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brāc <BRAAK> [brɑːk]
PLURAL braciau, brācs <BRAK-yai, -ye, BRAAKS> [ˡbrakjaɪ, -jɛ, brɑːks]
1 brake
rhoi’r brāc put on the brake
gollwng y brāc release the brake

ETYMOLOGY: English brake 1700+ < Dutch. Related to English break (= fracture)

:_______________________________.

Brăcla <BRAK-la> [ˡbrakla]
1 locality in
Pen-y-bont ar Ōgwr (SS9279) 11% Welsh-speakers (2001)



http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SS9279 map

:_______________________________.

bractɥ <BRAK-ti> [ˡbraktɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL bractai <BRAK-tai> [ˡbraktaɪ]
1
malthouse, malting

2 brewery = place for making beer

3 brewery = brewery company

4 Y Bractɥ street name in Brɥncethin (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

Heol y Bracty (or less correctly Heol y Bragdy) street in Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen (in English, “Brewery Road”)

ETYMOLOGY: (brag- stem of bragu = to malt, to brew) + soft mutation + (tɥ = house) > brįg-dɥ > bractɥ
NOTE: Also bragdɥ

:_______________________________.

brad <BRAAD> [braːd] masculine noun
PLURAL bradau
<BRAA-dai, -de> [ˡbraˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
treachery, treason
uchel frad high treason

2 act of treachery
gweithred o frad act of treachery

3
Pant y Brad “treason hollow”, geographical feature in Tonyrefail (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)
(pant = hollow) + (y = definite article) + (brad = treason)

This same name as a street name in Tonyrefail (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf):

Pant-y-brad (the elements of settlement names are written together as a single word)
(though misspelt in the official form as “Pantybrad”)

See the chapter “Pant y Brad” on page 69 of Hanes Tonyrefail (The History of Tonyrefail) / Thomas Morgan (Caer-dɥdd 1899) / at http://www.kimkat.org/catalunyacymru/catala/sion_prys_013_hanes_tonyrefail_01e_1288.htm
or
http://www.kimkat.org/catalunyacymru/catala/sion_prys_013_hanes_tonyrefail_01e.htm


ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *brat- < Celtic *mrat-
From the same British root: Cornish braz (= plot, trap, pitfall, ambush), Breton barad (= treason)
Irlandčs: brath (= betrayal, spying; perception, feeling)

:_______________________________.

bradu <BRAA-di> [ˡbraˑdɪ] verb
1
waste
bradu arian waste money

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh bradu < ’fradu < afradu

This is (afrad = misfortune) + (-u = suffix).

The word afrad is af rad (af- = negative prefix) + soft mutation + (rhad = grace).

1) The falling away of a pretonic first syllable is common in Welsh - afradu > ’fradu.

Compare Nadolig > ’Dolig (= Christmas), esgidiau > sgidie (= shoes)

2) The initial f [v] of ’fradu has been misunderstood as being the soft mutation of [b] . This has resulted in a new radical form bradu

The exact same sequence is to be seen in northern Welsh blźr < ’flźr < aflźr (= untidy).

NOTE: South-east Wales The form here is bratu (BRAA-ti) [ˡbraˑtɪ]

The change d > t at the beginning of the final syllable is typical of this dialect

:_______________________________.

bradwr <BRAA-dur> [ˡbraˑdʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL bradwɥr <BRAD-wir> [ˡbradwɪr]
1
traitor; North Wales traitor; rat, ratter, snitch, betrayer

carn-fradwr carn fradwr arrant traitor
troi'n fradwr turn traitor
troi'n fradwr i (r
ɥwun) turn traitor (on somebody), rat (on somebody), betray (somebody)

2 North Wales scab, blackleg, strikebreaker; person who works when his fellow workers are on strike

ETYMOLOGY: (brad-, stem of bradu = betray) + (-u suffix)

:_______________________________.

bradwriaeth <bra-DUR-yaith, -yeth> [braˡdʊrjaiɵ, -jɛɵ] feminine noun
1
treason, treachery

ETYMOLOGY: (bradwr = traitor) + (-i-aeth suffix)

:_______________________________.

bradwrus (bra-DUU-ris) [braˡduˑrɪs] adjective
1
treacherous

ETYMOLOGY: (bradwr = traitor) + (-us suffix)

:_______________________________.

bradychu <bra-DƏ-khi> [braˡdəxɪ] verb
1
betray
Byffŵn o Gymro a fradychodd ei famwlad A Welsh buffon who betrayed his mother country

bradychu’r achos betray the cause

2 betray, give away = reveal, inadvertently reveal

ein gwefusau cochliw yn bradychu'r ffaith ein bod wedi bwɥta llus
our red lips betraying the fact that we had eaten bilberries

3 North Wales scab (on one's fellow workers)
bradychu ei gɥd-chwarelwɥr scab on his fellow quarrymen

ETYMOLOGY: bradychu < bredychu (brad = treachery) + (-ychu).
The vowel y caused the change a > e.

The modern form however has a owing to the influence of brad (= treachery), bradwr (= traitor)

:_______________________________.

braen <BRAIN> [braɪn] verb (adjective)
1
putrid, rotten

2 ceulfran curds; cottage cheese

ceul fraen (ceul- = penult form of caul = curds) + soft mutation + ( braen = rotten, putrid)

This is a word from South-west Wales, though in fact it has the form colfran < coulfraen

In older Welsh eu was ou, and this has been maintained in the south, though in the rest of the country penult ou > eu, non-penult ou > eu > au.

:_______________________________.

braenar <BRƏI-nar> [ˡbrəinar] masculine noun
PLURAL braenarau
(brəi-NAA-re) [ˡbrəinaˑrɛ]
1
fallow land = land ploughed and left unsown in order to kill weeds
bod yn fraenar lie fallow
Mae’r tir yn fraenar eleni

2 cattle disease which causes them to eat unusual objects, substances - soil, stones, drying clothes

3 unnatural hunger
Roedd y ddau fachgen wedi bw
ɥta fel petai branar arnɥn nhw
The two boys ate as if there was “an unnatural hunger on them”

ETYMOLOGY: The element braen may be related to br
ɥn (= hill), and bron (= breast, hill).

But according to Joan Coramines (ZCP 25 1956 p49) “braenar, a fallow field, coming from an older BRAKNA-RO < BRAKNO 'rotten', which comes in turn from the IE root MRK- 'mire','humid thing'... brańa, already attested in the 8th century and usual in Galicia, Northern Portugal, Asturias and Santander, means 'a swampy or boggy place, a humid meadow'. It reappears in Northwestern Catalonia in the form 'braina' meaning 'a field of cereals whose ears have not yet formed’... It is clear that 'brańa' comes... from a Celtic BRAKNA 'humid meadow' ”

In other Celtic languages: Breton: breinar (= fallow land), Irish: branar (= fallow land)

NOTE: A variant of braenar is branar
[brā-nar] . It occurs in the place name Mynɥdd Branar (“highland of the fallow”), near Dolwen, Baecolwɥn (county of Conwɥ)

Another is
brynar.

English-Welsh Dictionary, Rev. John Walters, Rector of Llandough, Glamorganshire. (Volume 1: 3rd edition, 1828). Fallow, fallow-ground or fallow-field [in Husbandry] Braenar (vulgņ branar, brynar)

:_______________________________.

braenaru <brəi-NAA-ri> [ˡbrəɪnaˑrɪ] verb
1
leave (land) fallow
2
braenaru'r tir ar gyfer pave the way for (“leave the land fallow for”)

ETYMOLOGY: (braenar = fallow land ) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

braf ‹BRAAV› [braːv] (adjective)
1
splendid

2 (weather) fine, sunny

3 cael lle braf get a cushy job (“get a fine place”)

A Dialogue in the Devonshire Dialect, (in three parts) by a Lady: to which is added a Glossary. James Frederick PALMER, Mary Palmer. 1837: “BRAVE, adj. insignia, egregius, eminently fine; said also of a person in good health.”

:_______________________________.

brag ‹BRAAG› [braːg] masculine noun
PLURAL bragau <BRAA-gai, -ge> [ˡbraˑgaɪ, -ɛ]

1
malt = grain made ready for brewing
bractɥ malthouse, place to germinate grains; brewery
brag gwenith malt made from wheat grain
bragwr (qv) maltster, brewer
bregɥn a grain of malt
cerwɥn frag / cerwɥni brag mash tub / mash tubs
cwrw brag barley-malt beer
gwneud brag to malt (vi)
odɥn frag malt kiln
troi’n frag (seeds) to malt

2
brag gwlɥb mash = mixture of mashed malt grains and hot water from which malt is extracted mwɥdo brag to liquor malt
trwɥtho brag to liquor malt

3
dŵr brag liquid from mash

4
clwɥd frag = hurdle for drying malt on

5
finegr brag = malt vinegar
llaeth ā brag malted milk
torth frag / torthau brag malt loaf / malt loaves
wisgi brag = malt whisky

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh brag < British < Celtic

From the same British root: Cornish brag (= malt)

From the same Celtic root: Irish braich (= malt)

Cf Latin marcor (= putrefaction)

:_______________________________.

bragu <BRAA-gi> [ˡbraˑgɪ] verb
1
brew
2
malt = produce malt

ETYMOLOGY: (brag = malt) + (-wr suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

bragwr <BRAA-gur> [ˡbraˑgʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL bragwɥr <BRA-gwir} [ˡbragwɪr]
1 brewer
2
y bragwɥr the brewers, the brewery companies

ETYMOLOGY: (brag = malt) + (-wr agent suffix)

:_______________________________.

braich <BRAIKH> [braɪx]

PLURAL: breichiau <BRƏIKH yai, -ye> [ˡbrəɪxjai, -jɛ] (feminine noun)
1
arm
y fraich = the arm

2 fraich ym mraich <vraikh ə MRAIKH> [vraɪxəˡmraɪx] (adverb) arm in arm

3 nerth braich ac ysgwɥdd <nerth BRAIKH ag Ə-skuidh> [nɛrθ ˡbraɪx ag ˡəskʊɪš] (adverb) with all one's might “(the) strength (of) arm and shoulder”

4 (South Wales) naill fraich = one-armed

5 unfraich one-armed
un fraich (un = un) + soft mutation + ( braich = arm)


:_______________________________.

Braid <BRAID> [braɪd] (feminine noun)
1
woman saint
2
Llansanffrįid <lhan-san-FRAID> [ɬansanˡfraɪd] (place names - church of saint Braid)

:_______________________________.

braidd <BRAIDH> [braɪš] adverb
1
hardly, scarcely
braidd bɥth hardly ever

2 almost, nearly
braidd neb almost nobody (qv)
braidd dim almost nothing (qv)

3
rather, somewhat, kind of; braidd yn + adjective
with bod –
Ma hi braidd yn oer allan heddiw It’s fairly cold out today
Mae’n ymddangos braidd yn anhygoel It seems hard to believe

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh braidd < British; the equivalent word in Breton is bre (= pain, difficulty, effort)
braidd yn hwɥr <braidh ən HUIR> [braɪš ən ˡhʊɪr] (adverb) rather late
(b) also after an adjective: oer braidd fairly cold

3
o'r braidd hardly, scarcely, barely
O’r braidd ’mod i’n eich nabod I hardly know you
O’r braidd rw i’n eich nabod I hardly know you
O’r braidd y medr hi ddarllen She’s scarcely able to read, she can hardly read
O’r braidd ’mod i’n meddwl am un dim arall I hardly think of anything else

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh braidd < British.
The equivalent word in Breton is bre (= pain, difficulty, effort) < *brez

:_______________________________.

braidd ddim <braidh DHIM> [braɪš ˡšɪm] pronom
1
hardly anything, hardly any
Does gen i braidd ddim ar ōl I’ve got hardly any left

ETYMOLOGY: (braidd = hardly, scarcely; almost, nearly) + (dim = anything, nothing)

:_______________________________.

braidd neb <braidh NEEB> [braɪš ˡneːb] pronom
1
hardly anyone
Ddaeth braidd neb hardly anybody came
Fu yno braidd neb ddoe there was hardly anybody there yesterday

ETYMOLOGY: (braidd = hardly, scarcely; almost, nearly) + (neb = somebody, nobody)

:_______________________________.

brain <BRAIN> [braɪn] (npl)
1
crows; see brān

:_______________________________.

braint, PLURAL: breintiau <BRAINT, BREINT-yai, -ye> [braɪnt, ˡbrəɪntjaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
privilege
y fraint = the privilege
2
hawlio braint claim a privilege

:_______________________________.

bran <BRAN> [bran] (masculine noun)
1
bran

:_______________________________.

brān, PLURAL: brain <BRAAN, BRAIN> [brɑːn,braɪn] (feminine noun)
1
crow
y frān = the crow

2 traed brain crows’ feet
Mae ganddo ysgrifen fel traed brain His writing is a scrawl (“he has handwriting like crows’ feet”)


4 Tinddu medd y frān wrth y wɥlan the pot calling the kettle black (“black-arse said the crow to the seagull”)

5
Gwyn y gwźl y frān ei chyw

“(it is) white that the crow sees her chick”

Mothers can never believe that their offspring may be less than honourable and angelic; a mother believes her child can do no wrong

6
Mae hi’n ddigon oer i rewi brain It’s freezing cold (“cold enough to freeze crows” – ‘o turn into ice’ rhew = ice)

(South) Mae hi’n ddigon oer i sythu brain freezing cold (“cold enough to freeze crows” sythu = ‘straighten’ / ‘make rigid’ / ‘stiffen’ / freeze stiff’ )

:_______________________________.

brandɥ <BRAN-di> [ˡbrandɪ] masculine noun
1
Epenthetic form of ebrandɥ (= place where fodder is kept )
2
There is a street name Brandɥ in Johnstown, county of Wrecsam. Query: Is this ebrandɥ?

:_______________________________.

brān dyddɥn, PLURAL: brain tyddɥn <braan-DƏ-dhin, brain-TƏ-dhin> [brɑːn ˡdəšɪn, braɪn ˡtəšɪn] (feminine noun)
1
carrion crow (“smallholding crow”)

:_______________________________.

brān goesgoch, PLURAL: brain coesgoch <braan GOIS-kokh, brain-KOIS-kokh> [brɑːn ˡgɔɪskɔx, braɪn ˡkɔɪskɔx] (feminine noun)
1
chough (“redlegged crow”)

:_______________________________.

Branwen <BRAN-wen> [ˡbranwɛn] (feminine noun)
1
woman's name
2
second of the stories of the Mabinogi

:_______________________________.

..1 bras <BRAAS> [brɑːs] adjective
PLURAL breision <BREIS-yon> [ˡbrəɪsjɔn]
1
(land) fertile, lush, fat
gwlad fras fertile country

Gwelem yr afon fawr yn dirwɥn drwɥ y dyffrɥn bras
We could see the big river meandering through the lush valley

2 (grassland) lush = luxuriant, abundant
symud i feɥsɥdd brasach move on to more profitable areas
porféɥdd breision rich pastures, lush pastures, abundant grassland; figurative meaning - wealthy situation

3 (salary) fat, big, plentiful
Enillent gyflogau breision o'r BBC
They were earning fat salaries from the BBC

4 replete, full

(Apocrypha) Ecclesiasticus 35:6 Y mae offrwm y duwiol yn gwneuthur yr allor yn fras, a'i arogl peraidd ef sy gerbron y Goruchaf. (Apocrypha) Ecclesiasticus 35:6 The offering of the righteous maketh the altar fat, and the sweet savour thereof is before the most High.

bras o replete with, full of

I ffwrdd ā ni drwɥ ddyffrɥn prydferth Conwɥ - dyffrɥn bras o hanes ein gwlad
Off we went through the beautiful valley of the Conwɥ - a valley replete with the history of our country

5 bras amcan a rough estimate, an approximation
ar fras amcan at a rough estimate, at a rough guess

Bɥdd cost y daith, ar fras amcan, rywle rhwng £800 a £1,000 (wɥth gant o bunnau a mil o bunnau)
The price of the trip will be, at a rough guess, between £800 and £1,000

mesuriadau breision / mesuriadau bras rough dimensions, rough measurements

braslun rough sketch, draft

syniad bras a rough idea, a crude idea, an approximate idea, a broad idea

cyfieithiad bras rough translation

6 (crop) fat
Tes Gorffennaf, ydau brasaf (saying) heat of July, fat cereal crops

7 (harvest) fat, abundant
cael cynhaeaf bras reap a rich harvest (also figurative: make oneself rich from some activity)

8 bɥd bras comfortable life
cael bɥd bras lead a comfortable life

9 South-west Wales (people) snooty, haughty, person full of his / her own importance
Mae e’n un bras He’s full of his own importance
Mae hi’n un fras She’s full of her own importance

10 North Wales coarse, vulgar, rank
siarad yn fras talk in a vulgar manner, speak coarsely, use bad language
geirfa fras coarse vocabulary
siarad bras use of vulgar expressions
iaith fras coarse language, rude language, swearing

11 rough, broad, non-detailed, general, non-specific
disgrifiad bras rough description

12 yn fras superficially, in broad outline, in rough detail

Wel dyna hi'r stori'n fras am hen chwarel y pentra
Well that's the story in rough detail about the old village quarry

13 (powder, flour, gravel, etc) coarse = in larger particles than is usual, not fine
blawd gwenith wedi ei falu'n fras wheat flour coarsely milled

tywodɥn bras grain of gravel

graean bras shingle

14 (cloth) coarse, rough = not fine
brethɥn bras coarse cloth
barclod bras apron made of coarse cloth

15 (wool, brush, etc) coarse = not fine
gwlān bras = coarse wool
brwsh bras = coarse brush
baco bras coarse tobacco
pren bras ei raen coarse-grained wood
edau fras coarse thread

16 Fishing pysgodɥn bras coarse fish, freshwater fish which is not a member of the salmon family; pysgota bras coarse fishing

17 obsolete (person, animal) stout, fat;
Found in epithets in medieval Welsh: Adda Fras Stout Adam

Eseia 11:6 a'r blaidd a drig gyda'r oen, a'r llewpart a orwedd gyda'r mɥn; y llo hefɥd, a chenau y llew, a'r anifail bras, fyddant ynghɥd, a bachgen bychan a'u harwain
Isaiah 11:6 The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.

Dafɥdd Fras Fat David (modern Welsh would be Dafɥdd Dew)

18 gogor bras coarse sieve = sieve with large holes

19 glo bras large coal, coal in big lumps

20 (meat) fatty, having a lot of fat, not lean
cig bras fatty meat
asen fras rib with a lot of fat
ffrio sleisen o gig moch gwɥn a bras to fry a slice of white fatty pork

21 (North Wales) (sea) rough

22 map bras sketch map, rough map, simplified map

23 as a plural noun (breision) = fattened animals

Salmau 66:15 Offrymaf i ti boethoffrymau breision, ynghŷd ag arogl-darth hyrddod; aberthaf ychen a bychod. Sela.
Psalms 66:15 I will offer unto thee burnt sacrifices of fatlings, with the incense of rams; I will offer bullocks with goats. Selah.

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic

from the same British root: Cornish bras (= big), Breton bras (= big);

Irish bras (a literary word; = great, strong; swift)) . The Celtic word was related to Latin grossus (= big)

NOTE: breision (plural form): (bras) + (plural suffix -ion, which causes affection of the preceding vowel a > ei

:_______________________________.

..2 bras <braas> [brɑːs] (masculine noun)
1
(bird) bunting
bras penddu (Emberiza melanocephela) black-headed bunting

:_______________________________.

brasgamu <bras-KA-mi> [brasˡkamɪ] (verb)
1
stride

:_______________________________.

braslun <BRAS-lin> [ˡbraslɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL brasluniau <bras-LIN-yai, -ye> [brasˡlɪnjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
outline, sketch, draft, rough plan

2 braslun gyrfa (“sketch (of) career) curriculum vitae, CV

ETYMOLOGY: (bras = rough, general, not detailed) + soft mutation + (llun = picture)

:_______________________________.

brat, PLURAL: bratiau <BRAT, BRAT-yai, -ye> [ˡbrat, ˡbratjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
apron

:_______________________________.

brath, PLURAL: brathau <BRAATH, BRAA-thai, -e> [ˡbrɑːθ, ˡbrɑˑθaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
bite

2 gwaeth eich cyfarth na’ch brath your bark is worse than your bite; a person’s angry words are worse than any action he may do, a person can be very angry but he won’t really carry out any threats he makes

(she) gwaeth ei chyfarth na’i brath
(he) gwaeth ei gyfarth na’i frath
(gwaeth = worse) + (eich = your) + (cyfarth = bark) + (na = than) + (eich) + (brath = bite)


:_______________________________.

brathu <BRAA-thi> [ˡbrɑˑθɪ] (verb)
1
to bite

2 Cas gan gath y ci a’i bratho Once bitten twice shy
(“(it is) hateful with a cat the dog which may bite it”)

:_______________________________.

brau <BRAI> [braɪ] (adjective)
1
brittle
2
helygen frau (helɥg brau) (Salix fragilis var fragilis)
crack willow or brittle willow


:_______________________________.

braw <BRAU> [braʊ] (masculine noun)
1
shock, fright

Daeth arnynt fraw disymwyth A sudden fright took them (“it-came on them a-fright sudden”).

:_______________________________.

brawd, PLURAL: brodɥr <BRAUD, BROO-dir> [braʊd, ˡbroˑdɪr] (masculine noun)
1
brother

2 Frodɥr! Brothers! soft mutation of brodɥr; This mutation indicates a vocative use

Philipiaid 4:8 Yn ddiwethaf, frodyr, pa bethau bynnag sydd wir, pa bethau bynnag sydd onest, pa bethau bynnag sydd gyfiawn, pa bethau bynnag sydd bur, pa bethau bynnag sydd hawddgar, pa bethau bynnag sydd ganmoladwy, od oes un rhinwedd, ac od oes dim clod, meddyliwch am y pethau hyn.
Philippians 4:8 Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things.

:_______________________________.

brawd, PLURAL: brodiau <BRAUD, BROD-yai, -ye> [ˡbraʊd, ˡbrɔdjaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1 (obsolete) judgement, verdict

Dydd Brawd Judgement Day
hyd Ddydd Brawd until Judgement Day

2 cymrodedd compromise, agreement
cymrodedd < *cymrawdedd < *cymfrawdedd
(cym- = together) + soft mutation + (brawd = judgement, verdict) + (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)

3 difrod (modern Welsh) damage, destruction; (obsolete meaning) neglect of law, contempt of law;

difrod < difrawd (di- prefix = without) + soft mutation + (brawd = judgement, verdict)

:_______________________________.

bratiaith ‹BRAT-yaith› [ˡbratjaɪθ] feminine noun
1
debased language; shoddy Welsh
y fratiaith = the debased language

ETYMOLOGY: “language (of) rag(s)”, i.e. “tattered language” (brat = rag) + (-iaith = language). Expression from the nineteenth century

:_______________________________.

bratiog
<BRAT-YOG> [ˡbratjɔg] adjective
1
tattered, raggčd, scrappy, shoddy
2
imperfect, broken
mewn Cymraeg bratiog in broken Welsh
Roedd yn gallu siarad tip
ɥn o Saesneg bratiog He could speak a bit of broken English

ETYMOLOGY: (brat = rag) + (-iog, suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

brawddeg, PLURAL: brawddegau <BRAU-dheg, brau-DHEE-ge> [ˡbraʊšɛg, braʊˡšeˑgaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
sentence
y frawddeg = the sentence

:_______________________________.

brawychiaeth <brau-ƏKH-yaith, -yeth> [braʊˡəxjaɪθ, -ɛθ] f
1 terrorism
gwrthfrawychiaeth antiterrorism

ETYMOLOGY: (brawych- stem of brawychu = terrorise) + (-i-aeth suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

brawychu <brau-Ə-khi> [braʊˡəxɪ]
(verb with an object)
1 frighten, terrify
2 terrorise

ETYMOLOGY: (braw = fright, terror) + (-ychu suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

Brdd.
1
abbreviation = Barddoniaeth (= poetry)

:_______________________________.

bre <BREE> [breː] (masculine noun)
1
hill, promontory

2 as an element in place names:

Heulfre (House name or street name) sunny hill
(heul, tonic syllable form of haul) + soft mutation + (bre = hill)
(There is also an incorrect form Haulfre)

Moelfre (common hill name) bare hill
(moel = bare, denuded) + soft mutation + (bre = hill)

:_______________________________.

..1 brech <BREEKH> [breːx] adjective
1
feminine form brɥch (= speckled, spotted).

Usually after a feminine noun, and so it becomes frech (there is soft mutation of the initial consonant of an adjective which follows a feminine singular noun)

tylluan frech (Strix aluco) tawny owl

)

:_______________________________.

..2 brech, PLURAL: brechau <BREEKH, BREE-khai, -khe> [ˡbreːx, ˡbreˑxaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
pox
y frech = the pox

2
brech goch
<breekh GOOKH> [breːx ˡgoːx] y frech goch = measles (“red pox”)

3
brech y cŵn
<breekh ə KUUN> [breːx ə ˡkuːn] the mange (“pox of the dogs”)

:_______________________________.

brechdan <BREKH-dan> [ˡbrɛxdan] feminine noun
PLURAL brechdanau <brekh-DAA-nai, -ne> [brɛxˡdɑˑnaɪ, -ɛ]
1
slice of bread and butter, (Northern England: butty) (Scotland: piece)
y frechdan = the slice of bread and butter

2 sandwich = two slices of bread spread with butter or margarine with a filling (eg jam, cheese, meat paste, lettuce and tomato, pickle, etc)

3 sandwich defined by its contents:

brechdan doddion bread and dripping (“sandwich (of) dripping”)

brechdan fawd slice of bread with butter spread on it with the thumb (“sandwich (of) thumb”)

brechdan gaws cheese sandwich

brechdan gig meat sandwich

brechdan jam bread and jam (bread and butter with jam)

brechdan linsi two slices of different bread (made of different grains) put together to make a sandwich
(“sandwich (of) linsey, linen warp with a wool or cotton filling ”)

brechdan surep syrup sandwich

brechdan wen buttered slice of white bread

2 (North Wales) brechdan o ddyn coward, spineless man, softie (“a sandwich / piece of bread an butter of a man”)

(North Wales) hen frechdan coward, person who won’t say boo to a goose

(North Wales) rhyw frechdan o beth coward
Mae o am ddangos ma fo ydi'r mistar yn lle bod yn rhyw frechdan o beth fel Mr. Wyn, na feiddia fo ddangos i winadd i neb."
He wants to show that HE’s boss instead of being a spineless old thing like Mr. Wyn, who wouldn’t challenge anybody (“show his claws to anybody”)

ETYMOLOGY
: Welsh < Old Irish brechtįn (= bread with butter)

NOTE: also (North Wales) bechdan (loss of the r), Ceredigon: bachdan, brachdan (the vowel of the first syllable is coloured by the vowel in the following syllable)

:_______________________________.

brechdan agored <BREKH-dan a-GOO-red> [ˡbrɛxdan aˡgoˑrɛd] (feminine noun)
1
open sandwich

:_______________________________.

brechdan gig <BREKH-dan GIIG> [ˡbrɛxdanˡ giːg] (feminine noun)
1
meat sandwich

:_______________________________.

brechiad, PLURAL: brechiadau <BREKH-yad, brekh-YAA-dai, -de> [ˡbrɛxjad,brɛxˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
immunisation jab, inoculation

:_______________________________.

brechlɥn <BREKH-lin> [ˡbrɛxlɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL brechlynnau <brekh-LƏ-ne> [brɛxˡlənaɪ, -ɛ] 1 vaccine
brechlɥn geneuol oral vaccine
brechlɥn i’w lyncu oral vaccine (“for its swallowing”, to be swallowed)
brechlɥn trwɥ’r geg oral vaccine (“through the mouth”)
brechlɥn triphlɥg triple vaccine

ETYMOLOGY: (brech = pox, smallpox ) + soft mutation + ( llɥn = liquid)

:_______________________________.

brechu <BREE-khi> [ˡbreˑxɪ] (verb)
1
inoculate, vaccinate
brechu rhąg difftheria inoculate against diptheria


:_______________________________.

brecwast <BREC-wast> [ˡbrɛcwast] masculine noun
PLURAL <brek-WA-stai, e> [brɛkˡwastaɪ, -ɛ]
1
breakfast

2 brecwast Ffrengig continental breakfast (“French breakfast”)

3 gwelɥ a brecwast bed and breakfast

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh brecwast is from English breakfast

“the occasion of breaking one’s overnight fast”

(to break) + (fast = time without food).

 

There are two possible explanations for the “w”.

 

(1) One is that it occurred in an English form taken into Welsh. This would seem to be more likely.

 

BREAKWAST, the common form of breakfast. (Parochial Account of Llanidloes / Edward Hamer / Chapter X / Folk-lore. Page 231 Collections Historical and Archeological  Relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders / 1877)

(2) The other is that the change to “w” occurred in Welsh, with the English dialect form breakvast / brekvast > Welsh *brecfast <BREK-vast> [ˡbrɛkvast] > brecwast. The consonant  (<w> [v] replaces the consonant <v> [v], a change seen to occur in other words in Welsh – for example, efallai, ’fallai (= perhaps) > south-eastern walla, wylla

Examples in English of breakvast:


..a/ Observations on some of the dialects in the West of England particularly with a glossary of words now in use there; and poems and other pieces, exemplifying the dialect. by James Jennings, Honorary Secretary of the Metropolitan Library Institution, London.

London, 1825.

“The words nouth, knoweth; zin, sun; vrast, frost; die, day; Zalhardie, Saturday; Zindei, Sunday, and a few others, indicate an origin West of the Parret. There are, however, many words which with a trifling alteration in the orthography, would suit, at the present time, the north-eastern portion of the county; such are blauther, bladder, brekvast, breakfast; crwest, crust; smill, smell;”

..b/ Duplicity; Comedy, in five Acts. As performed at the Theatre-Royal, Covent-Garden. T. Thomas Holcroft. (1811. Edinburgh. A collection of Successful Modern Plays, as acted at the Theatres Royal, London. Printed from the prompt books under the authority of the managers. Selected by Mrs. Inchbald. In ten volumes. Vol. iv.).

(Squire Turnbull and his daughter speak in a south-western English manner, probably Somerset)

Sq[uire Turnbull]. How does thee like London ?
Miss Turn[bull]. I knaw not It do zeem a strange place.
Sq[uire Turnbull]. A strange place!
Miss Turn[bull]. Ees—I do think it be.
Sq[uire Turnbull]. Thee dost?
Miss Turn[bull]. Ees.
Sq[uire Turnbull]. An' zo do I—whereby, dost zee, I'll get out n't as vast as I can—a pretty chace, as the man zaid that rode vifty miles a'ter a wild goose.—London ! —an' this be London, the devil take London—Come, pack up thy ribbands an' vlappets, an' make thyzel ready.
Miss Turn[bull]. Neea, zure—you wun't go zo zoon.
Sq[uire Turnbull]. Wun't I ?—an' I stay in this town to-night, I'll eat it vor breakvast tomorrow.

:_______________________________.

brefu <BREE-vi> [ˡbreˑvɪ] (verb)
1
(cow) to low, to moo
2
(goat) to bleat

See the place name Llanddewi Brefi

:_______________________________.

breichiau <BREIKH-yai, -ye> [ˡbrəɪxjaɪ, -ɛ] (pl)
1
arms; see braich

:_______________________________.

breichled, PLURAL: breichledau <BREIKH-led, breikh-LEE-dai, -de> [ˡbrəɪxlɛd, brəɪxˡleˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
bracelet
y freichled = the bracelet
breichled jad
jade bracelet
:_______________________________.

Breiddin <BREI-dhin> [ˡbrəɪšɪn] (feminine noun)
1
hill in north-east Wales

:_______________________________.

breinlen <BREIN-len> [ˡbrəɪnlɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL breinlenni <brein-LE-ni> [brəɪnˡlɛnɪ]
1
charter = a document issued by the state for the incorporation of a business (such as a bank), a city, a university, etc and which specifies its characteristics, its purpose, and its rights
y freinlen = the charter

2 charter = fundamental principles of an organisation
Breinlen y Cenhedloedd Unedig The United Nations Charter

3 Y Freinlen Fawr Magna Carta - the 'great charter' that the English barons obliged King John of England to sign in 1215 at Runnymede setting out the rights of barons, the church, and freemen
breinlen fawr magna carta = any law establishing fundamental rights

4 gazette
Y Freinlen Gymroaidd (“The Cambrian Gazette”) name of a paper printed in Aberystwɥth in 1836

ETYMOLOGY: (brein- stem of breinio = to grant a privilege) + soft mutation + (llen = cloth, document)

:_______________________________.

breinryddid <brein-RƏ-dhid> [brəɪnˡrəšɪd] masculine noun
1
immunity = a privilege which grants immunity to a person
breinryddid diplomyddol diplomatic immunity

ETYMOLOGY: (brein- stem of breinio = to grant a privilege) + soft mutation + (rhyddid = freedom, liberty)

:_______________________________.

breintiedig <brein-ti-EE-dig> [brəɪntɪˡeˑdɪg] adjective
1
privileged
lleiafrif bach breintiedig a small privileged minority

ETYMOLOGY: (breint-i- = stem of breintio = to favour) + (-edig past participle suffix, passive)

:_______________________________.

breision <BREI-shon> [ˡbrəɪʃɔn] adjective
1
plural form of bras (= abundant, fat)

2 as a plural noun, = fattened animals

Salmau 66:15 Offrymaf i ti boethoffrymau breision, ynghyd ag arogl-darth hyrddod; aberthaf ychen a bychod. Sela.
Psalms 66:15 I will offer unto thee burnt sacrifices of fatlings, with the incense of rams; I will offer bullocks with goats. Selah.

ETYMOLOGY: (bras = abundant, fat) + (plural suffix -ion, which causes affection of the preceding vowel a > ei

:_______________________________.

brenhinbren <bren-HIN-bren> [brɛnˡhɪnbrɛn] masculine noun
PLURAL breninbrennau <bre-nin-BRE-nai, -e> [brɛnɪnˡbrɛnaɪ, -ɛ]
1
“king-tree, the tree which is king”
brenhinbren y goedwig the king of the forest, the tree which is king of the forest, the oak

ETYMOLOGY: (brenhin- penult form of brenin = king) + soft mutation + (pren= tree)

:_______________________________.

brenhindɥ <bren-HIN-di> [brɛnˡhɪndɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL brenhindai <bren-HIN-dai> [brɛnˡhɪndaɪ]
1
royal house, palace

Daniel 4:30 Llefarodd y brenin, a dywedodd, Onid hon yw Babilon fawr, yr hon a adeiledais i yn frenhindy yng nghryfder fy nerth, ac er gogoniant fy mawrhydi?
Daniel 4:30 The king spake, and said, Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for the house of the kingdom by the might of my power, and for the honour of my majesty?

ETYMOLOGY: (brenhin- penult form of brenin = king) + soft mutation + ( = house)

:_______________________________.

brenhines, PLURAL: breninesau ‹bre NHI nes, bre ni NE se› (feminine noun)
1
queen
y frenhines = the queen

:_______________________________.

brenhinllɥs ‹bre-nhin-lhis› feminine noun
1
(Bible) palace

Daniel 8:2 Gwelais hefyd mewn gweledigaeth, (a bu pan welais, mai yn Susan y brenhinllys, yr hwn sydd o fewn talaith Elam, yr oeddwn i,) ie, gwelais mewn gweledigaeth, ac yr oeddwn i wrth afon Ulai.
Daniel 8:2 And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass, when I saw, that I was at Shushan in the palace, which is in the province of Elam; and I saw in a vision, and I was by the river of Ulai.

ETYMOLOGY: (brenhin- penultform of brenin = king) + soft mutaiton + (llɥs = court) > *brenhķn-lɥs > brenhinllɥs

:_______________________________.

brenhinol ‹bre NHI nol› (adjective)
1
royal
2 llynges frenhinol royal navy

:_______________________________.

brenin, PLURAL: brenhinoedd ‹BRE nin, bre NHI nodh› (masculine noun)
1
king
2
brenin yr anifeiliaid the king of beasts, the king of the animals, the lion

:_______________________________.

breniniaethwr ‹bre-nin- yei -thur› m masculine noun
PLURAL breniniaethwɥr ‹bre-nin- yeith -wir›
1
royalist = supporter of the monarchy as a political system

ETYMOLOGY: (breniniaeth-, < brenhiniaeth = monarchy) + (-wr suffix = 'man')

:_______________________________.

brest, PLURAL: brestiau ‹BREST, BREST ye› (feminine noun)
1
breast
y frest = the breast

:_______________________________.

bresychen, PLURAL: bresɥch ‹bre SƏ khen, BRE sikh› (feminine noun)
1
cabbage
y fresychen = the cabbage

:_______________________________.

brethɥn ‹BRE thin› (masculine noun)
1
cloth

:_______________________________.

brethɥn cartref ‹bre thin KAR tre› (masculine noun)
1
homespun cloth

:_______________________________.

breuddwɥd, PLURAL: breuddwɥdion <BREI-dhuid, brei-DHUID-yon> [ˡbrəɪšʊɪd, brəɪˡšʊɪdjɔn] (feminine noun)
1
dream
y freuddwɥd the dream

:_______________________________.

breuddwɥd gwrach <brei-dhuid GWRAAKH> [brəɪšʊɪd ˡgwrɑːx] (feminine noun)
1
wishful thinking ('dream of a witch')

From the fuller phrase

Breuddwyd gwrach yn ōl ei hewyllwys = wishful thinking “(the) dream (of) (a) witch according-to her will”

Ai breuddwyd gwrach neu nod realistig yw hyn? Is this wishful thinking or a realistic goal?

:_______________________________.

Breuddwɥd Macsen Wledig ‹BREI dhuid MAK sen WLE dig› (masculine noun)
1
The Dream of Macsen Wledig (from the Tales of the Mabinogi)

:_______________________________.

Breuddwɥd Rhonabwɥ ‹BREI dhuid rho NA bui› (masculine noun)
1
The Dream of Rhonabwy (from the Tales of the Mabinogi)

:_______________________________.

breuddwɥdio ‹brei DHUID yo› (verb)
1
to dream

breuddwɥdio am fod yn feddyg dreaming about being a doctor

Freuddwydiais
i erioed y byddwn ryw ddydd yn aelod o’r Orsedd I never dreamt that one day I’d be a member of the Gorsedd

:_______________________________.

breuddwɥdiwr, PLURAL: breuddwɥdwɥr ‹brei DHUID yur, brei DHUID wir› (masculine noun)
1
dreamer

:_______________________________.

breweddu ‹brə- wź -dhi› verb
1
(South-east Wales) See berweddu (to brew)

:_______________________________.

bri ‹BRII› (masculine noun)
1
renown

2 Compare difrifol (= serious) < (difrif = seriousness) + (-ol suffix)
mewn difrif in all seriousness (“in + seriousness”)

The word difrif is from difri, which formerly meant “dishonor / dishonour”.

(di = privative prefix, ‘without’) + soft mutation + (bri = honor / honour )

1) The final f is a later addition. Most likely this is under the influence of many polysyllabic words with final ‹v› -f which is lost colloquially. This -f is retained however in the written language

Examples: cynta’ (= first), ola’ (= last), bydda’ (= I shall be), written in standard Welsh as cyntaf, olaf, byddaf

There are a couple of other words in Welsh with an inorganic f - these are

1/ hunllef (= nightmare),

2/ hɥf (= insolent)

 

These are more correctly hunlle, hɥ.

 

As with difri, the -f has been ‘restored’ though in fact it was never there in the first place..

Difri has equivalents in the two other British languages: Cornish deffri (= indeed), Breton devri (= seriously)

:_______________________________.

Briafael ‹bri-a-vel› masculine noun
1
(obsolete) man's name

2
name of a Welsh evangelist or “saint” of the early Church.

3 *Llanfriafael (not attested, thus not genuine)

A likely Welsh form of the place name St. Briavels (Gloucestershire) SS5504

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/521396 map



(delwedd 7495)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh Briįfael < *Briafįil < *Brigho-vaghl < British *Brigo-magl-os, as in modern Welsh bri (= respect, esteem), corresponding to Irish brķ (= strength, valour); and the element mael found in various male forenames (= great man, leader, chief), related to Latin magnus (= great)

NOTE: The short form of Briįfael is Brļog (first syllable Bri-, + diminutive suffix -og).
Briog occurs in Breton as Brieug

From this is derived Tyfrļog (ty- = your, ‘thy’, used in older Welsh as a prefix to form hypochoristics) + (Brļog).

Tyfrļog occurs in the the place name Llandyfrļog.

:_______________________________.

briallen ‹bri-a-lhen› feminine noun
PLURAL briallu ‹bri-a-lhi›
1
(Primula vulgaris) cowslip
y friallen = the cowslip

2 Maesbriallu (“field (of) primroses”, primrose field)
Street name in
..a/ Caerffili (“Maes Briallu”)
..b/ Llansamlet, county of Abertawe (“Maes Briallu”)

ETYMOLOGY: (unknown)
NOTE: (South Wales) brielli, mierlli; county of Penfro brigelli

:_______________________________.

bric ‹brik› masculine noun
PLURAL brics, briciau ‹briks, brik-ye›
1
brick

2 clai brics (masculine noun), brick clay = clay for making bricks, containing clay and iron

3 gosod brics bricklaying (“laying (of) bricks”)

4 ffwrn frics (feminine noun), plural ffyrnau brics
brick kiln = a kiln for making bricks

5 gwaith brics (masculine noun), plural gweithiau brics
brickworks, a place for making bricks (“work / factory {of} bricks”)

6 odɥn frics (feminine noun), plural odynau brics
brick kiln = a kiln for making bricks

7 tŷ brics (masculine noun), plural tai brics brick house, a house made of bricks

wal frics (feminine noun), plural waliau brics or welydd brics brick wall, a wall made of bricks

ETYMOLOGY: from English brick < French brique, from a Germanic word related to English to break

:_______________________________.

bric-a-brac ‹brik -a-brak› masculine noun
1
bric-a-brac = small objects collected as ornaments, or for their antiquarian character, or for sentimental reasons

Daeth i mewn ā bocs llawn bric-a-brac o`r atig
She came in with a box full of bric-a-brac from the attic

ETYMOLOGY: from English bric-a-brac < French bric ą brac “at random”

:_______________________________.

bricét ‹bri -ket› masculine noun
PLURAL bricets ‹bri -kets›
1
briquette = type of fuel, small block of compressed coal dust

ETYMOLOGY: from English briquette < French briquette

:_______________________________.

brici ‹bri -ki› masculine noun
PLURAL bricis ‹bri -kis›
1
colloquial, Englishism brickie, bricklayer (standard Welsh = briciwr)

ETYMOLOGY: from English brickie, diminutive form of bricklayer

:_______________________________.

bricio ‹brik -yo› verb with an object
1
to brick = face with bricks (e.g. concrete wall)

2 to brick = line with bricks (e.g. kiln)

3 to brick up = fill with bricks; bricio ffenestr = to brick up a window

ETYMOLOGY: (bric = brick) + (-io)

NOTE: In South Wales the usual form is brico (In the South -o generally replaces final -io)

:_______________________________.

bricsen, PLURAL: brics ‹BRIK sen, BRIKS› (feminine noun)
1
brick
y fricsen = the brick

:_______________________________.

Brķd ‹briid› feminine noun
1
Irish goddess of fire, fertility, agriculture

2 The second patron saint of Ireland, after Pįdraig. She is said to have been born in Lś (453-523) (ie around Pįdraig's time) Feast day: 1 February

:_______________________________.

brifo ‹BRI vo› (verb)
1
to hurt

:_______________________________.

brig, PLURAL: brigau ‹BRIIG, BRI ge› (masculine noun)
1
top

2 ar frig ton on the crest of a wave
ar frig y don on the crest of the wave

glo brig (“top coal”) surface coal

gwaith glo brig (“(a) work (of) surface coal”) open-cast coal mine, (USA: strip mine, open pit mine)

2 brigog (adj) (qv - quod vidē - which see) branchy

:_______________________________.

brigād ‹bri-gaad› feminine noun
PLURAL brigadau ‹bri-gā-de›
1
brigade = troops (such as a group of regiments) under a general officer
y frigād = the brigade

2 brigade = group of people organised for a specific task
brigād dān fire brigade = squad of firemen

ETYMOLOGY: brigād < English brigade < French < Old Italian brigata (= troops) < brigare (= to fight)

:_______________________________.

brigād dān ‹bri-gaad daan› feminine noun
PLURAL brigadau tān ‹bri-gā-de taan›
1
brigād dān (Englandic: fire brigade) = a squad of firemen

ETYMOLOGY: translation of Englandic ‘fire brigade’; (brigād = brigade) + soft mutation + (tān = fire)

:_______________________________.

brigadɥdd ‹bri-gā-didh› masculine noun
PLURAL brigadwɥr ‹bri-gad-wir›
1
(American: brigadier general) (Englandic: brigadier = (a) rank between colonel and major general; (b) general officer who commands a brigade)

ETYMOLOGY: (brigād = brigade) + (-ɥdd = suffix to indicate a person)

:_______________________________.

brigdrawst ‹brig -draust› m
PLURAL brigdrawstiau ‹brig- draust -ye›
1
catwalk, walkway; = pathway high above a stage, or connecting buildings across a street

2 catwalk = platform along which models walk in a fashion show
Bu sźr rygbi Cymru yn cerdded y brigdrawst yn sioe ffasiwn Tenovus yn Llanelli yn ystod yr Eisteddfod Genedlaethol
The stars of Welsh rugby walked along the catwalk in the Tenovus fashion show in the National Eisteddfod in Llanelli

ETYMOLOGY: ‘top beam’ (brig = top) + soft mutation + (trawst = beam)

:_______________________________.

brigog ‹BRII-gog› (adj)
1
branchy, spreading

Salmau 37:35 Gwelais yr annuwiol yn gadarn, ac yn frigog fel y llawryf gwyrdd.
Psalms 37:35 I have seen the wicked in great power, and spreading himself like a green bay tree.

o dan y gastanwydden frigog under the spreading chestnut tree

(Y) Prenbrigog SJ2664 “(the) spreading tree” name of a farm at Bwcle, Y Fflint

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2664

2 (cereal) bearing many ears

3 (cattle) horned

ETYMOLOGY: (brig = topmost branches, tree top) + (-og adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

brigwellt ‹brig-welht› m
PLURAL brigwelltydd ‹brig-WE-tidh›
1
hair grass

Brigwellt-y-coed farm name “(the) hair grass (by) the wood” (Nant-y-caws, Caerfyrddin)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/208944

ETYMOLOGY: (brig = top, crest) + soft mutation + (gwellt = grass)

:_______________________________.

brigwɥn ‹brig -win› adjective
1
(wave) white-crested, white-topped
tonnau brigwɥn white-crested waves

Eifion Wyn – Telynegion Maes a Mōr

Heibio'r greiglan dacw hi

Yn diflannu yn yr ewyn --

Clywais fref, a chlywais gri,

A bu'r don yn fwyfwy brigwyn.


Past the cliff there it is (here the poem refers to a lamb which has fallen into the sea)

Disappearing in the foam

I heard a bleat, I heard a cry

And the sea was more and more white-crested

Yr Haul, 1807
uwch berw brigwyn y tōnau (= tonnau) above the white-crested turmoil of the waves

Trysorfa y Plant 1827 ar y tōnau (= tonnau) brigwyn
on the-crested waves

2 (beer) white-topped, with a white head, with foam on top

3 white-haired (from age)

4 (masculine noun) (North Wales) surf on a rough sea

Brigwyn – house name in Pen-y-bryn, Nefyn, county of Gwynedd

5 (masculine noun) (North Wales) a type of white mountain moss
Mae hanner ddeheuol y safle yn wlyb ac yn gorsiog, gyda hesg, brwyn a brigwyn.

The southern half of the site is wet and boggy, with sedge, rushes and “brigwyn” moss

ETYMOLOGY: (brig = top, crest) + soft mutation + (gwɥn = white)

:_______________________________.

brigɥn, PLURAL: brigau ‹BRI gin, BRI ge› (masculine noun)
1
twig

Bydd y dail wedi’u trefnu bob yn ail ar y brigyn
The leaves are arranged alternately on the twig

:_______________________________.

brith ‹BRIITH› (adjective)
1
speckled

bara brith (“speckled bread”) Welsh spicy currant loaf

2 in names of certain birds
cnocell fraith fwɥaf (Dendrocopos major) lesser spotted woodpecker
cnocell fraith leiaf (Dendrocopos minor) lesser spotted woodpecker

:_______________________________.

brithdir ‹brith -dir› masculine noun
PLURAL brithdiroedd ‹brith- di -rodh›

1 land of uneven quality / medium quality / average quality; land with mixed soils

2 clayey soil

ETYMOLOGY: (brith = mixed) + soft mutation + (tir= land)

It is found as a place name thoughout Wales - see below

See below Brithdir i fuwch a chrasdir i ddafad.

See in the rest of the dictionary Gwaelodybrithdir

:_______________________________.

Y Brithdir ‹ə brith -dir› -
1
SO1401farm and locality in Tredegar Newɥdd (in the Rhymni valley, county of Caerffili)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO1401 map

2 SJ1902 lmansion near Llanfyllin in the district of Trefaldwɥn (county of Powɥs) “Brithdir Hall” on the map; = ?Plas y Brithdir

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ1902 map

3 SH7718 locality near Dolgellau in the district of Meirionnɥdd (county of Gwɥnedd)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/450666 map

:_______________________________.

Brithdir ac Islaw'r-dref ‹brith-dir aag is laur dreev› -
1
SH7717 parish near Dolgellau in the district of Meirionnɥdd (county of Gwɥnedd);
population 1961: 878; proportion of Welsh-speakers: 69%

ETYMOLOGY: (brithdir = mixed land) + (ac = and, form of a used before a vowel) + (islaw'r dref = below the trźv)

:_______________________________.

Brithdir i fuwch a chrasdir i ddafad ‹brith-dir i viukh a khras-dir i dhā-vad›
1
(a saying) 'wettish clayey soil for a cow, and dry soil for a sheep'

Walter Davies / General View of the Agriculture and Domestic Economy of South Wales / 1814: Brithdir, such as the clayey soils of the flag-lias tract, are very productive of cheese and butter; ‘brithdir i fuwch a chrasdir i ddafad’, i.e. a rushy, strong soil for the cow, and a sharp dry soil for the ewe

ETYMOLOGY: (brithdir = mixed land), (buwch = cow), (crasdir = parched land), (dafad = sheep)

:_______________________________.

brithedd ‹brī -thedh› masculine noun
1
speckledness

ETYMOLOGY: (brith = speckled, mixed) + (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

brithfelɥn ‹brith- ve -lin› adjective
1
(horse) dapple bay

ETYMOLOGY: (brith = speckled, dappled) + soft mutation + (melɥn = yellow)

:_______________________________.

brithlas ‹brith -las› adjective
1
dapple-grey; with a grey skin marked with irregular spots
caseg frithlas = dapple-grey mare

ETYMOLOGY: (brith = dappled) + soft mutation + (glas = grey / blue / green)

:_______________________________.

brithlaw ‹brith -lau› masculine noun
1
drizzle

ETYMOLOGY: (brith = speckled) + soft mutation + (glaw = rain)

:_______________________________.

brithlen ‹brith -len› feminine noun
PLURAL brithlenni ‹brith-le-ni›
1
(A literary word) tapestry (normally tįpestri masculine noun)
y frithlen = the tapestry

ETYMOLOGY: (brith = speckled) + soft mutation + (llen = cloth)

:_______________________________.

brithliw ‹brith -liu› adjective
1
variegated, motley; (USA: pepper-and-salt) (Englandic: salt-and-pepper) = dark but flecked with white; white-flecked
Yr oedd ganddo farf laes, frithliw he had a long white-flecked beard

ETYMOLOGY: (brith = speckled) + soft mutation + (lliw = color / colour)

:_______________________________.

brithwaith <BRITH-waith> [ˡbrɪθwaɪθ] masculine noun
PLURAL brithweithiau <brith-WEITH-yai, -e> [brɪθˡwəɪθjaɪ, -ɛ]
also: mosäig masculine noun
1 mosaic = design made up of inlaid pieces of coloured glass or stone

ETYMOLOGY: (brith = speckled) + soft mutation + (gwaith = work)

:_______________________________.

brithweithio <brith-WEITH-yo> [brɪθˡwəɪθjɔ] verb
1
tessellate, make a mosaic

ETYMOLOGY: (brithwaith = mosaic) + (-io = verbal suffix)

:_______________________________.

brithweithiol <brith-WEITH-yol> [brɪθˡwəɪθjɔl] adjective
1
made with or from mosaic
llawr brithweithiol mosaic floor

2 mosaic = resembling a mosaic

ETYMOLOGY: (brithwaith = mosaic) + (-iol = adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

brithweithiwr <brith-WEITH-yur> [brɪθˡwəɪθjʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL brithweithwɥr <brith-WEITH-wir> [brɪθˡwəɪθwɪr]
1
mosaicist, person who makes mosaics

ETYMOLOGY: (brithwaith = mosaic) + (-i-wr = suffix for forming nouns to indcate an agebt, 'man')

:_______________________________.

brithɥll, PLURAL: brithyllod <BRII-thilh, bri-THƏ-lhod> [ˡbriˑθɪɬ, brɪˡθəɬɔd] (masculine noun)
1
trout

2 brith
ɥll y dom <BRII-thilh ə DOM> [ˡbriˑθɪɬ ə ˡdɔm] stickleback

(“(the) trout (of) the dung” is the literal sense, though it is probably a distortion of another expression)

3 brithyll seithliw (Salmo gairdneri) rainbow trout (“trout of seven colours”)

4 pysgodfa frithyllod trout fishery (rather than the less correct pysgodfa frithyll, or pysgodfa brithyllod)

5 mor llon ā brithyll as happy as can be (“as merry as a trout”). In Scottish (Gaelic) there appears the same idiom: “Cho sona ri caibheanach ann an sruth” (= as happy as a trout in a stream)

:_______________________________.

briwgig <BRIU-gig> [ˡbrɪʊgɪg] masculine noun
1
(American: hamburger meat) (Englandic: mince )

ETYMOLOGY: (briw = chopped, minced ) + soft mutation + (cig = meat)

:_______________________________.

briwllyd <BRIU-lhid> [ˡbrɪʊɬɪd] adjective
1
(South Wales) (bread) crumbly

ETYMOLOGY: (briw = fragments) + (-llɥd adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

briwsiona <briu-SHO-na> [brɪʊˡʃɔna] (verb)
1
crumble, make crumbs

:_______________________________.

briwsioni <briu-SHO-ni> [brɪʊˡʃɔnɪ] (verb)
1
crumble, make crumbs

:_______________________________.

briwsionllyd <briu-SHON-lhid> [brɪʊˡʃɔnɬɪd] adjective
1
(bread) crumbly

ETYMOLOGY: (briwsion = crumbs) + (-llɥd adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

briwsionɥn, PLURAL: briwsion <briu-SHOO-nin, BRIU-shon> [brɪʊˡʃoˑnɪn, ˡbrɪʊʃɔn] (masculine noun)
1
crumb

:_______________________________.

bro, PLURAL: bröɥdd <BROO, BROO-idh> [broː, ˡbroˑɪš] (feminine noun)

With the definite article: y fro

1 vale, lowland

Bro Morgannwg “(the) lowland (of) Morgannwg”. Now the name of one of the 22 counties of Wales. The counterpart of this coastal area is Blaenau Morgannwg “(the) highland (of) Morgannwg”.

Y Fro short name for Bro Morgannwg (“the lowland”)

(y definite article) + soft mutation + (bro = lowland)



(delwedd 7493)

2 Y Fro Farm SO3826 near Rowlestone, Herefordshire (it occurs on the map in English spelling, as “Vroe”). On the flat ground by the confluence of “Cwm Brook” (?Nant y Cwm) and Afon Mynwy

Y Fro SN5256 Farm in Ystradaeron (Ceredigion) in the parish of Llanfihangel Ystrad, on flat valley land (ystrad) below the upland of the parish

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/828464 Ystradaeron

3 district

bro enedigol native area

Ymadawaodd ā’i fro enedigol yn llanc deunaw oed He left his native area as an eighteen-year-old youth

Fe synnwyd yr holl fro gyda'r newydd drwg The whole district was taken aback by the bad news

bro ei febyd the district of his boyhood, his native district

ddyn na chollodd erioed ei gysylltiad ā bro ei febyd a man who never once lost contact with the district of his boyhood

Un o fro Colwyn oedd She was from the Colwyn district

coleg bro community college

ysbyty bro community hospital

llyfrgell fro community library

cyngor bro community council

bro’r Eisteddfod the area in which an eisteddfod is held

Yr arfer ydoedd peidio ag urddo neb o fro’r Eisteddfod ym Mhrifwyl y fro honno (ac eithrio enillwyr y prif wobrau a’r rhai a lwyddodd yn yr arholiadau). Yn y Brifwyl ddilynol, fel arfer, yr urddid pawb o fro Eisteddfod y flwyddyn gynt.’ Erbyn hyn, nid yw’r arfer hwnnw’n bod Cymro 05 01 2002


The practice was not to give an honour to anyone from the district of the Eisteddfod in the Esiteddfod held in that place (except for winners of the main prize and those who passed the examinations). In the following National Eisteddfod, usually, everybody from the district of the Eisteddfod the previius year was given an honour. Nowadays this practice is no more.

4 district (especially in invented names to designate the area of an eisteddfod, society, school, etc; often defined by reference to a river, lake (Bro Aled, Bro Machno, Bro Ogwr, Bro Tegid), or a personage (Bro Dafydd), or another defining feature (Bro Madog)

5 district = area surrounding a specified place
Eisteddfod Genedlaethol Cymru, Aber-gwaun a'r Fro 2-9 Awst 1986

National Eisteddfod of Wales, Aber-gwaun (Fishguard) and district (“and the district”), 2-9 August 1986

6 papur bro community newspaper, local newspaper (usually produced monthly by volunteers) written entirely in Welsh serving a defined community ("paper (of the) district")

Y Tincer - papur bro Genau'r Glyn, Melindwr, Tirymynach, Trefeurig a'r Borth

"Y Tincer" (the tinker) - the district newspaper of Genau'r Glyn, Melindwr, Tirymynach, Trefeurig and Y Borth

7 gwenfro (obsolete) fair land; paradise

SJ3050 Afon Gwenfro = river in the town of Wrecsam, north-east Wales
(gwen = feminine form of gw
ɥn = white, fair, pleasant) + soft mutation + (bro = district)

8 heartland = central part of a country; part of a country which is of vital improtance (seat of traditions, language, history, etc)

Y Fro Gymraeg The Welsh heartland, the Welsh-speaking area

Y Fro Wyddeleg
(“the Irish(-language) district”)

9 one's native heath = one's locality

10 bro a bryniau hill and dale (lit: lowland and hills)

Dewch drigolion bro a bryniau (First line of the folk song Y Mochyn Du “the black pig”)

Come [ye] inhabitants [of] [the] lowland and [the] hills

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh bro < *brogh British *brog- < Common Celtic *mrog-

From the same British root:

Cornish bro (= country),

Breton bro (= country),


From the same Common Celtic root:

Irish brś (= brink); also bruach (= bank, brink);

Scottish [Gaelic] bruach (= bank, edge)

From the same Indoeuropean root
: Latin margō (= margin), Catalan marge (= margin).

English (< Latin) margin

English (< Germanic) march (= boundary). Cf Old Norse mörk (= boundary land)

See Brodawel, Bro Aled, Bro Dafydd, Bro-deg, Brogynin, Bro-hedd, Bro Machno, Bro Ogwen, Bro Ogwr, Bro’r Cymry, Bro Tegid

:_______________________________.

Bro Aber <broo AA-ber> [ broː ɑˑbɛr]

1 House name

2 Name of a hymn tune

ETYMOLOGY: Either bro yr aber “(the) country (of) the estuary”, or “bro (yr) Aber”, referring to a town which has Aber as the first element “(the) country / (the) district (of) Aberystwyth, Aberaeron / Aberteifi / Aber-gwaun, etc)

(bro = district) + (Aled river name)

:_______________________________.

Bro Aled <broo AA-led> [ broː ɑˑlɛd] feminine noun
1
the Llansannan area, district around the river Aled

Eisteddfod Bro Aled, Llansannan, Dɥdd Sadwrn Hydref 20fed 2001
Eisteddfod of Bro Aled, (in the village of) Llansannan, 20 October 2001

ETYMOLOGY: “Aled Country”, “Aled Land” (bro = district) + (Aled river name)

:_______________________________.

Brochfael <BROKH-vail, BROKH-vel> [ˡbrɔxvaɪl, ˡbrɔxvɛl] masculine noun
1
man's name

2 Brochfael Ysgithrog (ysgithrog = having projecting teeth, having sticky-out teeth.)
His sons were saint Tysilio (died 662), and Cadell, king of Powys

3 Pwllbrochfael SO5301 “Brochfael’s pool” village on the eastern bank of the river Gwɥ, in England, 8km north of the town of Cas-gwent. English name: Brockweir

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/56244 map



(delwedd 7495)

4 Llannerchrochwel SJ1910 farm 4km north-west of Y Trallwng (county of Powɥs). This is llannerch Brochfael “the clearing of Brochfael”.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ1910 map

..a/ Brochfael > Brochfel (typical reduction of final ae > e
..b/ Brochfel > Brochwel (the change <v> [v] > <w> [w] occurs in other words in Welsh. See w)
..c/ llannerch Frochwel there is soft mutation of personal names after a feminine noun in older Welsh
..d/ llannerch ’Rochwel the difficult combination of consonants ch-f-r has led to simplification, and the <v> [v] has disappeared

ETYMOLOGY: Brochfael (broch = tumult) + soft mutation + (mael = leader)
In fact it would be pre-Welsh, i.e. British, compound Brokko-maglo-s

:_______________________________.

brócoli
<BRO-ko-li> [ˡbrɔkɔlɪ] masculine noun
1 broccoli = kind of cauliflower
2 brócoli'r gaeaf winter broccoli

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh brócoli < English broccoli < Italian broccoli (= little sprouts), plural of broccolo,
a diminutive form of brocco (= sprout)

:_______________________________.

Bro Dafydd <broo DAA-vidh> [broː ˡdɑˑvɪš]

1 “Dafydd ap Gwilym Country”

Cōr Bro Dafydd choir of “Bro Dafydd”; name of a women's choir (1988) in the vicinity of Penrhyn-coch, the birthplace of Dafydd ap Gwilym, poet (1320-1370)

ETYMOLOGY: “(the) district (of) Dafydd [ap Gwilym]” (bro = district, country) + (Dafydd)


(delwedd 7494)

:_______________________________.

Brodawel <broo DAU-el> [broː ˡdaʊɛl]
1
street name in Porthtywyn / Burry Port (county of Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen)

 (spelt as “Brodawel”)

ETYMOLOGY: bro dawel “tranquil area” (bro = area, district) + soft mutation + (tawel = quiet, tranquil, calm)

:_______________________________.

Bro-deg <broo DEEG> [broː ˡdeːg]
1
street name in Rhuthin (county of Dinbych / Denbigh) (“Bro Deg”)

2
street name in Aber-dār (Rhondda Cynon Taf)

ETYMOLOGY: bro deg “fair district”,
“fair country” (bro = area, district) + soft mutation + (teg = fair, bonnie)

:_______________________________.

brodio <BROD-yo> [ˡbrɔdjɔ] (verb)
1
embroider

:_______________________________.

brodorol <bro-DOO-rol> [brɔˡdoˑrɔl] adjective
1
indigenous

2 y Cymrɥ brodorol the native Welsh (as distinct from Welsh immigrants from other parts of Wales, or English immigrants)

3 iaith frodorol native language

4 native = of one's birth
Y mae Eirinwg yn wlad frodorol un o'r rhai mwɥaf enwog o'r Seintiau Cymreig, sef Dyfrig Sant.
Eirinwg is the native country of one of the most famous of the Welsh saints, namely Saint Dyfrig
(Eirinwg, cylchgrawn Cymru 1915)

ETYMOLOGY: (brodor = native) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

brodwaith <BROD-waith> [ˡbrɔdwaɪθ] (masculine noun)
1
embroidery

ETYMOLOGY: (brod-, stem of the verb brodio = to embroider) + (-io verb suffix)
:_______________________________.

brodɥr <BROO-dir> [ˡbroˑdɪr]
1
brothers; plural form of brawd (= brother, friar)

:_______________________________.

broetsh <broich> [brɔɪʧ] feminine noun
PLURAL broetshis <BROI-chis> [ˡbrɔɪʧɪs]
1
brooch
y froetsh
= the brooch

ETYMOLOGY: English brooch < French broche < Vulgar Latin *broca < Latin brochus (= projecting)

:_______________________________.

broga <BROO-ga> [ˡbroˑga] masculine noun
PLURAL brogaod, brogįid, brogįed <bro-GAA-od, bro-GAID, bro-GAID> [brɔˡgɑˑɔd, brɔˡgaɪd, brɔˡgaɪd]

1 (South Wales) common frog Rana temporaria



(delwedd 7213)

broga du dark frog
broga melɥn yellow frog
bwɥd y broga (Ceredigion) mushroom (“food of the frog”)

grifft broga frogspawn
mor ddifater ā broga melɥn bach as indifferent / unconcerend as a little yellow frog

2 types of frog
..1/ broga bwɥtadwɥ or llyffant bwɥtadwɥ (Rana escuelenta) edible frog
..2/ broga’r dŵr or llyffant y dŵr (Rana lessonae) pool frog
..3/ broga’r gors or llyffant y gors (Rana ridibunda) marsh frog

3 There is a farm called Pwllyfroga south of Cilįi Uchaf, Abertawe: (the) pool (of) the frog (retaining the original form froga before this was rationalised into broga, see etymology below.

Unlikely to be an instance of broga as a feminine noun, with the usual soft mutation after the definite article)

ETYMOLOGY: broga < froga < dialectal Middle English vrogge < frogge.

Cf German der Frosch (= the frog)
(1) In south-west England initial <f> [f] > <v> [v]
(2) In Welsh, the initial <v> [v]

was treated as a consonant with soft mutation, and a radical form with “b” came about – i.e. froga was replaced by broga

NOTE: (1) also ffroga (i.e. with <f> [f]) < English frogge
(2) North Wales has llyffant melɥn

:_______________________________.

brogar <BROO-gar> [ˡbroˑgar] adjective
1
loving one's district, having affection for one's native place, attached to one's home area

ETYMOLOGY: (brogar = fond of one’s home area) + (-gar, suffix = ‘showing love for, having love for’). The notional basis of the word brogarwch . If brogar is in use (I have no examples of it) it is in fact taken from brogarwch with the subtraction of the noun suffix

:_______________________________.

brogarwch <bro-GAA-rukh> [brɔˡgɑˑrʊx] masculine noun
1
love of one's district, affection for one's native place, attachment to one's home area

ETYMOLOGY: A word first noted in 1912, according to Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru (University of Wales Dictionary); (brogar = fond of one’s home area) + (-wch, suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

Brogynin <broo GƏ-nin> [broː ˡgənɪn]
1
(SN6684) farm in Trefeurig (county of Ceredigion), north-west of Goginan. Birthplace of poet Dafydd ap Gwilym (fl. 1340-1370).

2 House name (as “Bro Gynin”) in Aberystwyth (county of Ceredigion) (in the list of members in “The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion” 1961 / Part 1)

ETYMOLOGY: apparently “district of Cynin” (bro = district; lowland) + soft mutation + (Cynin). This male personal name also occurs in Caerfyrddin county where there is Llangynin (“church of (saint) Cynin”)

:_______________________________.

Bro-hedd <broo HEEDH> [broː ˡheːš]
1
House name in Ponciau (county of Wrecsam)
(in the list of members in “The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion” 1961 / Part 1) (as “Bro Hedd”)

ETYMOLOGY: “district (of) peace” (bro = district) + (hedd = peace)

:_______________________________.

brolgar <BROL-gar> [ˡbrɔlgar] (adjective)
1
boastful

:_______________________________.

brolgi, PLURAL: brolgwn <BROL-gi, BROL-gun> [ˡbrɔlgɪ, ˡbrɔlgʊn] (masculine noun)
1
boaster
ETYMOLOGY: (brol- stem of brolio = to brag) land (of) peace” (bro = district) + (hedd = peace)
:_______________________________.

broli, PLURAL: brolis <BRO-li, BRO-liz> [ˡbrɔlɪ, ˡbrɔlɪz] (masculine noun)
1
brolly, umbrella

:_______________________________.

brolian <BROL-yan> [ˡbrɔljan] (verb)
1
to boast

:_______________________________.

brolio
<BROL-yo> [ˡbrɔljɔ] (verb)
1
to boast

2
ei frolio ei hun
<i VROL-yo i HIIN> [ɪ ˡvrɔljɔ ɪ ˡhiːn] show off

:_______________________________.

broliwr, PLURAL: brolwɥr <BROL-yur, BROL-wir> [ˡbrɔljʊr, ˡbrɔlwɪr] (masculine noun)
1
boaster, show-off

:_______________________________.

Bro Machno <broo MAKH-no> [broː ˡmaxnɔ]
1
the district around the Machno river SH8053 (The river rises 4km north-east of Blaenau Ffestiniog and flows through the hamlet of Cwmpenmachno, down the valley of Cwm Penmachno and throught the village of Penmachno to join Afon Conwɥ in Betws-y-coed).

One of the sixty seats on the county council is for the councillor representing “Bro Machno / Betws-y-coed”.



(delwedd 7459)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/598329 Cwmpenmachno SH7547

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=315415 Penmachno SH7950

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/173780 Betws-y-coed SH7956

ETYMOLOGY: (bro = district) + (Machno = river name)

:_______________________________.

Bro Madog <broo MAA-dog> [broː ˡmɑˑdɔg]

1 the district of Porthmadog and Tremadog

Eisteddfod Bro Madog 1987 The National Eisteddfod, held in Porthmadog in 1987

ETYMOLOGY: “(the) district (of) (Porth) Madog (and Tremadog)”

(bro = district) + (Madog)

NOTE:
Tremadog (Gwynedd) Originally spelt Tremadoc. A small planned town built by William Alexander Madocks after he had purchased the land here in 1798. He had been brought up in London but was from a Sir Ddinbych / Denbighshire family.

Tremadoc “(the) town (of) Madoc” (tre = town) + (Madoc).

Porthmadog (originally Portmadoc) came into existence around 1811 after the completion of Y Cņb and the reclamation of Y Traeth Mawr.

Although the name could be said to be an anglicised form based on Welsh Porthmadog (indeed, the present name) Porthmadog “(the) port (of) Madog” (porth = port) + (Madoc), it may be modelled on the anglicised name of Porteinon in the Gw^yr Peninsula in South Wales (Welsh: Portheinon), where Einon is a male forename; Similar forms are anglicised Manx names (Port Erin, Port St. Mary) or anglicised Scottish names.

 
:_______________________________.

bron 1 PLURAL: bronnau <BRON, BRO-nai, -ne> [brɔn, ˡbrɔnaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
woman's breast
y fron = the breast

yr hollt rhwng y bronnau cleavage between a woman’s breasts
(“the cleavage / split between the breasts”)

yr agen rhwng y bronnau cleavage between a woman's breasts
(“the cleavage / split between the breasts”)

rhigol y bronnau cleavage between a woman's breasts
(“the groove / cleavage (of) the breasts”)


2 bird's breast

bronfraith thrush (“speckled breast”)

brongoch robin (“red breast”)

telor brongoch (Subalpine Warbler, Sylvia cantillans)

gwybedog brongoch (Red-breasted Flycatcher, Ficedula parva)

gylfindew brongoch (Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus)

:_______________________________.

bron 2 PLURAL: bronnɥdd <BRON, BRO-nidh> [brɔn, ˡbrɔnɪš] (feminine noun)
1
breast-shaped hill
y fron
= the hill

2 Heulfron (House name or street name) sunny hill
heul fron (heul, tonic syllable form of haul = sun) + soft mutation + (bron = hill)
(There is also an incorrect form Haulfron commonly found in such names)

4 Hirfron long hill
hir fron (hir = long) + soft mutation + ( bron = hill)

5 Fron-deg (“fair hill”) house name

6 lledfron slope
Lledfron SJ1120 farm overlooking Nant Fyllon, 2km north-west of Llanfyllin (Powys)
(lled = half ) + soft mutation + ( bron = hill)
:_______________________________.

bron 3 - <bron> [brɔn] (adverb)
1
almost
bron yn barod <bron ən BAA-rod> [brɔn ən ˡbɑˑrɔd] almost ready

2 bu bron i he / she / it almost...
Bu bron i mi lewygu I nearly fainted, my heart stood still

3 bɥth bron hardly ever, almost never
Dɥw e bɥth bron yn smygu He hardly ever smokes

4 bron na... hardly
Bron na wn i beth i’w wneud I hardly know what to do

5 bron ā (+ verbnoun) almost

mae e bron ā (+ verbnoun) he is almost (sometimes simply bron, with ā omitted)

Bu hi bron ā pheidio ā dod She almost didn’t come

Bu e bron ā chwɥmpo He nearly fell

Roedd hi bron ā disgɥn She nearly fainted / fell

Roedd hi bron ā marw She nearly died

Rw i bron _ ffaelu ā symud I can hardly move ( _ = omitted word)

(= Rw i bron ā ffaelu ā symud)

Roeddwn i bron ā marw o eisiau chwerthin > oon i bron _ marw ishe hwerthin ( _ = omitted word)
I nearly died trying not to laugh

Mae bron ā bod yn barod It’s almost ready

Rw i bron ā gorffen y traethawd I’ve almost finished the thesis

NOTE: (bron = almost) + (ā = with)

:_______________________________.

Bron-deg <bron DEEG> [brɔn ˡdeːg]

1 street name in Heolgerrig, Merthyrtudful

2
Parc-bron-deg street name in Diserth (Conwy) (“Parc Bron Deg”)

parc Bron-deg “(the) park (of) Bron-deg”.

ETYMOLOGY: bron deg “fair hill” (bron = round hill; woman’s breast) + soft mutation + (teg = fair, bonnie)


:_______________________________.

bronfraith, PLURAL: bronfreithiaid <BRON-vraith, -vreth, bron-VREITH-yaid, -yed> [ˡbrɔnvraɪθ, -ɛθ, brɔnˡvrəɪθjaɪd, -ɛd] (feminine noun)
1
thrush
y fronfraith = the thrush

ETYMOLOGY: “speckled breast” (bron = breast) + soft mutation + (braith, feminine form of the adjective brith = speckled)

:_______________________________.

Bronheulwen <bron-HEIL-wen> [brɔnˡhəɪlwɛn] (feminine noun)
1
Farm name

..a/ SN9285 Near Llanidloes

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/532338

..b/ SN9478 Farm south of Cwmbelan

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN9478

ETYMOLOGY: bron yr heulwen “(the) hill (of) the sunshine” (bron = hill; breast) + (yr definite article) + (heulwen = sunshine)

:_______________________________.

bronnoeth <BRO-noith, -noth> [ˡbrɔnɔɪθ, -ɔθ] (adjective)
1
bare-breasted
ETYMOLOGY: “bare / naked breast” (bron = breast) + (noeth = bare, naked, unclothed)

:_______________________________.

bronnog <BRO-nog> [ˡbrɔnɔg] (adjective)
1
having large breasts

ETYMOLOGY: (bronn- < bron = breast) + (-og sufix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

Bronolau ‹bron OO-lai, -e›

1 house name

..a/ (former?) place in Boduan SH3237, Gwynedd (“Bronolau”)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=303762 Boduan

..b/
Adysgrifau'r Esgob Plwyf Llanfachreth 1823 / Bishop's Transcripts Llanfachreth 1823

notes the baptism on Oct 5 1823 of Gwen, daughter of Evan Williams, labourer, and his wife Mary, of “Bronolau or Ty Newydd Penrhos” (“Bronolau”)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/241655 (Lanfachreth SH7522)

..c/ house at Rhyd-y-sarn SH6942, Gwynedd (“Bron Olau”)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH6942 Rhyd-y-sarn

ETYMOLOGY: "light hill, sunlit hill” Bronolau < bron olau (bron = breast) + soft mutaiton + (golau = light, clear)

:_______________________________.

bronwen <BRON-wen> [ˡbrɔnwɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL bronwennod <bron-WE-nod> [brɔnˡwɛnɔd]
1
weasel
y fronwen = the weasel

2
Mi glywais i’r stori gan fronwen I heard it throught the grapevine; A little bird told me (“I heard the story from a weasel”)
(if not the bird bronwen y dŵr Cinclus cinclus dipper)

3 weak tea (or beer)
piso / pisho bronwen (" weasel's piss ")

ETYMOLOGY: bron wen (bron = breast) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwɥn = white)

:_______________________________.

Bronwen <BRON-wen> [ˡbrɔnwɛn] feminine noun
1
woman's name

ETYMOLOGY: bron wen (bron = breast) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwɥn = fair / beautiful / white)
NOTE: There is also a name with the same elements reversed: Gwenfron

:_______________________________.

bronwen y dŵr <BRON-wen ə DUUR> [ˡbrɔnwɛn ə ˡduːr] feminine noun
PLURAL bronwennod y dŵr <bron-WE-nod ə DUUR> [brɔnˡwɛnɔd ə ˡduːr]
1
(Ornithology) Cinclus cinclus dipper
(Also trochwr, Wil y dŵr, aderɥn du'r dŵr, tresglen y dŵr)

ETYMOLOGY: “white breast of the water” (bronwen = white breast) + (y = definite article) + (dŵr = water)

:_______________________________.

Bron-y-glɥn <bron ə GLIN> [brɔn ə ˡglɪn]
1
house name in Eastcote, Ruislip, Middlesex (in the list of members in “The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion” 1961 / Part 1) (“Bron y Glɥn”)

ETYMOLOGY: (“(the) hill (overlooking) the valley”) (bron = hill) + (y = definite article) + (glɥn = valley)

:_______________________________.

Bro Ogwen <broo OG-wen> [broː ˡɔgwɛn] feminine noun
1
‘Ogwen Country’, the district around the river Ogwen, the focal point of which is the town of Bethesda SH6266

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH6266

2 Bro-ogwen (“Bro Ogwen”) house name, Bangor (Gwynedd)



:_______________________________.

Bro Ogwr <broo OO-gur> [broː ˡoˑgʊr] feminine noun
1
‘Ogwr Country’, the district around the river Ogwr, the focal point of which is the town of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr

Yn 1995 cynhaliwɥd Gwɥl Cerdd Dant Cymru Bro Ogwr yn Ysgol Gyfun Brɥntirion
In 1995 the Wales Harp Music Festival (located that year in) Bro Ogwr was held in Brɥntirion Comprehensive School (= coeducational High School)

Cafodd Menter Bro Ogwr ei sefydlu yn Hydref 1998 gan griw o wirfoddolwɥr lleol yn dilɥn Eisteddfod Pen-coed 1997
The Centre for the Promotion of the Welsh Language of Bro Ogwr was set up by a group of volunteers following the National Eisteddfod in Pen-coed in 1997

ETYMOLOGY: (“(the) country (of the river) Ogwr” (bro = country, area, zone, district) + (Ogwr = name of a river)

:_______________________________.

Bro'r Cymrɥ <broor KƏM-ri> [broːr ˡkəmrɪ] feminine noun
1
(History) Welshry, district occupied by the Welsh (in a territory divided between Welsh and English inhabitants)

ETYMOLOGY: (bro = district) + (y = definite article ) + (Cymrɥ = Welsh people)

:_______________________________.

Bro Tegid <broo TEE-gid> [broː ˡteˑgɪd] feminine noun
1
the district around the town of Y Bala in north Wales (the town is situated at the mouth of the lake known as Llɥn Tegid, Englished as ‘Bala Lake’), ‘Tegid Country’

Llyfrgell Bro Tegid Name of the public library in the town of Y Bala         

ETYMOLOGY: (“(the) country (of the lake) Tegid” (bro = country, area, zone, district) + (Llɥn) Tegid = name of a lake)

:_______________________________.

brown <BROUN> [brɔʊn] (adjective)
1
brown
esgidiau brown brown shoes

sgwert frown a brown skirt

trowsus brown
brown trousers

:_______________________________.

brud <BRIID> [ˡbriːd] masculine noun
PLURAL brudiau <BRID-yai, -e> [ˡbrɪdjaɪ, -ɛ]

Although brud is given as the headword in the Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / University of Wales Dictionary this word is more usually found in titles of chronicles with a final ‘t’ – brut, plural brutiau

1 chronicle, history
Y Brutiau Cymraeg The Welsh Chronicles

(1) Brut Gruffudd ab Arthur name given in the Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales (1801) to one of the longer translated versions of Brut y Brenhinedd

(2) Brut Tysilio name given in the Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales (1801) to a shorter translated version of Brut y Brenhinedd, in the belief that the original author was Tysilio.

(3) Brut y Brenhinedd The Chronicle of the Kings. Welsh translation of the Latin text c. 1136 “Historia Regum Britataniae” by Sieffre o Fynwɥ (Geoffrey of Monmouth). There are about six or seven different translations, the earliest dating from 1200s.

(4) Brut y Brytaniaid Chronicle of the Britons, name given to some of the versions of Brut y Brenhinedd

(5) Brut y Saeson Chronicle of the Saxon Kings

(6) Brut y Tywysogion Chronicle of the (Welsh) Princes = a medieval Welsh translation of a lost Latin text “Cronica Principum Wallie”. This text was written at the end of the 1200s in Ystrad Fflur (Strata Florida) monastery, in the county of Ceredigion.

2
prophesy (this sense developed because the chronicles contained prophecies)

cywyddau brud vaticinatory poems

Lefiticus 20:27 Gŵr neu wraig a fo ganddɥnt ysbrɥd dewiniaeth, neu frud, hwɥ a leddir yn farw; ā cherrig y llabyddiant hwɥnt; eu gwaed fɥdd arnɥnt eu hunain.
Leviticus 20:27 A man also or woman that hath a familiar spirit, or that is a wizard, shall surely be put to death: they shall stone them with stones: their blood shall be upon them.

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh brud / brut < French brut < Latin Brutus.

It refers to “Brutus of Troy”, a mythical figure who was supposed to have been the first king of the Britons.

The French expression “Roman de Brut” (= story of Brutus) became simply “Brut” (= the “(story of) Brutus”, the “Brutus”), and from this it came to mean “chronicle, story” in general.

The word was taken into Welsh with the sense of “chronicle of the island of Britain” or “chronicle of Wales”.

The name is Latin brūtus (= heavy, stupid, irrational); and from this English “brute” (= cruel person).

As a name, cf Marcus Junius Brutus 85?BC-42BC, one of the assassins of Julius Caesar

NOTE: In borrowings from English, final –t tended to become –d: Cocsed (place name in Ceredigion (= woodland glade), < English cockshoot (= woodland glade; glade through wich woodcock shoot or dash and are caught in nets)); poced (= pocket), roced (= rocket), etc

:_______________________________.

brudiwr <BRID-yur> [ˡbrɪdjʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL brudwɥr <BRID-wir> [ˡbrɪdwɪr]
1
diviner, soothsayer, magician, wizard

Lefiticus 20:6 A'r dɥn a dro ar ōl dewiniaid, a brudwɥr, i buteinio ar eu hōl hwɥnt; gosodaf fy wɥneb yn erbɥn y dɥn hwnnw hefɥd, a thorraf ef ymaith o fɥsg ei bobl.
Leviticus 20:6 And the soul that turneth after such as have familiar spirits, and after wizards, to go a whoring after them, I will even set my face against that soul, and will cut him off from among his people.

Daniel 5:7 Gwaeddodd y brenin yn groch am ddwyn i mewn yr astronomyddion, y Caldeaid, a'r brudwyr: a llefarodd y brenin, a dywedodd wrth ddoethion Babilon, Pa ddyn bynnag a ddarlleno yr ysgrifen hon, ac a ddangoso i mi ei dehongliad, efe a wisgir ā phorffor, ac a gaiff gadwyn aur am ei wddf, a chaiff lywodraethu yn drydydd yn y deyrnas.
Daniel 5:7 The king cried aloud to bring in the astrologers, the Chaldeans, and the soothsayers. And the king spake, and said to the wise men of Babylon, Whosoever shall read this writing, and show me the interpretation thereof, shall be clothed with scarlet, and have a chain of gold about his neck, and shall be the third ruler in the kingdom.

ETYMOLOGY: (brud = prophecy) + (i-wr, suffix = ‘man’)

:_______________________________.

brut <BRIIT> [ˡbriːt] masculine noun
1
See brud

:_______________________________.

Brulhai <BRIL-hai> [ˡbrɪlhaɪ] feminine noun
1
SO2649 Village in the English county of Hereford-and-Worcester, 8km north-east of the Welsh border town of Y Gelligandrɥll / Y Gelli (“Hay on Wye”)
English name “Brilley”.



http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/910576

ETYMOLOGY: Adaptation of the English name “Brilley”.

:_______________________________.

brwd <BRUUD> [bruːd] (adjective)
1
passionate, enthusiastic

:_______________________________.

brwdfrydedd <brud-VRƏ-dedh> [brʊdˡvrədɛš] (masculine noun)
1
enthusiasm

:_______________________________.

Brwmffild ‹BRUM-fild› [ˡbrʊmfɪld]

1 Broomfield

Arglwyddiaeth Brwmffild ac Iāl the Lordship of Broomfield and Yale

:_______________________________.

brwnt <BRUNT> [ˡbrʊnt] (adjective) (South Wales)
1
dirty

:_______________________________.

brwsh, PLURAL: brwshus <BRUSH, BRU-shis> [brʊʃ, ˡbrʊʃɪs] (masculine noun)
1
brush

:_______________________________.

brwshad <BRU-shad> [ˡbrʊʃad] masculine noun
PLURAL brwshadau <bru-SHAA-dai, -e> [brʊˡʃɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] 1 brush = action of brushing, brushing, act of using a brush
rhoi brwshad i (rɥwbeth) give a brush to something
See: brwshad

2 brushstroke

ETYMOLOGY: brwshad > brwsiad < (brwsi- stem of brwsio = to brush) + (-ad suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

brwsh dannedd <brush DA-nedh> [brʊʃ ˡdanɛš] (masculine noun)
1
toothbrush

:_______________________________.

brwsh gwallt <brush GWALHT> [brʊʃ ˡgwaɬt] (masculine noun)
1
hair brush

:_______________________________.

brwshio <BRUSH-yo> [ˡbrʊʃjɔ] (verb)
1
to brush

:_______________________________.

brwsiad <BRU-shad> [ˡbrʊʃad] masculine noun
PLURAL brwsiadau <bru-SHAA-dai, -e> [brʊˡʃɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
brush = action of brushing
See: brwshad

:_______________________________.

brwɥdr (“brwydyr”), PLURAL: brwɥdrau <BRUI-dir, BRUI-drai, -e> [ˡbrʊɪdɪr, ˡbrʊɪdraɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
battle, fight, struggle
y frw
ɥdr = the struggle
2
mɥnd yn frwɥdr erchɥll (“to go into a terrible fight”) > Aeth yn frwɥdr erchɥll = A terrible fight broke out

:_______________________________.

brwɥdro <BRUI-dro> [ˡbrʊɪdrɔ] (verb)
1
to fight, to struggle

:_______________________________.

brwɥnen <BRUI-nen> [ˡbrʊɪnɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL brwɥn <BRUIN> [ˡbrʊɪn]
1
rush = plant of genus Juncus, family Juncaceae, which grows in marshy ground
y frwɥnen = the rush

2 rush = stem of this plant used to make chair bottoms, baskets, mats

3 fel brwɥn = (legs) gone weak at the knees (“like rushes”)

4 Brwɥnen-las ‘green rush’ street name in Brɥn-coch, Castell-nedd

5 llafrwɥnen rush, bulrush

darlun o Moses yn ei gawell llafrwyn ar fin yr afon
a picture of Moses in his crib of rushes on the bank of the river

llafrwɥnen is the singular form, representing (llafrwɥn = rushes) + (-en suffix added to nouns to make a singular form out of a collective noun or plural noun)

The etymology of the word: llafrwɥn < *llawfrwɥn < *llawrfrwɥn (llawr = ground) + soft mutation + (brwɥn = rushes)

ETYMOLOGY: (brwɥn = rushes) + (singulative suffix -en); brwɥn < British.
From the same British root: Cornish broennenn (= rush), Breton broenenn (= rush)

:_______________________________.

brwɥniad <BRUIN-yad> [ˡbrʊɪnjad] masculine noun
PLURAL brwɥniaid <BRUIN-yaid, -yed> [ˡbrʊɪnjaɪd, -ɛd]
1
brwyniaid Osmeridae

2 (Osmerus eperlanus) brwyniad Conwy (m), brwyniaid Conwy smelt, European smelt, sparling

ETYMOLOGY: (brwɥn = rushes) + (-i-ad noun-forming suffix) (because the sparling is said to smell of rushes)

:_______________________________.

1 brɥch <BRIIKH> [briːx] adjective
1
spotted (having a pattern of marks), brindled (having dark patches on a background of brown or grey)

cilfilɥn brɥch gyddfir ɥw'r jirįff
The giraffe is a spotted long-necked ruminant

cath frech tabby cat
Y Foel Frech The Speckled Hill


Y Garreg-frech street name in Penrhyndeudraeth, Gwynedd (“the speckled stone”)
tylluan frech (Strix aluco) tawny owl

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *brikk- < Celtic; the feminine form brech < *brikk-ā
Breton: brec'h (= pox, smallpox)

From the same Celtic root: Irish breac (= spotted), Scottish breac (= spotted), Manx breck (= spotted)

NOTE: feminine form is brech <BREEKH> [breːx], plural form brychion <BRƏKH-yon> [ˡbrəxjɔn]
:_______________________________.

2 brɥch <BRIIKH> [briːx] masculine noun
PLURAL brychau <BRƏ-khai, -e> [ˡbrəxaɪ, -ɛ]
1
spot
(North Wales) brychau haul freckles

2 stain, blemish, defect
pigo brychau find fault, look for faults

Hawdd pigo brychau it’s easy to find fault (instead of praising what is good in a person, something good that a person has done or made, etc)

Nid ɥw'r llɥfr newɥdd heb ei frychau The new book isn’t without its faults

3 brychau gwlān: (North-west Wales) flocks of sheep

ETYMOLOGY: See brɥch (adjective) – the noun was originally an adjective

NOTE: Also forms with -ɥn;
(1) brychɥn <BRƏ-khin> [ˡbrəxɪn] (-ɥn as a diminutive suffix), (2) there is a singular form based on the plural: brycheuɥn <brə-KHEI-in> [brəˡxəɪɪn] < (brychau + -ɥn) with singulative suffix -ɥn

:_______________________________.

3 brɥch <BRIIKH> [briːx] masculine noun
PLURAL brychod <BRƏ-khod> [ˡbrəxɔd]
1
afterbirth, placenta
bwrw'r brɥch expel the afterbirth

2 (North-west Wales) edrɥch fel brɥch (said of a sorry-looking person, miserable person) (“look like afterbirth”)

3 bwrw'r crwt bant a chadw’r brɥch (“throw away the infant and keep the afterbirth”) In dealing with some problem, to propose a solution which makes the problem worse; to eliminate the advantages of a situation and yet keep the disadvantages; to throw the baby out with the bathwater
Also: cadw'r brɥch a lluchio’r babi (“keep the afterbirth and throw (away) the baby”)

4 speckled bird
brɥch y fuches (qv) Motacilla alba = pied wagtail (“(of) the milking fold”)
brɥch y cae (qv) Prunella modularis = hedge sparrow (“(of) the field”)
brɥch y coed (qv) Turdus viscivorus = mistle thrush (“(of) the wood”)

5 speckled fish; (county of Ceredigion) brɥch y dail = sea trout (“trout (of) the leaves”)

ETYMOLOGY: See brɥch (adjective) – the noun was originally an adjective

:_______________________________.

Brychdwn <BRƏKH-dun> [ˡbrəxdʊn]
1
(SS9270) locality in the county of Bro Morgannwg
English name: Broughton

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/374656

ETYMOLOGY: from the English name

:_______________________________.

Brycheiniog <brə-KHEIN-yog> [brəˡxəɪnjɔg] (feminine noun)
1
old territory in the south-east “territory of Brychan”, Brychan + -iog. Englished as Brecknock, which name was given to the English-type county (also called Brecknockshire) which was the old Brycheiniog lands along with those of the district of Buellt (which had become the lordship of Builth).

The town however came to be called Brecon (apparently a Norman-French or English Brecon approximation of the name Brychan), and the county was known in modern times more usually as Breconshire.

Brecknock occurs as a transferred place name in Brecknock Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania; Brecknock Hall, by Greenport on Long Island, New York, built in 1857 by David Geiston Floyd, a grandson of William Floyd, one of the signers of the American Declaration of Independence, and called Brecknock because the Floyd family originated in this part of Wales; Cape Brecknock, in the Chilean archipelago 60 miles north-west of Cape Horn.

:_______________________________.

brɥd <BRIID> [briːd] masculine noun
PLURAL brydiau <BRƏD-yai, -e> [ˡbrədjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
mind, intent

Brenhinoedd-1 8:17 Ac yr oedd ym mrɥd Dafɥdd fy nhad adeiladu tɥ i enw Arglwɥdd Dduw Israel
Kings-1 8:17 And it was in the heart of David my father to build an house for the name of the Lord God of Israel.

2 mind, intent
Wele'n sefɥll rhwng y myrtwɥdd / Wrthrɥch teilwng o'm holl frɥd / Er o ran yr wɥ'n ei 'nabod / Ef uwchlaw gwrthrychau'r bɥd / Henffɥch fore! / Caf ei weled fel y mae (Cwm Rhondda)
Behold standing among the myrtle trees / the worthy object of all my desire / Though I know him but partially / over the objects of the world / Hail to the morning! / I shall be able to see him as he is (from the hymn “Cwm Rhondda”)

3
bod ā'ch brɥd ar to wish to (do something)
Euthum i mewn i'r siop ddillad ā'm brɥd ar ddysgu rhai gwersi mewn steil
I went into the clothes shop wanting to learn some lessons about style

4 ei fryd yn rhedeg ar be inclined towards
Ond ar y weinidogaeth y rhedodd ei fryd yn bennaf but he was mostly inclined towards the ministry, he had his heart set on being a minister of religion

5 mɥnd ā'ch brɥd (“take your mind”) to interest most of all, to fire someone (with interest), to be one's main interest
Uchelgais 'nhad oedd imi fod yn glerc banc. Fues i 'rioed isho bod. Barddoniaeth oedd yn mɥnd ā 'mrɥd i.
My father wanted me to be a bank clerk. I never wanted to be. Poetry was what interested me most

6
awyddfrɥd keenness, zeal

(awydd-, y = <ə> [ə], < awɥdd ɥ = <i> [ɪ], = desire) + soft mutation + (brɥd = mind, intention)

Rhufeiniaid 8:19 Canys awyddfryd y creadur sydd yn disgwyl am ddatguddiad meibion Duw
Romans 8:19 For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God.

Philipiaid 1:20 Yn ōl fy awyddfryd a'm gobaith, na'm gwaradwyddir mewn dim, eithr mewn pob hyder, fel bob amser, felly yr awron hefyd, y mawrygir Crist yn fy nghorff i, pa un bynnag ai trwy fywyd, ai trwy farwolaeth.

Philippians 1:20 According to my earnest expectation and my hope, that in nothing I shall be ashamed, but that with all boldness, as always, so now also Christ shall be magnified in my body, whether it be by life, or by death.        

7
mawrfrydig magnanimous
(mawr = great) + soft mutation + (brɥd = mind) + (-ig adjectival suffix)

8
rhɥddfrydol liberal
(rhɥdd = free) + soft mutation + (brɥd = mind) + (-ol adjectival suffix)

9 hyfrɥd pleasant
(hy- = intensifying prefix ) + soft mutation + (brɥd = mind)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *bret-
From the same British root: Cornish brez (= mind, intention)
From the same Celtic root: Irish breith (= judgement, decision)

:_______________________________.

brygowthan <brə-GOU-than> [brəˡgɔʊθan] verb
1
rant
2
brygowthan ar (rɥwun) go on at (somebody)

:_______________________________.

brygowthwr <brə-GOU-thur> [brəˡgɔʊθʊr] m
PLURAL brygowthwɥr <brə-GOUTH-wir> [brəˡgɔʊθwɪr]
1
ranter = person who rants, who talks in a noisy and excited manner

2 Brygowthwr ‘Ranter’ = one of a movement in England around 1650 which rejected Predestination and believed in Universal Salvation and liberation from all legal and moral restraints

ETYMOLOGY: (brygowth- stem of brygowthian = jabber, rant, talk excitedly) +
(-i-wr suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

brɥn, PLURAL: bryniau <BRIN, BRƏN-yai, -e> [brɪn, ˡbrənjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
hill

bryn uchel a high hill, a big hill

bryn mawr a high hill, a big hill

bryn bach a low hill, a small hill

2 Element in house names and street names:

Delfrɥn house name and street name
(in origin, a northern word) fair hill
(del = pretty, in northern Welsh) + soft mutation + (brɥn = hill)

Gwelfrɥn (house name and street name) hill view
(gwźl = view) + soft mutation + (brɥn = hill)

Heulfr
ɥn (house name or street name) sunny hill
(heul, tonic syllable form of haul) + soft mutation + (brɥn = hill)
(There is also an incorrect form Haulfrɥn)

Is-y-bryn (“below the hill”) street name in Trefychan (county of Caerfyrddin) (“ Is Y Bryn”)

Is-y-bryniau (“below the hills”) street name in Cwmllynfell (Castell-nedd ac Abertawe) (“Is-Y-Bryniau”)

Tai-ar-y-br
ɥn street name in Llanfair ym Muallt (Powɥs)
y tai ar y brɥn (“the houses on the hill”)
(y = definite article, the) + (tai = houses, plural of = house) + (ar = on) + (y = definite article, the) + (brɥn = hill)

3
hirfrɥn long hill
(hir = long) + soft mutation + ( brɥn = hill)
Hirfrɥn division (kśmmud / 'cwmwd') of Cantref Bychan, in Ystrad Tywi (South-west Wales) Caerhirfrɥn Lancaster, England (“(the) Roman fort (at) Hirfrɥn”)

4
gwynfrɥn white hill
“blessed hill” (gwyn- <ə> [ə], penult form of gwɥn <i> [ɪ]) + soft mutation + (brɥn = hill)

5
used especially with names of rivers flowing at the foot of the hill

..a/ Br
ɥnaman (“hill (overlooking the) Aman (river)”)
..........1) Village name (county of Carfyrddin) (Formerly Y Gwter-fawr, but the station opened in 1864 on the Swansea Vale Railway was named “Brynamman”

..b/ Br
ɥncynon (“hill (overlooking the) Cynon (river)”)
..........1) Street name in Hirwaun (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (“Bryncynon”)

..c/ Br
ɥndulais (“hill (overlooking the) Dulais (river)”)
..........1) Farm name in Blaendulais / Seven Sisters (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) (“Bryndulais”)

..d/ Br
ɥndyfi (“hill (overlooking the) Dyfi (river)”)
..........1) Former mine SN6893 near Y Ffwrnais (county of Ceredigion) (“Bryndyfi”)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/23482

..........2) street name in Dinas Mawddwy (“Bryndyfi”)

..e/ Br
ɥnelwy (“hill (overlooking the) Elwy (river)”) (“Bryn Elwy”)
..........1) Street name in Llanelwy / St. Asaph (county of Y Fflint)

..f/ Br
ɥnfyrnwy SJ2320 (“hill (overlooking the) Efyrnwy (river)”) (“Bryn Vyrnwy”)
..........1) Name of a farm in name in Llansanffrįid ym Mechain

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/568062

..g/ Br
ɥngwenfro (“hill (overlooking the) Gwenfro (river)”) (“Bryn Gwenfro”)
..........1) Street name in Tan-y-fron, Wrecsam

..h/ Br
ɥn-gwy (“hill (overlooking the) Gwy / Wye (river)”) (“Bryngwy”)
..........1) House (bungalow) name in Rhaeadr-gwy (Powys)

..i/ Br
ɥnhafren “(the) hill (overlooking the river) Hafren” (“Severn” in English) (“Bryn Hafren”)
..........1) Street name in Crew Green (district of Maldw
ɥn, county of Powɥs) (SJ3215)

..j/ Brɥn-lliw “(the) hill (overlooking the river) Lliw” (brɥn = hill) + (Lliw)
..........1) locality in the county of Caerfyrddin

..k/ Brɥnogwen “(the) hill (overlooking the river) Ogwen” (brɥn = hill) + (Ogwen)
..........1) street in Bangor in the county of Gwynedd

..l/ Brɥn-taf taf “(the) hill (overlooking the river) Taf”

street name

..........1) Aber-fan (county of Merth
ɥrtudful) (“Bryntaf”)

..........2) Cefncoedycymer (county of Merth
ɥrtudful) (“Bryntaf”)

..m/
Brɥnteifi (SN4539) “(the) hill (overlooking the river) Teifi” (brɥn = hill) + (Teifi river name)

..........1) locality in the county of Caerfyrddin

..n/ Brɥnystwyth “(the) hill (overlooking the river) ystwyth” (brɥn = hill) + (Ystwyth river name)

..........1) street name in Penparcau, Aberystwyth (county of Ceredigion)

6 arianfryn silver hill, silvery hill
Arianfryn House name, Y Bermo (county of Gwynedd)
(arian = silver ) + soft mutation + ( bryn = hill)

bryn occurs curiously without the definite article in some names with the name of a tree. Although the linking definite article is often omitted in place names, any soft mutation caused will remain.

Thus in the following names, there is nothing particularly surprising, as the qualifying element doed not have an initial soft-mutable consonant:

Brynhelygen (Pendeulwyn, Bro Morgannwg) (instead of bryn yr helygen) (“willow hill”)

Brynonnen (instead of bryn yr onnen) (“ash hill”)

But these do, and there is no trace of the soft mutation:

Brynderwen (qv) (instead of bryn dderwen, bryn y dderwen) (“oak hill”)

Brynbedwen (instead of bryn fedwen, bryn y fedwen) (“birch hill”)

7 Moelfryn <MOIL-vrin> [ˡmɔɪlvrɪn] “bare hill”

(moel = bare, treeless) + soft mutation + (bryn = hill)

A hill SN9372 in Glyn Gwy / the Wye valley near Sant Harmon

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=245201 map

:_______________________________.

Y Brɥn 03 <ə BRIN> [ə ˡbrɪn]
1
short name for place names with brɥn as the main element
Y Brɥn = Brɥnaman

2 official name of certain places which in all likelihood were originally longer names

(1) Y Brɥn SN5400 locality in Llanelli (county of Caerfyrddin)

(2) Y Brɥn SS8192 locality in Castell-nedd ac Aberafan (from ?Brɥngyrnos, hill of the little

piles of stone. The main street is Heol Brɥngurnos (“Brɥngurnos Street” on English maps) )

(3) Y Brɥn SO2985 locality in southern Shropshire, England, 5km north of Colunwɥ (“Clun” in English)

(4) Y Brɥn locality by Y Fenni, county of Mynwɥ

(5) Y Brɥn locality in Pont-llan-fraith, county of Caerffili

ETYMOLOGY: “the hill” (y definite article) + (brɥn = hill)

:_______________________________.

Brynach <BRƏ-nakh> [ˡbrənax] (masculine noun)
1
man's name

:_______________________________.

Bryn Amlwg <brin AM-lug> [brɪn ˡamlʊg]

1 hill name .

Castell Bryn Amlwg SO1684 a castle site just over the border in Shropshire, England, near the English village of Anchor

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/802128 map

“prominent hill” (bryn = hill) + (amlwg = prominent, visible, evident)

:_______________________________.

Brɥn Athɥn <brin AA-thin> [brɪn ˡɑˑθɪn]
1
place name, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, dating from around 1890.

Bryn Athyn, in the Huntingdon Valley in the eastern part of Montgomery County in Pennsylvania, was the centre of a Swedenborgian community, members of the General Church of the New Jerusalem.

It was not known as an area of Welsh settlement, although nineteenth-century land ownership maps of this part of Montgomery County include many Welsh surnames – descendants of the original Welsh settlers in nearby areas.

The name is said to be ‘Hill of Cohesion’ (though this is in fact not the exact translation of the name). It is an unlikely Welsh name as the word ‘ath
ɥn’, although found in a famous (or infamous!) nineteenth-century dictionary, has never in fact been used in Welsh.

William F. (Frederic) Pendleton
(born March 25, 1845 in Savannah, Georgia, died November 5, 1927) and S. (Samuel) H. Hicks were members of the board of directors of the Academy of the New Church (founded 1877 for the training of ministers). William F. Pendleton was president, and S. H. Hicks was secretary .

In 1890, the General Church of the New Jerusalem was founded after a theological dispute, breaking away from the General Convention of the Church of the New Jerusalem (or, as it was also called, the Swedenborgian Church of North America). In 1897, W. F. Pendleton, some years after the name Bryn Athyn was applied to the village, became the first Executive Bishop of the General Church of the New Jerusalem.

The original grounds of the Academy and the community of Bryn Athyn were designed in 1893 by Charles Eliot of the firm of landscape architects Olmsted, Olmsted, and Eliot, which had undertaken many notable projects, among them Central Park in 1853 and Bryn Mawr in 1885, the year of its foundation as a Quaker college.

When names were being sought for the new Swedenborgian village, William F. Pendleton was not satisfied with any of the suggestions that had been made. He mentioned to S. H. Hicks that he liked Welsh names, and it happened that Mr Hicks had been born in Wales.

(S. H. Hicks’s name appears in The Manual of the Pennsylvania Society for the year 1894 in the Roll of Members: “Montgomery County / Bryn Athyn / S. H. Hicks”).

Mr Hicks bought a Welsh Dictionary for the bishop. William Pendleton was most likely aware of the history of the Welsh Tract and nearby Welsh place names. In the vicinity of Bryn Athyn there is Welsh Road, some fifteen miles in length, which begins its trajectory at Lansdale by North Wales, in Upper Gwynedd Township, north-west of Bryn Athyn, and passes through the Huntingdon Valley where Bryn Athyn is situtated (with parts of it variously called Welsh Road, Old Welsh Road, and New Welsh Road, though Moreland Road has since taken the place of New Welsh Road). Some fifteen miles to the west are the townships of Upper Merion and Lower Merion, and Bryn Mawr and Narberth

Bishop Pendleton set to work to find something that would suggest unity, and he used the words ‘brɥn’ for hill (perhaps influenced by nearby ‘Brɥn Mawr’ (“great hill”), in the same county), and ‘athɥn’, meaning ‘tenacious, cohesive, pulling’.

(The coining of the name by Bishop Pendleton is based on information from the article “Welsh Place-Names in Southeastern Pennsylvania” / Ruth L. Pearce, Bryn Mawr College.) (I have lost the exact source and date of the article – possibly the 1960s).

Unfortunately the dictionary was either William Owen Pughe’s Dictionary of the Welsh Language or a later derivative work. Owen Pughe’s publication one of the most comprehensive dictionaries published in any language for its date (available in its complete form in 1803; reprinted in 1832) but many words in this dictionary were invented forms



(delwedd 7562)

The usual explanation of the name ‘Bryn Athyn’ is given as “hill of cohesion”, which is probably the meaning which Bishop Pendleton had hoped to express, but literally it is “cohesive hill”, “tenacious hill”, since it is made up of a noun followed by an adjective.

The genesis of the word athyn might be explained in two ways.

William Owen Pughe based the word on the adjective “tyn” (= taut, tight; diligent), attaching to it an intensifying prefix.

(a- intensifying suffix) + aspirate mutation + (tyn = tight).

From the resulting “athyn” he constructed the related forms – athynnol (spelt idiosyncratically “athynawl” by Owen Pughe), athyniad, athynnu (spelt “athynu” by Owen Pughe).

However, athyn would have to mean “very tight”, rather than “cohesive” or “tenacious”.

Or else he began with an invented verb-noun athynnu (supposedly “to draw; to attract”; drawing, attracting), made up of

(a- intensifying suffix) + aspirate mutation + (tynnu = to pull; pulling),

and athyn would be the root form of the verb-noun.

But roots of verb-nouns tend to be used as the equivalent of English past participles – thus colli (= to lose, losing), coll (= lost); malu (= to grind), māl (= ground); claddu (= to bury, to dig; burying, digging), cladd (= buried, dug) (though such usage tends to be in phrases from older Welsh).

Athyn – if so derived - would suggest “drawn, attracted”, rather than “cohesive” or “tenacious”.

If Owen Pughe had been consistent, athyniad (defined as tenseness) would have been “tenaciousness, tenacity; cohesiveness”, and the village might then have been called “Bryn Athyniad”! <brin a-THƏN-yad> [brɪn aˡθənjad]


If Bishop Pendleton’s source was not Owen Pughe’s dictionary itself, it would have been a later dictionary which incorporated many of Owen Pughe’s neologisms. One such was the Welsh-English Dictionary published in 1848 by William Spurrell (1813 - 1889). An American edition (a revised version of the original) appeared thirteen years later in 1861, published in New York.



(delwedd 7565)

 

However, here there are no derived words along with athyn, and the reason for this is given in the “Advertisement to the American Edition”.

 

On issuing the latest British edition the author thus expresses himself: - “The volume now offered to the public, though of smaller size than the Edition which preceded it, not only contains several hundred additional lines, but, by the omission of derivatives obviously deducible from simple words retained, has been made to comprehend within its pages a vast number of useful terms, the meaning of which could not be readily gathered from others of the same root. Many words, too, of established authority, are included, which have been overlooked in the Welsh Dictionaries hitherto published.

 

(delwedd 7566)

The word athyn is so improbable that Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / The University of Wales Dictionary, a major work of the modern Welsh language with a historical treatment of each word, showing the etymology and earliest known examples of a word, does not even include it..


A handful of Owen Pughe’s many coinings did in fact eventually find favour, and are used in the modern language. So we might consider athyn to be one of these words which came to have an existence beyond Owen Pughe’s Dictionary, or other dictionaries.

(See Owen Pughe, Section O, via Google kimkat1600e)

In conclusion, Pennsylvania has a unique Welsh place name thanks to the lexicographical fancies of William Owen Pughe (born Llanfihangel y Pennant, Meirionydd, 7 August 1759, died 4 June 1835).

 NOTE: See (1) Owen Pughe, William, (2) athɥn

(delwedd 7564)

Some Welsh names in Montgomery county:

1 Gwynedd – the name of a northern medieval kingdom. The Welsh settlers came from the area which had been part of Gwynedd. The name has since been revived as an adminstrative name, and is a north-western county which covers what was the core area of the old kingdom.

2 North Wales – again a reference to the origin of the first settlers. It seems to be a translation of Gwynedd used to create an additional English name.

3 Montgomery. Possibly refers to the county of Sir Drefaldwyn – Montgomeryshire or Montgomery in English – in North Wales (in a twofold division of Wales - Gogledd / North, De / South) (in Central Wales if a threefold division of Wales is used – Gogledd / North, Canolbarth / Midland, De / South).

It may however be from an English surname – it has been suggested that it commemorates Richard Montgomery, an American Revolutionary War general killed in an attack on Quebec City in 1775. The county was created nine years later, in 1784.

Both the English name of the Welsh county and the English surname are originally the name of a Norman family (de Montgommery, as it would be in modern French spelling). The name occurs in two neighbouring communes in the Calvados department of Basse-Normandie (Lower Normandy) -
Sainte-Foy-de-Montgommery, and Saint-Germain-de-Montgommery.

Roger de Montgomerie (died 1894) was Earl of Shrewsbury and held most of the county of Shropshire, of which Shrewsbury is the capital. He built a castle in neighbouring Welsh territory to extend his holdings into Wales. The castle gave rise to a small town called Montgomery in English (Trefaldwyn in Welsh), and this in turn gave its name to a county a formed c1542 when Wales was annexed to England.

4 Merion. Refers to the county of Sir Feirionydd or Meirionydd – Merionethshire or Merioneth in English. Often in Welsh Meirion is used as a short form of Meirionydd, which may explain the use of Merion in Pennsylvania – using Merion as a short form of Merioneth, though this never occurs in Wales itself).

5 Bryn Mawr. The name of a mansion in Dolgellau which belonged to Rowland Ellis (Rholant Elis would be a Welsh form of his name), who encouraged the emigration of persecuted Welsh Quakers to Pennsylvania, beginning in 1686. The Pennsylvanian locality was in fact called Humphreysville until 1869.

6 Narberth is was originally Arberth, and this is the name in standard modern Welsh. A town in the south-west. The variant Welsh form Narberth is the one used as the “English” form of the name.

7 A Welsh epithet Wyn, later a surname (literally ‘white’, ‘fair’, from the adjective gwyn = white)

8 A settlement founded by William Jenkins, a surname of Welsh origin (in most cases).

9 Bryn Athyn

:_______________________________.

brynau <BRƏ-nai, -e> [ˡbrənaɪ, -ɛ]
1
Incorrect spelling for brynnau, plural (southern form) of brɥn = hill.
The standard form is bryniau

:_______________________________.

Brynbedwen <brin-BED-wen> [brɪnˡbɛdwɛn]
1
farm name, house name

..a/ Farm in Trefeglwys (Powys) (1841 Census) (“
Edward BENNETT and family, farmer, in residence”)

..b/ House name, Heol Aber-dār, Aberpennar (Rhondda Cynon Taf)


..c/ place in Llan-rug, metnioned on the Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru / National Library of Wales website (Llythyr oddi wrth John Jones, Brynbedwen, Llanrug, at ei ŵyr, John Griffith Jones tra'r oedd yn ymladd yn Rhyfel Cartref America, 1 Medi 1863 a letter from John Jones, Brynbedwen, Llan-rug, to his grandson John Griffith Jones while he was fighting in the American Civil War, 1 September 1863)

ETYMOLOGY: bryn bedwen “(the) hill (of) (the) birch tree, birch hill”

(bryn = hill) + (bedwen = birch tree), though one would expect the name to be

bryn fedwen < bryn y fedwen “(the) hill (of) the birch tree, birch hill”

(bryn = hill) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (bedwen = birch tree),


:_______________________________.

Brynberllan <brin-BER-lhan> [brɪnˡbɛrɬan]
1
House name in Pwllheli (county of Gwynedd)

 (spelt as “Bryn Berllan”).

ETYMOLOGY: bryn y berllan “(the) hill (of) the orchard, orchard hill”

(bryn = hill) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (perllan = orchard)

NOTE: In place names a linking definite article is often omitted: bryn y berllan > bryn berllan

:_______________________________.

Brɥnbuga <brin BII-ga> [brɪnˡbiˑga] (feminine noun)
1
SO3700 Town, south-east Wales. In English, Usk

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/142269

:_______________________________.

Brɥncelɥn <brin-KEE-lin> [brɪnˡkeˑlɪn]
1
SJ 1876 locality in the county of Y Fflint, 1km north of Treffynnon (on English-language maps misspelt as Bryn Celin)

2 SH6079 locality by Llangoed in the county of Mōn

3 street names:
...(1) street name in Maes-teg (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
...(2) street in Llwɥnbrwɥdrau (county of Abertawe)
...(3) street in Pontardawe (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)

ETYMOLOGY: ‘(the) hill (of) the hollies’, holly hill; (brɥn = hill) + (y definite article) + (celɥn = hollies)

:_______________________________.

Brɥndedwɥdd ‹brin-DEE-duidh› [brɪnˡdeˑdwɪš]
1
house name in Dolgellau (county of Gwɥnedd) (in the list of members in “The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion” 1961 / Part 1)

2 street name in Dinbych / Denbigh

3 house name in Penmaen-mawr, Conwy

4 House name in Tywyn, Gwynedd

ETYMOLOGY:
(“happy hill”) (brɥn = hill) + (dedwɥdd = happy)

:_______________________________.

Brɥnderwɛn <brin-DER-wen> [brɪnˡdɛrwɛn]

1 house name

2 as a street name or part of a street name

Brynderwen, Abergele (Conwy), LL22 ("Bryn Derwen")

Brynderwen, Caerfyrddin, SA31 (“Brynderwen”)

Brynderwen, Cilfynydd, Pont-y-pridd (Rhondda Cynon Taf), CF37 (“Brynderwen”)

Brynderwen, Cwm-dār, Aber-dār, (Rhondda Cynon Taf) CF44 (“Brynderwen”)

Brynderwen, Mynyddisa, Yr Wyddgrug (Y Fflint) CH7 ("Bryn Derwen")

Brynderwen, Pontardawe, Abertawe, SA8 ("Bryn Derwen")

Brynderwen, Radur, Caer-dydd, CF15 ("Bryn Derwen")

Brynderwen, Sgeti, Abertawe, SA2 ("Bryn Derwen")

Brynderwen, Talgarth, Aberhonddu, Powys, LD3 (“Brynderwen”)

Brynderwen, Ynys-ddu, Casnewydd, NP11 (“Brynderwen”)

Clos Brynderwen, Caer-dydd, CF23 (“Brynderwen Close”)

Clos Brynderwen, Cilfynydd, Pont-y-pridd (Rhondda Cynon Taf), CF37 (“Brynderwen Close”)

Cwrt Brynderwen, Glynrhedynnog, (Rhondda Cynon Taf), CF43 (“Brynderwen Court”)

Heol Brynderwen, Canewydd, NP19 (“Brynderwen Road”)

Heol Brynderwen, Cilfynydd, Pont-y-pridd, (Rhondda Cynon Taf), CF37 (“Brynderwen Road”)

Heol Brynderwen, Rhydaman, county of Caerfyrddin, SA18 ("Bryn Derwen Road")

Heol Brynderwen, Tonypandy (Rhondda Cynon Taf), CF40 (“Brynderwen Road”)

Llwyn Brynderwen, Casnewydd, NP19 (“Brynderwen Grove”)

Rhes Brynderwen, Tal-y-sarn, Caernarfon, Gwynedd, LL54 ("Bryn Derwen Terrace")

ETYMOLOGY: bryn derwen (“oak hill”) (brɥn = hill) + (derwɛn = oak tree)

One might have expected bryn y dderwen “(the) hill (of) the oak tree”;

:_______________________________.

Brɥnderwɥn <brin-DER-win> [brɪnˡdɛrwɪn]
1
place name in New Zealand

2 house name in Llan-daf, Caer-dydd

ETYMOLOGY: the spelling derwyn is probably used for derwin, possibly to give it a more archaic appearance
(“oak hill”) y bryn derwin

(y definite article, the) + (brɥn = hill) + (derwin = (topography) abounding in oak trees; (wooden object) made of oak).

NOTE: In a reference to the Lewis family in Llan-daf (Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles. Armorial Families: A Directory of Some Gentlemen of Coat-Armour, Showing Which Arms in Use at the Moment are Borne by Legal Authority. London, England and Edinburgh, Scotland: T.C. & E.C. Jack, 1899)

Son of Evan Lewis, Esquire, J. P., of Brynderwyn, Llandaff, Cardiff, born 18 —;…. married 1868, Annie, daughter of W. Robinson of Cheltenham: —

Lewis, Gentleman… Residence: New Zealand.

Query: Is this the source of the New Zealand place name?

NOTE: On a gravestone in the churchyard of Betws Aeddan (Addan’s church) in Betwsnewydd (county of Mynwy), William Bruce, died 18 March 1844:

In memory of the / Revd William Bruce MA / of Brynderwyn / late Canon Residentiary of Llandaff Cathedral / He died at Brynderwyn March xxviii. mdcccxciv / Aged lxvii / "Until the day break and the shadows flee away"

http://www.cefnpennar.com/betnew/staeddan.htm (inscriptions on gravestones in all the counties of Wales)

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brɥn dioddef <brin di-OO-dhev > [brɪn dɪˡoˑšɛv]
1
gallows hill, hill where criminals were hanged

2
Brɥn Dioddef (or Bryn Diodde) A hill in Castellnewɥdd Emlɥn (county of Caerfyrddin).
English name: Adpar Hill

Brɥndioddef (or Bryndiodde) SN3141 The name of a hamlet by this hill (settlement names are best spelt as a single word) (on Ordance Survey map as Bryndioddef”)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/919376

3 (formerly) Brɥn Dioddef (or Bryn Diodde), Aberystwyth

In 1799 a bathhouse was built on what today is the promenade, by Bryn Diodde.

The Marine Terrace, happily disposed along the shore of one of those little bights or bays that indent the coast between the Castle point and Constitution Hill, follows the curvature of the bay, one extreme resting on the rocky skare at the end of Pier Street called the Weeg, the other terminating at that on which the Marine Baths are built, near Bryn Diodde.

New Guide to Aberystwith and its Environs; Third edition, 1858. Thomas Owen Morgan, Esq.

ETYMOLOGY: “hill (of) suffering” (brɥn = hill) + (dioddef = to suffer)

NOTE: a final [v] is not pronunced in modern spoken Welsh, though the literary langauge retains it, and place names are spelt in most cases according to their form in the literary language rather than to reflect the local pronunciation.

Thus dioddef > diodde

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Brɥn-dŵr <brin-DUUR> [brɪnˡduːr]
1
Name of a district in Christchurch, New Zealand. The New Zealand name is spelt Bryndwr and is pronounced in English as <BRIN-dwə> [ˡbrɪndwə]

A Welsh emigrant by the name of Charles Jeffreys from Glandyfi gave the name to his property which was situated by the side of a creek

ETYMOLOGY: “brɥn y dŵr” ('(the) hill (of) the water / the stream')

NOTE: (From a genealogy forum) “I am a descendant of Robert and Charles Jeffreys who came to New Zealand in 1853 and bought up a large parcel of land which they called Bryndwr, in Christchurch. All streets were given Welsh names - Idris, Snowden, Garreg, Glandovey (from Glandyfi) and of course there's Jeffreys Rd that cuts right across Bryndwr. All these places remain today and Bryndwr is a suburb of Christchurch”.

http://genforum.genealogy.com/jeffreys/messages/471.html

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Brɥn-drain <brin-DRAIN> [brɪnˡdraɪn] (feminine noun)
1
suburb of Caer-dydd (Thornhill)

Amlosgfa Bryn-drain Thornhill Crematorium

In fact, this is not the correct Welsh name for the area, but rather a direct translation of the English name.

Bryn-drain is bryn y drain “(the) hill (of) the hawthorn bushes”, thus supposing that the English name Thornhill means “the hill of the hawthorn trees” rather than “the hill of the (single) hawthorn tree”

In 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911) (John Hobson Matthews, Mab Cernɥw) notes Draenen Pen y Graig (the thorn-tree at the top of, or the end of, the rock or the rocky ridge), and the short form Y Ddraenen (“the hawthorn tree”)

DRAENEN-PEN-Y-GRAIG (the thorn-tree at the end of the rock.)

A place near the northern boundary of Senghenydd and Roath Keynsham (1702.) In 1798 "Y Drainen" was described as "being the known and ancient boundary between the parishes of Eglwysilan and Llanishen." "Thorntree Hill" is an eminence on the Cefn range.

“Thornhill” would seem to be a reduction of “Thorntree Hill”. (However, this is skating on thin ice – more information and other examples of the names are needed)

The English name could be an adaptation of the Welsh name, or it could have come about independently in English for this distinctive boundary marker.

Such a name as Draenen Pen y Graig would suppose that there was another distinctive thorn bush in the area, and it was necessary to describe their location to distinguish between them.

The “craig” here is Graig Llanisien

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/441298 Graig Llanisien

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/443135 Graig Llanisien

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/441278 Heol Draenen Pen y Graig / Thornhill Road

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/87768 caeau ger Draenen Pen y Graig / fields near Thornhill

(“The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland…”)

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Brɥneifion <brin-EIV-yon> [brɪnˡəɪvjɔn]
1
“(the) hill (overlooking the) (the district of) Eifionydd”

See Eifionydd

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Bryneithin <brin-EI-thin> [brɪnˡəɪθɪn]
1
street name in Porthtywyn / Burry Port (county of Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen)

 (spelt as “Bryneithin”).

See also Brynyreithin

ETYMOLOGY: bryn yr eithin “(the) hill (of) the furze / gorse”

(bryn = hill) + (yr definite article) + (eithin = furze, gorse)

NOTE: In place names a linking definite article is often omitted: bryn yr eithin > bryn eithin


(delwedd 7066) eithin / gorse

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Brynfa <BRƏN-va> [ˡbrənva]
1
house name in Bangor (county of Gwynedd)

ETYMOLOGY: “(the) hill place”

(bryn- penult form of bryn = hill) + (-fa suffix = place)

:_______________________________.

Brynfab <BRƏN-vab> [ˡbrənvab]
1
Thomas Williams, born in Cwmaman, Aber-dār (1848-1927), poet and writer, farmed most of his life in Eglwɥsilan by Caerffili, author of “Pan oedd Rhondda’n bur” (1912) (“when the Rhondda was pure” - an account of the valley before industrialisation)
See Clic y Bont (a group of poets and musicians from Pont-y-pridd)

ETYMOLOGY: ‘son of the hill / hills’ (query - because he was from “Y Bryniau / Y Brynna” – “the hills”, which was the name formerly given to the uplands of Morgannwg?)
(bryn- <ə> [ə] < brɥn = hill) + soft mutation + (mab = son)

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Y Bryn-glas <brin-GLAAS> [brɪnˡglɑːs]
1
street name in Rhuthun (Dinbych county) (“Bryn Glas”)

ETYMOLOGY: y bryn glas “(the) green hill”

:_______________________________.

Bryn-grug <brin-GRIIG> [brɪnˡgriːg]
1
house name

ETYMOLOGY: bryn y grug “(the) hill (of) the heather”

:_______________________________.

Y Bryn-gwyn ‹brin-GWIN› [brɪnˡgwɪn]
1
village SO1849 in Maesyfed, Powys.

Named after a hill north-west of the village, Y Bryn Gwyn SO1750. Height 466 metres. On English-language maps in the tautological form “Bryngwyn Hill”

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO1849

ETYMOLOGY: y bryn gwyn “(the) white hill”

:_______________________________.

Brɥngwran <brin-GUU-ran> [brɪnˡguˑran] (feminine noun)
1
village, north-west

:_______________________________.

Brɥn Hedɥdd <brin HEE-didh> [brɪnˡheˑdɪš]
1
place name “hill of the skylark / lark hill” (Alauda arvensis)
Ysgol Gynradd Brɥn Hedɥdd Name of a primary school in Y Rhɥl (county of Dinbɥch, North Wales)

ETYMOLOGY: brɥn yr ehedɥdd; (brɥn = hill) + (yr = definite article) + (ehedɥdd = skylark); (1) in names of the type “qualified noun + definite article + qualifying noun” the omission of the article is common in place names; (2) hedɥdd is ehedɥdd with the loss of the first syllable. This loss of a first syllable especially with nouns is common in Welsh

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Brɥnhedɥdd <brin-HEE-didh> [brɪnˡheˑdɪš]
1
(LL57 3HR) (“Brɥnhedɥdd”) Street name in Bangor

ETYM
OLOGY: See former entry

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Brɥnheulog <brin-HEI-log> [brɪnˡhəɪlɔg]
1
house name
House in Brynna (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

2
street name
(1) Aberpennar ST0499 (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)
(2) Yr Eglwɥsnewɥdd, Caer-dɥdd
(3) Heol-y-cɥw SS9484 (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
(4) Llanharan ST0083(county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)
(5) Pen-twɥn, Caer-dɥdd
(6) Ton-du SS8984 (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
(7)
Treherbert (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)
(8) Ystradgynlais SN7810 (county of Powɥs)

3
village name
(1) hamlet (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) west of the villages of Brɥn-cae / Llanharan (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

(2) SS8594 hamlet next to Caerau (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SS8594 map



(delwdd 7535)

ETYMOLOGY: y brɥn heulog = the sunny hill

(y = definite article) + (brɥn = hill) + (heulog = sunny)

NOTE: Compare the Occitan name Clarmont (“light hill”), which seems to have the same meaning

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Brɥn-hydd <brin-HIIDH> [brɪnˡhiːš]
1
house name in Bangor (Gwynedd)

ETYMOLOGY: bryn yr hydd “(the) hill (of) the stag”, “stag hill”

(brɥn = hill) + (yr definite article) + (hydd = stag)

The linking definite article is often omitted in place names: bryn yr hydd > bryn hydd
:_______________________________.

Y Brɥnhyfrɥd <ə brin HƏV-rid> [ə brɪn ˡhəvrɪd]
1
house name
2
street name in Rhosllannerchrugog (county of Wrecsam)
3
locality SS6595 in Abertawe

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SS6595 map

ETYMOLOGY: the pleasant hill; mount pleasant

(y = definite article) + (brɥn = hill) + (hyfrɥd = pleasant)

:_______________________________.

Bryniau Clwɥd <BRƏN-yai, -ye, KLUID> [ˡbrənjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡklʊɪd] (plural noun)
1
Clwydian Range, hills in the north-east from Llandegla yn Iāl at their southern end to Prestatyn in the north, on the coast. The highest peak is Moel Famau SJ1662 (554 metres)
An alternative name for Bryniau Clwyd is Moelydd Clwyd (moel = bare hill)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/269781 Moel Famau



(delwedd 7212)

ETYMOLOGY: (bryniau = hills) + (Clwyd = river name) “(the) hills (of) (the) (river) Clwyd”
:_______________________________.

Bryniau’r Cymry <BRƏN-yair, -yer, KƏM-ri> [ˡbrənjaɪr, -jɛr, ˡkəmrɪ]
1
The Welsh name of Welsh Hills, a former Welsh settlement in Granville, Licking County, Ohio.

Pan gyrhaeddodd y cŵch Newark, yr oedd yn tywyllu nos Iau. Derbyniwyd ni gan y Cymry yno yn garedig. Aeth fy nghyfeillion i'r wlad, llettyais inau yn y dref. Aethym gydā chyfaill i ymweled ā hwynt dranoeth. Gorphwysasom y diwrnod hwnw, a theimlem ein hunain yn flinedig iawn. Tranoeth, buom yn cadw society yn Nghapel Saron ar Fryniau y Cymry. Dydd Sul, y 23ain, pregethodd y Brodyr yno am 10 a 2; ac am 6 yn Newark, yn Nghapel y Bedyddwyr Seisonig, (Y Cyfaill o’r Hen Wlad yn America, Cyfrol 3, 1840, page 140)
When the boat reached Newark, dusk was falling on Thursday night. We were kindly received by the Welsh people there. My friends went to the country, I for my part lodged in the town. We went with a friend to visit them the next day. We rested that day and we felt very tired. The next day, we held a chapel meeting in Saron Chapel on the Welsh Hills. On Sunday, the 23rd, the Brethren preached at 10 and at 2; and at 6 in Newark, in the English-language Baptist Chapel.

NOTE: The settlement was founded by Thomas Philipps and his associate Theophilus Rees. They had arrived with their families from Wales in 1795 and had settled for a short time in Beulah near Ebensburg, Cambria County, Pennsylvania. Thomas Philipps was born in 1735 in Llandeilo, county of Caerfyrddin (English: Carmarthen), and died aged 77 / 78 on May 20, 1813 in Welsh Hills. The land, some two thousand acres in extent, was purchased from Sampson Davis, a Welshman of Philadelphia, who held some 3,000 acres in what is now the northeast quarter of Granville Township. In 1801 John Rees, son of Theophilus Rees, settled there to erect a cabin and to clear some of the land for cultivation, in preparation for the arrival of members of the family, who arrived in 1802.

Information 12 09 2002 at

www.geocities.com/welshfolk

Theophilus Rees was one of the nine charter members who founded the Particular Baptist Church of Granville on September 4, 1808

Information 12 09 2002 at

www.carthage.lib.il.us/community/churches/primbap/FamHist-LickingOH.html

ETYMOLOGY: “(the) hills (of) the Welsh (people)”

(bryniau = hills, plural of brɥn = hill) + (y definite article, the) + (Cymry = Welshmen, Welsh people)

:_______________________________.

Brɥn-lliw <brin-LHIU> [brɪnˡɬɪʊ]
1
locality in the county of Abertawe
..
1961: population: 4.063; proportion of Welsh-speakers: 53%
..
1971: population: 3.810; proportion of Welsh-speakers: 41%

ETYMOLOGY: “(the) hill (overlooking the river) Lliw” (brɥn = hill) + (Lliw)

2
Cf Pont-lliw (SN6101) locality in the county of Abertawe, 3km south-east of Pontarddulais
(pont = bridge) + (Lliw river name )

:_______________________________.

Brɥnllongwr <brin-LHONG-UR> [brɪnˡɬɔŋʊr]
1
housing development in Y Barri (“Bryn Llongwr”)

ETYMOLOGY: Apparently a recent name c. 2003 - bryn y llongwr “(the) hill (of) the mariner” (brɥn = hill) + (y definite article) + (llongwr = sailor, mariner)
:_______________________________.

Brɥn-llwyd <brin-LHUID> [brɪnˡɬʊɪd]
1
housse name

..a/ house in Porthaethwy

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/369099 Bryn-llwyd

ETYMOLOGY: y bryn llwyd “the grey hill” (y definite article) + (brɥn = hill) + (llwyd = grey, brown)

:_______________________________.

Brɥn-mair <brin-MAIR> [brɪnˡmaɪr]
1
street name in Merthyrtudful

ETYMOLOGY: “(the) hill (of) Mary”, “Mary’s hill” (brɥn = hill) + (Mair = Mary)

:_______________________________.

Brɥnmelɥn <brin-MEE-lin> [brɪnˡmeˑlɪn]
1
farm 1km south-east of Pen-rhiw-fawr SN7410 (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)

ETYMOLOGY: y brɥn melɥn “the yellow hill” (y = the) + (brɥn = hill) + (melɥn = yellow)

:_______________________________.

Y Brynna <ə BRƏ-na> [ə ˡbrəna]
1
See Y Brynnau

:_______________________________.

Y Brynnau <ə-BRƏ-nai, -e> [əˡbrənaɪ, -ɛ]
1
village in the county of Rhondda-Cynon-Taf, south-east Wales SS9883
The local name (which is also the official name) is Brynna (in the south-east, a final –au becomes <a> [a])

ETYMOLOGY: ‘the hills’

Apparently from the name of the nearby hills called Brynnau Gwynion ‘white hills’

(the local name would be ‘Brynna Gwynnon’)

:_______________________________.

brynnau <BRƏ-nai, -e> [ˡbrənaɪ, -ɛ]
1
plural (southern form) of brɥn = hill. The standard form is bryniau
Coed y Brynnau wood north-east of Rhuthun (county of Bro Morgannwg).

The local pronunciation would be Cood y Brynna

:_______________________________.

Brɥnoffa <brin-OO-fa> [brɪnˡoːfa]
(1) street name in Rhosllannerchrugog SJ2946 (county of Wrecsam)

(2) street name in Coed-poeth SJ2851 (county of Wrecsam)

(3) name of a district on the western side of Rhos-ddu SJ3351 (county of Wrecsam) and also a street name here

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/622605

(4) Lōn Brynoffa (Bryn Offa Lane), Argoed / New Brighton, Sir y Fflint

ETYMOLOGY: ‘the hill of Offa’ (brɥn = hill) + (Offa).

The meaning is rather ‘(the) hill (overlooking) Offa’s Dyke’ – “bryn Clawdd Offa”.

Offa was king (757-796) of the Anglian kingdom of Mercia, and according to tradition had an earthern bank and ditch constructed to serve as a demarcation line between his kingdom (which was made up of lands conquered from the Welsh by the Mercians) and the territory still in the hands of the Welsh.

1300 years later the ditch still exists, and it is still known as Clawdd Offa, the ditch of Offa (in English Offa’s Dyke)

:_______________________________.

Brɥnogwɥ <brin-OO-gui> [brɪnˡoːgʊɪ]
1
“(the) hill (overlooking the) Ogwɥ (river)”

In the village of Nant-y-moel (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) there is “Brɥnogwɥ Terrace” (which would be simply Brɥnogwɥ, or Rhestr Brɥnogwɥ, in Welsh)

ETYMOLOGY: (brɥn = hill) + (Ogwɥ river name)

Ogwɥ is a fanciful name for the river Ogwr

(Og- first syllable of the river name Ogwr) + (-wɥ, a supposed suffix meaning ‘water’.)

See the entry gwɥ (= water) for more examples of fanciful river names with a final -wy

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Brɥn’refail <brin-REE-vail, .vel> [brɪnˡreˑvaɪl, -ɛl]
1
SH5662 locality in the county of Gwɥnedd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH5662?by=class map

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/536559 bythynnod / cottages

ETYMOLOGY: (brɥn + ’r + efail) < brɥn yr efail “(the) hill (of) the smithy”
(brɥn = hill) + (yr = the) + soft mutation + (gefail = smithy)

:_______________________________.

Brɥn Saith Marchog <brin-saith-MAR-khog> [brɪn saɪθ ˡmarxɔg]
1
SJ0750 hamlet in Sir Ddinbych, south-east of Corwen

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales / Samuel Lewis / 1849

 “Near Gwyddelwern there is a place called Bryn Saith Marchog, from its being the spot where Owain Glyndwr surprised Reginald de Grey and seven knights, whom he made prisoners”

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/563180

ETYMOLOGY: bryn y saith marchog “(the) hill (of) seven horsemen / knights”

(brɥn = hill) + (y = the) + (saith = seven) + (marchog = horseman, knight)

But since saith (seith in Middle Welsh) can also mean “saint”, there is the possiblity that Saith Marchog is “Saint Marchog”

:_______________________________.

Brɥn Seion <brin-SEI-on> [brɪnˡsəɪɔn]
1
Mount Zion, the hill on which the city of Jerusalem stands

2 chapel name

...(1) Brɥn Seion name of a Congregationalist church, now interdenominational, founded in June 1884 at Beavercreek, Oregon, USA, (17 miles south-east of Portland), and considered to be the oldest Welsh chapel on the west coast 
http://www.wapnw.org/brynseion.htm

...(2) Heol Brɥn Seion street name in Rhymni (county of Caerffili)

ETYMOLOGY: “(the) hill (of) Zion” (brɥn = hill) + (Seion = Zion).

Brɥn Seion may be a translation of English “mount Zion”.

The word brɥn (= hill) has replaced mynɥdd (= mountain) – in the Welsh Bible the expression is always mɥnɥdd Seion.

Eseia 8:18 Wele fi a’r plant a roddes yr Arglwɥdd i mi, yn arwyddion ac yn rhyfeddodau yn Israel; oddi wrth Arglwɥdd y lluoedd, yr hwn sɥdd yn trigo ym mynɥdd Seion
Isaiah 8:18 Behold, I and the children whom the LORD hath given me are for signs and for wonders in Israel from the LORD of hosts, which dwelleth in mount Zion.

NOTE: Sometimes there are chapels with the name Brɥn Zion (qv).
The form Zion is from the English Bible (in modern edtions of the Welsh Bible it is Seion; in older editions it is Sion).

See Mynydd Seion (= Mount Zion)

:_______________________________.

Brɥnseion <brin-SEI-on> [brɪnˡsəɪɔn]
1
some chapel names so spelt, instead of with the elements separated (Brɥn Seion)

2 street name, Solfach (Sir Benfro) (“Bryn Seion”)

ETYMOLOGY: See Brɥn Seion

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Brɥnsiencɥn <brin-SHENG-kin> [brɪnˡʃɛŋkɪn]
1
village in the county of Mōn ('hill of Siencɥn')

:_______________________________.

Br
ɥnsiriol <brin-SIR-yol> [brɪnˡsɪrjɔl]
“merry hill”

1 house name

2 street name
..a/ Caerffili (“Bryn Siriol”)
..b/ Cimla, Castell-nedd (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) (“Brynsiriol”)
..c/ Coed-poeth (county of Wrecsam)
..d/ Dinb
ɥch (“Bryn Siriol”)
..e/ Gwauncaegurwen (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) (“Brynsiriol”)
..f/ Hirwaun (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (“Brynsiriol”)
..g/ Llanelli (county of Caerfyrddin) (“Bryn Siriol”)
..h/ Llansanffrįid ym Mechain, (SJ2120) (district of Maldw
ɥn, county of Powɥs)
..i/ Pen-t
ɥrch (county of Caer-dɥdd) (“Bryn Siriol”)
..j/ Ton-mawr (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) (“Brynsiriol”)
..k/ Y Betws (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (“Bryn Siriol”)
..l/ Y Cymer (districte de Maldw
ɥn, county of Powɥs) (“Bryn Siriol”)
..m/ Y Fflint (“Bryn Siriol”)
..n/ Y Trallwng (districte de Maldw
ɥn, county of Powɥs) (“Brynsiriol”)
..o/ Yr Hengoed (county of Caerffili) (“Bryn Siriol”)
..p/ “Brynsiriol Road” Fforest-fach (county of Abertawe) This would be Heol Br
ɥnsiriol in Welsh

ETYMOLOGY: “y br
ɥn siriol” the merry / pleasant hill

(y = definite article) + (br
ɥn = hill) + (siriol = happy / merry / cheerful / pleasant)

Some of the examples spell the name as two words, others as one. In fact, settlement names and street names resembling settlement names are written together as one word, hence Br
ɥn Siriol (name of a hill – though probably no such hill exists) > Brɥnsiriol (name of a house / houses named after such a hill)

:_______________________________.

Brɥnteifi <brin-TEI-vi> [brɪnˡtəɪvɪ]
1
(SN4539) locality in the county of Caerfyrddin

ETYMOLOGY: “(the) hill (overlooking the river) Teifi” (brɥn = hill) + (Teifi river name)

:_______________________________.

Br
ɥntirion ‹brin-TIR-yon› [brɪnˡtɪrjɔn]
1 (SS8880) locality in Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SS8880 map

2 Br
ɥntirion
Street name in
..a/ Bedwas (county of Caerffili) (“Bryntirion”)
..b/ Bethesda , Bangor (county of Gw
ɥnedd) (“Bryntirion”)
..c/ Biwmaris (county of Yn
ɥs Mōn) (“Bryntirion”)
..d/ Caer-d
ɥdd (“Bryntirion”)
..e/ Caerffili (county of Caerffili) (“Bryntirion”)
..f/ Clydach (county of Abertawe) (“Bryn Tirion”)
..g/ Coed-llai (county of Y Fflint) (“Bryntirion”)
..h/ Conwy (“Bryn Tirion Park”)
..i/ Corris (county of Gwynedd) (“Bryntirion”)
..j/ Dolgarrog, (county of Conwy) (“Bryn Tirion”)
..k/ Glan-y-pwll, Blaenau Ffestiniog (county of Gwynedd) (“Bryn Tirion”)
..l/ Henllan, (county of Dinb
ɥch) (“Bryntirion”)
..m/ Licswm (county of Y Fflint) (“Bryn Tirion”)
..n/ Pant-llwyd, Blaenau Ffestiniog (county of Gwynedd) (“Bryn Tirion”)
..o/ Pen-isa’r-waun (county of Gwynedd) (“Bryn Tirion”)
..p/ Pen-y-sarn (county of Yn
ɥs Mōn) (“Bryntirion”)
..q/ Pontyberem (county of Caerfyrddin) (“Bryn Tirion”)
..r/ Rhewl, Treffynnon (county of Y Fflint) (“Bryntirion”)
..s/ Ynys-boeth, Aberpennar (county of Cynon Rhondda Taf) (“Bryntirion”)

Also an element in street names in these villages / towns:

Abergele (county of Conw
ɥ) (“Bryntirion Terrace”)
Bagillt (county of Y Fflint) (“Bryntirion Road”)
Cricieth (county of Gw
ɥnedd) (“Bryntirion Terrace”)
Cyffordd Llandudno (county of Conw
ɥ) (“Bryntirion Terrace”)
Dinb
ɥch (county of Dinbɥch) (“Bryntirion Terrace”)
Dowlais (county of Merth
ɥrtudful) (“Bryntirion Street”)
Llanelli (county of Caerfyrddin) (“Bryntirion Terrace”)
Llanfair Pwllgwyngyll (county of Yn
ɥs Mōn) (“Bryn Tirion Estate”)
Llangollen (county of Dinb
ɥch) (“Bryntirion Terrace”)
Llys-faen, Baecolw
ɥn (county of Conwɥ) (“Bryntirion Terrace”)
Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr (“Bryntirion Close”)
Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr (“Bryntirion Hill”)
Pont-lliw (county of Abertawe) (“Bryntirion Road”)
Prestatyn (county of Y Fflint) (“Bryntirion Court”)
Prestatyn, (county of Y Fflint) (“Bryntirion Drive”)
Rhiwabon (county of Wrecsam) (“Bryntirion Terrace”)
Y Rhyl (county of Dinb
ɥch) (“Bryntirion Avenue”)

ETYMOLOGY: “(y) br
ɥn tirion” : “(the) pleasant hill”

 (br
ɥn = hill) + (tirion = pleasant)

Names of villages / houses / streets with names which resemble names of house are written as a single word

:_______________________________.

Brynwyn <BRƏN-win> [ˡbrənwɪn] (m)
1
male forename

ETYMOLOGY: Apparently (bryn = hill) + (-wyn suffix for male names, soft-mutated form of gwyn = white; fair)

Names with –wyn with apparently elements from place names or geographic features: Caerwyn, Glynwyn, Rhydwyn

JONES - PHILLIPS. Sept 3rd, at High-street, Baptist Church, Merthyr Tydfil,
by the Rev. Emlyn DAVIES, B. A., B. D., B. Litt., T. Brynwyn JONES, Barclays
Bank; E. V. to Gladys, daughter of Alderman F. A. PHILLIPS, J. P. and Mrs.
PHILLIPS, "Lawrenny", Merthyr Tydfil.

Western Mail and South Wales News Thursday September 5th, 1935

http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/MONMOUTHSHIRE/2008-08/1217786986

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Brɥn-y-mōr <brin-ə-MOOR> [brɪnəˡmoːr]
1 name of a farm overlooking the Gwendraeth estuary, Cydweli

ETYMOLOGY: (“(the) hill (of) the sea”), i.e. a hill looking onto the sea

(brɥn = hill) + (y definite article) + (mōr = sea)

This pattern of name is not usually given to a hill itself, but to a dwelling – either a farmhouse or a house in a village - situated on the slope of such a hill.

A similar house name is Bryn-y-don (“(the) hill (of) the sea”), (brɥn = hill) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (ton = sea; synechdochal use – the part being used to refer to the whole – of the word ton = wave)

Names with bryn followed by the name of a river are also very common, with the sense of a house on a hillside with the view of a river on the valley floor – Bryn-taf, Brynystwyth, Bryn-gwy, etc

:_______________________________

Brɥnyreithin <brin-ər-EI-thin> [brɪnərˡəɪθɪn]
1 name of a farm SJ1370 near Yr Afon-wen, county of Flintshire (“Bryn yr Eithin” on the O.S. map)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/241257 map


(delwedd 7066) eithin / gorse

ETYMOLOGY: (“(the) hill (of) the gorse”, gorse hill) (brɥn = hill) + (yr definite article) + (eithin = gorse)

See also Bryneithin

:_______________________________.

Brɥn Zion <brin-ZEI-on> [brɪnˡzəɪɔn]
1
chapel name; “Mount Zion”, the hill on which the city of Jerusalem stands

(1) Bryn Zion Church, Mount Gilead (between Columbus and Mansfield, in Ohio) 403322N 0750404W

(2) Brɥn Zion Church, Mifflin (Iowa county, Wisconsin) 424952N 0902110W

(3) Brɥn Zion Cemetery, Kenton (Delaware) 391416N 0753912W

NOTE: A hybrid name. Seion is the name of the hill in the Welsh Bible, and so Brɥn Seion is the correct presaent-day Welsh form.

Zion is the form found in the English Bible (Older editions of the Welsh Bible have Sion).

See Bryn Seion
:_______________________________.

brɥs <BRIIS> [briːs] masculine noun
1
hurry, haste

Mae arno i frɥs I'm in a hurry

Beth ɥw'r brɥs mawr arnoch chi heddiw? Why are you in such a hurry today? (“What is the big hurry on you”)

ar frɥs hurriedly, in haste, hastily, quickly, rapidly

mewn brɥs hurriedly, in haste, hastily, quickly, rapidly

ar frɥs gwɥllt in a mad rush (“on + haste + wild”)

heb frɥs without hurry, unhurriedly

Does dim brɥs There’s no hurry

Uned Ddamweiniau ac Achosion Brys Accident and Emergency Unit (section of a hospital) (“unit (of) accidents and urgent cases”)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic *brst-
Cf. Irish bras (= swift)

:_______________________________.

brɥs <BRIIS> [briːs] noun adjunct
1
speedy, hurried, swift; = done in a short time

sosban frɥs, plural sosbenni brɥs pressure cooker (“speedy saucepan”)

archeb fr
ɥs rush order (“speedy order”)

2
emergency = done at short notice

gwaith brɥs emergency work

Mae angen gwneud gwaith brys ar yr argae i gadw’r mōr allan o’r pentref
There’s a need to do emergency work on the dyke to keep the see out of the village

cymorth brɥs emergency aid

dadl frɥs PLURAL dadleuon brɥs emergency debate

3 rushing
yr oriau br
ɥs the rush hours

ETYMOLOGY: see brɥs (noun)

:_______________________________.

brysio <BRƏ-sho> [ˡbrəʃɔ] (verb)
1
to hurry

:_______________________________.

Brython <BRƏ-thon> [ˡbrəθɔn] m
PLURAL Brythoniaid <brə-THON-yaid, -yed> [brəˡθɔnjaɪd, -ɛd]

1 Briton = member of the British branch of the Celtic peoples; proto-Welshman
yr Hen Frythoniaid the ancient Britons

2 Welshman (used figuratively; the Britons being the ancestors of the Welsh)
Y Brython name of a magazine

..1/ (1853-1863) magazine edited by Robert Isaac Jones “Alltud Eifion” of Porthmadog;

..2/ (1906-1939) another magazine of the same name founded by Hugh Evans for the Welsh community in Liverpool, and later a Wales-wide publication

Cymdeithas y Brython society formed by Michael Daniel Jones circa 1850 to assist Welsh people emigrating to the USA (“the society of the Briton”)

Aelwɥd Brythoniaid y Graig “the ‘hearth’ of the Britons of the Rock”. (an aelwyd / “hearth” is a meeting place for members of the Urdd Gobaith Cymru organisation). Such a branch was set up by young Welsh soldiers stationed in Gibraltar in the Second World War (Page 24 “Cerddi ac Atgofion Twm Bethel”, T H Jones, 1976)

NOTE: Irish Breathnach (= Briton) is from the Welsh word (+ the suffix -ach)

In Ireland, where there was a heavy settlement of Welsh troops who had been in the pay of the English invaders, the epithet in Irish Breathnach has become a surname (anglicised as “Brannagh”; or translated into English as “Walsh”, a form of “Welsh”)

:_______________________________.

Brythoneg <brə-THOO-neg> [brəˡθoˑnɛg] feminine noun

1 British (= language); the Celtic language of the peoples who inhabited the island of (Great) Britain until the invasions of the German peoples in the fifth century

2 Welsh (= language). Sometimes used in this sense in the 1800s. And sometimes in the form Brythonaeg <brə-THOO-naig> [brəˡθoˑnaɪg] through supposing that there was a suffix -aeg meaning 'language' rather than -eg, as a result of misunderstanding the composition of the word Cymraeg (= Welsh language), and the influence of the word Hebraeg (= Hebrew language). Some writers insisted on replacing -eg with –aeg

Mae yn y brif-ddinas lawer o gannoedd o Gymr
ɥ, ond nid oes dros ugain, un amser, yn ymgyfarfod yn ystafell y Cymreigyddion; mae cannoedd ohonɥnt yn rhɥ falch a choeglɥd i ymunaw ā'u brodɥr llafurus, er cadw a choethi yr hen Frythonaeg Seren Gomer 1835. “Diffɥg Gwladgarwch yn Mhlith y Cymrɥ, ac Adfeiliad y Gymraeg”
There are in the capital city (= London) many hundreds of Welsh people, but there are no more than twenty who meet in the room of the Cymreigyddion (= an association for promoting interest in Welsh history and literature). Hundreds of them are two conceited and affected to join their hardworking brothers to maintain and refine the old British language (= Welsh)
Seren Gomer 1835 (“The Lack of Patriotism among the Welsh, and the Decay of the Welsh Language”)

y Frythoneg = the British language

ETYMOLOGY: (Brython = Briton, person who spoke British) + (-es, suffix for forming nouns to indicate languages)

:_______________________________.

Brythoneg <brə-THOO-neg> [brəˡθoˑnɛg] (adjective)
1
(language) British, proto-Welsh

:_______________________________.

Brythones <brə-THOO-nes> [brəˡθoˑnɛs] feminine noun
PLURAL Brythonesau <brə-tho-NE-sai, -e> [brəθɔˡnɛsaɪ, -ɛ]
1
British woman = one of the British-speaking peoples who inhabited the island of (Great) Britain until the invasions of the German peoples in the fifth century
y Frythones = the British woman

2 (rarely) Welshwoman

3
Y Frythones = 'the Welshwoman', women's magazine edited and published between 1878 and 1891 by Cranogwen, pen-name of Sarah Jane Rees, 1839-1916 (died aged 76, 77), a poet from Llangrannog, Ceredigion

ETYMOLOGY: (Brython = Briton, person who spoke British) + (-es, suffix for forming nouns to indicate females)

:_______________________________.

Brythonig <brə-THOO-nig> [brəˡθoˑnɪg] adjective
1
British, Brittonic = referring to the Britons (this people, their language, culture or land) who inhabitated the island of Britain until the Germanic invasions ot the fifth century, and later split into isolated groups, survivors of which at the present day are the Welsh, Cornish and Bretons

2 British, Brittonic - descended from the old Britons
Llydaw - ein chwaer wlad Frythonig
Brittany - our British sister country

ETYMOLOGY: (Brython = Briton, person who speaks British) + (-ig, suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

Brython Rhufeinig <BRƏ-thon hri-VEI-nig> [ˡbrəθɔn hrɪˡvəɪnɪg] (masculine noun)
1
Romanised Briton

:_______________________________.

brywedd-dɥ <brə-WEDH-di> [brəˡwɛšdɪ] masculine noun
1
(South-east Wales)
See berwedd-dɥ (brewhouse)

:_______________________________.

bryweddu <brə-WEE-dhi> [brəˡweˑšɪ] verb
1
(South-east Wales)
See berweddu (to brew)

:_______________________________.

Bsantķsho? <bsan-TI-sho> [bsanˡtɪʃɔ]
1
(Caernarfon, North-west Wales) = Pa beth sydd arnat ti ei eisiau? What do you need / require / want?
“Let them see how in their spoken Welsh the accent turns a sentence of many words into a single word of one or two syllables... e.g. pa beth sydd arnat ti ei eisieu? has become bsantķsho”
T Hudson Williams (1873-1961), University College, Bangor / Vox Populi - A Plea for the Vulgar Tongue

:_______________________________.

bu <BII> [biː] feminine noun
1
cow, ox;
It does not exist as an independent word in modern Welsh, but it is found in certain compound words and derivatives
(a) buarth farmyard (bu + garth = enclosure)
(b) buddel pillar, post (to which a cow is tied in a cowhouse) (bu + delw = post, image, idol)
(c) Buellt district in Powɥs ‘cattle pasture’ (bu + gwellt = grass, pasture)
(d) bugail shepherd (bu + an element related to cail = flock of sheep)
(e) bugloddio to turn up the ground with horns (bu + cloddio = to dig)
______________________________________________________________

ETYMOLOGY:
(1) Welsh bu- < British *bow- < Celtic < Indo-European *gwōus

In other Celtic languages, corresponding to Welsh bu < *bow:

(a) Cornish has
...(i) bu- in bugel (= herdsman), buorth (= cattleyard), busel (= cattle dung);
...(ii) also bow- (= cow / cows) in compound words – bowji (= cowshed), bowlann (= cowfold), bownder (= farm lane, etc)

(b) Breton has bu- in bugel (= child, originally herdsman), buorzh (= cattleyard), bugen (= cowhide)

(c) Irish (= cow);
______________________________________________________________

(2) In Latin it is bōs / bovis (= cow), from this comes English bovine, Catalan bou, bovķ (= ox, bovine);
______________________________________________________________

(3) Greek boūs
Also cf English butter < Old English butere < Latin būtyrum < Greek bouturon < bous (= cow), turos (= cheese)
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(4) In the Germanic languages from the same Indo-European word *gwōus: English cow (Old English ), German die Kuh (= cow), Dutch koe (= cow)
______________________________________________________________

(5) Other languages from the same Indo-European word *gwōus: Armenian kov, Latvian guovs, Sanskrit gāu
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Welsh buwch (= cow) was originally buch (the ‘w’ is a later development) from British *boukk-ā (British kk always becomes Welsh ch)

Welsh buwch corresponds to Cornish bugh (= cow) and Breton buoc’h (= cow) (originally buc’h -, the u in the Breton word has become a dipthong uo, in the same way that in Welsh u > uw)

______________________________________________________________

Cf English buglos [byśu-glos] (Anchusa officinalis) plant with rough leaves, used in medicine < Latin buglossa (bū-, stem of bōs = ox) + (glōssa = tongue) = Greek bouglōssos;

Also English bugle < French < Latin būcul(us) (bū-, stem of bōs = ox) + (-culus, diminutive suffix)

:_______________________________.

bu <BII> [biː] verb
1
‘there has been’,
(third-person singular preterite of bod = to be)

Ni fu fawr byw wedi hynny He didn’t live long after that

2 (he / she / it) has been

(third-person singular preterite of bod = to be)

Grammadeg o iaith y Cymry / Grammar of the Welsh Language. William Spurrel. 1853. p.63

In South Wales buais, bues, buo are often heard used for bum; and buodd for bu

:_______________________________.

buais <BII-ais> [ˡbiˑaɪs] verb
1
1 I have been

(first-person singular preterite of bod = to be)

Grammadeg o iaith y Cymry / Grammar of the Welsh Language. William Spurrel. 1853. p.63

In South Wales buais, bues, buo are often heard used for bum; and buodd for bu

:_______________________________.

buan ‹BĪ an› (adj)
1
quick
2
Dyna fuan yr ā’r amser heibio How time passes / flies! (“there’s fast that goes the time by”)

3 Nid un foment yn rhy fuan Not a moment too soon

:_______________________________.

buarth ‹bī -arth› masculine noun
PLURAL buarthau ‹bi-ar-the›
1
farmyard = enclosed space in which farm buildings are situated, often where hens roam freely
Steddfod y Buarth jocular name for the agricultural show at Llanelwedd (since it is an annual event for the whole of Wales like the National Eisteddfod) (“(the) eisteddfod (of) the farmyard”)

2 wɥ buarth free-range egg (“egg {of the} farmyard”)

3 buarth dodefnod poultry run (hens, geese, ducks)

4 yard in front of a building

buarth siop saer yard in front of a carpenter’s workshop, buarth y siop saer the yard in front of the carpenter’s workshop

buarth melin mill yard, yard in front of a mill, buarth y felin the mill yard, the yard in front of the mill

buarth ysgol school playground, buarth yr ysgol the school playground

ar fuarth yr ysgol in the school playground

buarth chwarae playground

buarth tafarn yard of an inn, inn yard; buarth y tafarn the yard of the inn, the inn yard

5 obsolete cowfold, enclosure for milking cows

6 obsolete enclosure for pigs, sheep, goats, or other animals
buarth moch pig pen

7 obsolete pound for stray cattle

8 obsolete meeting place; meeting

9 (Place name) Y Buarth (“the cowfold”), an area of Aberystwɥth
Here there is Heol y Buarth (“Buarth Road”) and Coedybuarth (“Coed y Buarth”) “(the) wood (of) Y Buarth”

ETYMOLOGY: (bu = cow) + soft mutation + (garth = enclosure);
Cornish buorth (= cattle yard); (bu = cow) + soft mutation + (gorth = enclosure);

Welsh garth (= enclosure): Compare

Irish gort (= enclosure),

Latin hortus (= garden), seen also in English "horticulture", "orchard", "cohort" and "court".

Greek khortos (= enclosure), seen also in English "chorus" / "choir" (enclosure for singing and dancing).

Old Slavic gradu (= enclosure, city), in Russian revived as –grad to coin new city name (as in Leningrad, Stalingrad); and it is also the origin of gorod (= city) and ogorod (= garden) in modern Russian. It is probably a word taken into Old Slavic form the Germanic language of the Slavs’ neighbours, the Ostrogoths.

:_______________________________.

buarthfa ‹bi-ARTH-va›
PLURAL buarthféydd ‹bi-arth-VEIDD›
1 cattle yard, cattle fold

Buarthfa (former?) place in Llangrallo Uchaf / Coychurch Higher, south-east Wales

ETYMOLOGY: (buarth = cattle yard, cattle fold) + (-fa prefix = place)

:_______________________________.

buast ti = buost ti ‹BI a sti› (verb)
1
you have been (North)

:_______________________________.

buchdraeth ‹bikh -draith› (f)
PLURAL buchdraethau ‹bikh- drei -the›
1 biography
This literary word was never in general use. An example of it is a book title for the year 1888. Buchdraeth y Parch. (Parchedig) John Mills, Llundain. “(the) biography (of) the Reverend John Mills, London”

ETYMOLOGY: (buch-, first syllable of buchedd = life) + soft mutation + (traeth = treatise, declaration, narration). First occurrence of this word noted for the year 1818.

:_______________________________.

buches ‹bi -khes› feminine noun
PLURAL buchesau ‹bi-khe-se›
1
herd of cows

y fuches the herd

buches laeth herd of milch cows

ffermwr yn galw ar ei fuches o gae i'w godro
the farmer calling his herd of cows from the field to milk them

buches arddɥst attested herd (i.e. certified free from specific deiseases, such as bovine TB)

2 milking-fold for cows (Scotland: loan);
Also in minor place names:

Y Fuches-wen ‹ə vī-khes wen› = “the white milking-fold” (place near Ponterwɥd village, Ceredigion)

buches ddefaid fold where sheep are milked

brith y fuches ‹briith ə VI-khes› “black-and-white bird of the milking fold”. This is an alternative name for the siglen wen (pied wagtail, Motacilla alba ystemli)

ETYMOLOGY: (“group pf cows”) (buch- = cow, an older form of buwch) + (-es = collective suffix).

The suffix is to be seen also in the word llynges (= fleet, navy) < llong (= boat).

:_______________________________.

buchod ‹BI khod› (npl)
1
cows; see buwch

:_______________________________.

budd, PLURAL: buddion / buddiau ‹BIIDH, BIDH yon / BIDH ye› masculine noun
1
benefit, usefulness

2 bod o fudd mawr i be of great benefit to, be very useful to, to be a great asset to, to be a great advantage for

Mae ei gwɥbodaeth o Gatalaneg o fudd mawr iddi
Her knowledge of Catalan is a great advantage for her

:_______________________________.

budd-dāl, PLURAL:

budd-daliadau
‹BIDH dal, bidh dal YA de› (masculine noun) pension

budd-dāl analluedd ‹BIDH dal a na LHU edh› (masculine noun) disablility pension / allowance / benefit

budd-dāl diweithdra ‹BIDH dal di WEITH dra› (masculine noun) unemployment allowance / benefit

budd-dāl gwragedd gweddwon ‹BIDH dal GWEDH won› (masculine noun) widow's pension / allowance / benefit

budd-dāl plant ‹BIDH dal PLANT› (masculine noun) child allowance / benefit

budd-dāl salwch ‹BIDH dal SA lukh› (masculine noun) sickness allowance / benefit

budd-dāl tai ‹BIDH dal TAI› (masculine noun) rent allowance

:_______________________________.

buddel ‹bi -dhel› masculine noun
PLURAL buddelɥdd ‹bi-dhź-lidh›
1
pillar, post = post to which a cow is tied in a cowhouse

ETYMOLOGY: buddel < buddelw

”cow post” (bu = cow) + soft mutation + (delwedd = stake, post; image, idol)

:_______________________________.

buddiannau ‹bidh-ya-ne› adj
1
interests; plural form of buddiant

:_______________________________.

Buddug <BII-dhig> [ˡbiˑšɪg] (feminine noun)
1
woman's name (= Victory, Victoria, Boudicca / Boudecia)

ETYMOLOGY: (budd) + (-ig adjectival suffix) > buddig > buddug

:_______________________________.

buddugol <bi-DHII-gol> [bɪˡšiˑgɔl] (adjective)
1
victorious

ETYMOLOGY: (buddug = victory) + (-ol adjectival suffix)
:_______________________________.

buddugoliaeth, PLURAL: buddugoliaethau <bi-dhi-GOL-yaith, -yeth, bi-dhi-gol-YEI-thai, -e> [bɪšɪˡgɔljaɪθ, -jɛθ, bɪšɪgɔlˡjəɪθaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
victory
y fuddugoliaeth the victory

ETYMOLOGY: (buddugol = victorious) + (-i-aeth noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

budr <BII-dir> [ˡbiˑdɪr] (adjective)
1
dirty (North)

Y Rhyd-fudr SN5967 Farm in Ceredigion.

“the dirty ford, the foul ford, the muddy ford”

(y definite article) + (rhyd = ford) + soft mutation + (budr = dirty)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=240735

2 great (South-east)
mewn taro budr (“miwn taro budur”) (South-east Wales) in great haste

:_______________________________.

budreddi <bi-DREE-dhi> [bɪˡdreˑšɪ] masculine noun
1
filth

2 filth, smut = salacious material

Pam mae rhaid i ni wɥlio rhɥw hen fudreddi fel hɥn ar y teli?
Why do we have to watch smut like this on TV?

3 filth, vice
ymdrybaeddu mewn budreddi wallow in vice

4 pwll o fudreddi cesspool = filthy or corrupt place (“pool of filth”)

ETYMOLOGY: (budredd = dirt, filth) + (suffix -i)

:_______________________________.

budrelwa <bi-DREL-wa> [bɪˡdrɛlwa] verb
1
profiteer

ETYMOLOGY: (budr- = dirty, foul, filthy) + (elwa = profit)

:_______________________________.

Buellt <BII-elht> [ˡbiˑɛɬt] (feminine noun)
1
medieval territory, south-east Wales

2 Llanfair ym Muallt, originally Llanfair ym Muellt. This is “(the) Llanfair (which is) in (the kįntrev of) Buellt.

The English name of what was the main settlement in the cantref is a garbled form of the name of the cantref: Buellt > ‘Builth’ (and nowadays ‘Builth Wells’) <BI-elht, BILTH, bilth WELZ> [ˡbiˑɛɬt, bɪlθ, bɪlθ ˡwɛlz]

In a similar fashion Aberhonddu, the main town in the country of Brycheiniog, became ‘Brecknock’, and Aberteifi <a-ber-TEI-vi> [abɛrˡtəɪvɪ] in the country of Ceredigion became ‘Cardigan’. <ke-re-DIG-yon> [kɛrɛˡdɪgj ɔn]

:_______________________________.

bues <BII-es> [ˡbiˑɛs] verb
1
1 I have been

(first-person singular preterite of bod = to be)

Grammadeg o iaith y Cymry / Grammar of the Welsh Language. William Spurrel. 1853. p.63

In South Wales buais, bues, buo are often heard used for bum; and buodd for bu

:_______________________________.

bues i <BII-es i> [ˡbiˑɛsɪ] (verb)
1
I have been

:_______________________________.

buest ti <BII-e-sti> [ˡbiˑɛstɪ] (verb)
1
you have been

:_______________________________.

bugloddio <bi-GLODH-yo> [bɪˡglɔšjɔ] verb
1
(cattle) turn up ground with horns

2 district of Mawddwɥ (county of Gwɥnedd): said of cattle damaging hedges with their horns

ETYMOLOGY: “cow-dig” (bu- = cow) + soft mutation + (cloddio = to dig)

:_______________________________.

būm <BIIM> [biːm] verb
1
I have been

(first-person singular preterite of bod)

Grammadeg o iaith y Cymry / Grammar of the Welsh Language. William Spurrel. 1853. p.63

In South Wales buais, bues, buo are often heard used for bum; and buodd for bu

:_______________________________.

buo <BII-es> [ˡbiˑɔ] verb
1
I have been

(first-person singular preterite of bod = to be)

Grammadeg o iaith y Cymry / Grammar of the Welsh Language. William Spurrel. 1853. p.63

In South Wales buais, bues, buo are often heard used for bum; and buodd for bu

:_______________________________.

buoch <BII-okh > [ˡbiˑɔx] (verb)
1
you have been

:_______________________________.

buoch chi <BII-o-khi> [ˡbiˑɔxɪ] (verb)
1
you have been

:_______________________________.

buodd <BII-odh> [ˡbiˑɔš] verb
1
(he / she / it) has been

(third-person singular preterite of bod)

Grammadeg o iaith y Cymry / Grammar of the Welsh Language. William Spurrel. 1853. p.63

In South Wales buais, bues, buo are often heard used for bum; and buodd for bu

:_______________________________.

buodd e <BII-o-dhe> [ˡbiˑɔšɛ] (verb)
1
he has been

:_______________________________.

buodd hi <BII-odh hi, BII-o-dhi> [ˡbiˑɔš hɪ, ˡbiˑɔšɪ] (verb)
1
she has been

:_______________________________.

buodd o <BII-o-dho> [ˡbiˑɔšɔ] (verb)
1
he has been

:_______________________________.

buon <BII-on> [ˡbiˑɔn] verb
1
(Colloquial) buon ni we have been (literary form: buom (ni))
Dyna ddawnsio y buon ni! How we danced! (“you-see-there dancing / there’s dancing that we have been”)

2 (Colloquial) buon ni they have been (literary form: buont (hw
ɥ))

:_______________________________.

buon nhw <BII-o-nu> [ˡbiˑɔnʊ] (verb)
1
they have been

:_______________________________.

buon ni <BII-o-ni> [ˡbiˑɔnɪ] (verb)
1
we have been

:_______________________________.

burum <BI-rim> [ˡbɪrɪm] (masculine noun)
1
yeast

:_______________________________.

busnes <BIS-nes> [ˡbɪsnɛs] masculine noun
PLURAL busnesau <bis-NE-sai, -se> [bɪsˡnɛsaɪ, -ɛ]

1 business = trade, transactions, acts of selling, commerce

agored ar gyfer busnes
open for business

Yr oedd ganddɥnt stondin hen lyfrau, ond ychydig iawn o fusnes a wnaent yn y ffair
They had a used books stall, but they did very little business in the fair

Mae Cymraeg yn y gweithle yn dda i fusnes am ei bod yn denu cwsmeriaid ac yn creu awyrgɥlch o ewyllɥs da
The Welsh language in the work place is good for business as it attracts customers and creates an atmosphere of goodwill

cyfuno busnes ā phleser combine business with pleasure

2 business = company, firm

merch fusnes businesswoman

gwraig fusnes businesswoman

dɥn busnes businessman

3 business, firm; shop

Roedd ganddi siop fach yn y pentref. Yr oedd gwell elw o'r busnes hwn nag o'i melin flawd a'i fferm hefo'i gilɥdd
She had a small shop in the village. There was a bigger profit from this business than from her flour mill and her farm together

4 ar fusnes on business, as par of one's work activities

Aeth i gael cinio mewn gwestɥ crand - ar fusnes, wrth gwrs
He went to have dinner in a posh hotel - on business, of course

5 business = concern, affair

-Sut galla i ddweud wrtho? -Ych busnes chi ɥw hynnɥ, ebe Jac
-How can I tell him? -That's your business, (not mine), said Jac

6 business, matter; something needing attention

Wrth gwrs, ’dyw e ddim o ’musnes i, ond...
Of course, it’s none of my business, but...

Rhaid i ni siarad am fusnes y sied 'cw
We have to talk about the business of that shed

7 business = excretion (shitting, pissing)

gwneud eich busnes (animal) to excrete

Petįi ci yn gwneud ei fusnes ar yr hewl, fe fɥdd yn rhaid i'r perchennog dalu'n ddrud am y weithred o hɥn ymlaen
If a dog does its business in the street, the owner will have to pay a high price from now on

10 agored ar gyfer busnes open for business (e.g. this office is open in spite of building work, in spite of the holiday, etc)

ETYM
OLOGY: English business < Old English bisignes {“bķziy-nųs”} (= condition of being busy)

(equivalent to modern English busy + -ness, suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

busnesa <bis-NE-sa> [bɪsˡnɛsa] (verb)
1
to stick one's nose into other people's business, to be nosy

ETYMOLOGY: (busnes = affair; business) + (-a suffix for forming verbs)
:_______________________________.

busnesu <bis-NE-si> [bɪsˡnɛsɪ] verb

1 busnesu mewn... meddle in, interfere in (someone's affairs)

Busnesu a laddodd y gath Curiosity killed the cat (“(it-is) meddling / busybodying that killed the cat”)

ETYMOLOGY: (busnes = affair; business) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)
NOTE: Also busnesa

:_______________________________.

bustl <BI-stil> [ˡbɪstɪl]

m
PLURAL bustlau <BIST-lai, -le> [ˡbɪstlaɪ, -ɛ]
1 bile, gall

2 bile = peevishness, bitterness

Acts 8:23 Canys mi a’th welaf mewn bustl chwerwder... For I perceive that thou art in the gall of bitterness
Mae colofn Gwilym Owen yn y papur hwn yn llawn bustl bob wythnos
Gwilym Owen’s column in this paper is full of bile every week

3 coden fustl gall bladder
plural: codau / codenni / codennau bustl
carreg fustl plural: cerrig bustl gall-stone

4 mor chwerw ā'r bustl as bitter as bile (South: mor hwerw ā'r bistil)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic *bis-tlo-
Cornish bistl, Breton bestl
English bile < French < Latin bīlis, probably of Celtic origin

NOTE: colloquial form: bustul / bistil <bķstil> [ˡbɪstɪl]

:_______________________________.

buta ‹BI-ta› [ˡbɪta] verb
1
(also spelt b
ɥta, bita. There is a variant pronunciation with <Ə> [ə] - byta). Colloquial word = to eat. The literary form is bwɥta. Buta is in fact a distinct word, based on bɥd (= food), an obsolete variant of bwɥd

:_______________________________.

buwch, PLURAL: buchod <BIUKH, BII-khod> [bɪʊx, ˡbiˑxɔd] (feminine noun)
1
cow
y fuwch = the cow

2 buwch sanctaidd holy cow

3 gwerthu’r fuwch i brynu tarw to rob Peter to bay Paul (“sell the cow to buy a bull”)

:_______________________________.

buwch flith <biukh VLIITH> [bɪʊx ˡvliːθ] feminine noun
PLURAL buchod blithion <BII-khod BLITH-yon> [biˑxɔd ˡblɪθjɔn]

1 milch cow, dairy cow, cow kept for giving milk

2 (figurative) milch cow, source of income

ETYMOLOGY: (buwch = cow) + soft mutation + (blith = milch = giving milk)

:_______________________________.

buwch goch gota <biukh gookh GO-ta> [bɪʊx goːx ˡgɔta] feminine noun
PLURAL buchod coch cwta <BII-khod kookh KU-ta> [ˡbiˑxɔd koːx ˡkʊta]

1 ladybird
Fuwch fach gota – glaw neu hindda?
Os daw glaw, cwɥmpa o’m llaw;
Os daw haul, hedfana!

(Weather lore)
Ladybird – rain or fine weather?
If rain will come, fall from my hand
If sun will come, fly!

ETYMOLOGY: “tail-less red cow, red cow without a tail”

(buwch = cow) + soft mutation + (coch = red) + soft mutation + (cota, feminine form of cwta = short; tail-less)

:_______________________________.

bwa, PLURAL: bwāu <BUU-a, bu-AI> [ˡbuˑa, bʊˡaɪ] (masculine noun)
1
bow (weapon)

bwa a saeth <BUU-a a SAITH> [ˡbuˑa a ˡsaɪθ] (masculine noun) bow and arrow

2 bow (for stringed instrument)

llinyn bwa bow string

3
ffenestr fwa bow window, bay window = segmentally curved window

4 arch of a bridge

Un o bontydd enwocaf Cymru yw’r un dri bwa dros afon Conwy yn Llan-rwst
One of the most famous bridges in Wales is the three-arched one over the river Conwy in Llan-rwst
:_______________________________.

bwa'r glaw <buu-ar GLAW> [ˡbuˑar ˡglaw] masculine noun
North-east Wales
1
rainbow (“arch (of) the rain”, the rain arch, the rain bow)

:_______________________________.

bwa'r wrach <buu-ar WRAAKH> [ˡbuˑar ˡwrɑːx] masculine noun
1
rainbow (“arch (of) the witch”, the witch arch, the witch bow)

:_______________________________.

bwa'r wɥbren <buu-ar UI-bren> [ˡbuˑar ˡʊɪbrɛn] masculine noun
South-east Wales
1
rainbow (“arch (of) the sky”, the sky arch, the sky bow)

:_______________________________.

bwbach <BUU-bakh> [ˡbuˑbax] masculine noun
PLURAL bwbachod <bu-BAA-khod> [bʊˡbɑˑxɔd]

1 goblin, bogey, bogeyman, bugaboo

2 cusan bwbach cold sore (“kiss (of) a hobgoblin”)

3 (disrespective of a person) bugger, bastard

4 bwbach brain scarecrow (“hobgoblin (of the) crows”)

5 South-east Wales bwbach tarfu scarecrow (“hobgoblin (of) disturbing, frightening “)

6 bwbachod y Boncath nickname for the inhabitants of this village in the county of Penfro (“(the) bogeys (of) Y Boncath”)

:_______________________________.

bwced <BU-ked> [ˡbʊkɛd] feminine noun
PLURAL bwcedi <bu-KEE-di> [bʊˡkeˑdɪ]
1
bucket, pail; (Scotland: stoup)
y fwced = the bucket

2 bwced a rhaw bucket and spade

ETYMOLOGY: English bucket < Middle English bocket < French of England buket (= bucket), probably from Old English būc (= pitcher), with a French diminutive suffix; equivalent to German Bauch (= belly)

:_______________________________.

bwcedaid <bu-KEE-daid, -ed> [bʊˡkeˑdaɪd, -ɛd] feminine noun
PLURAL bwcedeidiau <bu-ke-DEID-yai, -e> [bʊkɛˡdəɪdjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
bucketful; bwceded o ddwr a bucketful of water
y fwcedaid = the bucketful

ETYMOLOGY: (bwced = bucket) + (-aid, suffix to indicate 'fullness of a container')

NOTE: informal spelling: bwceded

:_______________________________.

bwch <BUUKH> [buːx] masculine noun
PLURAL bychod <BƏ-khod> [ˡbəxɔd]
1
buck, male of certain animals

2 (= bwch danas) (qv) roebuck = male of fallow deer (Dama dama)

3 (= bwch gafr) he-goat
Numeri 7:88 A holl ychen yr aberth hedd oedd bedwar ar hugain o fustɥch, trigain o hyrddod, trigain o fychod, trigain o hesbyrniaid
Numbers 7:88 And all the oxen for the sacrifice of the peace offerings were twenty and four bullocks, the rams sixty, the he-goats sixty, the lambs of the first year sixty

4 bwch cwningen (plural bychod cwningod) = buck rabbit, male rabbit

5 South Wales (in describing reluctance, resistance)
fel bwch i odɥn (“like a he-goat to the kiln”),
mor anodd ā chael bwch i odɥn (“as difficult as bringing a he-goat to the kiln”)

6 North Wales stook of corn

7 bychod Dinbɥch nickname for the inhabitants of this county town in the north-east (“(the) bucks / he-goats (of) Dinbɥch”)

8 blingo'r bwch to vomit (“to skin the billy-goat”)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *bukk- < Celtic
From the same British root: Cornish bokh (= buck), Breton bouc'h (= buck)
In Hibernian Celtic: Scottish: boc (= buck)

English “buck” is of Celtic origin -
Celtic > Germanic *bukkaz > Old English bucca (= buck)

NOTE: In the South, the plural form is bwchod <BUU-khod> [ˡbuˑxɔd] instead of bychod.

Generally the usual alteration of w > y in the penultimate syllable does not happen in this part of Wales

:_______________________________.

bwchadanas <BUUKH a DAA-nas> [ˡbuːx a ˡdɑˑnas]
SEE: bwch danas

:_______________________________.

bwch danas <BUUKH DAA-nas> [buːx ˡdɑˑnas] masculine noun
1
roebuck = male of fallow deer (Dama dama)

ETYMOLOGY: “buck (of) fallow deer” (bwch = buck, roebuck) + (danas = deer).

The element danas is probably some form of Old French dain (= hind, female deer)

(modern French daim = (1) fallow deer; (2) buck, male deer)

NOTE: also bwch y danas, bwchadanas

:_______________________________.

bwch dihangol
<BUUKH di-HA-ngol> [buːx dɪˡhaŋɔl] masculine noun
PLURAL bychod dihangol
<BƏ-khod di-HA-ngol> [ˡbəxɔd dɪˡhaŋɔl]
1
scapegoat, (USA: also - fall guy)

2 Old Testament (Leveticus 16) scapegoat = a goat used in the annual Yom Kippur ritual where a priest symbolically placed the sins of the Israelites on a goat and released it into the desert.

ETYMOLOGY: 'escaping goat' (bwch = he-goat) + (dihangol = escaping, from dianc = to escape). A direct translation of English “scapegoat”, from “escape” + “goat”. The term was coined (1530) by the translator of the Pentateuch (first five books of the Old Testament) into English, William Tyndale, to translate Hebrew “azāzźl”, 'the goat of Azazel' but was taken to mean 'goat that escapes', i.e. a goat allowed to escape into the desert. (Azazel = a desert demon to whom a goat bearing the sins of Israel was sent each year on the Day of Atonement. In later Jewish writings, and also in Muslim texts, Azazel is the king of demons.) Leveticus 16:1 – 16:28

:_______________________________.

bwcho <BUU-kho> [ˡbuˑxɔ]
1
Ceredigion, Penfro have sexual intercourse, fuck, bonk, do it, etc

ETYMOLOGY: “to buck, to do what a buck does”.

The standard form (if it exists) would be bychio (bych-, penult form of bwch = buck; male goat, male rabbit or hare, roebuck) + (-io, suffix for forming verbs).

In the South, generally the change w > y in the penultimate syllable does not happen; and the i at the beginning of a final syllable is lost

:_______________________________.

bwchod <BUU-khod> [ˡbuˑxɔd]
South Wales A variant of bychod, the plural form of bwch (qv) = male goat, male rabbit or hare, roebuck.

In the South, generally the change w > y in the penultimate syllable does not happen;

:_______________________________.

bwci <BU-ki> [ˡbʊkɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL bwcļod <bu-KII-od> [bʊˡkiˑɔd]
1
bogey, goblin, ghost (Scotland: worricow)

2
occurs in the place name Lluestybwci, smallholding in Cellan, county of Ceredigion (“summer-house of the bogy”)

3
afal y bwci = hip, fruit of the dog rose Rosa canina (“(the) apple (of) the goblin”)

4
county of Penfro bwci bal goblin, bogey (bal is apparently “daft” or “gloomy, dark”, hence “daft bogey” or something similar)

5
bwci bo (qv) = goblin, bogey

6 Carreg y Bwci <KA-reg ə BU-ki> [ˡkarɛg ə ˡbʊkɪ] “(the) stone (of) the goblin” SN6447

Near Llan-y-crwys, county of Caerfyrddin

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/354056 Carreg y Bwci

ETYMOLOGY: The consonant <k> [k] in Welsh and Cornish at the beginning of the final syllable is unusual, and so the word is very likely a loan from English.

Possibly from English “bug” (= hobgoblin) (not the same word as “bug” = insect), as in “bugbear” (= a goblin in the guise of a bear which eats naughty children), influenced by English “puck” (Old English “pūca”) (= hobgoblin).

The Cornish form is buka (= goblin)

:_______________________________.

bwcļaidd <bu-KII-aidh, -edh> [bʊˡkiˑaɪš, -ɛš] adjective
South-west Wales
1
(fire) cheerless, not bright, gloomy; tān bwcļaidd = dull fire
2
(weather) cloudy, dull; tywɥdd bwcļaidd = dull weather

ETYMOLOGY: (bwci = hobgoblin) + (-aidd, suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

bwci bo <BU-ki BOO> [ˡbʊkɪ ˡboː] masculine noun
PLURAL bwci bos <BU-ki BOOZ> [ˡbʊkɪ ˡboːz]
1
bogy, goblin, ghost (Scotland: worricow)

ETYMOLOGY: (bwci = hobgoblin) + (bo = ?exclamation).

Cornish buka bu, English bugabooo

NOTE: also bwgi bo in Welsh

:_______________________________.

bwcio <BUK-yo> [ˡbʊkjɔ] (verb)
1
to book

:_______________________________.

bwcl <BU-kul> [ˡbʊkʊl] masculine noun
PLURAL byclau
<BƏ-klai, -e> [ˡbəklaɪ, -ɛ]
1
buckle = metal ring with hinged spike used for securing strap, belt, etc

2 dod ā (rh
ɥwbeth) i fwcl resolve (a matter) (“bring something to a buckle”)
Oni bai am y ddamwain a gefais buaswn wedi dod ā'r broses h
ɥll hon i fwcl ers talwm
If it hadn’t been for the accident I had I would have resolved this ugly matter a long time ago

ETYMOLOGY: English buckle < Middle English boucle (= boss of shield, buckle) < Latin
buccula (
bucc-ul-a, with diminutive infix –ul-), a diminutive form of bucca (= mouth, cheek)

NOTE: The colloquial form is bwcwl


:_______________________________.

bwcram <BU-kram> [ˡbʊkram] masculine noun
1
buckram = a stiff fabric made from cotton
stiff fel bwcram (“stiff like buckram”)

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English buckeram, bougeren < German or Italian < the city of Bukhara (Bukhoro in Uzbek), a city in SE Uzbekistan once noted for its textiles



(delwedd 7081)
:_______________________________.

bwgan, PLURAL: bwganod <BUU-gan, bu-GAA-nod> [ˡbuˑgan,bʊˡgɑˑnɔd] (masculine noun)
1
ghost
tŷ bwgan
haunted house (“house (of) ghost / bogey / bugbear”)

2 bwgan brain scarecrow (“bugbear (of) crows”)

:_______________________________.

bŵl <BUUL> [buːl] masculine noun
PLURAL bylau <BƏ-lai, -e> [ˡbəlaɪ, -ɛ]

1 bowl = wooden ball

2 round object

3 knob (doorknob, etc)
In use in the south-west as bwlɥn
fel bwlɥn shaped like a knob, knoblike
bwlɥn sain volume control (standard term: rheolɥdd sain)

4 knob on an cow's or bull’s horns to prevent it from causing harm

5 bŵl or bwlɥn (South Wales) nave of cart wheel, hub of a wheel

6 (obsolete) cannon ball

7 Ynɥs-y-bŵl ST0594 village in the county of Rhondda Cynon Taf .
The Anglican cleric Glanffrwd (William Thomas) was born in Ynɥs-y-bŵl in 1843, and published his reminiscences in 1888 “Plwɥf Llanwyno, yr Hen Amser, yr Hen Bobl, a’r Hen Droion” (the Parish of Llanwynno, the old times, the old people, and the old events)

Dichon mai natur a sefyllfa ddaearyddol y lle roddodd yr enw i Ynɥs-y-bŵl. Fodd bynnag, gellid yn naturiol ddywedɥd Ynɥs-y-pwll. Gelwir ef yn Saesneg “Bowling Green”. ’Wn i ddim pwɥ a Seisnigeiddiodd yr enw. Ond yn ddiau, gwnaeth gamsyniad. Yr oedd y lle yn Ynɥs-y-pwll er y cread, ond yn gymharol ddiweddar y dechreuwɥd chware Bwlbinnau ynddo. Fellɥ, nid oes gennɥf ddim diolch i’w dalu i neb am roddi enw Saesneg i’r lle. Ond daeth yr enw Ynɥs-y-bŵl i gael ei gymhwɥso at yr holl ardal – i fynɥ at Dai’r Plwɥf a lleoedd eraill ar bob llaw
The geographical nature and situation probably gave the name to Ynɥs-y-bŵl (“the meadow of the bowl”). However it could be said naturally “Ynɥs-y-pwll” (“the meadow of the pool”). In English it is called ‘Bowling Green’. I don’t know who Englished the name. But doubtlessly, he made a mistake. The place had been “Ynɥs-y-pwll” since the Creation, but (only) comparatively recently people began to play ninepins / skittles there. So I have no thanks to pay to anybody for giving it an English name. But the name Ynɥs-y-bŵl came to be applied to the whole area – up to Tai’r Plwɥf (“the parish houses”) and other places all around

ETYMOLOGY: English boule (= wooden ball) < French boule < Latin bulla (= round object, bubble)

Modern French has boule (= ball, sphere, globe; bowl in game of bowls or bowling; billiard ball; the game of boule), boule de neige (= snowball).

(1) Middle English boule is in modern English bowl (= wooden ball), to bowl (= roll a ball in bowling; throw a ball in cricket)
cf Lowlandic (‘Scots’) bool (= bowling ball), which has maintained the original French [u] as a long [uu].

(2) The plural form of the French word boule has been borrowed into English in recent times as boules (= game from France played with metal balls on rough ground)

(3) The Latin word bulla > Medieval Latin bulla (= seal attached to a papal bull, a document issued by the Pope) > bulla (= same meaning), and bull (= document issued by the Pope); also in medical terminology bulla (= blister)

NOTE: Often with the addition of the diminutive suffix -ɥn. See bwlɥn

:_______________________________.

bwla <BU-la> [ˡbʊla] masculine noun
PLURAL bwlaon <bu-LAA-on> [bʊˡlɑˑɔn]
1
bull

..a/ Cae Bwla = cae’r bwla (“the) field (of) the bull”). Field in Talach-ddu (Powys)

..b/ Cae’r Bwla (“the) field (of) the bull”)
Field near Clas ar Wy / Glasbury (Powys)

Caerbwla

For Llanigon (Powys) in the Topographical Dictionary of Wales, 1849, Samuel Lewis states:
Lewis Watkins, in 1712, gave an estate named Cae'r Bwla, consisting of about thirteen acres of arable, meadow, and copse, now producing from £10 to £12 per annum, for the endowment of a free school

..c/ Waunybwla Place in Llantarnam
John Edmunds, Waynabulla in Lanvrechva [died] 27 May 1813 [aged] 2mths

(Mentioned in Llantarnam Burials 1813-74) http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~monfamilies/llantarnbur1813-74.htm


2
(South-east Wales) bullock = castrated bull

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English bule < Scandinavian
Modern English: bull

:_______________________________.

bwlch <BULKH> [bʊlx] (m)
bylchau <BUL-kha, -khe> [ˡbʊlxai, -ɛ]

The Gwentian plural form bwlcha is seen in the place name Pen Bwlcha east of Pont-y-gwaith ST0897 pen y bylchau “(the) top / end (of) the passes / gaps”

1 gap, chasm, break; = break in continuity

2 bwlch yn y farchnad gap in the market, demand for goods or services which is not matched by an adequate supply

llanw'r bwlch yn y farchnad to fill gap in the market, to offer goods or services for which there is a demand and which is not being provided for

3 pass, mountain pass (USA: notch = deep narrow pass), (col = mountain pass).

Frequent in place names

4 gap in a fence, wall

llamu i'r bwlch come to the rescue ("leap into the gap")

sefyll yn y bwlch stand and defend ("stand in the gap")

5 gap, difference, discrepancy = a variation between two sets of figures

Mae bwlch mawr rhwng cyflogau menywod ā chyflogau dynion
There's a big difference between the women's wages and men's wages

ond sylwch ar y bwlch mawr rhwng y ddau ffigwr
but look at the difference between the two figures

6 blank, space = space in a document left for information to be added space between letters or words

7 (music) space = gap between lines of a staff

8 gap = particular space of time
bwlch o ddwyawr a gap of two hours, a space of two hours

bwlch o bum
mlynedd a space of five years

9 gap = particular distance in linear space representing a break in continuity

Mae bwlch o ddwy fodfedd rhwng y carped a'r wal
There's a space of two inches between the carpet and the wall

10 gap = a missing portion in a collection or series

Roedd bylchau dirifedi yn y casgliad cyflawn honedig
There were innumerable gaps in the so-called complete collection

11 gap = period of silence between dots and dashes in telegraphy

12 loss [said of someone or something mourned for]

gweld bwlch ar ōl un = miss someone (who has died)
bydd bwlch a cholled ar ōl y rhaglen honno that programme will be sorely missed ("there will be a gap and a loss after that programme")

Y bwlch cyntaf oedd ymadawiad Harri, yn fachgen prin ugain oed, i fynwent
y llan... Yr oedd ei merch Jane wedi bod yn briod ers blwyddyn ac yn hynod
o hapus, pan y cymerwyd hithau ar enedigaeth baban...
The first loss was the departure of Harri, a boy just turned twenty, to the churchyard of the parish church… His daughter Jane had been married for a year and was remarkably happy, when she was taken on the birth of a child

13 loophole (in a law)

14 notch (in names of sheep's earmarks)

15 (North Wales) dimple

bwlch yn yr źn a dimple in the cheek (“in the jaw”)

16 Caledfwlch (qv) Excalibur, name of Arthur's sword

17 Tudfwlch male forename (Tud = people, bwlch = gap; ?slash made by a sword)

18 amwlch (= split, gapped) < amfwlch (am- prefix) + soft mutation + (bwlch)

Place name: Cefn Amwlch

19 Abbreviation on maps: B

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *bulk- < Celtic *bolk < PIE *blōkó
From the same British root: Breton boulc’h (= gap)

The PIE word is ultimately the source of English plough / plow < Old English < Germanic < a Northern Italic language (cf Latin plaustrum = wagon, cart)

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bwlcha <BUL-kha> [ˡbʊlxa]
1
The Gwentian pronunciation of bylchau (“passes, gaps”), the plural form of bwlch (= pass, gap”).
It occurs in the place name Pen Bwlcha east of Pont-y-gwaith ST0897 pen y bylchau “(the) top / end (of) the passes / gaps”

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bwletin, PLURAL: bwletinau <BU-le-tin, bu-le-TII-nai, -e> [ˡbʊlɛtɪn, bʊlɛˡtiˑnaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
bulletin

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Bwlgareg <bul-GAA-reg> [bʊlˡgɑˑrɛg] (feminine noun, adjective)
1
Bulgarian
y Fwlgareg = the Bulgarian language

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Bwlgaria <bul-GAR-ya> [bʊlˡgarja] (feminine noun)
1
Bulgaria

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Bwlwɥn <BUU-luin> [ˡbʊˑlʊɪn]
1 Bonen, Flanders (now Boulogne, France)

ETYMOLOGY: The town was originally known as Gesoriacum, but in the 300s it was known as Bononia, said to be a derivative of Gaulish bona (= foundation, settlement), as in Welsh bōn (= base, foundation)

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..1 bwlɥn <BUU-lin> [ˡbʊˑlɪn] masculine noun
1
(South-east Wales) little bull; bullock = castrated bull

ETYMOLOGY: English (bull) + (-ɥn diminutive suffix)

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..2 bwlɥn <BUU-lin> [ˡbʊˑlɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL bwlynnau, bylau <bu-LƏ-nai, -ne, BƏ-lai, -le> [bʊˡlənaɪ, -ɛ, ˡbəlaɪ, -ɛ]
South Wales
1
small ball

2 nave of cart wheel, hub of a wheel
bwlɥn cart (county of Ceredigion) nave of a cart, boss of a cart, hub of a cart

3 doorknob
Rhoddodd ei law ar y bwlɥn he put his hand on the doorknob

4 round thing, spherical thing, something round, something resembling a doorknob

5
knob
bwl
ɥn sain sound control, knob etc for raising and lowering the volume on a radio, etc

ETYMOLOGY: (bwl = ball) + (-ɥn diminutive suffix)

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Y Bwmfallt <ə BUM-valht> [ə ˡbʊmvaɬt] feminine noun
1
SS5694 locality 9km to the west of Abertawe on the road to Pen-clawdd
English name: Poundfald / Poundffald

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SS5694

NOTE: See also pitffald

ETYMOLOGY: a form of English pinfold (= enclosure for stray animals) < poundfald < Old English (pund = enclosure) + (fald = enclosure).

There is a Poundfold Hill in County Durham, and a street called Pound Fold in the centre of Shepton Mallet; William Langland (ca. 1332 - ca. 1386) in his work “Piers Plowman” called Hell “the poukes poundfold”

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bwncath, PLURAL: bwncathod <BUNG-kath, bung-KAA-thod> [ˡbʊŋkaθ, bʊŋˡkɑˑθɔd] (masculine noun)
1
buzzard (Buteo buteo)



NOTE: Traditionally in North Wales this is called a barcud, as in Cornish (bargos = buzzard) and Breton (barged