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...................................................2526 Cyfeirddalen i Eiriadur CAERFALLWCH / Orientation page - CAERFALLWCHs Dictionary

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Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Galles i Catalunya


Geiriadur Saesneg a Chymraeg Caerfallwch (1850)
Caerfallwchs English-Welsh Dictionary (1850)

Y Gyfeirddalen
Orientation Page



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Caerfallwch oedd ffugenw Thomas Edwards (1779-1858), a anwyd ym mhentref Caerfallwch (heddiw Rhosesmor SJ2168) yn Sir Y Fflint. Fei haddysgodd ei hun pan oedd yn brentis cyfrwywr yn Yr Wyddgrug; wedyn yn y flwyddyn 1803 symudodd i fyw i Lundain i weithio fel clerc. Edmygair geiriadurwr hynod William Owen-Pughe, y cyhoeddwyd ei eiriadur Cymraeg-Saesneg mewn rhannau pan oedd Caerfallwch yn ei arddegau diweddar ac ugeiniau cynnar. Yr oedd Caerfallwch yn awyddus i greu geirfa Gymraeg ar gyfer meysydd masnach, diwydiant, ar gwyddorau. Ni dderbyniwyd y rhan fwyaf oi fathiadau; serch hynny, mae dyrnaid ohonynt yn eiriau hanfodol yn y Gymraeg heddiw (pwyllgor, buddsoddi, safon, cyngerdd, nwy, hirgrwn).

 

Nid oes fawr o werth iw eiriadur erbyn heddiw, ond yr ŷm ni wedi ei atgynhyrchu ar ffurf testun electronig er mwyn gwneud yn fwy hysbys gyfraniad Caerfallwch i eiriaduraeth yn y Gymraeg.

 

Caerfallwch was the pseudonym of Thomas Edwards (1779-1858), who was born in the village of Caerfallwch (now Rhosesmor SJ2168) in the county of Y Fflint, north-east Walest. Self-educated, he was a saddlers apprentice in Yr Wyddgrug before moving to London in 1803 to work as a clerk. He was an admirer of the eccentric lexicographer William Owen-Pughe, whose Welsh-English dictionary had been published in parts when Caerfallwch was in his late teens and early twenties. Caerfallwch was keen to create Welsh vocabulary in the fields of commerce and industry and the sciences. Most of his creations were not taken into the language - a handful though are now indispensible words in the modern language (pwyllgor = committee, buddsoddi = invest, safon = standard, cyngerdd = concert, nwy = gas, hirgrwn = oval).

 

His dictionary is of little value today, but we have reproduced it in electronic text so that Caerfallwchs contribution to Welsh lexicography is better known.

 

Carfallwchs dictionary is not useful for speakers of, or students of, modern-day Welsh - indeed, it would have been of little practical use in his own day. The introduction to mutations, affixes and function words is rather eccentric by todays standards. But though his dictionary is of little value today, but we have reproduced it in electronic text so that Caerfallwchs contribution to Welsh lexicography may be better known.

 

The electronic text format also helps in the search (via Google, etc) for Welsh words which may occur in nineteenth-century texts but are unlikely to be found in modern Welsh-English dictionaries - cludsaer (= coachmaker), clyryn (= gadbee, gadfly), hafin (= halcyon days), chwithrwd (= hiss), (that is, if we manage to place all the dictionary online eventually).

 

 

cyflwyniad - iw ychwanegu

2 4

21 22 23 24 26 28 29

30 32 34 35 36 37 38

40 42 44

 

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GEIRLYFR SAESONEG A CHYMRAEG.
AN ENGLISH AND WELSH DICTIONARY:

ALSO, AN ANALYSIS OF THE ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE WELSH LANGUAGE,
BY THOMAS EDWARDS.
(CAERFALLWCH )

HOLYWELL:
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY P. M. EVANS.
LONDON. H. HUGHES, 15, ST. MARTINS-LE-GRAND
MDCCC1

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TO THE PUBLIC IN GENERAL;
BUT MORE ESPECIALLY TO THAT PORTION INTERESTED
IN THE PRESERVATION OE THE WELSH LANGUAGE;-
THE FOLLOWING WORK IS MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED,
BY THEIR HUMBLE SERVANT,
THE AUTHOR.

 


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ADDRESS.


In presenting this work to the public, I beg to state that it was originally intended for my own instruction, as the amusement of my leisure hours: but not receiving from any existing Welsh Dictionary the full assistance which I required, from the fact that none of them had kept pace with Lexicons of other languages, I was induced to endeavour to supply their defects, by the introduction of new words and terms according to the exigency of modern times. The new words are not thrust arbitrarily into the language, but are constructed on the elementary scale, from monosyllabic roots, indicating collectively the sense of the term.

It has always been my delight to trace the means adopted by the primitive people of
Wales of communicating their ideas to each other. However, discovering a deficiency in the existing words to meet the progressed state of the Arts and

 

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Sciences, and being convinced of the capability of the language to expand itself so as to express the minutest idea, I made this humble attempt to supply the desideratum.

 

In the course of many years occupied in this undertaking, I occasionally published, in the Periodicals of the day, a list of words formed from the roots of the language as above described, which met with the approbation of the Literati of Wales.

 

Being thus encouraged, and being convinced of the correctness of my views, I have been prevailed upon to commit my labour to the Press in its present form, hoping it will, in some measure, accomplish the object intended.

 

T. E.

LONDON,

MAY 27, 1850.

 

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ANALYSIS.


ON LANGUAGE IN GENERAL.

LANGUAGE, OR HUMAN SPEECH, is the utterance of vocal sounds, by which the conceptions of the mind are communicated: it is acquired by imitation, and rendered intelligible only by usage. Looking at the philosophy of language, we find that it consists of three distinct branches, viz. words, looks, and tones. The language of the eyes frequently supplies the place of that of the tongue: the deaf and dumb use the language of signs. It is evident that nature has endowed beasts and birds of various descriptions with the power of imparting information to their fellows, which may be called the inarticulate language of irrational animals, and incapable of improvement. Whether language be the necessary consequence of society, or a primitive tongue revealed to man by that Being who gave him existence, is with some persons a matter of controversy.


We know nothing of the origin of language, beyond the brief account we have in the Scriptures. We there find recorded a direct communication from God to the progenitors of the human race, conveyed in words which they well understood: otherwise it would have been an act of injustice to charge them with crime, and to punish them for the violation of that which they did not comprehend. To investigate the subject would exceed our limits, and be foreign to our purpose. But when we regard that perfection which characterizes all the works of the Great Creator, it would he inconsistent to suppose that Adam and Eve had not the power of communicating their ideas. And according to the literal interpretation of the historical narration in the Scriptures, the colloquy and arrangement of parties about the forbidden fruit, &c. it does appear that language was the immediate gift of God: and we might further add, that the primitive speech of mankind, if not the language of heaven, was a language familiar to the angels who kept not their first estate.


Before the creation of Eve, the Lord God brought to Adam every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air, to see what he would call them; and. whatever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof. In this case it is evident Adam was a free agent, and at liberty to adopt any appellation he pleased: but the names of animals form no part of a language, which, by articulate sounds, conveys the mind of one individual to another. We may here observe that names are to distinguish things, and have no meaning except as conventional sounds. For, had Adam called a snake, an eel; a sheep, a lion; a bear, a cow; a mouse, an elephant; a wren, an ostrich; we should have the same idea of the animals as we have at present under different names.

A rose by any other name would smell as sweet.

 

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Some authors affirm, that the names of animals and other objects are descriptive terms of some characteristic property or quality they possess; but such a supposition is not founded on fact; for the meaning of all words must be determined by their actual use. For instance, there is nothing in the word march, or horse, that would convey the idea of strength: hebog, or hawk, to denote fleetness: oen, or Iamb, to indicate innocence: dyn, or man, to signify a human being: nor is there any meaning in any word in any language, except such as custom has sanctioned. It is that, and that alone, which attaches ideas to words, without which, they stand merely as empty sounds. Every language therefore is subservient to the human mind.

 

Concluding as we do that the original speech of man was revealed from heaven, it must have been very precise and simple; precision of ideas would produce simplicity of terms. Natural causes would gradually augment the vocabulary of the first age of the world: man, guided by his intellectual powers, would invent words suitable to the exigencies of social life; thus, a variety of languages, different in composition and sound, would be produced. As population increased, some of necessity would branch from their original stock to different parts of the world; where new objects, new pursuits, and new discoveries, would require the invention of new names, which, by usage and long experience would form a distinct language, intelligible only to those who became familiar with it. It is from these circumstances that we have such a variety of terms of equal value for the same objects; terms imposed by different tribes, at different periods, and in different localities. There appears no kind of affinity in sound, between iar, and hen; ci, and dog; pen, and head; tn, and fire; dant, and tooth; yet the meaning is the same. We must therefore conclude that they are derived from different sources.

 

Whatever the confusion of tongues mayv have been at Babel, it is evident, from Genesis, chapter tenth, that the dispersion of Noahs family to different parts of the earth happened previous to that event; and that different dialects were spoken before the deluge, which occured about 1656 years after the creation. During so long a period a great variety of dialects would of necessity be formed. Cam forsook the family of Adam, and dwelt in the land of Nod, where his progeny so much increased, that he built a city, and called it Enoch, after the name of his son. Arts and sciences were cultivated in the early ages of the world; the descendants of Cain discovered the arts of architecture, metallurgy, and music, which would require a great number of new phrases, and add to the stock of words they already possessed. We read that the sons of Gomer were in possession of theijr own territories, every one after his tongue and after their families, before the building of Babel was contemplated: and that Shem and his sons spoke a different dialect, from that of Hams family: [Gen. x.20,31).

 

Nimrods ambitious mind, aspiring to surpass all others in notoriety and grandeur, proposed to perpetuate his name by erecting a city, and a tower whose top would reach the heavens. In so vast an undertaking, it is not likely that the projector could find a sufficient number of experienced workmen without applying to other tribes, speaking different dialects, and having different names for the same kind of things, | which would naturally lead to controversy and strife about words. And not understanding one anothers language, their plans and operations would be frustrated: consequently, they could not proceed with their audacious design: for they left off to build the city, therefore is the name of it called Babel, which signifies confusion.

 

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Without regard to the expression, the whole earth was of one language and one speech, we have Scripture authority to prove that there were other dialects in existence at the time when this was spoken: and I look upon the phraseology to mean nothing more than what we might say in our days, that England is of one language, and of one speech. At the same time there are but few counties in England that have not their peculiar provincialisms, which a native of London could scarcely understand, although it is called English.


As to the phrase, the people is one, and they have all one language, many are of opinion it means to convey the idea, that they were of one mind, one counsel, and one sentiment about building; and their mutual exhortation in the words, let us make a brick, let us build a city, let us make a name, would show at least an unanimity of purpose. But whether this be the true meaning or not, we are sure that, comparatively speaking, only a small portion of the human race was engaged in the architectural enterprise; and the confusion of tongues could not affect those branches of Noah's descendants who had already retired to other parts of the globe.


Philologists have taken great pains in the vain attempt to trace the original speech of man; and many an interesting hypothesis has been advanced in the enquiry. Some people infer, that as the Hebrew Scriptures are the most ancient writings extant, the Hebrew is the oldest language: that however is merely an opinion. If it were the Hebrew, it could not have originated from Heber, the progenitor of the Hebrews: for he was not born until the sixty-seventh year after the flood. Looking at the genius and the remarkable regularity of the Welsh Language, its comprehensive powers, its adaptation to poetry, its dignified gravity, its capability of representing every object of imagination and of passion, with its simplicity and accuracy of structure, and taking into consideration that many Welsh words are to be found in almost all the known languages of the world, and easily recognized as identical in sound and signification we have as much reason to claim the Welsh as the original, as any of the languages of antiquity. Whatever the original speech of man was, is a matter of conjecture; and to us, can be of no consequence: for the best language is that by which a man can convey his thoughts to another with the greatest perspicuity and ease.


WRITTEN LANGUAGE is the medium of communicating the thoughts of one individual to another, without the organs of speech. It is represented by visible characters called letters, which are conventional symbols, or marks of distinct elementary sounds of the human voice; and also the elements ot syllables and words. The form or shape of the letters is perfectly arbitrary. Different nations adopt different characters for the same sound: for instance, the letters a, e, and k, of the English, are sounded like e, i, and c, of the Welsh.

Athroniaeth llythyrenau ysgiifen
Dysg ryfedd ywn ddiau;
Ynddi cawn i'n llawn wellu,
Dduwdod y celfyddydau

 

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WE have no mute characters in our orthography; and generally speaking, they have but one sound, which simplifies the language much, and renders it easy of attainment.

 

To an Englishman, the Welsh Language on paper has a most uncouth appearance, from the number of consonants or double letters, such as dd, ll, ch, ngh, ng, rh, ff, &c. But it must he remarked these double letters represent only one sound. In the Bardic Alphabet, called Coelbren y Beirdd, there were appropriate characters to distinguish them. When the Roman Alphabet was introduced, its types being found inadequate to represent many of the ancient vocal sounds of the Welsh, several attempts were made to establish a proper system of orthography. In the time of Henry VIII., W. Salisbury and H. Llwyd began to use the letter d with a dot under neath to represent dd, and l with a dot underneath for ll. Dr. Griffith Roberts and Roger Smith adopted the same plan. In the reign of Elizabeth, Dr. John David Rhys, Dr. David Powell, and others, adopted dh and th, which were discontinued by the injudicious Dr. Davies, who substituted the dd, ll, ch, ngh, and all the irrelevant letters now in use; and by doing so, he has done more to disfigure and obscure the language, and throw it into disrepute, than all his predecessors: and I am sorry to say, the injury is now beyond the power of being reclined.

 

Owing to the want of a fixed orthography, and the indiscriminate use of ihe rowels, our ancient MSS. are very defective, and have caused much confusion; for the analysis and meaning of many words can be ascertained only by their use and bearing in composition: consequently, any quotation from old writings ought not to be our guide for imitation.

 

It is to be regretted that the few honest endeavours which have been made of late years to correct and improve our language have met with so little encouragement. My intention was to adopt Dr. Pughe's orthography, which I consider a decided improvement; but finding the current opinion against me, it was reluctantly relinquished.

 

Some people have a kind of superstitious attachment to the very wording and syllabication of their Scriptures, and deprecate any attempt to alter their words, lest it should disturb our authorized version of the sacred volume. Bible orthography ought to be as free from defects as any other book; but we cannot consider Bible etymology as the standard of our language, when we have in it such words as temtasiwn, anmhosibl, apostol, testament, portreadu, condemnio, serio, swper, actau, tabernacl, damnedigaeth, brwmstan, appwyntiaw, dirwest, gras, pentecost, doctoriaid, &c., &c. The Bible was held sacred, and in as great veneration ages ago, as it is at present; and had no emendation been made, we should now have the version of those days, of which the following is a specimen:

 

Llyma synhvyr euegyl Ieuan ebostol hervyd ydyall ar synvyr a rodes duv yr neb ae troes o ladin ygtymraec. 1346 Pughe s Dictionary.

 

Mi a anvonav dan i Iehwda, hwn a ystraul lysodd Caersalem. 1580. Perri's Rhetoric.

 

Gwyn ei vyd y gwr ny rodiawdd yn cyccor yr andewolion, ac ny savodd yn ffordd pechatnriei, ac nyd eisteddawdd yn eisteddle yr ei gwatworus.Com. Prayer Book. Ed. 1586.

 

A phan welawd ef y dyrva, ef a escenawdd ir moneth; a gwedi iddaw eistedd i deuth eu ddiscipulon attaw.Salesbury's version.

 

The following is from Wickliffe's translation: .

Ye ben salt of the erthe, that if the salt vanishe ewey wherynne schal it be salted? to nothing it is worth over, no but it be cast out, and he defoulid of men. Ye ben light of the world, a citee sett

 

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on an hill may not be hid. Ne thi teendith not a lantierne and puttith it under a bushel; but oh a candlestik that it give light to alle that ben in the hous. So, schyne your light before men, that thei see youre gode workis, and glorifie your fadir that is in hevenes. Nyle ghe deme that I can to undo the Lawe or the prophetis, I cam not to undo the lawe but to fulfille. Forsothe I sey to you till hevene and erthe passe, oon lettre, or oon title, schal not passe fro the Law till alle thingis be don. Therefore he that brekith oon of these leeste maundementis, and techith thus men, schal be clepid the Leest in the rewme of hevenes; but he that doth, and techith, schal be clepid greet in the kyngdom of hevenes." Barter's Edit.

 

It will be discovered in the body of the work, that I have made considerable etymological alterations, which, I believe, sound judgment will approve and vindicate.

 

English terms in chemistry, geology, anatomy, and other sciences, have derived their nomenclatures from the Greek; but in the attempt to compose new words, to fill what I considered a chasm in Welsh literature, my source and authority were the roots of our own language, which are so simple, pure, and copious, as to render it perfectly unnecessary, to have recourse to any other. My chief endeavour was to concentrate the sense in terms consisting of few syllables, and those of a soft flowing character; and at the same time, the etymology being manifestly clear, without the aid of additional words to explain the meaning. For instance, my word for microscope is mwyadyr; from the comparative mwy, greater, or larger; ad, enhansive; and yr, a termination applied to instruments. By referring to our English dictionaries, I find microscope thus explained: "An optical instrument contrived to give to the eye a large appearance of many objects which could not otherwise be seen." Here are twenty-one words used to expound one; whereas the combination of ideas respecting it exists in one word, mwyadyr.

 

The word which I have adopted for telegraph is pellebyr; from pell, distance; eb, to impart or communicate; and the termination yr. Our neighbours explain the word thus: "An instrument that answers the end of writing, by conveying intelligence to a distance through the means of signals." Telescope, pellwelyr; from pell, distance; gwel, sight, or that which is seen; and yr;"A long glass by which distant objects are seen." Committee, pwyllgor; from pwyll, deliberation; and cor, assembly, company: thus explained in English: A body of persons selected to examine or manage any matter. Broker, rhyngfaelydd; from rhwng, between; mael, traffic; and ydd, a termination of the masculine gender : "One who does business for others; a go-between." Numerous examples might be added to illustrate the principle on which new words are founded; but as they will be found incorporated in the work, these few must suffice.

 

Some people attach so little importance to the roots'of our language, as to endeavour to derive them from other roots of a prior existence; and thus diminish their original value. But we have many scores of words that would puzzle the most critical etymologist to trace from any source whatever, and therefore must be considered as primitive. What sense can be made of such words as the following, if they were dissected? cefn, pen, dant, boch, bys, bawd, ewin, coes, loes, poen, oen, dafad, buwch, llo, bustach, giwartheg, dyn, mab, merch, da, drwg, oer, brwd, dwr, tir, ty, mur, ci, cath, cyw, ceffyl, casseg, colomen, ysguthan, bran, pren, maen, craig, &c., &c.

 

These simple elementary words bearing a peculiar signification which custom has established, cannot with any degree of propriety be mangled into derivatives.

 

The pedantic attempts which have been lately made to destroy our venerable language, by dividing and subdividing its roots to the mere composition of alphabetical letters, and by applying a particular meaning to each letter, are quite fallacious: and any one who would take the trouble of bringing the matter to a test, will find it not only void of foundation, but perfectly ridiculous. At the same time it must be admitted that some of the vowels have a peculiar import.

 

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Our vowel sounds are seven; namely, a, e, i, o, u, w, y: five of which are also words, which we shall notice hereafter. The vowels in the English language are represented by seven characters, but they give existence to more than fifty varieties of sounds.

 

Some of our vowels are so situated in words that, unless they are carefully articulated in their original names, the emission of voice in the utterance, has a strong tendency to change them into the sound of different letters; for instance, The vowel e in such words as oen, poen, croeii, oes, loes, aeth, llaeth, has a close similarity to the sound of u.

 

The y, appears to assume the sound of u, in monosyllables; as byd, byr, bryn, ffydd, cyf, dyn, &c.: but when these words occupy a relative situation, as byd-ol, byr-dra, bryn-iau, ffydd-lon, dyn-ion; the y retains its original character.

 

Y also, sounds like u in the termination of words; such as melyn, mochyn, gwenyn, brodyr, llythyr, awyr, swydd, dysgedydd, &c.

 

The apparent changes, are chiefly owing to the proximity of sounds, and the somewhat difficult manner of giving each its distinct articulation.

 

THE MUTATION OF LETTERS.

 

FOR the purpose of promoting the harmony of the language, there are certain substitutions or changes in the letters composing the roots, which are called mutations: that is, particular radical letters are modified, or changed into others, under certain forms of construction. For instance, tad, father; dy dad, thy father; fy nhad, my father; ei thad, her father. Thus, the t is changed into d, nh, and th. The first change, d, is called the soft sound; the second, nh, the aspirate; the third, th, the light. No Welsh word commences a sentence with an inflected consonant; for the rules of inflection require to be governed by a preceding word. Popular practice has violated thih rule, and gives an instance of the m taking the soft sound of f, in the pronoun my, my; fy mab

anwyl, my dear son; fy ngharedig gyfaill, my beloved friend.

 

The mutable consonants are nine; viz. c, p, t, b, d, g, II, m, rh. The first three , undergo three modifications each; by being softened, they change into g, b, and d; aspirated, they become ngh, mh, and nh; and by assuming the light sound, they change into ch, ph, and th.

 

B and d, by being softened, change into f, and dd: aspirated, they become m, and n.

 

G, having no soft and light sounds, disappears in words beginning with that letter;

aspirated, it changes into ng.

 

LI, m, and rh, take only the soft sound of I, f, and r.

 

The words soft, aspirate, and light, have been adopted by authors, more to distinguish the class, than as appropriate terms expressing the correct sounds of the mutations; and I have employed them in the same sense, although none of such terms define so fully, as to be free from objection.

 

The rules for the permutation of the mutable consonants are as follow: -

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THE ASSUMPTION OF THE SOFT SOUND.


The initials of verbs take the soft sound, when preceded by other words: .

Gad imi redeg: let me run radix rhedeg.
Ni allaf fyned: I cannot go radix myned.
Mi gerddais yno: I walked there radix cerdded.
Rhaid imi dalu: I must pay radix talu.


The soft initials occur after interjections:

Och! ddyn drwg: Oh! wicked man radix dyn.
Ow! druan anwyl: Ah! poor dear radix truan.
Gwae berchen cyfoeth: Woe the possessor of wealth radix perchen.
O! galon galed; O! hard heart radix calon.


Initials become soft after all the personal and relative pronouns:

Mi luniaf: I will form radix llunio.
Ti frenin: thou king radix brenin.
Dy dad: thy father radix tad.
Dy gefn: (thy back) radix cefn.
Ei ben: his head radix pen.
Pwy laddodd y ci? who killed the dog? radix lladdodd.
Pwy welodd e? whom did he see? (g dropt) gwelodd.
Pa bryd y bu hyn? what time was this? radix pryd.
Pa reol: radix rheol.
Pa ddyn bynag: what person soever radix dyn.


Nouns become soft when preceded by adjectives: a mode seldom used:

Da fachgen: good boy radix bachgen.
Anwyl dad: dear father radix tad.
Caredig gyfaill: beloved friend radix gyfaill.
Hyll ddyn: ugly man radix dyn.


Soft initials are assumed after the adverb pan, when:

Pan ddaeth efe: when he came radix daeth.
Pan fydd nos: when night will be radix bydd.
Pan bregethai: when he would preach radix pregeth.
Pan lenwid y crwc: when the pail was filled radix llenwi.


Adjectives become soft after feminine nouns:

Gwraig ddrwg: a bad wife radix drwg.
Merch landeg: a comely woman (g dropt) radix glandeg.
Gwydd fras: a fat goose radix bras.
Geneth gas: a detestable girl radix bras
Derwen fawr: radix mawr.


Initials become soft after the duals, dau, dwy, two:

Dau gi: two dogs radix ci.
Dau droed: two feet radix troed.
Dwy (fern ) glust: two ears radix clust.
Dwy (fern.) law: two hands radix llaw.


The soft initials come after all prepositions, except yn, in; and
tua, towards:

O dy i dy: from house to house radix ty.
Ar ben bryn: on the top of a hill radix pen.
Tros gof: beyond recollection radix cof.
Heb ddeall: without knowledge radix deall.


Feminine nouns assume the soft sound after the article y, the:

Y ddaear: the earth radix daear, or daiar.
Y felin: the mill radix melin.
Y fran: the crow radix bran.
Y gainc: the branch radix cainc.

 

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(llun 3268)

 

The object becomes soft after the participle sign yn, is :

 

Mae hyn yn ddoeth: this is wise radix doeth.

Mae e yn gryf; he is strong radix cryf.

Hyn sydd yn felus : this i s sweet radix melus.

Mae'r dyn yn barchus: the man is respectable radix parchus.

 

All words have soft initials after the disjunctive neu, or :

 

Dwr neu laeth: water or milk radix llaeth.

Llaeth neu ddwr: milk or water radix dwr.

Dyn neu ddynes: man or woman radix dynes.

Pen neu droed: head or foot radix troed.

 

THE ASSUMPTION OF THE ASPIRATE SOUND.

 

This sound is governed by the possessive pronoun my, or fy, my:

Fy nghefn: my back radix cefn.

Fy mhlant; my children radix plant.

Fy nhroed; my foot radix troed.

Fy mwyd: my food radix bwyd.

Fy ngair. (my word) radix gair.

 

The aspirate is assumed after the preposition yn, in:-

Yn niwedd amser :in the end of time radix diwedd.

Yn Mangor: in Bangor radix Bangor.

Yn nhy loan: in John's house radix ty.

Yn ngharchar: in prison radix carchar.

 

All vowel initials take the aspirate h before them, after ei, (fem. her; ein our; eu, their):-

Ei hachos: her cause radix achos.

Ein heinioes: our life radix einioes.

Ein hiaith: our language radix iaith.

En helw: their possession radix elw.

 

THE ASSUMPTION OF THE LIGHT SOUND.

 

This sound is assumed after the possessive pronoun ei, her :

Ei chath: her cat radix cath.

Ei phen; her head radix pen.

Ei thad: her father radix tad.

Ei cheffyl: her horse radix ceffyl.

 

It takes the light sound after the adverb tra, over, beyond:

Tra thost: over severe radix tost.

Tra phell: over far radix pell.

Tra chelfydd: beyond skilful radix celfydd.

Tra chethin: beyond hideous radix cethin.

 

This sound becomes light after the conjunctions a, and; and the preposition, , with; oni, unless.

Bara a chaws: tread and cheese radix caws.

Buwch a chorn: cow with a horn radix corn.

Oni phaid efe : unless he ceases radix paid.

Oni thewi di: if thou art not silent radix tewi.

 

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(x015a)
(llun 3269)





The light sound follows the negative adverbs ni, na, not;

Ni chredaf: I will not believe radix credu.
Ni theimlodd: he felt not radix teimlo.
Na phecha: sin not radix pechu.
Na phrysura: do not hurry radix prysur.

The light sound occurs after the numericals tri, three; and chwe, six:

Tri chorff: three bodies radix corff.
Tri phlentyn: three children radix plentyn.
Chwe throed: six feet radix troed.
Chwe'thy: six houses radix ty.

In
South Wales this last example is deviated from. They say chwech cosyn, six
cheeses, chwech troed, six feet, &c.

We shall now proceed to notice more particularly, the mutation and power of letters, together with the prefixes and affixes which constitute important features in varying the sense of primitive words, and also shew their frequent misapplication.

AN ILLUSTRATION OF THE MODIFICATION AND POWER OF LETTERS; AND ALSO, SHEWING THE USE OF PREFIXES AND AFFIXES, AS UNITED TO WORDS.

A.
This letter is susceptible of four changes:viz. e, ai, ei, and y.
It is inflected into e, to form plurals.

Asgwrn, bone: pl. esgym.
Aden, wing: pl. edyn.
Alarch, swan: pl. elyrch.
Aseth, spar: pl. esyth.
Dafad, a sheep: pl. defaid.
Dafn, drop: pl. defni.
Pabell, tent: pl. pebyll.
Sail, foundation: pl. seiliau.
Bachgen, boy: pl. bechgyn.
Cawell, hamper: pl. cewyll.
Mantell, mantle: pl. mentyll.
Manag, glove: pl. menyg.

It changes into e, to form singulars, from plurals:

Haidd, barley: sing. heidden.
Plant, children: sing. plentyn.
Adar, birds: sing. aderyn.
Gwraidd, roots: sing. gwreiddyn

It changes to e, in the construction of words:

Eurych, goldsmith, from aur.
Meithder, extensiveness, from maith.
Neddyf, adze, from nadd.
Gweithio, to work, from gwaith.
Bugeiliad, herdsman, from bugail.
Treisio, to violate, from trais.

It changes to ai, to form plurals:

Bran, crow: pl. brain.
Dafad, a sheep: defaid.
Gofant, smith: pl. gofaint.
Dant, a tooth: pl. deint.

It changes to ei, to form plurals:
Bardd, bard: pl. beirdd.
March, horse: pl. meirch.
lar, hen: pl. ieir.
Sarff, serpent: pl. seirff.


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(x016a) (llun 3270)

 

It changes to ei, in the plural compounds:

Gwas, servant man: pl. gweision.

Sant, saint: pl. seintiau.

Bras, fat; pl. breision.

Cam, Crooked: pl. ceimion.

 

It changes to y, but not frequently:

Alarch, swan: pl. elyrch.

Myharen, ram ; pl. myheryn.

Cadarn, mighty: pl. cedyrn.

Arad, plough: pl. eryd.

 

A, is occasionally used as a prefix to enhance the force of words:

Achn, a hymn, radix cn.

Achas, hateful, radix cas.

Addysg, instruction. radix dysg.

Aban, din, uproar, radix ban.

 

A, is a verb, which signifies going, or will go:

Mi a: I will go.

E a yno: he will go there.

A (sic) ei di? going, wilt thou? or, wilt thou go?

A e i Fangor? going is he to Bangor?

 

A, is a preposition, with:

Lladd ffon: to kill with a stick,

Dyn choes dew: a man with a thick leg.

E aeth gyd mi: he went along with me.

Bran phig goch: a crow with a red beak.

 

A, is a pronoun, that, what, who, which:

A fu, a fydd: that which was, will be.

A fyno glod, bid farw: he that would have fame, let him die.

A rodder i dlawd: what is given to the poor.

Ti a garaswn: thou whom I loved.

Gwyr a ddygyrchynt: men who were assembling.

Tn pheth a ddylai bardd eu cynal: three things which a bard ought to maintain.

 

A, is a conjunction, and; used before words beginning with consonants:

Bys a bawd: finger and thumb.

Buwch a llo: cow and calf.

Hwn a hwnw: this and that.

Bryn a phant: hill and dale.

 

A, is an interrogative agent:

A wyddost ti? dost thou know?

A oes caws yn y ty? is there cheese in the house?

A glywaist ti? hast thou heard?

A ellwch chwi ganu? can you sing?

 

A, as a verb termination, gives the import of gathering or collecting.

Gwlana, to gather wool.

Pysgota, to fish.

Hela, (hel) to hunt.

Lladrata, to steal.

Lloffa, to glean.

Bolera, to guttle.

Bwyta, to eat.

Cardota, to beg.

 

A, as a prefix, has an augmentative quality in words beginning with t: -

Athrist, very pensive from trist.

Athrwm, very heavy from trwm.

Athrech, overpowering from trech.

Athru, very pitiful from tru.

 

Ab, is a corruption of mab, a son:

loan ab Ifan: John son of Evan.

Hugh ab Dafydd; Hugh son of David.

 

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(x017a) (llun 3271)




Ac, is a conjunction, and used before words beginning with vowels:

Dafad ac oen: sheep and lamb.
Yma ac acw: here and there.
Ac eto: and yet
Owen ac Uchtryd: Owen and Uchtryd.

Ach, is a termination, denoting the comparative degree of adjectives, like the English er in better, higher, &c.:
Gwyn, white: gwynach, whiter.
Melus, sweet: melusach, sweeter.
Byr, short: byrach, shorter.
Glan, clean: glanach, cleaner.

Ach, is a noun termination:
Bustach, ox.
Ceinach, a hare.
Monach, a monk.
Cyfeillach, fellowship.

Ach, is an adjective, near, hard by, close upon; achlaw, near at hand. It is likely that ech is a different 'ferna of the same word.

Ad, and d, are noun terminations, like the English ing, ment, and tion:
Gwyriad, deviation.
Molad, commendation.
Gwad, a weaving,
Lletyad, a lodging.
Mwynd, fruition.
Gwelld, amendment.
Cyfiawnd, justification.
Gryfd, a strengthening.

Ad, a prefix equivilent to ail, answering to the English re, in recall, return.
Adeni, to regenerate.
Adethol, rechoose.
Adblan, replanting.
Adlun, a copy.
Adbawr, rechewing.
Adfarn, repeal.
Adlais, echo.
Adladd, a second crop.

On referring to our dictionaries, I find this prefix very inappropriately applied: for instance,
Adaddaw, to promise.
Adfwl, splayed bull.
Adfarch, a gelding.
Adfai, decay, ruin.
Adfirain, unseemly.
Adfudd, damage, loss,
Adflasus, insipid.
Adfyw, lifeless.
Adffurf, formless.
Adyl, the breath.
Adrywiad, degeneration.
Adwerth, undervalue.
Adwisg, disarray.
Adfuddiol, unprofitable.

According to the established elements of our language, and by all the principles of Welsh philology, the words just quoted are evidently wrong; instead of ad the prefix, no doubt, ought to be dad; which see.

Add, a particle, somewhat of an enhansive nature.
Addfwyn, meek, gentle. -, ..
Addfain, slender.
Addfed, ripe, mature.
Addawl, worship.

Adwy, in a strict sense, is the termination of active participle, imperfect tense, but generally applied to adjectives; it implies, that may be capable of; liable to; like
the English affix, able.

Cymhelladwy, compellable.
Trefnadwy, capable of arrangement
Credadwy, that may be believed.
Gwerthadwy, saleable, vendable.

 

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(x018a) (llun 3272)

 

Ae, inflected to ei,

Gwaedd, gweiddi, to cry out.

Maith, meithrin, nurture.

Maen, meini, stones.

Saer, seiri, artificers.

Blaen, bleiniaid, a leader.

 

Ae, varied to eu.

Gwaen, gweunydd, meadows.

Gwnaeth, gwnaethant, they made.

Traeth, treuthydd, shores.

 

Aeg, is a termination to denote language: eg, is also used for the same purpose.

Cymraeg, the Welsh language.

Hebraeg, the Hebrew language.

Gwyddeleg, the Irish tongue.

Galeg, the Gaulish tongue.

 

Aeth, a noun termination, signifying the state of; science, or art. See Iaeth.

Marwolaeth, the state of being dead.

Mabolaeth, filial state; childhood.

Caniadaeth, the art of singing.

Llysieuaeth, the science of botany.

 

Af, denotes the superlative degree in the comparison of adjectives, like the English est, in longest, wisest.

Hwyaf, longest.

Doethaf, wisest.

Byraf, shortest.

Glanaf, cleanest.

 

Af, as a prefix, has a negative quality, like the English un, ir, not, in, mis, dis.

Aflawen, not merry,

Afreidiol, not necessary.

Afreolus, irregular,

Afiach, unhealthy.

Afiechyd, indisposition.

AfIwydd, misfoim.

Afles, disadvantage.

Afreol, disorder.

 

Af, a verb termination of the future tense, first person singular.

Caraf, I shall or will love.

Talaf, I shall or will pay.

Deuaf, I shall or will come.

Canaf, I shall or will sing.

 

Ag, signifies aperture or opening.

Agen, cleft, rift.

Agor, an opening, aperture.

Agos (agos), proximate.

It shews a similar idea in gwag, brag, rhag, nag, &c.

 

Ai, is an interrogative agent of an adverbial power: is it?

Ai mr sy'n rhuo: is it the sea that roars?

Ai dyn yw hwna: is that a man?

Ai ffon sy genyt: is it a stick thou hast?

Ai gwir a ddywedant: is it true what they say?

 

Ai, a nonn termination, implying, that causes; an agent, it is mostly applied to tools or instruments.

Carai (car, near: ai, the agent), a lace.

Ysgai, a cleaver.

Buddai, a churn.

Berai, a turnspit.

Arwyddai, ensign.

Catai, a cutter.

Clepai, clapper.

Cymhelltai, a spur.

Cyfartalai, gauge.

Cludai, a coach.

Ulai, that causes humidity; hydrogen.

Meddalai, what softens, or meliorates.

Nofai, a floating agent.

Cecrai, one who causes brawls.

Lladai, agent of grace; a herald.

Sugnai, a pump.

 

 

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(x019a) (llun 3273)

Ai, a. verb termination, third person (he or she) indicative, imperfect tense, equivalent to the English ed.

Gorphenai, he finished.

Cyflawnai, he completed.

Eisteddai, he sat.

Atebai, she answered.

 

Ai, a conjunction: either, or. Naill ai hwn, ai hwnw, either this or that.

 

Aid, a plural termination. See Iaid.

Defaid, sing. dafad, a sheep.

Pryfaid, sing. pryfad, a vermin.

Hwyaid, sing. hwyaden, a duck.

 

Aid, an adjective termination.

Euraid, golden, gilt

Milaid, of an animal nature.

Arianaid, made of silver.

 

Aidd, an adjective termination, signifying, the nature of; pertaining to; resembling;

tending to. It gives a kind of diminished force to the substantive, like the English ish and ly, in boyish, lovely.

Plentynaidd, boyish,

Mochynaidd, hoggish.

Gweddaidd, orderly.

Arafaidd, slowly.

Heliaidd, of a briny quality.

Peraidd, somewhat delicious.

Haiarnaidd, of the nature of iron.

 

Ain, a termination, exhibiting presence, or cognizance of; full of.

Milain, of a brutish nature.

Prydain, full of beauty.

Mirain, comely, fair.

Dwyrain, dawning of light; oriental.

 

Ain, as a substantive, means a source; essence. Hence, ainen, fountain (Llydaweg): enain, essence: gorenain, quintessence.

 

Al a prefix occasionally used. It is of the same import as very, great, and high, of the English.

Alaf (gaf, gafael, possession) wealth, treasure. .

Alarm (garm, a shout) great shout: alarm.

Alfrys, extreme haste.

Alis, (is, below) extreme depth; hell.

Alun, (un, one) the chief one.

Alcan, very white; tin.

Almes, great delicacy.

Alp, high mountain.

Alcoli, (cawl) alkali.

Alcun, (cun, leader) sovereign, chief.

 

All, signifies, other, or another, out, off. It is used as prefix to Words.

Alltud, (tud, land) foreigner, alien.

Allfro, foreign country

Allair; (gair) paraphrase

Allan, out, without.

Alleg, allegory.

Alldwf (twf, tyfu) exotic.

 

Am, is extensively used as a prefix. It is equivalent to the English amb, amphi, peri, circum; about, encompassing.

Amdir, surrounding land.

Amgylchu, to encompass.

Amdori, to amputate.

Amddifad, surrounded with destitution.

Amglawdd, circumvallation.

Amarnain, to lead ahout.

Amdeithydd, an itinerant.

Amgaru, a ferrel, or ferrule.

Amdremu, to gaze about.

 

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(x020a) (llun 3274)

 

Am, a conjunction, for, because:

Am hyny; for that.

Am swllt: for a shilling.

Am iddo ofyn: because he asked.

Am fy mod yn ddig: because I am angry.

 

An, a noun termination, of the masculine and feminine genders.

Cryman, a reaping hook: from crwn, bowed, bent

Crwban, a tortuise: from crwb, a bulge or heap.

Putan, a prostitute: from pud, or pyd, a snare, danger; abyss

Lleban, a lank silly fellow, from lleb.

Cusan, a kiss: cus, from cu, approximation.

Gwylan, a gull: from gwyl, shy, timid.

Maharan, a ram: male sheep.

 

An, as an affix, conveys the idea of littleness.

Trefan, a small hamlet.

Bychan, little

Dynan, a little man.

Baban, a babe.

 

An, as a prefix, is equivalent to the English dis, un, im, in, ir, and mis; which imply a negative; privative; void; destitute. The prefixes af, and di, are of the same import. For the sake of harmony, one prefix is adopted in preference to the other; and also, when the initials of certain words cannot be affixed to them. For instance, af cannot be joined to words beginning with b, c, d, e, ff, g, h, p, s, t; while an and di, can.

 

According to the principles of the language, the c in all words, such as call, cof, car, cor, cyfarwydd, cyfiawn, Crist, &c. must take the mutation ngh when subjoined to an, and annghall, annghof, annghar, annghor, annghyfarwydd, annghyfiawn, annghrist, is the genuine way of spelling; but for the purpose of softening the sound, one n is now dispensed with.

 

When words commencing with p, m, d, t, b, are affixed to an, they assume the characters of mh, f, n, nh, f:


Anmhrydlon, from prydlon, seasonable.
Anmheraidd, from peraidd, sweet.
Anfarwol, from marwol, mortal.
Anfad, from mad, good.
Annoeth, from doeth, wise.
Annedwydd, from dedwydd, happy.
Annhebyg, from tebyg, like, similar.
Annhrefnn, from trefn, order.
Anfodd, from bodd, pleasure,
Anfuddiol, from buddiol, profitable.

 

When words beginning with g are attached to an or di, that letter, to mollify the

sound, is omitted:

Anofal, or diofal, careless, negligent, radix gofal.

Anorphen, or diorphen, endless, infinite, radix gorphen.

Anallu, inability, impotence, radix gallu.

Analar, dialar, mournless, griefless, radix galar.

 

We have several words beginning with an, whose etymology and meaning are at variance: for instance

Anrhydedd, according to the etymology, means without display, or superfluity. The word for honor, or reverence, ought to be enrhydedd.

 

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(x021a) (llun 3275)

Anuwg, or anog, our word for incitement, literally means the reverse; viz. idle, slothful, eagerless, &c , for awg or og, signifies, ardency, animation, full of life, and motion: hence ogyn, ogen, ogau, diog, &c.-It appears to me thnt the word for incitement, or incentive should be either ynog or enog. - Anog is also written annog, derived it is said from the negative an, and dog, which means a proportion or share: but how such derivations can be made to signify incitement or impulse, is more than I can discover.

Anadl or anadyl, is the current term for breath; and by referring to our dictionaries we find that adyl means breath also; if such be the case, anadyl ought to mean breathless, or waning breath. How are we to reconcile such contradictions? Several more words of a similar character might be introduced, as anal, anaele, ancwyn, anaws, anifel, &c.

Anerch, our word for greeting, or salutation, according to the spelling, signifies, direless, or void of terror. The word should be enarch; from en, and arch, solicitation, entreaty.

Annedd, our word for dwelling, must be derived from either an-nedd, or an-dedd; nedd signifies a dingle; nits;dedd, a statute, or rule: such derivations will be seen at once to be inapplicable to a place of residence. The word should be anedd, from an negative and edd, moving, going; hence a dwelling or fixed abode. See Edd.

Anllad, literally, means graceless, or favourless, as lld signifies, blessing, favor, good, &c.:enllawd, or enllod, would be a more appropriate word for wanton, lascivious, lewd. Llawd signifies, wanting, craving, empty, loose; hence tlawd (ty-llawd,) empty house; llawd, a lad; llodes, a young unmarried woman; llodedd, a state of craving, or want: llodineb, lewdness, lechery; llodyr, loose trousers.

Ar, a prefix, augmenting the meaning of words; like gor, it signifies high, super,
great, very, &c
.
Arfri, high dignity.
Arfraint, high privilege.
Arddigon, superfluity,
Arddyledus, highly incumbent.
Arben, a sovereign.
Argoll, great loss.
Arddolef, great cry.
Arbrin, very scarcce.
Arbrudd, very thoughtful.
Arrdwyad, a governor.

As, a noun termination, gives the idea of binding, adherence, conjunction, affinity, union, &c.

Cymdeithas, society.
Priodas, a marriage.
Perthynas, relation.
Dinas, a fortified town; city.
Branas, a flock of crows.
Gwaltas, a weld.
Teyrnas, a kingdom.
Cymwynas, kindness.
Cwmpas, a compass.
Llawas, a sleeve.
Pynas, that is collected together.
Gartas, garter (shank tie).

As, denotes a simular import in, blas, tras, gwas, tas, bras, asio, astud, asgell, asgwrn, asgre, asen, &c.

At, a preposition, to:

Dos at y drws; go to the door.
Cerdd at y dyn: walk to the man.

Some authors suppose that at is a prefix, corresponding to ad, which does not appear to be correct. See Ad.

Au, a plural termination of nouns:
Llyfrau, books.
Penau, heads.
Bochau, cheeks.
Byrddau, tables.
Ffynonau, fountains.
Cwpanau, cups.
Delwau, images.
Hosanau, stockings.

Au, a termination of active verbs:
Mwynu, to enjoy.
Tawelu, to calm.
Gwellu, to better, to improve.
Cryfu, to strengthen.

Aw, changes into o, in the middle, and sometimes in the beginning of words:

Profi (prawf), to prove.
Cosyn (caws), a cheese.
Brodyr (brawd), brothers.
Doniau (dawn), gifts.
Odfa (awd), a fit time, a meeting.
Moli (mawl), to praise.
Gronyn (grawn), a grain.
Noddfa (nawdd), a place of refuge.
Oriau (awr), hours.
Odlau (awdl), odes.

 

 

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(x022a) (llun 3276)

 

 

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(x023a) (llun 3277)

 

 

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(x024a) (llun 3278)

 

 

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(x025a) (llun 3279)

 

When cyd is applied to words beginning with t, I should consider it expedient to preserve the radix, and to change the d in the prefix into t, in such words as cyd-daeru, cyd-darddu, cyd-deithi, cyd-draul. We should then have

Cyttaeru (taeru), to debate together.

Cyttarddu (tarddu), to spring together.

Cytteithi (teithi), innate qualities.

Cyttraul (traul), joint waste.


This principle is adopted in ysbytty, diotty, llettrodi, &c.: cydtaeru, cydtarddu, cydteithi, cydftraul, would show the etymology better, though the sound would not be so flexible.


Cym, is a prefix which almost in all cases might be substituted by cy, and thus prevent double consonants coming together, which to an accomplished eye renders their appearance vulgar. The double m in cymmod, cymmal, cymmaint, cymmysg, cymmydog, &c. is quite unnecessary; for they neither exemplify the meaning of the words, nor is their insertion consistent with the genius of the language. If three ms were admitted successively, they would be absorbed into one sound, from the impracticability of giving utterance to more. By excluding one m, we should then have cymod, cymal, cymaint, cymysg, cymydog: the original tendency still remains, the etymology is equally conspicuous, the construction more simple, and the words in appearance more elegant; in either case, the m in the last syllable is not inflected.

Some people maintain that double consonants are necessary to ascertain the right pronunciation and the signification of many words, such as pennau, tonnau, cannu, hynny, tannau, &c. No one acquainted with the rudiments of the language would for a moment advocate such a system. There cannot be two opinions, but that pen, ton, can, hyn, and tan, are the roots of the words adduced, and that nau, nu, ny, are terminations not recognizable in the Welsh language.


There are several words spelled alike, but of which the meaning is different; for B instance -

Ton, a wave.

Tn, tone,

Glan, a brink.

Gln, clean.

Tan, under.

Tn, fire
Can, white.

Cn, a song.

Man, a place.

Mn, small.
Bar, a bar.

Br, fury.

Ber, short.

Br, spear.

Gwar, the nape.

Gwr, mild.

Gwal, wall.

Gwl, a bed.

Gwan, feeble.

Gwn, a stab.

Gwen, (fem.) white.

Gwn, smile.

Mor, how.

Mr, the sea.

Moch, sudden.

Mch, pigs.

The manner in which these words are invariably distinguished in conversation throughout the Principality is by pronouncing the short and the long sounds of the vowels: and as to appearance on paper, the appropriate circumflex mark of the long sound over the letter is a sufficient distinction to any unprejudiced mind. Cyn, prefixed to words beginning with d, changes that letter into n:


Cynnal (dal), to sustain.

Cynnadl (dadl), colloquy.

Cynnefin (defin), accustomed.

Cynnarpar, (darpar), mutual preparation.

If these words were spelled with only one n, both the etymology and sense would be
equally clear.

 

 

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(x026a) (llun 3280)

 

 

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(x027a) (llun 3281)

 

Ei ddedwyddwch (dedwydd), his happiness.
Hen ddafad (dafad), old sheep.
Hen ddyn (dyu), old man.
Pan ddaeth efe (daeth), when he came.
Pan ddarfu hi (darfu), when she finished.
Pa ddyn (dyn), what man.
Pa ddawn (dawn), what gift.
Rhyw ddyn (dyn), some man.
Rhyw ddynes (dynes), some woman.
I ddysgu (dysgu), to learn.
I ddwyn (dwyn), to steal.
Y ddeilen (deilen), the leaf.
Y ddaiar (daiar), the earth.
Cath ddu (du), black cat.
Merch ddoeth (doeth), wise female.

For farther explanation, see the Rule for the soft mutation.

 

It assumes the t in the following.

Bwyta (bwyd), to eat.

Pysgota (pysgod), to fish.

Merchetwr (merched), a wencher.

Cardotyn (cardawd), a beggar.

Llymeitan (llymaid), to sip.


When d and t, t and d, or two ds, come together in words, both letters are converted into ts:

Coettir (coed-tir), woodland.
Diotty (diod-ty), tippling honse.
Attal (at-dal), to hinder, or stop.
Dattodi (dad-dodi), to loosen, to loose.

Dad, like an, di, and dis, has the force of un and dis of the English; which commonly signifies privation, or negation:


Dadblygu (plygu), unfold.

Dadbrofi (profi), disprove. .

Dadwisgo (gwisgo), to undress.

Dadgaethu, (caethu), to disenthral.

Dar, as a prefix, is used in so many various ways, it is not possible to attach any specific meaning to it; in some words it signifies priority, and is analogous to the English pre, per, and pro.


Darogan (gogan), prediction.

Darddodi (dodi), to prefix.
Darbwyll (pwyll), persuasion.
Darllen (llen), to peruse.

Darbod (bod), provision.

Dareb (eb), a proveib.
Darddiffynwr (diffynwr), protector.

Darddogni (dogn), to proportionate

Dawd, see Dod.
.

De, as a prefix, signifies a capability to right, systematize, or bring to order:


Deall (gall), a distinguished power, intellect.

Deor (gor), hatching, bringing forth.

Dehongli (hongl), to explain that which is in suspense.
Dechreu (creu), producing the creation.

Deau (de), the right side.

Debrydu (debryd), to put in trim, or in order.

Deallt, and dyallt, are used for intellect, or understanding; but the derivation gallt, a hill, or an ascent, will not sanction their adoption; deall, or dyall, are the proper words.

De, is occasionally used as a termination;
Trymdde, drooping, sad

Esgardde, separation.
Eurdde, covered with gold.

Creudde, mingled with gore.

 

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Edd
, signifies motion, going, or moving:

Eddain, a moving, or passing on.

Eddestyl, a fleet one; a steed.

Eddrin, a passing whisper.

Eddu, to go, to move.

Eddrith, varied appearance.

Eddyw, that is going, or passing.

 


Y dydd eddyw, this day, or the day passing on. It would appear that eddyw is the correct way of spelling the word for day, and not heddyw, derived from hedd. Some dictionaries say, that hedd, not only signifies peace, and tranquility; but also, what glides, or that glides onward: on investigation however, such a meaning as the latter, cannot be substantiated.See anedd under the prefix an.


Edig, is the termination of the passive participle of verbs, but seldom distinguished from the adjective: it answers to ed, in learned, preserved:-

Caredig, beloved.

Cadwedig, saved.

Dysgedig, learned.

Addawedig, promised.


Eg, is a termination, signifying art or science:

Anianeg, natural philosophy.

Bodeg, ontology.

Moeseg, moral philosophy.

Barddoneg, poetry, bardic science.

Rheitheg, rhetoric, the science of oratory.
Rhifyddeg, arithmetic, the art of numbers.
Ieitheg, grammar, the science of using words.
Ffraethoneg, the art of elocution.

Eg, is used as a termination of nouns, masculine and feminine:

Caseg, a mare.
Careg, a stone.

Dwyfroneg, a breastplate.
Bloneg, lard: grease.

Rhedeg, a run, a race.

Cysteg, toil, trouble, grief.

 

Ei, a pronoun, his, her, its; the possessive form of he, she, it. The consonants c, p, t, b, d, ll, m, rh, take the soft sounds, of g, b, d, f, dd, l, f, r, after the masculine gender:

Ei gorn (corn), his horn.

Ei ben (pen) his head

Ei dafod (tafod), his tongue.

Ei frawd. (brawd), his brother.

Ei ddafad (dafad), his sheep.
Ei law (llaw), his hand.
EI farch (march), his horse.
Ei ran (rhan), his share.

After the feminine her, the aspirate h is prefixed to all words beginning with vowels, The same gender converts the letters c, p, t, into the light sound of ch, ph, th. See the rules.

Ei, its:
Drwg yw ei flas (blas): its flavour is bad.

Pa yw ei hyd? what is its length?

Pa yw praff ei fn (bn)? how thick is its base?;
Pr yw ei rogl (rhogl): sweet is its odour.

El, a termination applied to utensils and instruments: chiefly of the masculine gender.

Cogel, distaff.

Rhesel, crib, stall.

Cantel, rim.

Dwyscel, a tap, fauset.

Panel, packsaddle.

Gwydrel, decanter.

Potel, bottle.

Costrel, flagon, jar.

Echel, axletree.

Pwyntel, pencil.

Ell, with a few exceptions, is a termination applied to tools, utensils, &c., chiefly of the feminine gender.

 

Padell, a pan.

Ysgrarell, currycomb.

Bwyell, an axe.

Cyllell, a knife.

Cawell, a hamper.

Traethell, a sandbank.

Cronell, a globe.

Troell, spinning wheel.

Pabell, tabernacle, pavillion.

Mantell, mantle, cloak.

Tafell, a slice; tablet.

Pibell, a pipe tube.

Greidell, a bakestone.

Ystafell, a chamber.

 

Em, a verb termination of the first person plural, imperfect tense, indicative mood:

Byddem, we existed.

Dylem, we ought.

Oeddem, we were.

Aem, neu elem, we were going.

 

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G.
The letter g is subject to four changes; i, c, ch, ng.


It is converted into i in the following example; where- gwr is substituted by iwr, which denotes action and personality:

Neidiwr, a leaper

Cnociwr, one that knocks.

Clytiwr, a patcher

Cloddiwr, a ditcher.

Cneifiwr, a sheaver

Gweithiwr, a workman.


It is inflected to c, in composition:


Drychin (drwg), foul weather.

Breci (brag) wort.

Tebycaf (tehyg), most similar.

Tecaf (tg), fairest.


It changes to ch in the conjunction gan; and in the adverbs gynt and gwedi:

A chan ofn: in consequence of fear.
A chan hyny: therefore.
Na chynt, na chwedi; neither before, nor after.

It is mutable into ng, when attached to the prefix cy:
Cyngwerth (gwerth), an equivalent.

Cyngwydd (gwydd), mutual presence.

Cyngwedd (gwedd), conformity.

Cyngwasg (gwasg), compression.


It takes the ng, after fy, my; and yn, in:


Fy ngelyn (gelyn), my foe.

Fy ngeneth (geneth), my daughter

Fy ngwraig (gwraig), my wife.

Fy ngwr (gwr), my husband.

Yn ngwrthwyneb (gwrth) in opposition..

Yn Ngwrecsam (Gwrecsam), in Wrexham.

Yn ngwrthryfel (gwrth), in a rebellion.

Yn ngwrthrym (gwrth), in a counter energy.


The g, for the sake of euphony, is altogether omitted in the construction of words, and after certain other parts of speech; such as the following:


Trowynt (gwynt), a whirlwind.

Aflan (glan), unclean.

Anwir (gwir), untrue.

Ceulan (glan), river bank.

Dau odidog (godidog), excellent pair.

Dau elyn (gelyn), two enemies.

Dyna eneth (geneth), there is a girl.

Caseg wine (gwin-gne), a bay mare.

Dynes wirion (gwiriou), a foolish woman.

Merch landeg (glan), a comely woman.

Geneth walltgoch (gwallt), a red-haired girl.

Ir wledd (gwledd), to the feast.

Ir winllan (gwinllan), to the vineyard.

Na oresgyn (goresgyn), subdue not.

Na wna (gwna), do not.

Ni oddef (goddef), it will not bear.

Ni wnaeth (gwnaeth), it was not done.

Oni well di (gweled), dost thou not see?

Oni waredir di (gwared), if thou art not saved.

Dy wraig (gwraig), thy wife.

Dy wr (gwr), thy husband.

Ei wlad (gwlad), his country.

Ei was (gwas), his servant.

Heb ofyn (gofyn), without asking.

Heb olwg (golwg), without sight.

 

Gar, an adjective termination, signifying addicted to:


Trugar, merciful, compassionate.

Rhyfelgar, addicted to war.

Hygar, lovely, amiable.

Gweithgar, industrious.


Gor, a prefix signifying, very, extreme, high, superior, over. Dir, en, and tra, are similar, to which refer. -
Goreu, superior.

Crorsedd, high seat.

Gorfaint, upper jaw.

Gorddwys, extremely dense.

Gorfawredd, vast magnificence.

Gorchest, great exploit.

Goruchaf, most high.

Gorfawr, very great.

Gorchudd, covering, envelope.

Gorfawl, extreme praise.

Goreuro, to gild.

Gorbais, upper coat.


 

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Nac or nag, like na, is a negative adverb, not: and an adverb of comparison, than: used before words with vowel initials:

Nac arswyda, dread not.

Nac ofna, fear not.

Nac ammau, doubt not.

Nac oeda, delay not.

Gwaeth nac anifel, worse than a beast.

Harddach nac Owen, more comely than Owen.

Mwy nac eraill, more than others.

Gwell nac unlle, better than any place.


Ni, is a noun termination, like the English ness. See Ioni.

Cloffni, lameness.

Cochni, redness.
Llwydni, hoariness.

Dellni, blindness.

Gwerni, wryness.

Caledi, hardness.


Ni, pronoun, we, the nominative plural of I: and us, the accusative case of we:
Dyma ni: here we are.

Ni awn: we will go.

Gwell i ni: better for us.

Gwae i ni: woe to us.


Ni and nid are adverbs, denoting a negation, or refusal, not: the former is used mostly before a consonant, and the latter before vowel initials:

Ni chredaf, I will not believe.
Ni ddaeth, lie came not.

Ni welodd hi, she did not see.

Ni bydd ddig, he will not be angry.

Nid yw da, it is not good.

Nid amgen, not otherwise.

Nid y fi, not me.
Nid oes un yno, there is not one there.

Nis, is a negative adverb, preceding words with consonant initials in their radical form:


Nis rhaid wrth nerth: power is not necessary.

Nis gwelodd; he did not see.

Nis credodd: he did not believe.

Nis tewi: thou wilt not believe.

O.

This letter changes to a, in traed, the plural of troed, a foot. It forms plurals by changing into y:

Cyrn (corn), horns.

Cyrff (corff), bodies.

Pyrth (porth), ports.

Ffyrch (fforch), forks.

Ffyn (ffon), sticks.

Cymry (Cymro) Welshmen.

Cyll (coll), hazel-trees.

Myr (mr), seas.

O, a preposition, from:
O Fangor, from Bangor.

O Dreffynon, from Holywell.

O fan i fan, from place to place.

O dy i dy, from house to house.

O, a pronoun, he, him, it:
Dyn da oedd o; he was a good man.

Rho hwn iddo: give him this.

Pa le mae o? where is it?

Hebddo; without it?

O, an interjection, o, oh, alas!
O na baent ddoethion! O that they were wise!

O Arglwydd Ior! O Lord God.

O druan! Oh poor thing!
O fy Arglwydd! Alas my Lord.

O, as a, conjunction, if, is but seldom used; it is now superseded by os:

O cawn hyn sydd iawn: if had that which is right. .

O bydd un ar dy enw: if there shall be one of thy name.

O cheffir dyn yn feddw: if a man shall be found drunk

O ceri fi: if thou wilt love me.

The o is omitted in cyfor, when prefixed to words:
Cyfrdal (cyfor), equivalence, value.

Cyfrdy (cyfor), assembly-house

Cyfrgain (cyfor), elegant.

Cyfrgoll (cyfor), perdition.


Od, a plural termination of nouns; chiefly of the neuter gender:

 

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P.

The letter p is subject to three changes, b, mh, ph

.
It takes the sound of b in composition:
Pontbren (pren), a wooden bridge.

Dosbarth (parth), analysis.

Ymborth (porth), food, sustenance.

Diboen (poen), painless.


The p takes the soft sound of b, in the following instances:

Ei ben (pen), his head.

Ei blant (plant), his children.

Mi briodais (priodi), I married; literally, me married.

Mi brynais (prynu), I bought.

Wrth ba rol (pa), by what rule.

Wrth y berth (perth), by the bush.

Wrth bregethu (pregeth), while preaching.

Wrth bori (pori), whilst grazing.

I blwyf Henllan (plwyf), to Henllan parish.

I bls Edwin (plas), to Edwins palace.

Pan ballodd y dwr (pallu), when the water failed.

Pan bechodd Efa (pech), when Eve sinned.

O bryd i bryd (pryd), from time to time.

O bren i bren (pren), from tree to tree.

Rhyw bendefig (pen), some nobleman.

Rhyw blant (plant), some children.

Rho barch iddo (parch), give or show him respect.

Rho iddo bunt (punt), give him a pound.

Dwy bibell (pibell), two pipes (fem.)

Dwy bont (pont), two bridges (fem.)

Dy bobl (pobl), thy people

Dy boen (poen), thy pain.


P, mutable to mh:


Cymhorth (cyporth), assistance.

Cymhwys (cypwys), proper, suitable.

Fy mhen (pen), my head.

Fy mhais (pais), my coat.

P, takes the light sound ph. See the rule.


Gorphen (pen), extreme head; the end.

Gorphwys (pwys), repose, rest.

Ei phadell (padell), her pan.

Ei phin (pin), her pin.

Tra phell (pell), very far.

Tra phoenus (poen), extremely painful.

Na phecha (pech), sin not.

Ni pherthyn, (perthyn), it belongs not.

Tri phlentyn (plant), three children.

Chwe phwys (pwys), six pounds.


P, to prevent a harshness of sound is omitted after pump, five:

 

Pum by^s, five fingers.

Pum cant, five hundred.

Pum tro, five times.

Pum swllt, five shillings.

R.

This letter, for some reason or other, is always followed by h, (rh), in primitive words; but is omitted when partaking of the soft sound. See the rule.

 

Ei ran (rhan), his portion.

El rent (rhent), his rent.

Dwy raw (rhaw), too shovels (fem.)

Dwy res (rhes), two rows (fem.)

Pa reol yw (rheol), what rule is it?
Pa raid wrtho (rhaid), what occasion is there for it?

I rodio (rhawd), to walk.

I redeg (rhed), to run.

Pan roddo (rhodd), when he gave.

Pan regodd (rheg), when he swore.

Dy rybudd (rhybudd), thy warning.

Dy rychwant (rhych), excess of desire.

Modrwy (rhwy), ring.

Penryn (rhyn), a promontory.

 

When two rs come together in a word, one drops:

Gwryw (gwr rhyw), a male.

Pedwaran (pedwar rhan), a fourth.

Eurwy (aur rhwy), a gold ring.

Moryd (mor rhyd), sea ford.


Red, a noun termination:


Gweithred (gwaith), work, deed.

Damred, (dam), a circulation.

Cylchred (cylch), a circular course.

Gwahanred (gwahan), discrimination.

Rwydd, a termination of nouns, like tude and ness, of the English:


Tebygrwydd, similitude.

Helaethrwydd, ampleness..

Ynfydrwydd, foolishness.

Parodrwydd, preparedness.

 

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U.

U, modified into y, pymtheg (pump), fifteen.


U, a termination of verbs active, infinitive mood:

Caru, to love.

Cysgu, to sleep.

Malu, to grind.

Talu, to pay.

Ur, a noun termination applied to persons of the masculine gender. See Yr.


Creadur, creature.
Pechadur, sinner.
Penadur, sovereign.
Gwiliadur, sentinel.
Llywiadur, governor.
Ffoadur, deserter.
Cofiadur, registrar.

Modur, defender.

Newyddur, newsman.

Arthur, a bear-man.

Cysgiadur, sluggard.

Madur, benevolent man.

Geiriadur, lexicographer.

Heilur, butler, waiter.

Exceptions - dolur, sore; prysur, busy.

 


Us, a termination of adjectives, implying plentitude, tending to, &c. It is generally
added to substantives:


Drygionus, mischievous.

Barus, greedy.

Trefnus, methodical.

Cecrus, quarrelsome.

Parchus, respectful.

Poenus, painful.

Costus, costly.

Nwyfus, sprightly.


W.

This letter has two modifications, y, and o.

 

W, mutable to y, in the composition of words:

Cryman (crwm) a reaping hook.

Cysgu (cwsg), to sleep.

Byrddau (bwrdd), boards.

Mygu (mwg), to smoke.

Esgyrn (asgwrn), bones.

Drychin, (drwg), bad weather.

Cychod (cwch), boats.

Dyrnod (dwrn), a blow with the fist.


It changes to o, to form adjectives of the feminine gender:
Llom (llwm), bare.

Crom (crwm), concave.

Pol (pwl), blunt.

Dol (dwl), stupid.

Trom (trwm), heavy.

Ffol, (ffw^l), foolish, vain.


W, in the end of words, has a most extraordinary quality; it serves to shew a negative, or a reverse state to that which precedes it:

 

Bwr, a heap.

Bwrw, to unheap, to disgorge.

 

Ble, a plain, bare place.

Blew, hair.

 

Bri, esteem, dignity.

Briw, a mark from injury, bruise.

 

Ca, ejected, scattered.

Caw, what keeps together: hence caws, cawiau, cawell, cawg.

 

Cad, striving to keep: battle.

Cadw, custody, in keeping, to keep.

 

Chwar, playful, lively, sprightly,

Chwerw, bitter, beyond a state of activity.

 

Du, black.

Duw, God; all light.

 

El, moving, departing, going.

Elw, that which is not spent, or gone; wealth.

 

Glo, coal, black.

Gloew, bright, clear.

 

Hel, to gather, act of gathering.

Helw, in possession.

 

Hwn, this one present.

Hwnw, that one-absent.

 

Hoe, a state of rest; a stay

Hoew, alert, sprightly, lively.

 

Gwedd, general connexion: a yoke.

Gweddw, one without a fellow; one not yoked.

 

Lle, locality, a place.

Llew, a ranger, a lion.

 

Llan, a clean spot of ground.

Llanw, fullness, that fills up; tide.

 

Llud, what keeps or connects together.

Lludw, ashes.

 

Mar, activity, life: hence March, strong and vigorous; Maredydd, the animated one; Maredog unben, the active chieftain.

Marw, to cease from activity; death.

 

Mas, a fit, swoon, qualm.

Masw, sportive, light; hence maswedd, &c.

 

Medd, centre; that is possessed; hence meddu, meddiant.

Meddw, circling, drunk, not self-possessed.

 



 

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Yll, is mostly used as a plural termination of nouns: erchyll, an adjective, is an exception:


Cyllyll, knives.

Cewyll, hampers.

Mentyll, mantles.

Estyll, staves.


Yn, a noun termination:
Mochyn, a pig.

Cosyn. a single cheese.

Ymenyn, butter.

Aderyn, a bird.


Yn, as an affix, has generally a diminutive signification:
Oenyn, a little lamb, a lambkin.

Dernyn, a small piece.

Gwesyn, a little servant, a page.

Cetyn, a small fragment.

Plentyn, a little child.

Hogyn, a stripling.

Cilcyn, the fragment.

Pwtyn, a short round body.

Yn, a preposition, in, at: when placed before verbs, and adjectives, it forms participles and adverbs:


Yn y dechreuad, in the beginning.
Yn y dydd olaf, in the last day.
Yn y ty, in the house.
Yn awr, at present.
Yn y man, presently.

Yn fuan, quickly.

Yn tori, breaking.

Yn union, directly.

Os gweli yn dda, if thou seest good.


Yr, and
ur, as terminations, are often confounded. Great advantage would result from adopting the former to instruments and inanimate things, and the latter to persons only. See Ur.
Pladyr, a scythe.

Cengladyr, winding reel.

Gwniadyr, a thimble.

Geiriadyr, dictionary.

Canwyllyr, a chandelier.

Cwlltyr, coulter, colter.

Penadyr, a coin.

Ystrodyr, packsaddle.

Ysgrythyr, scriptures.

Blwyddiadyr, almanac.

Heilyr, waiter, or tray.

Sallwyr, Psalter

Papyr, paper.

Gleiniadyr, snuffers.

Diffoddyr, extinguisher.

Trothyr, chamber utensil.

Cysgiadyr, nightshade.

Newyddyr, newspaper.

Mwyadyr, microscope.

Pellebyr, telegraph.

Trydyllyr, a boring instrument.

Cyntyr, a spur.

Cofyr, or cofiadyr, a register.


Ys, a prefix of similar import to es; which signifies parting, separating, divergent:
Ysol, consuming.

Ysbrigyn, a sprig.

Ysbwrial, refuse.

Ysdif, a jet.

Ysgaen, a sprinkle.

Ysgaru, to separate.

Ysglodyn, a chip.

Ysgythru, to, cut away.

Ysgardde, dispersion.

Ysgarm, an outcry.

Ysgarth, excrement.

Ysgi, a parer.

Ysglem, a slice.

Ysgoi, to shun.

Yspail, a spoil.

Ysub, a besom.

Ysdyfern, to drop.

Ystalm, a long while.

In strict accordance with the established use of prefixes, the following words and many more should begin with as: ysglawring, ysbledd, ysgraw, ysgin, ysplyg, ysglin,
ystig
, &c. See As, and Es.

The Modification of Verbs for expressing the person is remarkable in the Welsh; but as we are not writing a grammar of the language, we shall only give a short specimen:

PRESENT TENSE.
Wyf, or ydwyf, I am.

Wyt, or ydwyt, thou art.

Yw, or ydyw, he is.

Ym, or ydym, we are.

Ych, or ydych, you are.

Ynt, or ydynt, maent, they are.

 

 

 

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IMPERFECT TENSE.

Carwn, I did love.
Carit, though (sic) didst love.
Carai, he loved.
Carem, we loved.
Carech, you loved.
Carent, they loved.

PAST TENSE.
Carais, or cerais, I have loved.
Caraist, or ceraist, thou hast loved.
Carodd, he has loved.
Carasom, we have loved.
Carasoch, you have lo\ed.
Carasant, they have loved.

PLUPERFECT, TENSE.
Caraswn, I had loved.
Carasit, thou hadst loved.
Carasai, he had loved.
Carasem, we had loved.
Carasech, you had loved.
Carasent, they had loved.

FUTURE TENSE.

Caraf, I shall or will love.
Ceri, thou shalt or wilt love.

Car or cariff, he shall or will love.
Carwn, we shall or will love.
Carwch, you shall or will love
Caran, they shall or will love.

The personal pronoun may be used or omitted with the verbs: as Carwyf, or Yr wyf yn caru, I love. Cerais, or Mi gerais, I haie loved. Caraf, or Mi garaf, I will love. Carwn, or Mi garwn, I did love.

 

Having thus taken a somewhat partial view of the rudiments of our ancient language,

which, from the extraordinary nature of its structure, its vast capacity and variety of powers, must have required much time, and have engaged the intense thoughts of a civilized body of mankind to systematize and establish, I now submit the undertaking to the public, with a full conviction that it will be received in the spirit with which it is offered.

 

THOMAS EDWARDS.

 

 

 


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