am Anifeiliaid. 
A quadruped :: Pedwar-carnol, pl. pedwar-carnolion 
A beast :: Anifail
A wild beast :: Anifail gwyllt, or gwylltfil
A tame beast :: Anifail dof
A horse :: Ceffyl, pl. ceffylau
A mare :: Casseg, pl. cessig
A colt :: Ebol, pl. ebolion
A filly :: Eboles
A bull :: Tarw, pl. teirw
A cow :: Buwch, pl. buchod
An ox :: Ych, pl. ychain
 
xxx25 
 
A heifer :: Anner, treisiad, pl. treisiedi 
A calf :: Llo, pl. lloi 
A sheep :: Dafad, pl. defaid 
A ram :: Hwrdd, pl. hyrddod 
A wether :: Maharyn, vulgo, gwedder, pl. gweddrod 
A lamb :: Oen, pl. ŵyn 
A goat :: Gafr, pl. geifr 
A kid :: Myn, pl. mynod 
An ass :: Asyn, pl. asynod 
A mule :: Ml, pl. mlod 
A hog :: Mochyn, pl. moch 
A boar :: Baedd, pl. baeddod 
A sow :: Hwch, pl. hychod 
A dog :: Ci, pl. cŵn 
A bitch :: Gast, pl. geist 
A mastiff :: Gwaedgi, pl. gwaedgwn, fem. gwaedast 
A greyhound :: Milgi, pl. milgwn 
A greyhound bitch :: Milast 
A mongrel :: Cymmysgci 
A cat :: Cath, pl. cathod 
A mouse :: Llygoden, pl. llygod 
A mole :: Gwdd, pl. gwaddau 
A rat :: Llygoden Ffrengig 
A lion :: Llew, pl. llewod 
A lioness :: Llewes, pl. llewesod 
A bear' :: Arth, pl. eith, fem. arthes 
A badger :: Daear fochyn 
A monkey :: Eppa, vulgo. mwnci 
 
xxx26 
 
A fox :: Cadno, llwynog, pl. lwynogod 
A hare :: Ysgyfarnog, pl. ysgyfarnogod 
A rabbit :: Cwningen, pl. cwningod 
A deer :: Hydd, pl. hyddod 
A squirrel :: Gwiwer, pl. gwiwerod 
A weasel :: Gwenci, pl. gwencod 
A hedgehog :: Draenog, pl. draenogod 
Skin :: Croen, pl. crwyn 
Tail :: Cynffon, pl. cynffonau 
Hoof :: Cam, pl. camau 
Horn :: Corn, pl. cyrn 
A hair :: Blewyn, pl. blew 
Mane :: Mwng 
Wool :: Gwlan. 
___
 
Of Birds. :: Am Adar, sing. Aderyn. 
An eagle :: Eryr, pl. eryrod 
A hawk :: Hebog, pl. hebogiaid 
A raven :: Cigfrn, pl. cigfrain 
A crow :: Brn, pl. brain 
A crane:: Crychydd, pl. crychyddod 
A cuckoo :: Cg, vulg. Gwcw 
Acock :: Ceiliog, pl. ceiliogod 
A hen :: Ir, or Giar, pl. Ieir, or Gieir 
A chicken :: Cyw giar 
A turkey :: Twrci 
Quail :: Sofl-ir, pl. sofl-ieir 
 
xxx27 
 
A gander :: Ceiliog-gwydd 
A goose :: Gwydd, pl. gwyddau 
A drake :: Mailart 
A dttck :: Hwyad, pl. hwyaid 
A cormorant :: Mulfran 
A swan :: Alarch, pl. alarchod 
A magpie :: Pioden, pl. piod 
A stork :: Ciconia 
A nightingale :: Eos 
A lark :: Uchedydd 
A woodcock :: Cyffylog, pl. cyffylogiaid 
A snipe :: Giach, pl. giachod 
A thrash :: Bronfraith, or Tresglen, pl. Bronfreithod, or Tresglenod
A blackbird :: Aderyn du, or Mwyalchen, pl. adar duon 
A partridge :: Petrisen, pl. petris 
A pheasant :: Ceiliog y coed, pl. ceiliogod y coed 
A kite :: Barcut, or barcutan, pl. barcutanod 
A dove :: Colommen, pl. colommenod 
A ringdove :: Ysguthan, pl. ysguthanod 
A sparrow :: Aderyn, (pl. adar) y t 
A parrot :: Parot 
A swallow :: Gwenol, pl. gwenoliaid 
A wren :: Dryw, pl, drywod 
An owl :: Dylluan, pl. dylluanod 
A wagtail :: Tinsigl, or brithyroged 
A goldfinch :: Peneuryn
 
xxx28 
 
Bulfinch :: Coch-y-berllan 
A chaffinch :: Wingc 
A robin redbreast :: Bronhydden 
A peacock :: Paun, pl. paunod 
A bittern :: Bwmp-y-gors 
A vulture :: Fwltur 
An ostrich :: Estrys 
A jay :: Ysgrch-y-coed 
A bat :: Ystlymmyn, pl. ystlymmynod 
A lapwing :: Cornicyll, or Cornchwigyl 
Woodpecker :: Taradr-y-coed 
A wasp :: Cacwnen, pl. cacwn 
A bee :: Gwenynen, pl. gwenyn 
A fly :: Cleren, pl. cler 
A swarm of bees :: Haid o wenyn 
A feather :: Plufyn, pl. pluf 
A wing :: Aden, pl. adenydd 
The tail :: Cwt, cynffon 
A quill :: Asgell, pl. esgyll 
A cock^s comb :: Crib ceiliog 
The bill :: Pig 
The claw :: Crafangc, ewyn aderyn 
Nest :: Nyth, pl. nythau 
An egg :: Wy, pl. ŵyau 
White of an egg :: Gwyn ŵy 
Yolk of an egg :: Melyn ŵy 
The craw :: Crombil, pl. crombiliau 
 
xxx29 
 
Of Reptiles. :: Am Ymlusgiaid, sing. Ymlusgiad.
A serpent :: Sarph, pl. seirph
An adder :: Neidr, pl. nadroedd
A viper :: Gwiber, pl. gwiberod
A spider :: Pryfgopyn, or Coryn, pl. corynau
A toad :: Llyffan, pl. Llyffanod, llyffaint
A dragon :: Draig, pl. dreigiau
A snail :: Malwoden, pl. malwod
A worm :: Pryfedyn, pl. pryfed
A glow-worm :: Magien, pl. magod
A moth :: Gwyfyn
A maggot :: Cynrhonyn, pl. cynrhon
An ant :: Morgrygyn, pl. morgryg
A grasshopper :: Ceiliog, (pl. ceiliogod) y rhedyn
A frog :: Ffroga, pl. ffrogiaid
A caterpillar :: Lindys, or Pryf y dail
A cricket :: Criciad, pl. criciadau
A louse :: Lleuen, pl. llau
Lizard :: Bydrchwilen, pl. bydrchwilod
A nit :: Nedden, pl. nedd
A flea :: Chwanen, pl. chwain,
A knat :: Gwybedyn, pl. gwybed
A leech :: Geloden, pl. gelod
A sting :: Colyn
 
xxx30 
 
Of Fishes. :: Pysgod. 
 
A fish :: Pysgodyn, pl. pysgod 
A whale :: Morfil, pl. morfilod 
A pike :: Penhwyad 
A trout :: Brithyll, pl. brithyllod 
A lobster :: Cimmwch 
A herring :: Ysgadenyn, pl. ysgadan 
An eel :: Llysŵen, pl. llysŵod 
A shrimp :: Bardys, Gwichiedyn 
Crab :: Cranc 
An oyster :: Wystrysen, pl. wystrys 
A salmon :: Eog, or Eawg, vulg. samon 
Suin :: Gaflaw, vulg. siwin 
Fiat-Fish :: Lleden, pl. lledau, vulg. fflwcs. 
 
---
 
Minerals. :: Mwyn. 
Gold :: Aur 
Silver :: Arian 
Copper :: Vulg. Copr 
Quicksilver :: Arian byw 
Brass :: Pres 
Pitch :: Pŷg 
Lead :: Plwm 
Iron :: Haiarn 
Steel :: Dur 
A stone :: Carreg, pl. cerryg 
A loadstone :: Maen tynnn 
A freestone :: Carreg ndd 
A whetstone :: Hogfaen, pl. hogfeini 
A flintstone :: Carreg (pl. cerryg) dd. 
 
xxx31 
 
Husbandry :: Amaethyddiaeth or Hwsmoniaeth.
A farm :: Tyddyn, vulg. Fferm 
A barn :: Ysgubor, pl. ysguboriau 
A stable :: Marchdŷ, vulg. Stabal 
A threshing-floor :: Llawrdyrnu 
A cowhouse :: Bendy, or glowtŷ 
A meadow :: gwaun, pl, gweunydd 
Grass :: Porfa, pl. porfeydd 
Hay :: Gwair 
A field :: Cae, or Maes, pl. caeau, meusydd
A bash :: Llwyn, pl. llwyni 
A hedge :: Perth, pl. perthi 
A furrow :: Cwys, pl. cwysi 
A plough :: Aradr, pl. erydr 
A rake :: Cribyn, or Rhacca 
The ploughshare :: Swch, pl. sychod 
The plough handle :: Haeddel 
Plough beam :: Amodd 
The coulter :: Cwlltwr 
The yoke :: Iau 
The goad :: Ierthu 
A harrow :: Oged, pl. ogedi 
A mattock :: Caib, pl. ceibiau 
A spade :: Pil, pl. palau 
Shovel :: Rhaw, pl. rhawiau 
A reaping hook :: Cryman, pl. crymanau 
A scythe :: Pladur, pl. pladuriau 
A fan :: Gwyntyll 
A sieve :: Gogr, pl. gograu 
 
xxx32 
 
Dung :: Tail 
A dunghill :: Tomen, pl. tomeni 
Seed :: Hd, pl. hadau 
Corn :: Llafur or Yd 
Wheat :: Gwenith, sing. gwenithen 
Barley :: Haidd, sing. heidden 
Oats :: Ceirch, sing. ceirchen 
Tares :: Efrau, sing. efryn 
Beans :: Ff, sing. ffen 
Potatoes :: Pytatws, sing. pytaten 
Peas :: Pŷs, sing. pysen 
The straw :: Gwellt, sing. gwelltyn 
An ear :: Twysen, pl. twys, and ystwenau 
A sheaf :: Ysgub, pl. ysgubau 
A harvest :: Cynhauaf 
A cart :: Cert, or Mn
A wheel :: Troell, or olwyn 
A ploughman :: Aradwr, pl, aradwyr 
A sower :: Hauwr, pl. hauwyr 
A reaper :: Medelwr, pl. medelwyr 
A thresher :: Dyrnwr, pl. dyrnwyr 
A garden :: Gardd, pl. gerddi 
An orchard :: Perllan, pl. perllanau 
A bed in a garden :: Gwely mewn gardd 
A gardener :: Garddwr, pl. garddwyr 
___
 
Of Trees, &c.:: Am Brenau, &c.
The leaves :: Dail, sing. deilen 
The root :: Y gwraidd 
 
xxx33 
 
Tree :: Pren, pl. prenau 
The branches :: Y canghenau, sing. canghen 
Leeks :: Cennin, sing. cenninen 
A nettle :: Danadl 
Furze :: Eithin, sing. eithinen 
Fern :: Rhedyn, sing. rhedynen 
Thistles :: Ysgall, sing. ysgallen 
An apple tree :: Pren afalau 
An apple :: Afal, pl. afalau 
A cherry:: Ceirosen, pl. ceiros 
A cherry tree :: Pren ceiros 
A plum :: Eirinen, pl. eirin 
A nut :: Cneuen, pl. cnau 
A walnut :: Cneuen ffrengig 
An acorn :: Mesen, pl. mes 
Bark :: Rhisgl, sing. rhisglyn 
An oak :: Derwen, pl. deri 
Ivy :: Eiddew 
An elder tree :: Ysgawen 
Holly tree :: Celynen, pl. celyn 
A bramble :: Drysien, pl, drysi 
A thorn :: Draenen, pl. drain 
Heath :: Grug 
Broom :: Banadl 
An ash :: Onen, pl. ynn 
A willow :: Helygen, pl. helyg 
Elm tree :: Pren llwyfen 
___
 
xxx34 
 
Of the Elements. :: Am yr Elfenau. 
Water :: Dwr, or Dwfr 
Sea :: Mr, pl. moroedd 
Ship :: Llong, pl. llongau 
River :: Afon, pl. afonydd 
Lake :: Llyn, pl. llynoedd 
Brook :: Nant, pl. nentydd 
Rain :: Gwlaw, pl. gwlawogydd 
Fire :: Tn 
Flame :: Fflam, pl. fflamau 
A spark :: Gwreichionen, pl. gwreichion 
Ashes :: Lludw 
Air :: Awyr 
Wind :: Gwynt, pl. gwyntoedd 
Windy :: Gwyntog 
Cloud :: Cwmwl, pl. cymylau 
Cloudy :: Cymylog 
Haze :: Niwl 
Hazy :: Niwlog 
The sun :: Yr haul 
The moon :: Y lloer 
The stars :: Y ser, sing. seren 
The planets :: Y ser gwibog 
The earth :: Y ddaear 
Stone :: Carreg, pl, cerryg 
Lime :: Calch 
 
xxx35
Of Coin. :: Am Arian Bathol. 
Gold :: Aur 
Silver :: Arian 
Brass :: Pres 
Paper :: Papur 
Pound :: Punt 
Guinea :: Gini 
Shilling :: Swllt, pl. sylltau 
Sixpence :: Chwe' cheiniog 
Penny :: Ceiniog, pl. ceiniogau 
Halfpenny :: Dimai 
Farthing :: Ffyrlling 
Three half pence :: Ceiniog a dimai 
 
---
 
The Names of the Counties and principal Towns in Wales, &c. :: Enwau Siroedd a Phrif-Drefydd Cymru, 
A county :: Sir, or Swydd 
Anglesey :: Sir Fn 
Camarfon :: Caernarfon 
Denbigh :: Dimbych 
Flint :: Fflint 
Merioneth :: Meirionydd 
Montgomery :: Trefddwyn 
Cardigan :: Aberteifi 
Radnor :: Maesyfed 
Brecknocic :: Brycheiniog 
Glamorgan :: Morganwg 
Caermarthen :: Caerfyrddin. 
 
xxx36 
 
Pembroke :: Penfro 
Carleon :: Caerlleon 
Swansea :: Abertawy 
Haverfordwest :: Hwlffordd 
Chester :: Carlleon Gawr 
London :: Llundain 
Newport :: Cas'newydd 
Brecon :: Aberhonddu 
St. David's :: Tŷ-Ddewi 
St. Asaph :: Llan Elwy 
 
N. B. The names of most Towns are the same, with a 
little variation in the pronunciation, in both languages. 
 
___
 
xxx37 
 
DIALOGUE. :: CYD-YMDDYDDAN. 
The Time of the Day. :: Yr Amser or Dydd. 
What o' clock is it? :: Beth yw hi ar gloch? 
It is one, two, three* of the clock :: Y mae hi yn un, dau, tri ar gloch 
What o' clock do you think it is? :: Beth ydych yn feddwl yw hi ar gloch? 
Will you tell me what o'clock it is? :: A ddywedwch wrthyf beth yw hi ar gloch? 
Look at your watch? :: Edrychwch ar eich oriawr? {or watch) 
What time is it with you? :: Pa amser yw hi gyd chwi 
See what o' clock it is? :: Edrychwch beth yw hi ar gloch 
Is your clock right? :: A ydyw eich awrlais (or clock) chwi yn ei le? 
What is it by the sun? :: Beth yw hi wrth yr haul? 
The sun is risen :: Mae'r haul wedi codi 
The sun is set :: Mae'r haul wedi machludo 
It is one, two, three :: Y mae'n un, dau, tri 
It is a quarter to five :: Y mae'n gwarter i bump 
Ten minutes to six :: Deng munud i chwech 
Quarter past nine :: Chwarter wedi naw 
 
* Vid. Numbers, p. 3. 
 
xxx38 
 
Half an hour past ten :: Hanner awr wedi deg 
A little before eight :: Ychydig cyn wyth 
A little after four :: Ychydig gwedi pedwar 
It is past three :: Y mae gwedi tri 
Six in the morning :: Chwech yn y borau 
Seven in the evening :: Saith yn y prydnawn 
Is it day? :: A ydyw hi yn ddydd? 
Midnight :: Hanner nos, or canol nos 
Noon :: Banner dydd, or canol dydd 
Twelve o clock at night :: Deuddeg ar gloch y nos 
Twelve o' clock at noon :: Deuddeg ar gloch y dydd 
At the dawn of day :: Ar wawr y dydd 
In the dusk :: Yn yr hwyr 
It has just struck one :: Y mae newydd daro un 
The clock has struck two :: Y maer cloc wedi taro dau 
It beginneth to be light :: Mae hi yn dechreu goleuo 
It is early yet :: Y mae etto yn gynnar 
It is getting late :: Y mae yn myn'd yn ddiweddar 
It is not nine yet :: Nid yw hi etto yn naw 
The clock is too fast :: Y mae'r cloc yn rhy fuan 
 
II. 
 
Of the Weather :: Am y Tywydd. 
Weather :: Tywydd, or Hn 
Fine weather :: Tywydd teg 
Rainy weather :: Tywydd gwlawog 
 
 
xxx39 
 
Bad weather :: Tywydd garw 
Dry weather :: Tywydd sych 
Wet weather :: Tywydd gwlyb 
Warm weather :: Tywydd twym 
Cold weather :: Tywydd oer 
It is very hot weather :: Y mae yn dywydd twym iawn 
It is very cold weather :: Y mae'n dywydd oer iawn 
Do you feel it cold? :: A ydych yn ei theimlo yn oer? 
I am not cold :: Nid wyf fi ddim yn oer 
I don't recollect such weather before :: Nid wyf fi yn cofio y fath dywydd o'r blaen
There is no prospect of fine weather :: Does dim argoel tywydd teg
This is good weather for the country :: Dyma dywydd da i'r wlad
This is very bad weather for the country :: Dyma dywydd drwg iawn i'r wlad
This is a fine day :: Dyma ddiwrnod teg
What do you think of the weather? :: Beth y'ch yn debyg amy tywydd?
Shall we have a fine day to-day;:: A gawn ni ddiwrnod teg heddyw?
Yes (we shall have) :: Cawn 
No :: Na chawn 
 
xxx40 
 
III. 
 
Two Friends saluting, & enquiring after each others health. :: Dau Gyfaill yn cyfarch ac yn ymofyn am iechyd eu gilydd. 
Good morning to you :: Boreu da i chwi 
Good evening to you, sir :: Prydnhawn da i chwi, syr 
Good night to you :: Nos da i chwi 
How do you do? :: Pa fodd (sut) yr ydych? 
How are you to-day? :: Pa fodd yr ydych chwi heddyw? 
I hope you are well :: Yr wyf yn gobeithio eich bod yn iach 
I have not seen you this long time:: Ni welais i mo honoch er ys llawer dydd 
You look very well :: Yr ydych yn edrych yn dda iawn 
You look very ill :: Yr ydych yn edrych yn salw (dost) iawn 
How do you do this long time, my old friend? :: Pa sut yr ydych chwi er ys llawer dydd, fy hen gyfaill? 
I am very glad to see you :: Y mae yn dda iawn genyf eich gweled 
How is your father and mother? :: Pa fodd y mae eich tad a'ch mam? 
Are you married? :: A ydych wedi priodi? 
How long have you been married? :: Pa faint sydd er pan priodasoch? 
How is your wife and children? :: Pa fodd mae'ch gwraig ach plant? 
 
 
xxx41 
 
I hope they are all well :: Yr wyf yn gobeithio eu bod hwyn iach i gyd 
Is your father alive? :: A ydy eich tad yn fyw? 
Where are you going? :: B'le yr ydych chwi yn myned? 
Are you going to Church? :: A ydych chwi yn myn'd i'r eglwys? 
Where did you come from? :: O ba le y daethoch? 
Did you come from home? :: A ddaethoch oddi cartref? 
What news have you got? :: Pwy newydd sydd gyd chwi? 
What is the best news to- day? :: Beth yw'r newydd goreu heddyw?
I have no news at all :: 'Does genyf un newydd yn y byd
I am pretty well :: Yr wyf fi yn weddol 
I am very well, thank you :: Yr wyf yn dda iawn, diolch i chwi 
I am not half well :: Nid wyf ddim hanner iach 
He is well :: Y mae'n iach 
She is very ill :: Y mae hi yn glaf iawn 
She is married :: Y mae hi gwedi priodi 
She was enquiring after you :: Yr oedd hi'n holi am danoch 
He would be glad to see you :: Fe fyddai yn dda ganddo eich gweld chwi 
I have been very unwell :: Mi fum yn glaf iawn 
As usual :: Fel arferol 
I am very sorry for it :: Mae yn drwg iawn genyf am hyny 
My father enjoys good health :: Mae fy nhad yn cael iechyd da 
 
xxx42
 
My father and Mother are dead :: Mae nhad a mam wedi marw 
My brother is married :: Mae mrawd wedi priodi 
He was well last night :: Yr oedd yn iach neithiwr 
They are all well :: Y mae nhwy i gyd yn iach 
I am going to market :: Yr wyf yn myned i'r farchnad 
I came from home :: Mi ddes o gartref (o dre) 
I am going home :: Yr wyf yn myned tu gartref 
 
IV. 
 
Upon a Journey through Wales. :: Ar daith irwy Gymru. 
Where are you going? :: Ble yr ydych yn myned? 
I want to go to Abergavenny* :: Mae arnaf eisiau myned ir Feni 
Am I in the right way? :: A ydwyf ar y iawn ffordd? 
I am going to Brecon :: Yr wyf yn myned i Aberhonddu 
Which is the nearest way? :: P'un yw'r ffordd nesaf? 
Shew me the way to Llandrindod :: Dangoswch y ffordd i mi i Landrindod 
Is this the nearest way? :: Ai dyma'r ffordd nesaf? 
What is the name of that gentlemans seat I :: Beth yw enw ty y gwr bonheddig accw? 
___
 
* See the names of Towns, Counties, &c. p. 35. 
 
xxx43 
 
Who lives there? :: Pwy sydd yn byw accw? 
What is the name of the gentleman that lives there:: Beth yw enw'r gwr bonheddig sydd yn byw yna? 
Do you know who lives there? :: A wyddoch chwi pwy sydd yn byw yna? 
What is the name of that place? :: Beth yw enw y lle yna? 
What is the name of this town, village? :: Beth yw enw y dref hon, y pentref hwn? 
How far is Lampeter from here? :: Pa mor bell y mae Llambedr oddiyma? 
Is there a coach going this way? :: A oes cerbyd (coach) yn myned y ffordd hon? 
What sort of road have I? :: Pa sut ffordd sydd genyf? 
Is the road pretty good? :: A yw'r ffordd yn weddol dda? 
What are they doing there? :: Beth mae nhwy yn wneud accw? 
Where do you live? :: B'le yr y'ch chwi yn byw? 
What is the name of the place? :: Beth yw enw'r lle? 
What is your age? :: Beth yw'ch oedran chwi? 
What is your father's name? :: Beth yw enw'ch tad? 
Where does he live? :: B'le mae e'n byw? 
Come here :: Deuwch yma 
Is this the way to ---? :: Ai dyma'r ffordd i ---? 
Yes :: Ie 
No :: Nage 
What mountain is that? :: Pa fynydd yw'r un accw? 
What is the name of that old Castle? :: Beth yw enw'r hen gastell accw? 
 
xxx44 
 
What hill is that? :: Pa fryn yw hwnna? 
I will come and shew you :: Mi ddeuaf i'ch dangos 
It is ten miles :: Y mae deng milldir 
Follow this road :: Dilynwch y ffordd hon 
Follow this path :: Dilynwch y llwybr hwn 
Turn on the right hand :: Trowch ar y llaw ddehau 
You must turn on the left hand :: Mae'n rhaid i chwi droi ar y llaw aswy 
Sir --- lives there :: Syr --- sy'n byw yna 
That is Hafod :: Dyna'r Hafod 
I do not know :: Ni wn i ddim 
There Mr. J. lives :: Dyna lle mae Mr. J. yn byw 
You have about six miles to go :: Y mae gyd chwi ynghylch chwech milldir i fyned 
The road is very good :: Mae'r ffordd yn dda iawn 
The road is very bad :: Maer ffordd yn ddrwg iawn 
Where must I turn? :: Ble rhaid i mi droi? 
About a mile from here :: Oddeutu milldir oddi yma 
Ask at the first house you meet? :: Gofynwch yn y tŷ cyntaf a gwrddoch 
 
V. 
 
To speak to a Blacksmith :: Siarad a Gf. 
Where can I find a smith? :: Ble caf afael mewn gof 
Is there one in the neighbourhood? :: A oes un yn y gymmydogaeth? 
Is the smith at home? :: A yw'r gof gartref? 
No, sir, Yes, sir :: Nag yw, syr, ydyw, syr 
 
xxx45 
 
Tell the smith to come here :: Dywedwch wrth y gof am ddywad yma 
Call him here to me :: Galwch ef yma attaf fi 
I want to shoe my horse :: Mae eisiau arnaf bedoli fy ngheffyl 
My horse has lost a shoe :: Mae fy ngheffyl wedi colli pedol 
Will you put a new shoe for me? :: A ddodwch chwi bedol newydd i mi? 
Have you got an old shoe? :: A oes gyd chwi hen bedol? 
Make haste :: Gwnewch frys (hast) 
Don't be long :: Peidiwch bod yn hir 
Do it as quick as you can :: Gwnewch hi mor gynted ag y galloch 
Nail it fast :: Hoeliwch hi'n sicr 
What is to pay? :: Beth sydd i dalu? 
Snxpence, Shilling :: Chwe' cheiniog, Swllt 
Take care, his feet are tender :: Cymmerwch ofal, mae ei draed yn dyner 
 
VI. 
 
At an Inn. :: Mewn Llety. 
Come here :: Deuwch yma 
Have you any grass? :: A oes porfa gyda chwi? 
Have you any hay? :: A oes gwair gyda chwi?
Let me have some oats for my horse :: Gadewch i mi gael peth ceirch i'm ceffyl 
Nid oes gyd ni ddim ::We have none 
 
xxx46 
 
We have good hay :: Mae gyd ni wair da 
Ha?e you any ale? :: A oes cwrw gyd chwi? 
Yes, sir :: Oes, syr 
Have yoa any good ale? :: A oes gyd chwi gwrw da? 
Give me a pint of it :: Rhowch beint i mi o hono 
Have you any bottled ale? :: A oes gyd chwi gwrw bottel? 
Bring me a bottle :: Dewch a phottel i mi 
Put my horse in the stable :: Dodwch fy ngheffyl yn y stabal 
Give him a little water :: Rho'wch ychydig o ddwfr iddo 
Give him some hay :: Rhowch beth gwair iddo 
Give him some oats :: Rho'wch beth ceirch iddo 
Can I have any thing to eat here? :: A allaf gael rhywbeth i fwyta yma? 
What would you please to have, sir :: Beth welwch fod yn dda i gael, syr? 
Let me have some bacon and eggs :: Gadewch i mi gael peth bacwn a wyau 
Give me some bread and cheese and ale:: De'wch a pheth bara a chaws a chwrw i mi 
Make me a glass of brandy, rum, and water :: Gwnewch i mi lasaid (gwydraid) o frandi, rum, a dw'r 
I shall dine here to-day :: Mi giniawaf yma heddyw 
When will it be ready? :: Pa bryd bydd yn barod? 
In an hour :: Mewn awr 
Bring me some ale :: De'wch a pheth cwrw i mi 
Bring in the tea :: De'wch a'r tea i mewn 
Your good health :: Iechyd da i chwi 
xxx47 
 
Thank you :: Diolch i chwi 
Let me taste it :: Gadewch i mi ei phrofi 
It is very good ale :: Cwrw da iawn yw e' 
What have I to pay? :: Beth sydd arnaf i dalu? 
Tell the man to bring my horse out :: Dewedwch wrth y dyn am ddywad a fy ngheffyl allan 
Two shillings :: Dau swllt 
Shew me the room where I am to sleep :: Dangoswch i mi yr ystafell lle yr wyf i gysgu 
Can I have a bed here? :: A allaf gael gwely yma? 
Will you give me a candle? :: A ro'wch chwi ganwyll i mi? 
FINIS.
 
xxx48 
 
Names of Towns in Wales. :: Enwau Trefydd yng Nghymru
Cardigan :: Aberteifi 
Brecon :: Aberhonddu 
Fishguard :: Abergwaun 
Milford :: Aberdwygleddau 
Swansea :: Abertawe 
Usk :: Brynbiga 
Caermarthen :: Caerfyrddin 
Holyhead :: Caergybi 
Neath :: Castellnedd 
Newport :: Casnewydd 
Cardiff :: Caerdyf 
Newcastle :: Castellnewydd 
Denbigh :: Dinbych 
Hay :: Gelli 
Haverfordwest :: Hwlffordd 
Presteign :: Llanandreas 
St. Asaph :: Llanelwy 
Builth :: Llanfair yn Muallt 
Laugharne :: Lacharn 
Radnor :: Maesyfed 
Monmouth :: Mynwy 
Pembroke :: Penfro 
Bridgend :: Penbont 
Cowbridge :: Pont-y-fn 
St. David's :: Tyddewi 
Montgomery :: Trefaldwyn 
Newtown :: Trefnewydd 
Knighton :: Tref-y-clawdd 
Tenby :: Tinbych y pysgod 
Newport (Pembrokeshire) :: Trefdraeth 
Mold :: Wyddgrug 
 
PRINTED BY J. EVANS, CAERMARTHEN. 
 

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