A Welsh Grammar - Historical and Comparative. 1913. John Morris-Jones (1864-1929). 2644e Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia.
 

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Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Gal·les i Catalunya


 
Gramadegau Cymraeg
A Welsh Grammar - Historical and Comparative
John Morris-Jones (1864-1929)

1913
 
TUDALENNAU i - xxvii

 

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From Hughie to Mr. Roberts and Family
 
To  Mr. G. T. Roberts M. A.
School House, Llanrug, Caernarvonshire, North Wales

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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A
WELSH GRAMMAR
HISTORICAL, AND COMPARATIVE .
./
BY J. MORRIS JONES, M.A.
PROFESSOR OF WELSH AT THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF NORTH WALES, BANGOR LATE RESEARCH FELLOW OF JESUS COLLEGE, OXFORD
PHONOLOGY AND ACCIDENCE
OXFORD
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 1913
 
 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE BOMBAY
HUMPHREY MILFORD M.A.
PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVEBSITY

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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PREFACE
 
^ " THIS book ", as V. Henry says of his Breton Lexique, " has the misfortune to have a history." It would be tedious, even if it were possible, to relate it in detail; but the long delay in the appearance of the work calls for a brief account of the facts by way of explanation and apology.
In the early nineties I contributed to the new edition of the W elsh encyclopaedia T Gwyddomadiir an article on the Welsh language, which contained a sketch of Welsh grammar. This sketch was expanded in a course of lectures delivered to the
> Junior and Intermediate classes at Bangor after the foundation of the University of Wales. The idea occurred to me of preparing the substance of the lectures for publication as a textbook of Welsh grammar ; but I was unable at the time to carry out the investigation which seemed to ms necessary before sneh a book
i could be properly written. | The work was intended to be a descriptive grammar of Modern Welsh with special reference to the earlier period. Late Modern Welsh is more artificial, and in some respects further removed
' from the spoken language, than Early Modern Welsh, owing largely to the influence of false etymological theories; and the object which I had in view was the practical one of determining the traditional forms of the literary language. Even scholars have been deceived by the fictitious forms found in dictionaries ;
thus "dagr " given by Silvan Evans, after Pughe, as the sg. of dagrau, is quoted as a genuine form even by Strachan, Intr. 33 ;
see below p. sit Note. I had however chiefly in mind the ordinary writer of the language, to whom a clear idea of the literary tradition is at least equally important. The first draft of the a3

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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PREFACE
 
book was begun in 1899 ; bat I was dissatisfied with. it, and made a fresh start a year or two later. The progress of the second draft was much hindered by examination work which took up the greater part of my long vacation for some years. In 1907 I had finished the accidence and written more than half of the syntax. As Early Modern literature consists almost wholly of verse in the strict metres, I found myself in the syntax quoting more and more from Medieval prose. At last I was forced to the conclusion that the Medieval period would have to be dealt with in the earlier portion, which would therefore have to be entirely" re-written. Many Medieval forms had already been quoted in it, in order to show that the Early Modern forms followed the old tradition, especially where the late written form is artificial; in some cases the etymology also was given, in order to show further that the traditional form had developed regularly. In re-casting' the first portion I thought it would be well to bring together the laws by which Welhh sounds are derived from Keltic and Primitive Aryan, so that by reference to them any formation or word might be compared with its cognates, and traced to its 'origin. Thus from a descriptive grammar of Modem Welsh the book grew into a Welsh Grammar Historical and Comparative. In its present form the work was commenced early in 1908 ;
and the Phonology and Accidence now published were completed in the Spring of 1913. The volume has taken a year to print;
and I have riot found the time too long for the final revision of the copy and the correction of proofs.
A few words may here be said of the most important previous works on the subject. The earliest known "Welsh grammar is that preserved in the Eed Book of Hergest (R.G.), and printed from a late copy as Dosparth ~Edeyrn Dafod Aw by Ab Ithel; apart from the treatment of sounds and metres this is little more than a definition of the parts of speech. Simwnt Vychan's grammar * (P.IL.) is also of value only for its prosody. The first printed

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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Welsh grammar was written by Dr. Griffith Roberts, and appeared at Milan in 1567. It gives an interesting account of the language as it was written before the influence of S^lesbury made itself felt; but the most remarkable feature of the book is the section on etymology, which records the discovery by the author of the fact that the sound-changes which take place in Latin loan-words were capable of being stated as laws. Dr. J. D. Khvs's grammar appeared in 1592. The author wrote excellent Welsh, though his peculiar alphabet makes it appear uncouth ;
and his grammar is an attempt to describe the language as he wrote it It is cast almost wholly in the form of tables, and is less systematic in reality than in appearance. The prosody, which is valuable, was contributed by contemporary bards. In 1593 a small grammar was published by Henry Salesbury, in which literary and dialectal forms are givenyAut are not distinguished.
Dr. John Davies published his grammar in 1631, the year after the appearance of the revised Bible, which is believed to be chiefly his work. The grammar represents the result -of ft care-fill study of the works of the bards. It was the first Welsh grammar to be based on an examination of the actual facts of the language of standard authors. Medieval bards are quoted in modernized spelling ; in that respect, therefore, the work is not in the .strict sense historical. But the author's analysis of the Modern literary language is final; he has left to his successors only the correction and amplification of detail.
The grammar of William Owen (later W. 0. Pughe) prefixed to his Dictionary, 1803, stands at the opposite pole. It is written on the same principle as the dictionary, and represents the language not as it is, or ever was, but as it might be if any suffix could be attached mechanically to any stem. The author's method can best be realized by imagining a Latin grammarian evolving out of the stems of volo the presents ind. volo, volis, volit;
no, w, mt; vulo, mis, vult; vela, vels, velt; vello, veSw, vellit,
 
 
 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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ftnd the infinitives volere, vT,ere, vulere, velere,vellere, with perhaps & snote stating that these infinitives are " seldom used " (see hia Or.2 66, 68), or alternatively a footnote to the effect that veils 11 is as often used " (do. 67), Examples are quoted of such forms as are genuine; and the impression is conveyed by the suggestio • faisi of " seldom ", " as often ", and the like, that the others also occur. To the author truth meant conformity with his theory;
facts, perverse enough to disagree, were glossed over to save their character.
In 1853 appeared •the first .edition rf Rowland's work, which was regarded for more than a generation as the standard grammar of Modern Welsh. It is for the most part a description of the written Welsh of the 19th century ; but the paradig-ms contain many of Pughe's spurious forms. The author had practically no knowledge o£any Welsh older than that of the Bible translation ;
he records recent usages, but is unable to throw any light on them, or to decide between genuine and counterfeit forms. The use which he makes of Dr. Davies; often shows that he was incapable of understanding him; e.g. in professing to give Davies's table of diphthongs, after including iw icy among the falling diphthongs he imagines that he has done with those combinations, and omits them from the rising class, without perceiving that the very object of the classification is to distinguish between falling iw ivy and rising vw wy. But his book contains a quantity of sound, if ill-digested, information about Late Welsh; and marks the return, to common, sense after the domination of Pughe.
The foundations of modem Keltic philology weire laid by J. C. Zeuss in his great Grammatica Celtica, which was published in 1853. The sections devoted to W^elsh grammar contain a wonderfully complete and accurate analysis of the language ;of the Red Book Mabinogion (ed. Lady Charlotte Guest, 1849), the Black Book of Chirk (in A.L., 1841), and the Welsh passages in Liber Landavensis (ed. Rees, 1840).

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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In 1908 appeared the first part of Pedersen's Verglewhende, Qrammatik tier keltiscJten Sprcichen', two of the remaining three parts have since been issued. This important work is mainly comparative as its title suggests, and deals with the derivation and development of the grammatical forms of all the Keltic languages. It records the latest results of Keltic philology, bull-is in some respects rather markedly individual.
- Strachan's Introduction to Early Welsh appeared posthumously in 1909. It contains a Medieval Welsh grammar, reader and glossary. The grammar was written by Strachan in a few tveeks i-n 1907, and one cannot but wonder with his editor at "the amazing rapidity with which he toiled". The work embodies forms from texts inaccessible to Zeuss, and is naturally the product of a more advanced knowledge. Its value is somewhat . lessened by the fact that a large number of forms' and phrases are quoted without references.
Of the scope of the present work I have already spoken. It embraces roughly that of the grammars of Davies, Strachan, and Pedersen (so far as this relates to Welsh). The sections dealing with the derivation of Welsh sounds were planned and partly written before the appearance of Pedersen's work; but I had the advantage of consulting the latter in filling in the detail. I have however examined each rule for myself; many new examples are adduced, and the conclusion arrived at differs in some cases from Pedersen's. In §§ 75, 76 I have attempted a , solution of the extraordinarily difficult problems presented by .the development of original diphthongs in Welsh. I hope the result is in the main sound, though some of the details are tentative. In § 63 I have endeavoured to compress into a few pages an account of the 'Aryan vowel system, a knowledge of which is essential to an understanding of the vocalism of the derived languages. The section follows the lines of Hirt's suggestive work Der idg. Ablaut; the notation (R, F, etc.) is an adaptation

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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fand elaboration of Hirt's. Apart from the Welsh examples the section contains nothing new except the notes on the place of a yi the system (v (a)) and the treatment of long diphthongs (vii (5)). In the discussion of philological questions generally my obligation to Brugmann's great work is so obvious as hardly to need statement; for the writing of prehistoric forms his scheme has been adopted, and is departed from in only one particular : g»', g% etc. are used here, as by Hirfc, instead of n; nn etc. I have also learnt much from Meillet's brilliant Introduction, and have borrowed from him the convenient use of the term " sonant " to denote the sounds which oscillate between vowels and consonants in Pr. Ar. In the search for the origin and cognates of Welsh vocables I have made extensive useofWalde's Wdrterbuch, which contains, in a concise form and fully indexed, a vast collection of the results of recent investigation in this field ; Boisacq's Dwtwnnaire I have also found most valuable. For the purposes of Keltic philology I have consulted with much profit Thurney-sen's admirable grammar of Old Irish. The sections treating of the derivation of sounds are fuller than they were originally intended to be ; and with the material thus provided I was led further to attempt to trace to their origin all inflexions and important grammatical forms. But in order to save space I have generally given only the explanation which seemed to me in each case the most probable; thus the fact that Pedersen's equation of W. ynteu with Ir. inti, or his derivation of eiS-aw from *esw is not mentioned does not necessarily mean that it has not been considered, but that I regard it as less likely than the explanation offered in the text.
I have to express my gratitude to Dr. Gwenogvryn Evansy who was kind enough to lend me for the purposes of this work his manuscript referred to as TE., his transcripts of numerous poems by G.Gr., G.GL, Gu.O., D.N., D.E., H.D., I.E. and IL., and to furnish me with proofs of W.M. before it was issued, and of B.P.

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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B.T. which have not yet appeared; and to Mr. J. H. Davies who generously lent me for several years his transcripts of about 400 of the poems of T.A., and verified readings for me in MSS. at thft Niitional Library. For the latter service I am also indebted (ft M r. T. Gwynn Jones at the National Library, and to Mr. J. llano Jones at the Free Library, Cardiff. I have to thank
I Mr. Shankland for the readinusy with whicli he has assisted me ill vurious ways at tlxi Librury of the University College of
' North WiilcH. Titu lirnt, proof of every sheet was read by my ooilci^uc I'loftttNor Hudson-Williams; proofs of the Accidence W<'r<' nwl liy my assibtant Mr. Ifor Williams ; proofs of the ' Plionoloyy und revises of the Accidence were read by Sir John llliyn. To each of them, and to the Reader at the Press, I inn indebted for the correction of errors which had escaped
i me. Every reference to a printed book was verified by myself in the first proofs, and I h&pe few errors remain uncorrected;
iwfurences to MSS. were compared with my notes and with entries in < he Eeport on Welsh Manuscripts, but it was of course impossible,
i pxcttpt in a few cases, to check the reading with the original. My llinnks are due to Mr. Ifor Williams for much valuable criticism Niul many hints ; I owe to him the explanation of i'w, Ml. yw, •M ft metathesis of wy p. 277, see p. xxvii below. I desire to iroknowledge my deep obligation to my teacher Sir John Rhys, who has always been ready to help with criticism and advice, Ltiilly, I owe a debt of gratitude to the Fellows of Jesus, College Who elected me to a research fellowship for a period in order to ible me to devote my long vacations to the work.
May yst, 1913.
J. MORRIS JONES.

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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CONTENTS
 
INTEODUCTION: FAGS
OBIGIN AND GENERAL HISTORY ...... I
PHONOLOGY: '
OBTHO&RAPHY AND PRONUNCIATION :
The Alphabet ........ 9
The Vowels . . . . . . . . .11
The Consonants . . . . . . . .18
Note.—Transcription ....... 29
Sounds in Combination:
Syllabic Division . . . . . ... 30
Diphthongs. Falling Diphthongs . . . -31 Rising Diphthongs . . . . . . .37
Ambiguous Groups . . . . . . .41
Accentuation . . . . . . . . 47 •
Quantity ......... 65
THE ABYAN VOWELS IN KELTIC ..... 74
ABYAN VOWEL GBADATION . . . . . • 78
KELTIC VOWELS IN BRITISH AND "WELSH . . . .85
The Short Vowels . . . . . . » . .85
Affection of Short Vowels ......&9
The Long Vowels ........ ^3.
The Diphthongs . . . . . . . -97
, Later Modifications of Vowels . . . . .no
VOWEL VARIATION IN MODERN WELSH . . . .116
Vowel Mutation . . '. . . . . .116
• Vowel Affection . . . . . . . .120
THE ABYAN CONSONANTS IN KELTIC AND BRITISH . .122'
The Explosives ........ i-z\
The Spirants ......... 133
The Sonants ......... 147
INTEECHANGE OF CONSONANTS :
Consonant Alternation . . . . . . 155
Assimilation, Dissimilation, and Metathesis . . . »g9
 
 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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CONTENTS PAGE l6l
BBITISH AND LATIN CONSONANTS IN WELSH ; 167
The Soft Mutation ..... The Nasal Mutation .... The Spirant Mutation .... Initial Mutation . , . . . Later Consonant Changes: 175
Loss of Voiced Spirants and Sonants . Provectlon...... 176
Loss of Syllables .....  177
 i8i
ACCIDENCE: 188
THE AETICLB ...... 192
NOUNS ....... -194
Number ...... i95
Parisyllabic Nouns ^ . . . , Imparisyllabic Nouns .... 195
M-stems ...... 198
w-stems ..,,.. t^-gtems ...... -198
( stems ...... 200
r-stems ...... 202
Vowel Changes ..... 206
Plural of Nouns with Singular Endings . Plural formed from Derivatives . Double Plurals ..... 209
Plurair Doublets ..... 210
Singular Doublets .... 213
Desynonymized Doublets 214
Anomalous Plurals .... 215
Nouns with no Plural .... 216
Nouns with no Singular , \ Gender . , . . ^ . WW Derivative Noune , . ' i  217
ADJECTIVES: 218
Number..,,... Gender ....... 219
Comparison ...... 220
Derivative Adjectives . . . , .  221
NUMERALS ...... 222
COMPOUND NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES . 22^
 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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PEONOUNS:
Personal Pronouns ..... Possessive Adjectives .....
The Relative Pronoun .....
^
Interrogative Pronouns, Adjectives and Adverbs Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives . Pronominalia..... . .
VEBBS .......
The Eegular Verb ......
Notes and Additional Forms ....
Origins of the Welsh Verb :
The Aryan Verb......
• The Welsh Verb .....
Contracted Forms ......
Irregular Verbs:
The Verb ' To Be' .
Compounds of the Verb ' To Be' .
Af, ffwnaf, Deuaf .....
Verbs with Old Perfects ....
Verbs with (-Aorists .....
Defective Veibs ......
Verbal Stems.......
Verbal Nouns . . ^. Verbal Adjectives ......
Compound Verbs ......
PEEPOSITIONS .......
ADVEEBS ........
CONJUNCTIONS .......
INTERJECTIONS .......
INDEX ........
234 238 241
255 258 260
 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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ABBREVIATIONS
.:- I. SIGNS
V 'root'. -< 'from, comes from'.) The angle points in the direction of the > ' giving, gives'. ) change.
: ' (is) cognate with', used to connect forms having a common element, but usually varying in formation or vowel-grade. The common use of the sign as roughly equivalent to ' viz.' does not clash with the above, and has been retained.
= is used for three purposes; (i) between forms which according to the laws of their respective languages imply the same ground-form;
it replaces the usual colon only where it is desired to point out identity of formation as well as of root, etc.;—(2) between references to, or various readings of, the same passage in two different MSS. ;—(3) between two designations of the same MS., book or person; or two characters of the same value, etc.
s ' (is) pronounced'; it generally introduces a phonetic transcription, see Note p. 29; but in some cases the phonetic spelling occurs in contemporary texts, and a reference is given.
| denotes syllabic division, see p. 31; division of feet on p. 18. / (i) between words quoted denotes that they rhyme, or correspond in cynghan^dd, i.e. have the same consonantism or accentuation or both;—(2) between letters denotes that they alternate, see e.g. § 101 lii;—(3) in references, see VI i. '"
* prefixed to a form denotes that it is not attested, but only inferred from a comparison of cognates, or from the known action of sound-laws. It also marks hypothetical forms (and meanings) generally. A dot under a vowel denotes that it is sounded close. A comma under a vowel denotes that it is sounded open. ^ under a vowel denotes that it is nasalized ; thus Fr. bon =. by. Marks and symbols explained in the body 'of the work: accent marks § 39 ; i, u § 100 ; w § 17 xi ^1; wy § 38 i; 1, m/, n, r § 57 ; yiz, etc. § 61 i (2), § 62 i (2),'§ 63; 9 § 57; JC, g, q, g, ^, g» §°84; », » §17vi; y§19iv; y§ 16 ii (3), § 25 iii; y§ 16 v (2); y, y § 16 i ;
r § 22 iv; 5 § 17 iv; 8 § 19 iii; x' X § 17 ui; 6 § 14 ii (2); F, F°, L, L°, V, E, E2, E^ etc.
§ 63.
Meanings are given in single inverted commas; double inverted commas are used to quote the words of the original when the words explained are taken from a translation; also as ordinary quotation marks.

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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ABBREVIATIONS
.xv
II. TERMS
abl. ' ablative' ' ace. ' accusative ' adj. 'adjective' adv. ' adverb' aff.' affixed '(in Index
' affirmative') anal.' analog-y, -ical•' aor. ' aorist' auto. ' autograph' cf. ' compare ' ' conj.' conjunctive ' or i ' conjugation' cpv. ' comparative' dat. ' dative' def. ' definite' ^denom. ' denomina-', tive' . •-_ do. ' same book (op
author)' S. g. "' for example ' teqtv. ' equative' '{,, fern. ' feminine' gen. ' genitive' jgl. ' gloss on ' Ib. ' same book and ^page'
id. ' same meaning' i. e. ' that is ' impers., imps. ' impersonal ' impf. ' imperfect' impv. ' imperative' ind. ' indicative' indef. ' indefinite' inf. ' infixed' inj. ' injunctive' instr. ' instrumental' interr. ' interrogative'
intj. ' interjection' I.e. 'in place cited' lit.'' liter-ary, -ally' loc. ' locative' m., mas., ' masculine' nom. ' nominative' obj. ' object(ive)' obi. ' oblique' orig. ' original(ly)' perf. 'perfect' pers. ' person(al)' pi. ' plural' plup. ' pluperfect'
pos. 'positive' pref. ' prefix(ed)' prep. ' preposition' pres. 'present' prob. 'probably' pron. ' pronoun' or ' pronounced' according to context. prov. 'proverb' q.v. ' which see ' redupl. ' reduplicated ' rh. 'rhyming' sc. ' scribal' sg. ' singular' spv. ' superlative' subj. 'subjunctive',
rarely ' subject' suff. ' suffix' s.v. ' under the word' unacc. ' unaccented' v.a., v.adj. ' verbal adj.' :
vb. 'verb'-
v.n. ' verbal noun'
voc. 'vocative' •
^ III. LANGUAGES
Abbreviations denoting languages are obvious contractions of the ^names of languages given on p. i.
Mn. 'Modern'. Ml. 'Medieval' or'Middle'. O.-'Old'. Pr. 'Primitive'. '
Note that Ir. means ' Old Irish' as in Thurneysen Gr., Vendryes 'Gr., and Windisch, Irische Texte. Ml. and Mn. Ir. are so named.
O.E. ' Old English '^Anglo-Saxon. O.H.G. ' Old High German'. ^Gathav. 'Gathic Avestic', Oldest Avestic.
Hes(ych). designates forms and meanings from the Lexicon of gtesychius.

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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xvi ABBREVIATIONS »
IV. AUTHORITIES
FEBIODICALS AND WOEKS ON GRAMMAS, AND PHILOLOGY
Ab Ithel, see Dosp. Ed. Anwyl, Gr.: A Welsh Grammar for Schools... By E. Anwyl, M.A.
Oxon. London 1898—9. Arch. Camb.: Archceologia Gambrensis. Boisacq: Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue grecque ... Par
Emile Boisacq. a—6p^-.
Heidelberg and Paris 1907-13. Brugmann: Orundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogerma-
nischen Sprachen2... Strassburg, I 1897, TI i 1906, 11 ii 1911.
[The Eng. trails, of the ist edn., vol. iv, 1895='II iii revised,
has also been used.] Camden4: Britannia ... Londini 1594. CIL.: Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Berolini 1862 ff. Coel. y B.; Traethawd ar Hynafiaeth ac Awdurdodaeth Coelbren y
Beirdd... Gann Taliesin Williams (Ab lolo). Llanymddyfri
1840. Cymmrodor: Y Cymmrodor, the Uagasine of the Honourable Society
of Cymmrodorion. D.: Antiqvce Lingvce Britannicce, nuno communiter dictce Cambro-
Britannicae.. . Rvdimenta.. . Londini 1621, by Dr. John Davies
of Mallwyd, author of D.D. below; see above, p. v. D.D.: Antiques Linguce Britannicce, Nuno vulgo dictae Camiro-Britan-
nicce . , . et Lingvae Latince Dictionarium Duplex ... Londini,
Impensis Joan. Davies SS. Th. D. An. Dom. 1632. Dosp. Ed.: Dosparth Edeyrn Davod Aw ; or ffie Ancient Welsh
Grammar ... to which is added Y Pum Llyfr Kerddwriaeth...
With Eng. trans. and Notes, by the Eev. John Williams Ab
Ithel M.A. Llandovery 1856. Fick1 ii: Vrkeltischer Sprachschatz von Whitley Stokes. Ubersetzt
... von Adalbert Bezzeuberger. Gottingen 1894, being the 2nd
vol. of the 4th ed.of Vergleichendes Wdrterbuch der indogermani-schen, Sprachen von August Fick. G. Mechain: Gwaith y Parch. Walter Davies A.O. (Gwallter Mechain).
Dan ol. y Parch. D. Silvan Evans B.D. 3 vols. Caerfyrddin
1868. » G."R.: Dosparth Byrr ar y rhann gyntaf i ramadeg cymraeg ...
[Milan] 1567. Eeprinted as a suppl. to EC. 1870-83 under
the title A Welsh Grammar and other Tracts by Griffith Eoberts. Henry (or Henry Lex.) : Lexique etymologique des termes les plus
usuels du breton moderne. Par Victor Henry. Eennes 1900. Hirt Abl.: Der mdogermanisclie Ablaut... von Herman Hirt.
Straasburg 1900. Holder : Altceltischer Syrachsohatai. Leipzig 1891 ff.

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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ABBREVIATIONS
xvu
; TA.: Anseiger fur indogermanische Sprach- und Altertumskunde.
Supplement to IF. ; IF.: Indogermanische Forschungen. Zeitschrift fur indogermanische
Sprach- und Altertumskunde, herausgeg. von K. Brugmann und
W. Streitberg. Straseburg.
J.D.E.: Camhrobrytannicce Cymraecceve Lingvae Instilvtiones et • Rvdimenta . . . conscripta a Joanne Dauide Eheeso Monensi Lan-
uaethlieo Cambrobrytanno. Londini 1592. J.J.: Transcripts and original notes on orthography etc. in the
hand of John Jones of Gelli Lyfdy, fl. 1590-1630. KZ.: Kuhn's Zeitschrift = Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachfor-
schung avfdem Gebiete der indogermanischen Sprachen. Legonidec : Grammaire celto-bretonne ... Par J. F. M. M. A. Legoni-
dec. Paris 1807 Lhuyd : Archceologia Britannica ... By Edward Lhuyd. . . Oxford
1707. Lindsay: The Latin Language: An Historical Account of Latin
Sounds, Stems, and Flexions. By "W. M. Lindsay. Oxford
1894. Lindsay EWS.: Early Welsh Script. By W. M. Lindsay. Oxford
1912. Llyfryddiaeth: Llyfryddiaeth y Cymry . . . Gan y diweddar Barch.
William Rowlands (Gwilym Lleyn). Ed. by D. Silvan Evans.
Llanidloes 1869.
Loth Voc.: Vocabulaire vieux-breton .. . Par J. Loth. Paris 1884. Macbain: An .Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language. By
Alexander Macbain. 2 Stirling 1911. Meillet Dial.: Les didlectes indo-europeens. Par A. Meillet. Paris
1908. Meillet Intr.: Introduction a I'etude comparative des langues indo-
europeennes. 2 Palis 1908. Mendus J ones Gr.: Gramadeg Cymreig Ymarferol. .. Gan J. Mendus
Jonoh ('Llauidloes 1847), 2 Caernarfon n.d. Mona Ant.: Mona Antiqua Restaurata . . . By Henry Rowlands.
1 Dublin 1723.
MSL.: Memoires de la Societe de Linguistique de Paris.
Paris. O'Donovan (or O'Don. Gr.) : A Grammar of the Irish Language . ..
By John O'Donovan. Dublin 1845. Paul-Strong: Principles of the History of Language. By Hermann
Paul. Trans. by H. A. Strong. London 1891.
^ Pedersen Gr.: Vergleichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen, ; von Holger Pedersen. i Gottingen 1909; ii, i. Teil ib. 1911. | Sir J. Pi ice : see Y.L.H. under VI ii. E. I. Prys : Orgraph yr laith Gymraeg. Gan E. I. Prys a Thomas
Stephens. Dinbych 1859.
Pughe: A Dictionary of the Welsh Language . . . To which is prefixed a Wel/,h Grammar. ByW. Oweu Pughe. 'Denbigh 1832. EC.: Kevue Celtique ... Paris.
b

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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xym
ABBREVIATIONS
EhysCB.: Celtic Britain. By J. Ehys. London2! 884. Rhys CC.: Notes on The Coligny Calendar. By Sir John Rhys.
From the Proceedings of the British Academy iv. Ehys CF. : Celtic Folklore Welsh and Manse. By John Rhys . . .
Oxford 1901. • "Rhys CG.: Celtae and Galli. By John Ehys. From the Proc. of the
British Acad. ii.
Ehys OIFI.: The Celtic Inscriptions of France and Italy. By John . Ehys. From the Proc. of the Brit. Acad. ii. Ehys CIG-.: The Celtic Inscriptions of Gaul. By Sir John Ehys.
From the Proc. of the Brit. Acad. v. Ehys LWPh.: Lectures on. Welsh Philology^ By John Ehys. 2 London
1879.
Ehys no.: Number of inscription in LWPh2. • Eichards : Antiques Lingua; Britannicce Thesaurus, being a British,
or Welsh-English Dictionary ... By .. Thomas Eichards. 3 Dol-
gelley 1815. Eowland : A Grammar of the Welsh Language ... By Thomas Eow-
land. ^Wrexham [1876]. Salesbury: A Dictionary in Englyshe and Welshe... by Wyllyam
Salesbury. London 1547. Cymmrodorion Soc. Eeprint; See
also under V. Seebohm : see under VI ii. Silvan Evans: A Dictionary of the Welsh Language. By the Rev.
D. Silvan Evans. «—en-. Carmarthen 1888-1906. Silvan Evans, Llythyraeth: Llyfhyraeth yr laith Gymraeg. Gan D.
Silvan Evans. Caerfyrddin 1861. Sommer : Handbuch der lateinischen Laut- und Formenlehre... Von
Dr. Ferdinand Sommer. Heidelberg 1902. -S.E.: Si6n KbJ(!iderch=Grammadeg Cynvraeg ... 0 Gasgliad, My—
fyriad acArgraphiad John Rhydderch ... Mwythig (Shrewsbury)
1728.
T. Stephens : see E. I. Prys. Stokes, Fick : see Fick. Strachan Intr.: An Introduction to Early Welsh. By the Late
John Strachan .. Manchester 1909. S.V.: Pump JLyfr KerSwriaeth [Welsh Grammar and Prosody by
Simwnt Vy.chan, see V] ; see P.IL. under VI n. T. Charles : Geiyiadwr Tsgrythyrol. . . "Bala 1836. Tegai: Gramadeg Cymraeg ... Gan Hugh Hughes (Tegai). 3 Caer-
narfon [1859]. Tegid : A Defence of tlie Reformed System of Welsh Orthography ...
By the Eev. John Jones M.A. [Tegid]. Oxford 1829; and
another tract; confuted by W. B. Knight, to whom the chief
credit is due for saving the Welsh Bible from the vandalism of
Pughe's followers. . Thurneysen Gr.: Handbuch des Altirischen . . . Von Eudolf Thur- „
neysen. i.Teil: Grammatik. Heidelberg 1909.

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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ABBREVIATIONS
xix
Thurneysen KE.: K-eltoromanisches. Von Eudolf Thurneysen. Halle 1884.
T.J.: The British Language in its Lustre, or a Copious Dictionary oj Welsh and English.,. Compiled by the great Pains and Industry of Tho. Jones. London 1688.
TPS.: Transactions of the Philological Society. London.
Tr. Cym. : The Transactions af the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. London.
Troude: Nouveau dictionnaire pratique breton-francais ... Par A.-E. Troude. Brest 1876.
Troude, Die. Fr.-Bret.: Nouveau dictionnaire pratique francais ^ breton... Par A. Troude. s Brest .1886.
Vendryes Gr.: Grammaire du vieil-irlandais ... Par J. Vendryes ...
Paris 1908.
Walde : Lateinisches etymologisches Worterbuch, von Dr. Alois Walde
... Heidelberg 11906, 2 1910. Whitney: A Sanskrit Grammar . . . By William Dwight Whitney.
3 Leipzig 1896.
"Williams Lex: Lexicon Gornu-Britannicum. . By the Rev. Robert
Williams M.A.. . Llandovery 1865. ZE.: fframmatica Celtica ... Construxit I. 0. Zeuss ... Editio Altera
-curavit H. Ebel... Berolini 1871. ZfGP.': Zeitschrift fur celtische Philologie,' Jig. v. Kuno Meyer nnd
L. Chr. Stern. Halle a. S.
Other references seem to require no explanation. The most important of the works used, but not referred to, are the following :
A .New English Dictionary.—Skeat, An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language * 1910.—Kluge, Etymologisches Worterbuch der deutschen Sprache ''1910.—Prellwitz, Etymologisches Worterbuch der griechischen Sprache21905. —Macdonell, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary 1893.—Wiedemann, Handbuch der litauischen Sprache 2 1897.— Wright, A Primer of the Gothic Language 'i899.—Windisch, Irische Texte mit Worterbuch 1880.—Loth, Les mots latins dans les langues brittoniques 1892.—Rhys, The Outlines of the Phonology of Manx Gaelic 1894.
 
 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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 XX
ABBREVIATIONS
B.V.: Bleddyn Vardd, fl. 1250-90.
C.: Oynddelw (Powys), fl. 1150-1200.
Ca.: Casnodyn, c. 1320.
Oeiriog : John Ceiriog Hughes, 1832-87.
D.B.: Dafydd Benfrag, fl. 1200—50.
D.E.: Dafydd ab Edmwnd (Flintsh.), fl. 1450-80.
D.G.: Dafydd ap Gwilym (N. Card.), fl. 1350-80; ref. to Bardd-
oniaeth Dafydd ab Gwilym . . . Llundain, 1789. D.I.D.: Deio ab leuan Du (Card.), c. 1480. D.IL.: Dafydd Llwyd ap Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, c. 1480. D.N.: Dafydd Nanmor (Beddgelert), c. 1460. Dr. M.: William Morgan (O'vonshire), 1541-1604; Bp. of St.
Asaph, translator of the Bible, 1588. Dr. P.: Eichard Parry (Ruthin), 1560-1623 ; Bp. of St. Asaph, editor
of the revised Bible, 1620. -Internal and other evidence points
to the version being largely if not mainly by Dr. John Davies. D.W.: Dewi Wyn o Eifion = Dafydd Owen (Llanystumdwy), 1784-
1841; ref. to Blodav, Arfon, . .. Caerlleon (Chester), 1842. D. y C.: Dafydd y Coed, c. 1330. E.F.: Eben Fardd = Ebenezer Thomas (S. C'von), 1802-63 ; ref. to
Gweithiau Barddonol Eben fardel. [Pangor, n.d.] E.M. : Edward Morris (Cerrig y Drudion), d. 1689 ; ref. to Edward
Morris . . . ei Achau . . etc. Liverpool 1902. E.P.: Edmwnd Prys, Archdeacon of Merioneth. 1541—1623; ref. to
.Edmwnd Prys ... Gan. T. E,. Kobeits (Asaph). Caernarfon 1899.
PS. refers to his metrical version of the Psalms. E.S.: Elidir Sals, fl. 1160-1220. E.U.: Edward ab Urien, c. 1610. G.: Gwalchmai (Anglesey), fl. 1150-90. G.B.: Gwynfardd Brycheinog (Brec.), c. 1170. G.O.: Gruffudd ap Cynfrig Goch, p. 119, error in p64/12 a E. for
Bhys ap Cynfrig Goch p 97/244 (" nai . . i I.G." t); P 100/408 ;
lLi33/i29E.(< =R.G.G.). G.D.A.: Gwilym Ddn o Arfon, c. 1300. G Gl.: Guto'r Glyn (Denb.), fl. 1450-80. G.Gr.: Gruffudd Gryg (Anglesey), c. 1370. G.Gw.: Gruffudd ap Gwrgeueu, c. 1200. G.H. : Gruffudd Hiraethog (N. Denb.), fl. 1520-60. G.I.H.: Gwilym ab leuan Hen, c. 1460. G.LIL.F.: Gruffudd ab leuan ap Llywelyn Fychan (Denb.), fl. 1500—
25; selected poems ed. by J. C. Morrice, Bangor Welsh MSS.
Soc. 1910.
G.J.: Griffith Jones, Rector of Llanddowror, 1684—1761. G.M D.: Gruffudd ap Maredudd ap Dafydd, c. 1320—50. Gr.O.: Goronwy Owen (Anglesey), 1723-69; ref. to Gwaith y
Parch. Goronwy Owen . . . Llanrwst, 1860. (In R. Jones's
edn., 1876, the text is tampered with.) G.S.: Guto ap Siancyn y Glyn==G.GL

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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ABBREVIATIONS
xxi
G.T.: Gwilym Tew (Glam.), c. 1450.
Gu.O., Gut.O.: Gutun Owain (Denb.), fl. 1450-90.
G.V.: Gruffudd Vychan, c. 1320.
G.Y.O.: Gruffudd ab yr Ynad Coch, c. 1280.
H.A.: HuwArwystlc. 1550.
H.O.IL.: Huw (or Hywel) Cae Llwyd, c. 1480 [HJ E. p. 428 footn.
for 1525 read 1475]-H.D.: Huw Dan, or Hywel ap Dafydd ab leuan ap Rhys (Brec.), c.
1480.
H.K.: Hywel Kilan (1=1-1) (Llyn f}, c. 1480.-H.M.: Hugh Maurice (Denb.), 1622-1709; ref. to Eos Ceiriog ... 2
vols. Wrexham, 1823. H.O.G.: Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd, Prince of the House of
Gwynedd, d. 1170. . H.R.: Hywel Bheinallt, c. 1480. s H.S.: Hywel Swrdwal (Montgomerysh.V c. 1450; ref. to Gwaith
Barddonol Hywel Swrdwal a'i fab leuan, ed.by J. 0. Morrice,
Bangor "Welsh M8S. Soc., 1908. I.B.H.: leuan Brydydd Hir (Merioneth), <;. 1450. I.C.: lorwerth ab yOyriawg,, c. 1360. I.D.: leuan Deulwyn (Carm.), fl. 1460-80; ref. to Gwaith leuan
Deulwyn, ed. by Ifor Williams, Bangor Welsh MSS. Soc. 1909. LF.: lorweith Fynglwyd (Glam.), c. 1490. I.G.: lolo Goch (Denb.), fl. 1370-1405; ref. to Gweithiau Iof»
Goch. . . Gan Charles Ashton, Cymmrodorion Soc., 1896. I.H.S.: leuan ap Hywel Swrdwal, c. 1470; ref. as for H.S., q.v. I.ILaf.: leuan Llavar, c. 1590. Io.G.=LG.
I.E..: leuan ap Rhydderch ab leuan Llwyd, c. 1420. I.T.: leuan Tew o Gydweli, c. 1460 (often confused with the later,
and lesser, Teuan Tew who graduated at the Caerwys Eisteddfod
of 1568). L.G.C.: Lewis Glyn Cothi, fl. 1440-80; ref. to Gwaith Lewis Glyn
Cothi . . . Oxford 1837.
L.M. : Lewis Morris (Llywelyn Ddu o Fon), 1701-65. L.M6n: Lewis Mon, c. 1500. •'"""-L.Mor.: Lewis Morgannwg, c. 1520. IL.: Llawdden (Llandeilo, I.MSS. 320), c. 146®. IL.G.: Llywelyn Goch Amheurig Hen, c. 1350. M.: Meilyr (Anglesey), c. 1137. M.B.: Madog Benfras, c. 1380. M.D.: Madog Dwygraig, c. 1370. M.K.: Maurice Kyffin; ref. to Dejfywn.iad Ffydd Eglwys Lwgr 1595,
reprint ed. by Wm. Pilchard Williams, Bangor 1908. M.1L. : Morgan Llwyd o Wynedd, i'6i9-i659; ref. to Gweithiau
Morgan Llwyd o Wynedd, i ed. by Thomas E. Ellis, Bangor 1899 ;
ii ed. by John H. Davies, Bangor i9&8. M.B. : Maredudd ap Rhys, c. 1440.
 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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XXII
ABBREVIATIONS
O.G-. : Owain Gwynedd, c. 1580. P.M. : Llywarch ap Llywelyn, Prydydd y Moch (Wigwer, St. Asaph ;
i "wele [gwely] Pridith Mogh " at "Wyckewere", Seebohm 31),
.c. 1160-1220. E.G. : Ehys Cain, c. 1580.
E.D. : Richard Davies (Conway), Bp. of St. Davids, 1501-81; translator of some epistles in Wm.S.'s N.T. 1567. E.G.D. : Robert ap Gwilym Ddu = Eobert Williams, Betws Fawr,
Llanystumdwy, 1767-1850; ref. to ffardd Eifion . . , Dolgellau
1841.
R.G.E. : Rhys Goch Eryri (O'vonsh.), c. 1430. R.G.G. : Rhys Goch Glyndyfrdwy, c. 1420 (1), see G.C. . R.IL. : Rhys Llwyd ap Rhys ap Khicart, c. 1460. ' E.M. : Richard Morris (Anglesey, brother of L.M.), 1703-79; editor
of Bible, 1746, 1752.
R.V. : Rowland Vaughan, Oaer Gai, Llanuwchllyn, d. 1667. Salesbury, see Wm.S.
S.B. : Si6n Brwynog (o Frwynog ym M6n), d. 1562. S.C. : Sion Cent (Kentchurch), c. 1420. S.M. : Si6n Mawddwy (native of Glana.), c. 1580. S.Ph. : Si6n Phylip (Ardudwy, Mer.), 1543-1620. S.T. : Si6n Tudur (Wigwer, St. Asaph), d. 1602. S.V. : Simwnt Vychan (Ruthin), born c. 1530, d. 1606; author of
P.IL. T. : Talhaiarn = John Jones, Llanfair Talhaearn, 1810-69 ; ref. to
Owaith Talhaiarn, i London 1855, ii London 1862, (iii Llanrwst
1869).
T.A. : Tudur Aled (N. Denb.), fl. 1480-1520. "W.IL. : Wiliam Llyn (?.Llvn; res. Oswestry), 1535-80; ref. to
Barddoniaetb Wiliam .Llyn . . . Gan y Paich. J. C. Monice M.A.
Bangor 1908.
"VV.M. : William Morris (brother of L.M.), 1705-63. "Wm.S. : Wyllyam Salesbury (Llanrwst); translator of the bulk of
N.T. 1567 ; joint tr. and ed. of Pb. 1567, 1586 ; etc. •'Wms. : William Williams, Pant y Celyn (Carm.); hymn-writer,
1717-91 ; ref. to Gwaith Prydyddawl . . . William Williams . . .
sefyr Holl Hymnau . . , Caeifyrddin, 1811, definitive edn. by his
son.

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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ABBREVIATIONS
xxm
VI. SOURCES
T. COLLECTIONS OF MANUSCRIPTS
The name of the collection is denoted by a sm. cap. initial without a stop ; the number of the MS. follows, and generally the number of the page or folio, separated by an oblique stroke; thus P 99/469 means Peniarth MS. 99, page (or folio) 469. The MSS., except those of the Brit. Mus., are numbered as in the Historical Manuscripts Commission's Report on Manuscripts in the Welsh Language, s,. after a reference indicates that the words quoted appear in the Report. As many of the quotations are taken from transcripts in some of which only the p. or fol. of the opening lines of a poem was given, the reference may be to the piece beginning on the p. or fol. named.
A = British Museum Additional Manuscripts.
c == Cardiff Free Library Manuscripts.
s = Manuscripts in the Jesus College Library, Oxford.
Hi = Llanstephan Manuscripts, now in the National Library of
•Wales.
M = Mostyn Manuscripts, at Mostyn Hall. p = Peniarth Manuscripts, now in the National Library of Wales. Stowe = British Museum Stowe Manuscripts.
II. MANUSCRIPTS A^7D TEXTS
0. W. materials are distinguished thus +. References are not usually given to the pages of ox., ox. 2, JUV. and M.O., as Loth Voc. forms an index to these MSS. The reference is to pages except where otherwise stated below.
+A.C.: Annales Cambrics in Y Cymmrodor ix 152-169; reference
to years. [Early i2th cent. literal transcript of late loth
cent. orig. by scribe ignoiant of Welsh, see Phillimore's
preface.] A.G.: Athravaeth Gristnogavl [Milan 1568]. By Morys Clynoo;
ed. by G.R. Cymmrodorion Soc. Reprint 1880. A.L. : Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales ... z vols. 1841. B.A. : The Book of Aneirin == c i, circa 1250. Facsimile and
Text by J. Gwenogvlyn Evans. Pwllheli 1908. [Parts are
transciibed literally from older copies not understood by the
scribe.] BAE. : Barddas... With trans. and notes by J. Williams ab Ithel.
i Llandovery 1862 ; (ii London 1874). [Late Gwehtian.]
 
V. AUTHORS
(rfi; before an author's initials in brackets denotes that the quotation is from a marwnad in his memory.)
A.R. : Absalom Roberts (Conway Vale), d. 1862 (?), see IL.M.
B.A.: Bedo Aeddren (Llangwm, IL 15/44 B.), c. 1500.
B.Br.: Bedo Brwynllys (Brec.), c. 1460.
B.D.: Bleddyn Du [Ble8yn Tu § 111 vii (2)], c. 1350.
B.F.: y Brawd Fadawg ap Gwallter, c. 1250.
B.Ph.B.: Bedo Phylip Bach, c. 1480.
b2
 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


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XXIV
ABBREVIATIONS
B.B. : The Black Book of Carmarthen == P i, end of lath cent. Ed.
«i by J. Gwenogvryn Evans. Pwilheli 1906.
B.CH. : The Black Book of Chirk == p 29 = A.L. MS. A., circa 1200.
Quotations taken from the orig. MS. (Quotations from A.L. are
referred to the latter.)
B.cw.: Gweledigaetheu y Bardd Owsc. [By Ellis Wynne]. Llun-»; dam i'703. Reprint ed. by J. Morris Jones, Bangor 1898. BE. : Y Brython. i Weekly; ii-iv Monthly ; v Quarterly. Tre-
madoc 1858-63. [Contains old cywyddau etc.] +B.S.OH : The Book of St. Chad. 9th cent. entries in W., see
Lindsay EWS. 1-6; transcribed (with facsimiles) in LJi.
pp. xliii—xlviil; ref. to nos. of entries ib. > B.T. : The Book of Taliessin = p 2, circa 1275 ; ref. to the edn.
about to be published by Dr. Gwenogvryn Evans. C. i and c. ii: Ceinion Llenyddiaeth Gymreig . .. Dan olygiad y
Parch.
Owen Jones. 2 vols. London 1876. C.B.Y.P. : Cyfrinach Beirdd Ynys Prydain , . . Dan olygiad . . .
lolo Morganwg.
Abertawy (Swansea) 1829. c.c.: The, Cefn Coch MSS.... Ed. by the Rev. J. Fisher. Liverpool 1899. [Late i6th and i7th cent.; mostly poetry.] C.G. Cant o Ganeuon. Gan John Geiriog Hughes. Wrexham [1863]. C.IL.: Cynfeirdd Lleyn: l^oo—I&oo ... Oyniiulledig... gan J. Jones
(Myrddin Fardd). Pwilheli 1905. C.M. : Ystorya de Oarolo Mag-no. From the Red Book of Hergest.
Ed. by Thomas Powell. Cymmrod. Soc. 1883. +CP. : Fragment of an Old Welsh Computus. 23 lines [loth cent,].
Fac., transcr. and transl. by E. C. Quiggin. ZfCP. viii 407-10.
Ref. to lines.
CY. : Reproductions in Y Cymmrodor. D. : Quoted in D., see under IV.
D.G. : By G.Gr. etc., printed in D.G.; see under V. " D.P.O. : Drych y Prif Oesoedd . . . Gan Theophilus Evans...
'Mwythig (Shrewsbury) [1740]. Reprint ed. by Samuel J.
Evans . . . Bangor 1902. D.T. : Diddanwch Teuluaidd : neu Waith Beirdd Mem ... !! Caer- ^
narfon 1817. E.: Eglwryn Phraethineb . . . Gan Mr. William Salesbury, a ...
Mr. Henri Perri . . . Lhundain 1595 ; ''Llanrwst 1829. Ref;
to chapters. E.G. : Eos Gwynedd . . . Gan . . John Thomas, Pentre'r Foelas»
Dan olygiaeth G. Oaledfryn. Llanrwst[i845]. E.P. : Quoted in E.P.; see under V. v. : Flores Poetarum Britannicarum ... 0 gasgliad J[ohn] D[avies]
S8. Th. D. . . . Mwythig (Shrewsbury) 1710. r.N.: Y Flodeugerdd .Newydd. Casgliad 0 gywyddau . . . Wedi eu
golygu gan W. J. Gruffydd.
Cardiff 1909. [Early Mn. verse'.] G. ; Gorchestion Beirdd Cymru ... 0 Gasgliad Bhys Jones . . .
Amwythig (Shrewsbury) 1773. [Early Mn. verse.] s
 
 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


(d
elwedd 1427)
(tudalen xxv)


$$
SGANIAD AMRWD: TESTUN HEB EI GYWIRO ETO
ESCANEJAT SENSE CORREGIR
RAW SCAN: TEXT NOT YET CORRECTED


ABBREVIATIONS
xxv
The History of ffruff'ydd ap Cynan. , The Welsh Text with
B.C.:
trans., intr; and notes. By Arthur Jones. Manchester 1910.
[Pp. 102-142 = p 17/1—16, mid-i3th cent.] +GEN. Old-Welsh Genealogies in Y Cymmrodor ix 169-83; ref.
to nos. of genealogies. [From the same MS. as A.c., q.v.] G.E. Quoted in G.R., see under IV. GBE. (or Greal) : Y Great ; sev Cynnulliad o Orchestion ein
Hynaviaid . . . Llundain 1805—7. H.G. : Hen Gwndidau, Caroldu, a Chywydda'u,...[Ed.~\ by Hopcyn ...
and Cadrawd . .. Bangor 1910. [Gwentian i6th-i7th cent.] Hyff. Gynn(wys): Byfforddiad Gynnwys I Wybodaeth jachusol o
Egwyddorjon a Dyledswyddau Grefydd . . . Gan Weinidog
o Eglwys Loegr [Griffith Jones], Llundain 1749. H.M. ii : Selections from the Hengwrt MSS. . . in the Peniarth
Library. Vol. ii. Ed... by.. Robert Williams . . . transl. contd.
by . . G. Hartwell Jones . . London 1892. [Vol. i is referred
tu as s.G.] I.MSS. : lolo Manuscripts . . . Coll. . . by . . Edward Williams, lolo
Morganwg . . . Llandovery 1848. [Contains cywyddau etc. .
besides late Gwentian memoranda]. + JCV. : Glosses in the Juvencus MS., Cambridge Univ. Libr. Published by Stokes in Kuhn's Beitrage iv 385-421. [9th to irth
cent., Lindsay EWS. 16.] + JUV. SK. : Tlie verses in the Juvencus MS., printed in Skene's Four
Ancient Books of Wales ii 1—2. li.G.C. : Appearing in L.G.C., see under V. +ii.L.: LiberLandaveusis,c.ii5o. The Text oftheBookofLlanDav
... by J.Gwenogvryn Evans... [and]JohnKhys .. Oxford 1893.
[Contains documents with O.W. forms literally transcribed]. IL.A. : Llyfr yr Ancr, dated 1346. The Eliwidariwm, and Other
Tracts in Welsh... Ed. by J. Morris Jones ... and John Rhys
... Oxford 1894. Hi.B.M. : Llyfr Bychan Mawddwy, a i6th cent. MS. in the National;
Libr. of Wales. IL.H. : Y Llyfr Hir in the National Libr. of Wales. [MS. collection
by W. Jones (Bleddyn), of Early Mn. cywyddau.] ni.M.: Lloches Mwyneidd-dra ... Gan Absalom Roberts. Llanrwst
1845. [Contains coll. of old penillion telyn.] M.A.: The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales ... 3 vols. London
1801-7. [Corpus of Ml. poetry and prose. 2 Denbigh 1870.] + M.C. : Glosses on Martianus Capella in the Libr. of Corpus Christi
College, Cambridge, ed. by Stokes in Arch. Camb. 1873 pp.
i—2i. [Mostly 9th cent., Lindsay EW8. 22.] M.B. : Mil o Knglynion -=- Pigion Englynion fy Ngwiad .. . Gan
Eifionydd. i" and ii, Liverpool 1882. M.L. : Morris Letters. T1ie Letters of Lewis, Eichard, William and
John Morris, of Anglesey . . . iJ28—iy6y. Transcr. . .and ed.
by John H. Davies ... 2 vols. Oxford 1906—9.
 
 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                       

 

 


(d
elwedd 1428)
(tudalen xxvi)                                                                                                                                                                                 


$$
SGANIAD AMRWD: TESTUN HEB EI GYWIRO ETO
ESCANEJAT SENSE CORREGIR
RAW SCAN: TEXT NOT YET CORRECTED


svi ABBREVIATIONS
M.M. : Meddygon Myddfai. The Physicians of Myddvai... Transl. by John Pughe . . F.E.C.S. . . and ed. by . . John Williams Ab Ithel. Llandovery 1861. [Pp. 1-34 are from E.B. 9280".] N.T.: New Testament.
O.B. : Oriau'r Bore. Gan John Oeiriog Hughes. 2 Wrexham n.d. O.H. : Oriau'r Hwyr. G-an John Oeiriog Hughes. 5 Wrexham [1872]. + ox.: Oxford Liber Commonei and Ovid, Bodleian Libr., Auct. F 4. 32. Date 817, Lindsay E"WS. 7 (8r2, Dogp. Ed. 10).
Glosses in W. and notes in mixed Lat. and W,, printed in ZE.1052-60. +ox. 2: Cod. Oxoniensis Posterior. Glosses in Bodl. 572 printed
in ZE. 1060-3 as W.; given as Corn. in Loth Voc. ix; shown
to be W. by Loth, RO. xiv 70; loth cent. Pb.: Prayerbook. P.G.G. : Pattrwm, y Gwir-Gristion ... Chester 1723. Beprint ed. by
H. Elvet Lewis. Bangor 1908. P.Ei.: Pump JLyfr Ker'&wriaeth by S.V.=;r 9 autograph; printed
(from a copy by J.J. of a copy of the orig.) in Dosp. Ed. pp.
xlii—cxxviii. r.iL. refers to the latter, J 9 to the auto. MS. E.B. : The Red Book of Hergest =,r I, late i4th and early i5th cent.
Quotations taken direct from the MS. ; ref. to columns. a B.B. : Eed Book Bruts. The Text of The Brutsfrom the Keel Book
of Hergest. Ed. by John Rhys . .. and J. Gwenogvryn Evans.
Oxford 1890. E.G.: Red Book Grammar; cols. 1117-1142 of B.B. Eef. to
columns. The Bangor MSS. Soc. will shortly publish an
edn. by the writer. EH.B.S.; Kheol Buchedd Smwtaidd... Llundain 1701. Transl. of
Jer. Taylor's Holy Living by Ellis Wynne, author of B.OW. E,M. : Bed Book Mabinogion. The Text of the Mabinogion. ..
from the Red Book of Hergest. Ed. by John Rhys . . . and
J. Gwenogvryn Evans. Oxford 1887. E.r. : Bed Book Poetry; quotations taken from corrected proofs of
the edn. about to be published by Dr. .J. Gwenogvryn Evans.
Ref. to columns. Kuthin Court Rolls: The Court Kolls of the Lordship of Ruthin
.....of the Keign of King Edward the'First. Ed... by
R. A. Roberts. Cymmrod. Record Series. London 1893.
[Contains Welsh names in Norman-Fr. spelling.] Seebohm Trib. Syg.: The Tribal System in Wales ... by Frederic
Seebohm .. . London 1895. [Contains reproductions of Norman
documents with Welsh names.] s.Q.: Selections from the Hengwrt MSS, .. Vol. i. Y Seint Great'...
Ed... by.. Robert Williams. London 1876 [=PII, end of
i4th cent.] BE. : The Four Ancient Books of Wales ... By William F. Skene.
Edinburgh 1868. Vol. ii. [Texts; now superseded except
pp. 1-2, see JTJT.]
 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

 


(d
elwedd 1429)
(tudalen xviii)


$$
SGANIAD AMRWD: TESTUN HEB EI GYWIRO ETO
ESCANEJAT SENSE CORREGIR
RAW SCAN: TEXT NOT YET CORRECTED


ABBREVIATIONS
XXVll
TE. : Tremvan MS. ; cywyddau etc. in the hand of Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt 1592-1666 ; used by the editor of Q.; now in the possession of Dr. J. Gwenogvryn Evans.
w.: i3th cent. MS. copied by Dr. Davies in 1617, since lost sight of, recently re-discovered; Davies's copy in A 14869, the source of the pooniH of M., G., H.O.G., etc. in M.A. i. A reproduction, cd. by the present writer, will be issued in the Univ. of Wall's Guild Series.
•W.B.: The White Hook of Rhydderch = p 4 and 5. W.M.: The White /tun/c Mabinogion . .. Ed. by J. Gwenogvryn Evans. Pwllheli 1907. r'rom the White Book of Rhydderch ==p 4, late i ^tli criit. Rcf. to columns. The volume also contains other early versions of the Mabinogiqu, incl. the fragments in P 6/i, ii, circa 1225 ; ref. in this casp to pages distinguished by " p."
•W.M.I,. : Welsh Medieval Law ... Harl. MS. 4353 . . . i3th cent.. . .
By A. W. Wade-Evans. Oxford 1909. Y.L.H. : Tn y Ihyvyr hwnn y traethir ffwySor kymraeg, etc., 1546.
By Sir John Price. Reprint ed. by John H. Davies .. Bang&r
1902.
CORRECTIONS
P. 54, § 44 i, 1. 9, read Kellynnawc {11=1}
P. 71, § 54 ii, 1. i, after b, d, g, insert f, dd,
P. 113, § 78 i (2), 1. 7, delete -,—raww § 210 x (3) *
P. 131, iv, 1. 8, insert * before ghuer-
P. 153, 1. i, read di\e\fyl •
P. 16 6, iv (3), I. 6, for * ad-rim- read *ad-rwn,-
P. 194, 1. 9, insert * before is-le.
P. 277, 1. 7, delete * before wy
The metathesis was suggested by Mr. Ifor Williams ; unfortunately I overlooked his note in his Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys (1910), p. 20, in which he adduces examples of wy M.A.2 1456 and uy do. 2276, so that the form need not have been starred. The same explanation is given. by Pedersen Gr. ii (1911), p. 158.
 
 
 

 
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