kimkat0186e Wales And Her Language Considered From A Historical, Educational And Social Standpoint
John E. Southall. 149 Dock Street, Newport, Mon. 1892.


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Wales And Her Language Considered From A Historical, Educational And Social Standpoint  With Remarks On Modern Welsh Literature And A Linguistic Map Of The Country.
John E. Southall. 149 Dock Street, Newport, Mon. 1892.



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376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396,













A. Gavel Kind.

Was a Celtic custom, whereby if a man died without a will his real property was divided equally among his children.

Relics of this still survive in lient. Copyhold and freehold lands Monmouth, Usk and Trelleck, descend equally among Male descendants. Those of Archenfield, Herefordshire, among the Males and in default among the Females.— -See Stone's, Nonoay in June, p. 58.

(?) Does Gavel =GafEael.

B. Welsh Personal Names, pbincipally BBLONGiNa to the Eably Middle Ages.


































 Rhufawr Rhidian













































































(Continued p. 386.)














Rhuddlad Khiengar





Denys* Gwladys Myfanwy

Gwen Tybie

Tydfil Most of the above are names of so-called Saints, many of them are to to be found in " Bonedd y Saint," I only give a, selection, more might be added.

C. "The Welsh Note."

The idea is that if you shut Welsh out of the schoolroom and the playground, you are in that way likely to teach English better. There is a plan by which if a boy is heard to speak a word of Welsh, a piece of stick or board, about a finger's length, is taken out of the master's desk, with the letters W.N. on it, meaning " Welsh Note." This is handed to the child, if he has it in his possession at the close of the school, is to be punished. This child is not now thinking of his lesson; he is very anxious to find somebody who speaks Welsh, in order to hand the W.N. on to him. — Dan. I. Davies' evidence before Education Commission, 1886, Newport Ed., p. 19.

[The custom is nearly, if not quite obsolete.— J. E. S.]

D. Teachers' Replies.

Tabulated Statement of Teacher's Replies, in 1885, to fthe question.— " Do you consider that advantage would result from the introduction of the Welsh language as a ' specific subject ' into the coiirse of elementary education in Wales?































 Montgomery . . .































 . 132


 ... 27




 Oswestry district










 ... 339

 .. 257

 . 32

 . 628


 itive majority 82

• Dinas Powis— should be Denys Powis-Denys was a Princess of Powis. " The Llafar gwlad is right and the bookmen are wrong" says a Monmouthshire friend of mine.






It must be borne in mind that some teachers -n-ere on the negative tide, evidently as a result of the system whereby the Government has ignored education in Welsh at the Training Colleges, and that they felt themselves incompetent to teach it.

E. Welsh in Monmouthshibb.

The following indieates the number of Meeting houses in Monmouthshire where Welsh is regularly preached, at least once a week. —

Baptist 52

Congregational ... 37

Calvinistic Methodist 37

Wesleyan ... ... 7

Episcopalian ... 5

In all probability there are more members and attendants in connection with these, the hindermost tail (yeoyraphically) of Welsh Ecclesiasticism than there are Quakers in all Great Britain. I may not be absolutely correct to one or two units, the real discrepancy, if any, is but small.

F. The Census

 OF 1891— Population of Welsh Cou



 as to Lanyuage not yet puhluhed).













 Carmarth ensh ire


 M ontgomery shire












 Total ... 1,771,174

G. Welsh Ubban Sanitaey Disteicts, 1891.

Aberavon ...






 Briton Ferry




 Brynmawr ...


 Abergele and Peusarn


















 Carnarvon ...




 Chepstow ...


 Barmouth ..


 Colwyn Bay & Colwyn


 Barry and Cadoxton . . .




 Beaumaris ...


 Cowbridge ...


 Bethesda ...




 Blaenavon ...


 Brecknoek ...









 Ebbw Vale ...






 l<'estiniog ...


 New Quay ...




 Newtown and Llanllwchaiarn ...






 Oswestry (Salop)


 Holyhead ...






 . Panteg




 Pembroke ...








 Lampeter ...


 Pontypool ...






 Llandovery ...


 Presteigne ...


 Llandudno ...










 Llanfrechfa, Upper ...




 Llanfyllin ...








 Llangollen ...


 Llanidloes ...
















 Menai Bridge


 Trefonen (Radnorshire)


 Merthyr Tydfil








 Monmouth ...


 Welshpool ...




 Wre.xham ...


 Mountain Ash




 Nantyglo and Blaina




H. Pbopobtion of Vowels and Consonants in Welsh and English.— (.See p. 260) We judge that what makes Welsh Cynghanedd possible, is the near proportion between the number of consonants and vowels in the formationof the words, together with the fact, that their proper sound is given to both classes of letters. In English. lrish,aaelic and French, there are a great number of unsounded consonants * * But there is a notable proportion in Welsh, as may be seen from the following examples— Out of 657 Welsh letters contained in eighteen lines of a book opened at random, 331 were





vowels and 326 consonants, only a difference of Ave; out of the same number of English letters, 264 were vowels, 393 consonants, a difference of 129. Again in twelve lines of a Welsh Cyivydd, there were found 115 vowels, and 113 consonants, while in the English, out of the same number there were 95 vowels, and 133 consonants: under these conditions, [in the case of English], it is clear Cynghanedd is impossible. (Translated from Yr Adolygydd, Cyf. ii. t. 418.)

I. The "Columbia" (Ajiekican) on Welsh Litebatukb.

" Even in the Nineteenth Century,'' (so says a writer in the American journal Columhia) "Wales has produced poets who, in real poetic inspiration, in exalted imagination, in charming simplicity and beauty of style, are scarcely inferior to the world's master poets. The Welsh mind is original, and there is in her literature a wealth of literary treasure of which now the Welsh language is the sole repository. — From a Cardiff Paper.

J. " Echoes feom the Welsh Hills."

The inhabitants of Wales have clung so tenaciously to their language, that during the last fifty years they have formed a new literature in their own tongue. This, when we consider its youth, bears no mean comparison for insight, beauty and force with the religious literature— for the literature of Wales is essentially religious — of any modern nation.

The inconvenience consequent on the motley character of the English language, as it regards the education and instruction of the English language, is beyond belief to those who have carefully considered the matter.

* * * )t * *

It is a great advantage to have in common use a language that is self-included, and that cannot fail to be understood in any of its combinations and compounds, even to the full extent of modern discoveries, by the mass of the people. To revert to the word " Omniscience," is there a Welsh beggar-woman ninety years of age who could by any considerable possibility, misunderstand it? " Holhuybodaeth" —i\\w& it is patently and infallibly comprehended by all men of our nation. And so on, ad infinitum.— {Extracted from p.p. 179, 180, 183)

[It is surprising how few Welsh writers have realized this, it is in fact only to be realized by comparisons which many of them have not had full opportunities to make.]'^J. E. S.








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