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Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Gal
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The Wales-Catalonia Website


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An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English

 

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TUDALENNAU ERAILL Y GEIRIADUR HWN

OTHER PAGES IN THIS DICTIONARY


1580e A | 1039e B | 1735e BR | 1018e C | 1071e CE | 1675e CI | 1040e CR | 1075e CY | 1020e D | 1674e DI | 1072e E | 1077e F | 1021e G | 1042e GW | 1038e H | 1676e HY, I, J, K, | 1865e L | 1022e M | 1677e MI | 1047e N | 1600e O | 1023e P | 1073e PL | 1026e R | 1070e S | 1024e T | 1076e TR | 1025e U,V | 1731e W, X | 1586e Y, Z |

 


:_______________________________.

L, l
l feminine noun
1
) twelfth letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
...
1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e, 6 f, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z

2
) fifteenth letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e, 8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y


:_______________________________.

l-

1
In polysyllables there is usually the loss of a final l in the clusters -bl, -dl, -gl in colloquial Welsh

..1/ banadl (= broom plants) > banad
..2/ cwnstabl (= constable) > cwnstab
..3/ danadl (= nettles) > danad
..4/ mwsogl (= moss) > mwsog
..5/ perygl (= danger) > peryg
..6/ posibl (= possible) > posib
..7/ rhuddygl (= radish) > rhuddyg
..8/ triagl (= treacle) > triag

Addition of l examples of the reverse process

..1/ In the case of the pair cwrwg / cwrwgl (= coracle) the original form is in fact cwrwg to which an l has been added in literary Welsh.

Similarly
..2/ tymestl (= storm) is from tymest (from Latin tempestus)

..3/ chwibanogl (= whistle) is from chwibanog

See the entry r for examples of a similar loss in colloquial Welsh with final r

aradr
(= plough) > arad
Cadwaladr
(= mans name) > Dwalad,
ffenestr
(= window) > ffenest, etc

:_______________________________.

labrwr LA-brur ˡlabrʊr masculine noun
PLURAL labrwyr, labrwrs (LABR-wir, LA-brurs)
ˡlabrwɪr, ˡlabrʊrs
1
workman

ETYMOLOGY: (labr-, stem of the verb labro = to labour) + (-wr suffix for forming nouns indicating the agent, man)

:_______________________________.

Ladineg
la-d-neg feminine noun
1
Ladin, a Rhaetian language spoken in South Tyrol

2
Ladin, a dialect of Romansch in the Inn River valley, in the canton of Grisons, Switzerland

3
(adjective)
llyfr Ladineg a Ladin book

ETYMOLOGY: (Ladin = name of the language) + (-eg suffix for indicating languages) < English Ladin < Ladin Ladin < Latin Latn-us

:_______________________________.

lafwr l -vur masculine noun
Also: lawr
laur
1
Porphyra umbilicalis laver = type of seaweed of the genus Porphyra with edible fronds

2
See: bara lawr

ETYMOLOGY: English laver < Latin laver, species of water plant

:_______________________________.

Lai lai feminine noun
1
Colloquial name for the river Eli in south-east Wales

(a) Blaen Lai source of the river Eli

(b) Tre-lai suburb of Caer-dydd on the western bank

See Eli


ETYMOLOGY: Lai < Eli (loss of the pretonic vowel)

:_______________________________.

Lal = Sali LAL (feminine noun)
1
diminutive of Welsh Sara / Sarah (= English Sarah)

:_______________________________.

Lali
= Lal, Sali LA li (feminine noun)
1
diminutive of Welsh Sara / Sarah (= English Sarah)

:_______________________________.

lamp, lampau
LAMP, LAM pe (feminine noun)
1
lamp

:_______________________________.

lamp ddarllen, lampau darllen
lamp DHAR lhen, lam pe DAR lhen (feminine noun)
1
reading lamp

:_______________________________.

lan
lan
1
soft mutated form of glan (= river bank; slope, hillside, hill)

y lan the bank, etc

It is used in some place names as a radical from instead of glan

..a/ Lan-dŵr
From lan y dŵr (the) edge (of) the water, brook side, with the loss of the linking definite article y, a common feature in place names
(the expected form would be glan y dŵr)

Name of a village in the county of Abertawe

..b/ Lan-y-nant
Wm David, Lanynant in Lantarnam 23 Mar 1817 (aged) 68
(Mentioned in Llantarnam Burials 1813-74) http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~monfamilies/llantarnbur1813-74.htm

..c/ Lan-y-parc
From lan y parc (the) hillside (of) the field
(the expected form would be glan y parc)

This is a street name in Llancaeach, county of Caerffili (spelt as Lan y Parc)

2 soft mutated form of llan (= church
; village with a parish church)

y llan the church, etc;
but o lan i lan from church to church
:_______________________________.

lan (= i lan) LAN (adverb) (South Wales)

1
up
mynd i lan > mynd lan go up
dod i lan > dod lan come up

:_______________________________.

-lan
lan
1
qualified element in a compound noun, soft mutated form of llan (= enclosure, cell, church)

..1/ cadeirlan cathedral (cadair = chair, bishops throne)
..2/ corlan sheepfold (cor- from Old Welsh cordd = flock)
..3/ ydlan rickyard (ŷd = corn)

2
qualified element in a compound noun, soft mutated form of glan (= bank, shore)
..1/ ceulan riverbank
..2/ morlan seaside (not a word in general use; used in house names)
..3/ torlan river bank

:_______________________________.

Y Lan ə lan
1
A farm north-east of Bryncethin (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) on Heol Cefncarfan, the road from Brycethin to Heol-y-cyw

2
A farm at Pen-y-graig-wen, Pont-ty-pridd (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) hillside (or hillside pasture)
(y = definite article) + soft mutation + (glan = hillside, hill)

:_______________________________.

landeg lan-deg adjective
1
soft-mutated form of glandeg (= fair)

It occurs as an epithet.
Siarl Landeg Charles the Fair
Siarli Landeg Bonnie Prince Charlie

NOTE: In older Welsh, the initial consonant of an epithet, if mutatable, was soft-mutated. Thus glandeg > landeg.

When the Welsh were obliged to use fixed surnames, some individuals, instead of using a patronymic form ap Sin > Jones son > Jones used an epithet by which they were known, and Landeg became a fixed surname, centred especially in the Afan valley by Aberafan / Port Talbot.

Other examples of the soft mutation in this circumstance are coch (= red-haired) > goch (surname Goch, in English as Gough), bychan (= junior, the younger) > fychan (surname Fychan, in English as Vaughan)

:_______________________________.

landlord land -lord masculine noun
PLURAL landlordiaid land- lord -yed

1
landlord = landowner, owner of land
Usually: tirfeddiannwr

2
landlord = person who rents land or accommodation to a tenant

3
landlord = pub owner or manager, tavern keeper
Usually: tafarnwr

ETYMOLOGY: English landlord (land + lord)

:_______________________________.

landlord absennol
land -lord ab-se-nol masculine noun
PLURAL %landlordiaid absennol
land- lord -yed ab-se-nol
1
absentee landlord, landowner who lives away from the land or property he rents out

:_______________________________.

landlordiaeth land-lord-yeth feminine noun
1
landlordism = system of renting out land or property, sometimes in the sense of renting out at an exhorbitant rent

:_______________________________.

landri lan -dri feminine noun
PLURAL landris
lan -dris
1
laundry = place to wash clothes

ETYMOLOGY: 1900+; English laundry < lavendry < Old French < Latin lavre (= to wash)
Also: londri

:_______________________________.

landro lan -dro verb
1
verb with an object launder = wash and iron

ETYMOLOGY: 1770; from English {lndər} to launder = to wash; (landr-) + (-o suffix for forming verbs); launder (to wash, originally a noun = washerwoman) < Old French lavandiere (= washerwoman) < Latin lavre (= to wash)

:_______________________________.

lndrofer lan -dro-ver masculine noun
PLURAL lndrofers, lndroferi
lan -dro-vers, lan-dro- ve -ri
1
landrover = type of vehicle for the road and rough terrain

ETYMOLOGY: English, name of a make of vehicle (land + rover)

:_______________________________.

Y Landsger land -sker feminine noun
1
the Landsker, the boundary line between the Welsh language and the English language in the county of Penfro

:_______________________________.

Lan-dŵr lan- duur
1
village in the county of Abertawe
English name: Landore

ETYMOLOGY: (Lan y Dŵr) (the) edge (of) the water, brook side)
(the expected form would be glan y dŵr)

Lan is used in some place names as a radical from instead of glan

(glan = river bank, streams edge) + (y = the) + (dŵr = water, stream)

The linking definite article y is often omitted in place names

:_______________________________.

lanfa lan -va
1
soft-mutated form of glanfa (= landing place, landing stage, landing, wharf)

2
Y Lanfa street in Trefechan, Aberystwyth (county of Ceredigion) (the wharf, the landing place, etc)

:_______________________________.

lansio LAN sho (verb)
1
to launch

2
safle lansio launching pad

:_______________________________.

Lan-y-parc lan ə park
1
(Lan y Parc) ((the) hill (of) the field)
Street name in Llancaeach, county of Caerffili

ETYMOLOGY: (the expected form would be glan y parc)
Lan is used in some place names as a radical from instead of glan
(glan = river bank; slope, hillside, hill) + (y = the) + (parc = field)

:_______________________________.

Y Lan Wen ə lan WEN
1
hill near Dl-fach, Powys SN9172

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/580857

ETYMOLOGY: (the white slope)

(y = the) + (glan = river bank; slope, hillside, hill) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white)

:_______________________________.

lapswchad lap-s -khad feminine noun
PLURAL lapswchadau
lap-su-kh-de
(South-west Wales)
1
sloppy kiss, long kiss

ETYMOLOGY: (lapswch-, stem of lapswchan = give a sloppy kiss) + (-ad suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

lapswcho lap-s -kho verb
(South-west Wales)

1
(without an object) give a sloppy kiss, give a long kiss
2
(with an object) give a sloppy kiss to, give a long kiss to

ETYMOLOGY: (lap- = to lick) + (swch = lips) + (-o suffix for forming verbs)
NOTE: also lapswchan

:_______________________________.

larwm, larymau LA rum, la RƏ me (masculine noun)
1
alarm = device to give a warning

botwm larwm (m), botymau larwm alarm button

canur larwm
to sound the alarm
y larwm yn canu the alarm + sounding
pan for larwm yn canu when the alarm sounds
y larwm yn canu'n ddireswm the alarm sounding for no reason
y larwm yn canu heb achos da the alarm sounding for no reason (without good cause)

cychwyn larwm to set off an alarm

byddair larwm
yn diffodd ar l canu am bum munud
the alarm would switch off after sounding for five minutes

cloch larwm (f), clychau larwm alarm bell

larwm byrgler
burglar alarm (a more colloquial expression than larwm lladron)
la rum BəR gler

larwm byrgleriaid burglar alarm (a more correct form, with the plural of byrgler, used in written Welsh, of larwm byrgler)

larwm lladron
la rum LHA dron burglar alarm (the standard expression in Welsh; alarm (of) thieves)

larwm mwg
smoke alarm

larwm tn
la rum TAAN fire alarm

2 alarm= device to wake up someone sleeping
cloc larwm alarm clock

:_______________________________.

las laas adjective
1
Soft mutated form (g > ZERO) of glas (= blue, green)

Heol Las, (the) green road
Ynys Las, (the) green meadow
(In these names there is soft mutation of the first consonant of an adjective which follows a feminine noun)

:_______________________________.

Lasynys las- ə -nis
1 (SH5932) locality in the district of Meirionnydd (county of Gwynedd)

ETYMOLOGY: y lasynys (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (glasynys = green island; green meadow)

:_______________________________.

Latfia lat -vya feminine noun
1
Latvia

:_______________________________.

Latfiad lat -vyad masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL Latfiadau
lat-vyed
1
Latvian

ETYMOLOGY: (Latfi- stem of Latfia = Latvia) + (-ad suffix to indicate the inhabitant of a country)

:_______________________________.

Latfiaidd lat -vyedh adjective
1
Latvian = relating to Latvia (but not the language, for which the adjective is Latfieg)

ETYMOLOGY: (Latfi- stem of Latfia = Latvia) + (-ad suffix to form adjectives)

:_______________________________.

Latfieg lat-vyeg feminine noun
1
Latvian = the language of Latvia
2
(adjective) Latvian = relating to the language of Latvia

ETYMOLOGY: (Latfi- stem of Latfia = Latvia) + (-ad suffix to indicate a language)

:_______________________________.

LATIN (1)

WELSH WORDS ULTIMATELY FROM LATIN WHICH ARE EXAMPLES OF A QUALIFYING ADJECTIVE BECOMING THE BASIS OF THE WELSH WORD AFTER THE QUALIFIED NOUN IS DROPPED

DEGWM = tithe
Welsh < British *dekum- < Latin decuma (pars) (= tenth part)

EFER = darnel
Latin briacus (= drunk) > brius
briaca (herba
) (= grass which causes drunkenness) > Old French ivraie (= rye grass) >
Middle English ever (now only in south-eastern English dialect) (= darnel, Lolium temulentum) > Welsh efer (= darnel, Lolium temulentum)

LLONG = ship
Latin longus (= long)
(nvis) longa (= long ship) > British *long- > Welsh llong (= boat, ship)

STRYD = steet
Latin strtus (= straight)
(via) strta (= straight road) > English street > Welsh stryd, strŷt (= street)


:_______________________________.

LATIN (2)

LATIN HAS A NUMBER OF WORDS FROM CELTIC SOURCES WHICH CORRESPOND TO WORDS IN MODERN WELSH

Welsh cant (now - wheel rim; originally - circle, rim, periphery). Latin cantus (= metal tyre, iron band around a wheel) < IndoEuropean *kantho- (= corner).

Greek has kanthos (= felloe of a wheel).

Canthus
is used in English as an anatomical term
either corner of the eye, where the eyelids meet but originally applied to the entire edge of the eyelid.
French has canton (administrative district) from Occitan canton < Latin cantus

:_______________________________.

lawer bore
lau-er b-re adverb
1
many a morning, on many mornings

Lawer bore roeddwn ar fy ffordd am wyth or gloch
Many mornings I was on my way at eight o clock

ETYMOLOGY: (llawer = many) + (bore = morning); llawer bore > lawer bore (the soft mutation of the initial consonant of the first word in the phrase indicates that this is an adverbial)

:_______________________________.

lawer gwaith lau-er gwaith adverb

1
many a time, many times, on many occasions

Rwyf wedi dweud lawer gwaith nad oes gen i fawr o ddiddordeb mewn chwaraeon
Ive said many a time that Im not really interested in sport

Yr wyf lawer gwaith wedi meddwl ysgrifennu am ein pentref fel yr oedd slawer dydd
Ive often thought about writing about how our village was in the past

ETYMOLOGY: (llawer = many) + (gwaith = time).
llawer gwaith > lawer gwaith (the soft mutation of the initial consonant of the first word in the phrase indicates that this is an adverbial)

:_______________________________.

lawn cymaint laun -maint adverbi
1
just as much, to the same extent

Rw in hoffir darlun bach ma ond rw in hoffir darlun arall lawn cymaint
I like this small picture but I like the other picture just as much

ETYMOLOGY: (llawn = full) + (cymaint so much, the same quantity). There is soft mutation of an initial consonant in adverbial phrases, hence llawn > lawn (ll > l)

:_______________________________.

lawnt launt feminine noun
PLURAL lawntiau, lawntydd
launt ye, laun -tidh
1
lawn
lawnt gefn back lawn = area of lawn behind a house
ar y lawnt flaen on the front lawn
Lawnt y Tŷ Gwyn The White House Lawn (Washington DC)

lawnt fynwent a cemetery lawn
lawnt y fynwent the cemetery lawn

lawnt
blas a mansion lawn
lawnt y plas the mansion lawn, the lawn in front of the mansion
Lawnt y Plas place in Dians Mawddwy (Gwynedd)

lawnt werdd green lawn

Y Lawnt, a house in Conwy
Mentioned in the catalogue of Archifau Sir Gwynedd / Gwynedd County Archives: (Year) 1797. Samuel Price of Bennerth, co. Caernarfon, Esq. DRAFT LEASE for a year of a house in the town of Conwy, co. Caernarfon called the Lawnt. 

Ysgol y Lawnt
Welsh-medium secondary school in Rhymni, Caerffili county.

2
(place names) woodland clearing
Cf dialect English lawn (= clearing)

3
(heraldry) field

4
lawnt y pentre village green
Lawnt y Pentre street name in Y Fflint
Y Lawnt
street in the centre of Dolgellau

5
green (for certain sports)
lawnt fowlio bowling green

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh lawnt is from Middle English launde (1300) < Old French lande (= clearing)
Middle English launde is the origin of Modern English lawn

See llan (= church)

:_______________________________.

law yn llaw lau ən LHAU (adverb)
1
hand in hand

:_______________________________.

lechco
lekh -ko
1
(county of Penfro) see! look!
See lychco < gwelwch chi yco see over there

:_______________________________.

lechna chi lekh-na-khii
1
(county of Penfro) see! look!



See lychco

ETYMOLOGY: gwelwch yna chi look there you

:_______________________________.

ld LED (masculine noun)
1
lead (of a pencil)

:_______________________________.

lefel, lefelau / lefelydd
LE-vel, le-V-le, le-V-lidh (feminine noun)
1
level

2
level = drift in a mine, horizontal or nearly horizontal passageway opened up from a hillside

lefel lo coal level
Tai-lefel-lo = tair lefel lo (the) houses (by) the coal level
Name of a row of houses in Rhymni, county of Caerffili

:_______________________________.

leiaf
lei -a adjective
1
soft-mutated form of lleiaf (= smallest; and in parish names, minor)

Saint Andras Leiaf parish by Dinaspowys
(Saint Andras) + soft mutation + (lleiaf = smallest, least)
English name: Saint Andrews Minor

:_______________________________.

lein, leiniau LEIN, LEIN ye (feminine noun)
1
line

2
lein ddillad, PLURAL: leiniau dillad clothes line, cord on which to hang washing to dry
polyn lein clothes pole, pole for the clothes line
fel polyn lein (North Wales) thin (like a clothes pole)

3
lein bysgota fishing line

:_______________________________.

Leision
lei -shon
1
soft-mutated form (ll > l) of the mans name Lleision used as a genitive form in certain place names

(1) Coed Leison ((the) wood (of) Lleision) name of a wood west of Pendeulwyn (Bro Morgannwg)

(2) Gwaunleision ((the) moor (of) Lleision) name of a village by Gwauncaegurwen (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)
Also a street in this place: Waunleision

:_______________________________.

lem lem adjective
1
a feminine form with soft mutation;
llym = harsh (masculine form) > llem (feminine form) > lem (with soft mutation of initial ll)

cosb lem a harsh punishment, a heavy penalty
cyllell lem a sharp knife

:_______________________________.

lemon, lemonau LE mon, le MO ne (masculine noun)
1
lemon

:_______________________________.

lemond le mo NEED (masculine noun)
1
lemonade

:_______________________________.

leni
le ni 1 this year
NOTE: colloquial form < eleni, with the loss of the first syllable (in this case the pretonic syllable)

:_______________________________.

Lerpwl
ler-pul feminine noun
1
Liverpool, a city in the North-west of England

aderyn Lerpwl liver bird, a mythical bird which is the symbol of Liverpool. (Formerly a crow was on the towns coat of arms, but on the towns seal (in the 1700s?) the artist had made such a poor job of representing the crow that it became known as a special type of bird, a Liverpool bird
li-vərr-puul or liver bird li-vərr )

2
Bae Lerpwl Liverpool Bay

3
Nerpwl a Northern Welsh form of Lerpwl, resulting from the phrase yn Lerpwl = in Liverpool

4
Llynlleifiad
lhin-lheiv-yad an invented form used instead of Lerpwl, popular in literature in the 1800s (llyn = lake, pool, lleif- an adaptation of the sylllable liv, -iad suffix corresponding to English -er, but usually both are agent suffixes)

5
Tŷ Lerpwl Liverpool House; in names of emporia (retail stores selling a wide range of goods) in certain Welsh towns the 1800s, where the goods came from Liverpool. (Usually the name of the store was in English) and it indicated the provenance of the merchandise.

cf.
Tŷ Llundain London House (London = a city in south-east England),
Tŷ Manceinion Manchester House (Manchester = a city in north-west England),
Tŷ Birmingham Birmingham House (Birmingham = a city in midland England)

6 Lerpwl house name, Abergwyngregyn SH 6572 (county of Conwy), mentioned in the 1851 Census

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English Lerpool lrpuul = Liverpool

:_______________________________.

letysen, letys
le TƏ sen, LE tis (feminine noun)
1
lettuce

:_______________________________.

lewcemia
leu-kem-ya masculine noun
1
leukemia (England: leukaemia)

ETYMOLOGY: English leukaemia, < New Greek (19th century) (leuco- < leukos = white) + (haima = blood)

:_______________________________.

Lewis LEU is (masculine noun)
1
Lewis

:_______________________________.

Lewsyn
LEU sin (masculine noun)
1
Lewis (diminutive form)

:_______________________________.

lico
LI ko (verb)
1
to like (colloquial, South)

:_______________________________.

lifft, lifftiau
LIFT, LIFT ye (masculine noun)
1
(USA: elevator) (Englandic: lift)
:_______________________________.

lifftiwr
lift -yur masculine noun
PLURAL lifftwyr
lift-wir

1
liftman, lift operator

2
liftman, lift repairer

ETYMOLOGY: (lifft = lift) + (-i-wr suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

lili, lilis LI li, LI lis (feminine noun)
1
lily
2
lilir Forwyn madonna lily (Lilium candidum)

:_______________________________.

lili'r Grog
li-lir groog feminine noun
1
Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) lily (of) the cross) (lili = lily) + (yr = definite article) + soft mutation + (crog = cross, gallows)

:_______________________________.

Lilwen lil-wen feminine noun
1
female forename

ETYMOLOGY: apparently lily (lil- first syllable of lili = lily) + (-wen suffix for forming female names)
:_______________________________.

*lim- lim
1
Celtic root = marsh, < *lei- (= to flow)

This is the origin of Welsh llif (= flow, current)
Celtic *lim- > British *lim- > Welsh llif

It is very likely the origin of numerous river names in Continental Europe and in the islands of Britain and Ireland

Afon Llifon SH4555 near Llandwrog, Gwynedd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/789025



Llifon an old division (cwmwd / kmmud) of Ynys Mn

Place names in Bitain outside Wales:

(some may not equate exactly to Llifon, being lim- with another suffix)



Afon Llifon River Lympne [lim] (Kent, England) Portus Lemanus in Latin; the river name became Limden in English, though the current name for is the River Rother

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/748348 TR1134 Lemanis Roman Fort



Afon Llifon SP3868 River Leam [lem] (Northamptonshire and Warwickshire, England)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1109786 River Leam at Eathorpe



Afon Llifon River Lymn [lim] (Lancashire, England)



Afon Llifon River Lymn [lim] (Lincolnshire, England)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/512914 TF3768 River Limm at Sausthorpe



Afon Llifon River Lemon (Devon, England)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/87270 SX8072 The Lemon Valley at Bickington

Afon Llifon
River Leeming (North Yorkshire, England)



http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SE2989 Leeming Village

Afon Llifon Lymm [lim] (Cheshire, England)

SJ6886 The town name apparently from the olde name for Bradley Brook flowing through the centre of Lymm

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/49101 Lymm Dam



Afon Llifon Lyme Brook (Staffordshire, England)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=309009 SJ8543 Lyme Brook



Afon Llifon Uisge Leamhna / River Leven (Scotland)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/141459 NS3977 River Leven at Renton



Afon Llifon Lymington (Hampshire, England) Old English (Lemun- river name) + (tn = farm)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/887293 Lymington SZ3295



Afon Llifon River Leven [lvn] (Cumbria, England)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/98184 SD3584 River Leven in backbarrow



Afon Llifon Inbhir Lobhann (Leven, Fife: across the river in Methill is Innerleven)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/831298 NO3800 Beach at Leven



Afon Llifon SY3492 River Lim (also spelt Lym), at Lyme Regis (Dorset, England)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/712744 River Lym, at Lyme Regis





(delw 7417)

The names with m indicate that the name was consolidated in English during the British perion, when the British word had [m]; names with [v] indicate that they were consolidated in English when British had becom Old Welsh, and the intervocalic [m] had become [v], and survives as such in modern Welsh.

Continental Names:

Llyn Llifon Lac Lman, Genve / Geneva (Lemannus Lacus)

Llifon Limonum (Latin name of the tribal centre of the tribe known in Latin as the Pictones, or their later name in Latin Pictavi. It is the site of modern-day Poitiers.

Llif- Lemausum. Modern-day Limours, south-west of Paris.

Llif- fluvia Limia (Pliny). Modern-day Limanha (name of a plain in Occitania) (French: Limagne), by Clarmont dAlvrnia or Clarmont-Ferrand in Occitania (French: Clermont-Ferrand)

NOTE: Although some or all of these river names may be derived from British leman-io- (= elm tree) it seems an unlikely tree to have given its name to so many rivers (although in Britain the oak tree derwen has given rise to many river names)

:_______________________________.

Lisa LI sa (feminine noun)
1
(diminutive form of Elisabeth) Lisa

:_______________________________.

litr, litrau
LI tər, LI tre (masculine noun)
1
litre

:_______________________________.

liw dydd
liu diidh adverb
1
by day, in daylight
breuddwydio liw dydd daydreaming

ETYMOLOGY: (lliw = light) + (dydd = day); there is soft mutation of the first consonant of an adverbial phrase, in this case ll > l; lliw dydd > liw dydd

:_______________________________.

liwt, liwtiau LIUT, LIUT ye (feminine noun)
1
lute

:_______________________________.

LL, ll
lh feminine noun
1
) sixteenth letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
..1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e, 8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y


:_______________________________.

llaath lhaath
southern form of llaeth (= milk)
Usually spelt llth / llath
See aa

:_______________________________.

llth lhth
south-eastern form of llaeth (= milk)
Usually spelt llth / llth
See aa / llaath

:_______________________________.

llabwst, llabystiau LHA bust, lha BƏST ye (masculine noun)
1
lout

:_______________________________.

llabyddiad
lha- bədh -yad masculine noun
PLURAL llabyddiadau
lha-bədh-y -de
1
lapidation, throwing stones as a punishment in order to hurt or kill

ETYMOLOGY: (llabydd-i-, stem of llabyddio = throw stones) + (-ad = suffix for forming nouns denoting an action)

:_______________________________.

llabyddio
lha- bədh -yo verb
1
stone, punish by throwing stones at

Ioan 10:33
Yr Iddewon a atebasant iddo, gan ddywedyd, Nid am weithred dda yr ydym yn dy labyddio, ond am gabledd, ac am dy fod di, a thithau yn ddyn, yn dy wneuthur dy hun yn Dduw
John 10:33
The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because thou, being a man, makest thyself God.

2
stone to death

Eseciel 23:47
Ar dyrfa au llabyddiant hwy meini, ac au torrant hwy u cleddyfau; au meibion au merched a laddant, au tai a losgant thai.
Ezekiel 23:47
And the company shall stone them with stones, and dispatch them with their swords; they shall slay their sons and their daughters, and burn up their houses with fire

Brenhinoedd-1 21:14
Yna yr anfonasant hwy at Jesebel, gan ddywedyd, Naboth a labyddiwyd, ac a fu farw
Kings-1 21:14
Then they sent to Jezebel, saying, Naboth is stoned, and is dead

3
strongly criticise, censure;

mae tueddiad i labyddior teledu am fod yn felltith fwyaf ein cyfnod
theres a tendency to criticise the television as being the biggest curse of our period

4
South Wales ei labyddio ei hun tire oneself out, overdo it, kill oneself through overwork

ETYMOLOGY: (llabydd-) + (+-io); the element llabydd- < llebydd- < British *lapid- < Latin lapid-, from the radical form lapis = stone. The change e to a was made by William Salesbury (c1529-95), translator of the New Testament (1567) into Welsh, to imitate the spelling of the Latin word) .

In Breton labeza = to lapidate, to stone; to deprecate; to make dirty

:_______________________________.

llabyddiwr lha- bədh -yur masculine noun
PLURAL llabyddwyr
lha-bədh -wir
1
stone thrower

ETYMOLOGY: (llabydd-i-, stem of llabyddio = throw stones) + (-wr = agent suffix, man)

:_______________________________.

llac LHAK (adjective)
1
loose
2
(garment) llac eich gwead loose woven

:_______________________________.

llch
lhakh feminine noun
PLURAL llchiau
lhakh -ye
1
slash, whiplash, lashing, whipstroke, stroke with a whip

2
county of Ceredigion lch = deed, something good or bad done by someone

3
used figuratively, severe criticism; compare the use of lashing is used in English (1) flogging (2) scolding, chastisement

rhoi lch ar
give a lashing to; to criticise severely (put a lash on)

bod gennych eich lch ar have it in for someone, be very critical of (have your lash on)

bod gennych eich hen lch ar have it in for someone, be very critical of (have your old lash on)

dan eich lch (be under your lash), be the object of criticism, be under fire

taflu eich llch ar let loose on, flagellate, excoriate, criticise (severely) (throw your lash on)

Fe daflodd ei lch ar ystadegau Cylch yr Iaith ynglyn Saesneg ar y radio
He criticised the statistics of Cylch yr Iaith (organisation for the defence of Welsh, the Language Circle) regarding English (in Welsh-language programmes) on the radio

cael llch = (get a whipstroke) be criticised

4
lch o ddyn = a vigorous man, a strong man

5
hen lch = a listless man

6 adlach backlash

ETYMOLOGY: English lash, unknown origin, possibly onomatopaeic.

The change of English sh > Welsh ch is to be seen too in the word fflch (= flash), from English flash

:_______________________________.

llacio
lhak -yo verb
1 to loosen

Llaciodd ei dei He loosened his tie
Llaciodd ei gafael yn y mwclis She loosened her grip on the necklace

ETYMOLOGY: (llac = loose) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)


:_______________________________.

lladd
1
to kill
Lladdwyd pob un ohonynt
Every one of them was killed
Fei lladda i e! Ill kill him!

2
Sayings:
A laddo a leddir
He who lives by the sword will die by the sword
(the-one-who / would-kill / (is) / the-one-who / is-killed)

Busnesu a laddodd y gath Curiosity killed the cat ((it-is) busybodying that killed the cat)

3
lladd ysbryd y gelyn lower the enemys morale (kill (the) spirit (of) the enemy)

4
fel lladd nadroedd frantically (of work done at great speed) (like killing snakes)
bod wrthi fel lladd nadroedd be working away frantically, be working like mad

5
darnladd / darn-ladd half-kill, beat somebody to within an inch of death, give a real belting to, give a real hiding to, to throttle, etc

Colloquially with the loss of the n - dar-ladd
dar-laadh , darladd dar-ladh , dyrladd dər-ladh
(darn = part) + soft mutation + (lladd = to kill)

6 lladd yr ir a chollir cywion to kill the goose that lays the golden eggs (kill the hen and lose the chicks) through greed, wanting everything at once, to destroy a source of wealth

7 lladd phluen (kill with (a) feather) damn with faint praise

8 (obsolete meaning; occurs in some fixed expressions) to cut

1-Brenhineodd 7:9 Hyn oll oedd o feini costus, wedi eu naddu wrth fesur, au lladd llif, oddi fewn ac oddi allan, a hynny or sylfaen hyd y llogail; ac felly or tu allan hyd y cyntedd mawr.

1-Kings 7:9 All these were of costly stones, according to the measures of hewed stones, sawed with saws, within and without, even from the foundation unto the coping, and so on the outside toward the great court.

lladd gwair to cut hay

:_______________________________.

lladdgi
lhadh -gi masculine noun
PLURAL lladdgwn
lhadh -gun
1
sheepkiller

ETYMOLOGY: kill-dog (lladd = to kill) + soft mutation + (ci = dog)
NOTE: also lladdgi defaid kill-dog (of) sheep

:_______________________________.

lladd gwair lhaadh gwair
1
make hay, cut the grass. According to Fferm a Thyddyn, Rhif 15, Calan Mai 1995 in the county of Mn a distinction is made between cutting grass in June when it is living lladd gwair (kill grass) and in July, when it is torri gwair (cut grass)

:_______________________________.

lladdiad LHADH-yad masculine noun
1
killing (especially as a final element in compound words)
..1/ teyrnladdiad regicide
(teyrn = king ) + soft mutation + ( lladdiad = killing, murder )

:_______________________________.

Lladin LHAA din (feminine noun)
1
Latin

:_______________________________.

lladdwr
lha -dhur masculine noun
PLURAL lladdwyr
lhadh -wir
1
(person) killer, slayer
.....hil-laddwr genocide (hil- = race) + soft mutation + (lladdwr = killer)
.....lladdwr llygod rodent officer (killer of mice / rats)

2
killer = substance which kills
.....germladdwr germicide (germ = germ) + soft mutation + (lladdwr = killer)
.....llyngyrladdwr vermicide (llyngyr = bowel worms) + soft mutation + (lladdwr = killer)
.....plaladdwr pesticide (pla = plague) + soft mutation + (lladdwr = killer, substance for killing)

ETYMOLOGY: (lladd-, stem of lladd = to kill) + (-wr suffix for forming adjectives indicating an agent)

:_______________________________.

lladrad
LHA-drad [ˡɬadrad] masculine noun
PLURAL lladradau
lha-DRAA-dai, -e [ɬaˡdrɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
robbery, theft, thieving, larceny, stealing

2
adjective stolen

3
byw ar ffrwyth lladrad live off stolen property, live off ill-gotten gains, live off the proceeds of theft (live on (the) fruit (of) theft)

4
eiddo lladrad stolen goods (property + stolen)

5
nwyddau lladrad stolen goods, stolen property, plunder
deliwr mewn nwyddau lladrad dealer in stolen goods

6
lladrad noeth (said of an excessive price) daylight robbery, downright robbery (bare theft, naked robbery)

7
lladrad pen ffordd highway robbery (thieving (at) the (head) of (the) road, i.e. a road junction)

8
mn-ladrad petty theft (little theft)

9 lladratgar thieving < lladrt-gar
(lladrod = damage) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, meaning fond of, cf caru = to love)

ETYMOLOGY: probably (lladr-, taken from lladron = thieves) + (-ad = suffix)

:_______________________________.

lladrata
lha-DRA-ta [ɬaˡdrata] (verb)
1 steal
2 lladrata (rhywbeth) oddi ar / oddi wrth (rywun) steal (something) from (somebody)

:_______________________________.

lladratgar
lha-DRAT-gar [ɬaˡdratgar] adj
1 thieving

ETYMOLOGY:
lladratgar < lladrt-gar (lladrad = theft) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, meaning fond of, cf caru = to love)

:_______________________________.

lladron LHA-dron [ˡɬadrɔn] (plural noun)
1
thieves. See lleidr

:_______________________________.

llaes
LHAIS [ɬaɪs] (adjective)
1
loose

:_______________________________.

llaesu
LHEI-si [ˡɬəɪsɪ] verb
1
slacken, loosen

2
Dyw e byth yn llaesu dwylo He never slackens, He never relaxes his efforts, He sticks at it constantly (he never slackens hands)

:_______________________________.

llaeth
LHAITH [ɬaɪθ] (masculine noun)
1
milk

2
gwlad syn llifeirio o laeth ml a land flowing with milk and honey , a place of abundance and contentment

Exodus 3:8 A mi a ddisgynnais i'w gwaredu hwy o law yr Eifftiaid, ac i'w dwyn o'r wlad honno i wlad dda a helaeth, i wlad yn llifeirio o laeth a ml; i le y Canaaneaid, a'r Hethiaid, a'r Amoriaid, a'r Pheresiaid, yr Hefiaid hefyd, a'r Jebusiaid.
Exodus 3:8 And I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites.

Exodus 33:2 A mi a anfonaf angel o'th flaen di, ac a yrraf allan y Canaanead, yr Amoriad, a'r Hethiad, y Pheresiad, yr Hefiad, a'r Jebusiad: (33:3) I wlad yn llifeirio o laeth mel: oherwydd nid af fi i fyny yn dy blith; oblegid pobl wargaled wyt: rhag i mi dy ddifa ar y ffordd.
Exodus 33:2 And I will send an angel before thee; and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite: (33:3) Unto a land flowing with milk and honey: for I will not go up in the midst of thee; for thou art a stiffnecked people: lest I consume thee in the way.

3
fel cath am laeth (like (a) cat for milk) said of somebody who drinks too much beer, or other alcoholic drinks

4
llaeth tewychedig condensed milk

5 gwerthwr llaeth dairyman, milk seller

6 irlaeth first milk of a cow after calving
(ir = fresh, new) + soft mutation + (llaeth = milk)

7 Sayings:
..a/ Gorau enllyn, enllyn llaeth The best companage is milk, the best thing to have with dry bread is milk

..b/ Tri enllyn iechyd: ml, ymenyn a llaeth The three companages for health are honey, butter and milk

:_______________________________.

llaethfwyd
LHEITH-vuid [ˡɬəɪθvʊɪd] m
PLURAL llaethfwydydd
lheith-VUI-didh [ɬəɪθˡvʊɪdɪ]
1 dairy product, dairy food; dairy products, dairy foods

ETYMOLOGY: (llaeth = milk ) + soft mutation + ( bwyd = food)


:_______________________________.

llafar LHAA-var [ˡɬɑˑvar] (adjective)
1
spoken

yr iaith lafar the spoken language

carreg lafar echo stone

2
noisy

3
cyflafar (obsolete) (cyf-, prefix = together) + soft mutation + (llafar = loud, noisy; spoken)
..(a) (adjective) noisy;
..(b) (masculine noun) speaking together, parley, conference
Occurs as an element in the modern words cylafareddu (= to arbitrate), cylafareddiad (= arbitration)

4 (stream names) babbling, burbling

Nant Lafar stream flowing into Afon Ceiriog in Llansantffrid Glyn Ceiriog

ETYMOLOGY:

:_______________________________.

llafariad, llafariaid
lha-VAR-yad,-lha-VAR-yed [ɬaˡvarjad, ɬaˡvarjaɪd, -ɛd]
(feminine noun)
1
vowel
2
blaendoriad llafariad (front-cutting (of) vowel) aphesis = the disappearance of a vowel at the beginning of a word

:_______________________________.

llafariad dywyll
lha-VAR-yad DƏ-wilh [ɬaˡvarjad ˡdəwɪɬ] (feminine noun)
1
obscure vowel, schwa (represented by y in Welsh) (dark vowel)

:_______________________________.

llafn (llafan), llafnau
LHAVN, LHAA-van, LHAV-nai, -e [ɬavn, ˡɬavan, ˡɬavnaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
(pronunciation respelling llafan in colloquial dialogues, etc)

1
blade
llafn bwyell axe blade
llafn cyllell haearn an iron knife blade
llafn rasel razorblade
llafn trywel trowel blade

:_______________________________.

llafur
LHAA-vir [ˡɬɑˑvɪr] (masculine noun)

1 labour = productive work done in return for payment, (USA: labor), work done for wages

2 labour = an instance of hard effort, toil

llafur caled (punishment) hard labour
llafur a lludded toil and drudgery
trwy fawr lafur with great toil, through hard work

mae trefnu'r eisteddfod ei hun yn golygu llafur mawr i'r trefnwyr.
organising an eisteddfod means a lot of work for the organisers

tua diwedd y ddeunawfed ganrif lluniwyd orgraff wyddonol a oedd yn gyson thraddodiad gorau y cyfnodau cynharach, trwy lafur Syr John Morris-Jones, yn
brif ac yn bennaf
towards the end of the nineteeth century a scientific orthography was devised which was in keeping with the best tradition of the earliest periods, through the work of Syr John Morris-Jones first and foremost

3 labour = the non-capitalist section of society, the people who work in return for wages
cyfalaf a llafur capital and labour
undeb llafur trade union, labour union
plaid lafur partit laborista
y Blaid Lafur the Labour Party
Llafur Labour = the Labour Party
Gŵyl Lafur Labour Day (first of May)

4 (Nonconformist denominations) homework = items (verses, hymns) learned during week for Sunday school

5 llafur cariad labour of love; a task done done for pleasure which involves time and effort and is not rewarded by payment

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh llafur = llfur < *llaf:r < *llaf:r < British < Latin labr-em
From the same British root: Cornish lavur

6
(South Wales) corn
cae llafur field of cereals
torri llafur cut corn
cynhaeaf llafur corn harvest
tir llafur land for growing corn
fel hwch mewn llafur attentively (like a sow in corn)

:_______________________________.

llafurfa lha-VIR-VA [ɬaˡvɪrva] feminine noun
PLURAL llafurfydd
lha-vir-VEIDH [ɬavɪrˡvəɪ]
1
(obsolete) laboratory
Now: labordy

ETYMOLOGY: (llafur = labour, work) + (fa noun-forming suffix, indicating a place)

:_______________________________.

llai LHAI [ɬaɪ] (masculine noun)
1
less

2
(ni) + gallu llai na not be able (to do) less than
ni allai lai na methu he was doomed to failure, it was inevitable that hed fail

3
neb llai na none other than

:_______________________________.

llai a llai lhai a LHAI-oo [ɬaɪ a ˡɬaɪ]
1 less and less
Mae tanwydd ffosil yn mynd yn llai a llai o hyd Fossil fuel is getting scarcer and scarcer

2
llai a llai o less and less, fewer and fewer
llai a llai o amser less and less time
llai a llai o bobl fewer and fewer people
Ma llai a llai o bobl yn pleidleisio yn yr etholiadau lleol Fewer and fewer people are voting in local elections
llai a llai o Gymraeg less and less Welsh

ETYMOLOGY: less and less of (llai = less) + (a = and) + (llai = less) + (o = of)

:_______________________________.

llaid, lleidiau LHAID, LHEID-yai, -e [ˡɬaɪd, ˡɬəɪdjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
mud
llaid meddal soft mud
lleidiog muddy
lleden y llaid.
Platichthys flesus. Flounder

2
sefyll allan fel llaid ar farch gwyn stick out like a sore thumb = be very obvious

stand out like mud on a white horse
(sefyll allan = stand out) + (fel = like) + (llaid = mud) + (ar = on) + soft mutation + (march gwyn = white horse)

:_______________________________.

lla i ddim lhai DHIM [ɬaɪ ˡɪm]
1
I cant - clipped version de alla i ddim (qv), used in rapid speech

:_______________________________.

llain LHAIN [ɬaɪn] f
PLURAL lleiniau
LHEIN-yai, -e [ˡɬəɪnjaɪ, -ɛ]
1 strip = narrow piece of something, usually quite long, and with a constant width

2 strip of land
llain lydan wide strip of land

3 llain laswellt grass verge (strip (of) grass)

4 plot of land
llain adeiladu building plot

5 llain lanio airstrip
llain galed, lleiniau caled lhain GAA-led, LHEIN-yai, -ye, KAA-led [ɬaɪn ˡgɑˑlɛd, ˡɬəɪnjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡkɑˑlɛd] (Englandic) motorway hard shoulder, hard shoulder of a motorway
llain gysgodi shelter belt, belt of trees acting as a shelter for a field, house, from the wind
llain ganol, lleiniau canol lhain GAA-nol, lhein-ye-KA-nol [ɬaɪn ˡgɑˑnɔl, ˡɬəɪnjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡkɑˑnɔl] (Englandic:) central reservation of a motorway, (USA:) median strip

6 strip of cloth
llain chwys sweatband

7 llain griced (f) lleiniau criced cricket pitch

llain fowlio (f) lleiniau bowlio bowling green

8 field names, and names of houses and roads which were originally field names

..a/ Llain y Delyn, Llain Delyn strip of the harp, harp-shaped strip

..b/ Llain Fanal Llangynfelyn (county of Ceredigion) (llain fanadl = strip (of) broom bushes)

..c/ Llain-goch (Caergybi, Ynys Mn) red strip

Also in the plural form, lleiniau, which in the south is lleinau (lleine) (the i- at the beginning of a final syllable is generally absent in the south) (and final -au is pronounced, and sometimes written, -e in the south-west, and -a in the south-east)
Lleinau
(1) farm 6km north-east of Aberteifi
(2) farm 2km north-east of Llanboudy
(3) farm in Aber-nant (Llainau on the map)

ETYMOLOGY: llain < lla|in (two syllables) < Old Irish ligen (= spear) (modern Irish: lighe = spear)

NOTE: in the South lleiniau > lleinau (lleine, lleina)

:_______________________________.

llais, lleisiau (lleishe) LHAIS, LHEIS-yai, -ye, LHEI-she [ˡɬaɪs, ˡɬəɪsjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡɬəɪʃɛ] (masculine noun)
1
voice
llais main a reedy voice
mewn llais dirdynedig
in a tense voice
dweud rhywbeth mewn llais garw say something in a rough voice, say something roughly

2 llais fel llew (a voice like a lion) said of a man with a strong singing voice:
Mae ganddo lais fel llew He has a powerful voice (hes got a voice like a lion)

3
codi llais yn erbyn (rhywbeth) speak out against (something) (raise a voice against)

4
murmur (referring to the sound of running water)
In house names

..a/ Llais y Nant / Llais-y-nant ((the) murmur / sound / voice (of) the stream)
Llais-nant name of a house in Llandrillo

..b/ Llais yr Afon / Llaisyrafon ((the) murmur / sound / voice (of) the river)
Street name.

Llaisafon Ffair-fach, Llandeilo (county of Caerfyrddin) (Llais Afon)
Nantlais (qv) house name and street name
stream-voice, the sound of the stream (nant = stream) + soft mutation + (llais = voice)

5 murmur (referring to the sound of the wind or breeze)

In house names
..a/ Llais yr Awel / Llaisyrawel ((the) sound / voice (of) the wind)

:_______________________________.

llaith LHAITH [ɬaɪθ] (adjective)
1
damp, humid

2 lleithder
LHEITH-der [ˡɬəɪθdɛr] (masculine noun) damp, humidity

:_______________________________.

llall LHALH [ɬaɬ] (pronoun)
1
y llall = the other one

2
i mewn trwy un glust ac allan trwyr llall in one ear and out the other, in at one ear and out at the other

Mae en mynd i mewn trwy un glust ac allan trwyr llall It goes in one ear with him and out the other

:_______________________________.

llam LHAM [ɬam] masculine noun
PLURAL llamau
LHA-mai, -e [ˡɬamaɪ, -ɛ]
1
leap, jump = act of leaping
cynyddu o lam i lam increase by leaps and bounds
cynyddu bob yn llam increase by leaps and bounds

2
place from which one might jump

3
leap = clifftop place from which people or animals leap;
llam cariadon (qv) lovers leap

Llam y Cariadau (qv) Lovers Leap (place name); hymn title

Llam Carw (qv) = llam y carw, (the) leap (of) the deer

4
the distance of a leap

5
hedlam flying leap < ehedlam
ar hedlam with a flying leap (ehedu = to fly)

6
llam llyffant (childrens game) leapfrog, where one child bends forward and another leaps over from behind

7
leap (of heartbeat)
Rhoes ei chalon lam
Her heart leapt, Her heart skipped a beat (her heart gave a leap)

8
(Heraldry) ar y llam (animal) salient, leaping

9
rhoi llam ir tywyllwch take a leap in the dark, engage in some venture without knowing the likely consequences (give a leap to the darkness)

10
carlam (qv) a gallop; < carw-lam deer-leap

11
ar un llam in one leap

12
llamau afon stepping stones in a river

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
from the same British root: Cornish: lamm = (leap), Breton lamm = (leap);
from the same Celtic root: Irish lim (= leap), Manx lheim (= leap)

:_______________________________.

Llambad LHAM-bad [ˡɬambad] feminine noun
1
South-east Wales a local form of Llanbedr = church (of) (Saint) Peter.

Iit is used for example for Llanbedr y Fro ST0876 (county of Bro Morgannwg)
(English name: Peterstone-super-Ely)

the Llanbedr which is in Y Fro (= the Lowland)

Y Fro is a short form of Bro Morgannwg (the) lowland (of) Morgannwg

ETYMOLOGY: See Llambed < Llanbedr (church of Saint Peter)
In the south-east, as in the north-east, the e in a final syllable > a

:_______________________________.

Llambed LHAM-bed [ˡɬambɛd] feminine noun
1
local form of Llanbedr, the short form of the town name Llanbedr Pont Steffan (= church (of) (Saint) Peter (by) (the) bridge (of) Steffan)

2
Llambad (qv) = local form of Llanbedr y Fro (village in the county of Bro Morgannwg)

ETYMOLOGY: Llambed < Llambedr.

The change n > m before a b is normal in colloquial Welsh, and is a characteristic in many languages.

Cf English embark < French < Occitan en- (= in) + barca (= boat).

The final r after the consonants d, t is dropped in some polysyllabic words in colloquial Welsh:
arad < aradr (= plough)
cebyst < cebystr (= halter (rope for holding animals); hangmans noose;)
ffenest < ffenestr (= window)
llanast < llanastr (= mess)
rhaead < rhaeadr (= waterfall)

:_______________________________.

llam cariadon LHAM kar-YAA-don [ɬam karˡjɑˑdɔn] masculine noun
1
(tradition) lovers leap, high place from which two lovers leap to their deaths because there is no possibilty of them marrying - the father of the girl has denied his permission to the suitor, or the girl is the unwilling fiance of another man

llam y cariadon the lovers leap
Llam y Cariadau (qv) Lovers Leap (place name)

:_______________________________.

Llam Carw lham KAA-ru [ɬam ˡkɑˑrʊ] masculine noun
1
SH4593 headland in the county of Mn, on the north coast of the island, 1 km north-east of Amlwch

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH4593

ETYMOLOGY: llam y carw (the) leap (of) the deer; (llam = leap) + (y = the) + (carw = deer)

The linking definite article is often dropped in place names:
llam y carw > llam carw

:_______________________________.

llamjet LHAM-jet [ˡɬamjɛt] feminine noun
PLURAL llamjetiau
lham-JET-yai, -e [ɬamˡjɛtjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
jumpjet

ETYMOLOGY: (llam-, stem of llamu = to jump) + (jet = jet plane)

:_______________________________.

llamu
LHA-mi [ˡɬamɪ] (verb)
1
to jump, to leap

2
(sparks) leap, fly
Yr oedd y gwreichion yn llamu oddi ar yr engan the sparks flew from the anvil (jumped from on the anvil)

:_______________________________.

Llam y Cariadau LHAM ə kar-YAA-dai, -e [ˡɬam ə karˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
Place in Cwm y Gof, Llandrindod (county of Powys)

2 Name of a hymn composed R. S. Hughes, who was the choirmaster of Bethesda Chapel (Independents) in Bethesda, Gwynedd. He died at the early age of 38 in 1893.

ETYMOLOGY: leap of the lovers, lovers leap; (llam = leap) + (y = definite article) + (cariadau = lovers, plural form of cariad = lover) .

NOTE: The plural form in standard Welsh has the suffix -on instead of au (cariadon)

:_______________________________.

Llamyrewig lham ər EU-ig [ˡɬam ər ˡɛʊɪg]
1
SO1593 locality and parish in northern Powys, 5km north-west of Y Drenewydd

On the Ordnance Survey map as Llanmerewig, as if the first element were llan = church; this distorted form with llan seems odd and unlikely to be a genuine llan name since there would be a soft mutation after llan, to give *Llanferewig though in the south-east there is an Englished form of the name Llanfihangel which appears on maps as Llanmihangel, without the sot mutation of the m.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO1593

ETYMOLOGY: Not an ecclesiastical name, but llam yr ewig leap (of) the hind;
(llam = leap) + (yr = definite article) + (ewig = hind, female deer).

A few other place names in Wales show the change of the y of the definite article > e

:_______________________________.

llan LHAN [ɬan] feminine noun
PLURAL llannau
LHA-nai, -e [ˡɬanaɪ, -ɛ]
1
In many areas where Celtic was once spoken, there are settlement names based on compounds with Celtic lann- (= land) (It is from the same Indo-European root as English land)

Example: Celtic medio-lan- (middle land), Latinised as Mediolanum

..1/ Chateaumeillant (Cher, France) (= Mediolanum Biturigum)

..2/ Mediolanum was the name of the Roman settlement at Whitchurch, Shropshire, England,

..3/ Mediolanum was also the Roman name of the place at Cae Gaer (SN8281) 6km south-east of Pumlumon mountain, mid-Wales

..4/ Medelingen (Mosel, Germany),

..5/ Meilen (Zrich, Switzerland),

..6/ Milan / Milano (Italy)

2
(obsolete) this element in Welsh has the sense of open land in llannerch (qv) (= woodland glade)

3
(obsolete) enclosure = place within a fence or wall (retains this sense in certain compound words)

..1/ coedlan = plantation
(coed = trees, wood) + soft mutation + (llan)

..2/ corfflan (obsolete) cemetery
(corff = body) + soft mutation + (llan = enclosure)

..3/ corlan = sheepfold;
cordd (= herd) + soft mutation + (llan) > *corddlan > corlan

..4/ creulan (obsolete) battlefield (blood-field)
( creu (penultimate form of crau) + soft mutation + (-llan = land)

..5/ gwinllan = vineyard
(gwin = qine) + soft mutation + (llan) > *gwinlan > gwinllan

..6/ perllan = orchard (literally: pear enclosure)
(pr = pears) + soft mutation + (llan) *perlan > perllan

..7/ treflan = village
(tref = trv, hamlet)

..8/ ydlan = rickyard
(yd = corn) + soft mutation + (llan)

3
(obsolete) (especially in place names) enclosure of consecrated ground, cell of a missionary of the Celtic Church, hermitage, little church, church

Henllan (qv) (place name) old church

Also with the sense of church in the modern coining cadeirlan (= cathedral) (cadair = cathedra, throne) + (church)

..1/ place names generally with the name of the saint to which a church is dedicated
Llangadwaladr church of Cadwaladr

..2/ place names sometimes with a stream name or river name

North-west Wales:

Afon Cefni / Llangefni, Ynys Mn
Afon Llyfni / Llanllyfni SH4751 (county of Gwynedd) (the river Llyfni)

North-east Wales:
Afon Elwy / Llanelwy SJ0374(county of Dinbych) (the river Elwy)
Afon Rhaeadr / Llanrhaeadr (county of Powys) (the river Rhaeadr)

South-west Wales:
Afon Camarch / Llangamarch (county of Powys) (the river Cmarch)

South-east Wales:
Afon Taf / Llan-daf ST1577 (county of Caer-dydd) (the river Taf)

..3/ Often many churches had the same dedication, and so the church or the later village around it were distinguished by adding a tag a nearby geographical feature, or the name of the administrative unit

Llanfair yn Muallt the Llanfair (Mary Church) in the kantrev of Buellt (ym Muellt, later ym Muallt, through the influence of the word allt = wooded hill)

In some place names of the type (Llan + saints name + territorial name), a contracted form may result where the saints name is dropped

Llanfair yn Rhos (the Llanfair in the kantrev of Rhos) > Llan-rhos

Llanfihangel y Rug (the Llanfihangel of the township of Y Rug (the heather) > Llan-rug

Llanarmon ym Mechain
(the) Llanarmon (which is) (in the kntrev of) Mechain > Llanfechain

-----------------------------
..4/ in some place names, llan has come to replace another word.

-----------------------------

.....(4a) the original form is sometimes glan (or its soft-mutated form lan) (= riverbank) This is often evident because the expected soft mutation after llan is absent, and the element after llan is a stream name, rather than a saints name (there are, however, some genuine llan names which are followed by a river name, though the names have soft mutation Cefni / Llangefni, Taf / Llan-daf, Elwy / Llanelwy, etc, see above). (After glan there is no soft mutation)

Llanbradach < Lanbradach < Glanbradach

Llancaeach < Lancaeach < Glancaeach

Llanmorlais < Lanmorlais < Glanmorlais

Llan-nant < Lan-nant < Glan-nant < Glan-y-nant
(farm SN5700 by Casllwchwr)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=180437

Llanrhymni (district in Caer-dydd) < Lanrhymni < Glanrhymni (bank of the river Rhymni)

Llanyrafon (district in Cwm-brn, Gwent) < Lanyrafon < Glanyrafon (bank of the river)


(delw 7473)

-----------------------------

.....(4b) sometimes the original form has nant (= valley) (modern Welsh: = stream)

Llanberis < Nantperis / Nant Peris
Llancarfan < Nantcarfan / Nant Carfan
Llantriddid
< Nantrhirid / Nant Rhirid
Llantarnam < Nant-teyrnon < Llanfihangel Nant Teyrnon
Llantoni < Nant-hodni < Llanddewi Nant Hodni

Llanboudy
(Ceredigion) is apparently < Nantbeudy

-----------------------------

..... (4c) In Pont-llan-fraith it is llyn (= lake) < Pont-y-llyn-fraith the bridge by the dappled river-pool

-----------------------------

4
parish church

..1/ cloch y llan the church bell, the bell of the parish church

..2/ Tan-y-llan / Tan-llan common place name below the parish church
(the Census of 1851 notes that Owen Owens (farmer, 48 years old, 350 acres, employing 4 labourers) lived at Tan-llan (Tanllan, Llangynfelyn, Ceredigion)

..3/ Street name:
Is-y-llan (below the church) Llanddarog (county of Caerfyrddin) (Is-Y-Llan)

5 Plas-y-llan Name in Yr Eglwysnewydd (Caer-dydd) noted by John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911)
PLAS-Y-LLAN (the mansion by the church.) A house at Whitchurch, the residence of Ignatius WILLIAMS, esq., J.P.
(plas = mansion) + (y definite article) + (llan = church) (the) mansion (by) the church

6
church = Anglican church (with the change of religion from Roman Catholicism in 1534 (Act of Supremacy) the churches became Anglican)

Daeth Mr Parry y person i mewn... Wel, frawd, mi fydd siawns i ni gael ych gweled yn y llan dipyn amlach, nawr (Melin-y-ddl / William a Myfanwy Eames / 1948 / tudalen 56)
Mr. Parry the parson came in. Well, brother, well have the chance now to see you in the church a bit more often.

Y Llan = the Anglican Church
Y Llan = name of a Welsh-language magazine of the Anglican Church

Maes-llan (qv) street names in various places
maes y llan (the) field (of) the church, church field
(maes = field) + (y = definite article) + (llan = church)

The linking definite article is often omitted in place names
maes y llan > maes llan

7
(North Wales) village = village with a parish church; (Scotland: kirktown, kirkton)
Yn y llan mae on byw rwan
He lives in the village now

Y Llan = the village of Ffestiniog. Also called Llan Ffestiniog, Llan Stiniog

Gan fy mod yn byw yn y Llan, roedd yn rhaid mynd a dwad ir ysgol (ym Mlaenau Ffestiniog) ar y trn... Casglwr 53, Awst 1994
Since I lived in the Llan it was necessary to go to and come back from the school (in Blaenau Ffestiniog) on the train

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh llan < llann < British *land < cltic

From the same British root: Breton lann (place names = church), Cornish lann (place names = church)

In the Hibernian languages Irish lann (literary word) (= ground, land; building, church)

From the same Indo-European root:

(1) (from Latin) Catalan landa (= sandy moorland), Occitan landa (= sandy moorland) (Basque landa = field, from Occitan), French lande (and hence English lawn, Welsh lawnt)

(2) (from Germanic) English land (= land), German Land (= terra)

:_______________________________.

y Llan ə LHAN [ə ˡɬan]
1
short name for place names with Llan- as the first element
..1/ Y Llan = Llantrisant

tref y Llan = the town of Llantrisant

Saif hen blas y Collena ar war Tonyrefail. Mae wedi ei adeiladu ar le mor ysgafn fel y gellir gweled or ffenestri dref y Llan ar holl wlad rhwng y ddwy dref (Cyfaddasiad o Hanes Tonyrefail - Atgofion am y Lle ar Hen Bobl. Thomas Morgan. 1899, Caerdydd. Tudalen 28)

The old mansion of Y Collena is situated up behind Tonyrefail. It is built in such an apt place that you can see through the windows the town of Y Llan (Llantrisant) and all the countryside between the two towns (= Llantrisant and Tonyrefail)

..2/ Y Llan = Llan Ffestiniog (See Ffestiniog)
Mynd or Llan i Flaenau Ffestiniog efor trn
Go by train from Llan Ffestiniog to Blaenau Ffestiniog

..3/ Y Llan = Llanrhaeadr ym Mochnant

:_______________________________.

Llanallgo lhan-ALH-go [ɬanˡaɬgɔ] (feminine noun)
1
SH5085 village, island of Mn

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/38557 church

:_______________________________.

Llanaran lhan-GAA-ran [ɬanˡgɑˑran]
1
(Gwent-in-England) village 9km north of Trefynwy (= Monmouth) in Herefordshire,
on the Afon Garan (the) river (of the) crane

(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Garan river name).

The form on English-language maps is Llangarron.

NOTE: The pattern (llan + river name) is not common, but examples of this are

Llan-daf (Afon Taf),

Llanddulas (Afon Dulas) (county of Dinbych)
SH9078

Llanddulas
(Afon Dulas) (county of Powys) SN8741

Llangamarch
(Afon Camarch),

Llanelwy SJ0374 (county of Dinbych) (Afon Elwy),

Llanllyfni SH4751 (county of Gwynedd) (Afon Llyfni)

:_______________________________.

 

Llanarmon lhan-AR-mon [ɬanˡarmɔn]

 

ETYMOLOGY: (the) church (of) Garmon, Saint Germanuss Church.

(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Garmon = Germanus).


:_______________________________.

 

Llanarmon ym Mechain lhan-AR-mon ə MEE-khain [ɬanˡarmɔn əm ˡmeˑxaɪn]

1 The original name of Llanfechain SJ1820 (county of Powys), a village by the side of Afon Cain / the river Cain

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/750165 yr eglwys / the church

 


(delw 7509)

 

ETYMOLOGY: (the) Llanarmon (which is in the kntrev) (of) Mechain

(Llanarmon) + (ym, form of the preposition yn before a word beginning with m) + (Mechain name of the kntrev, a medieval district).

 

Mechain is (the) plain (of) (the river) Cain < *Mechein < *Ma-chein
(ma = plain) + spirant mutation + (Cein, the older form of Cain river name)

 

:_______________________________.

llanastr (llanast) LHA-nastr, LHA-nast [ˡɬanastr, ˡɬanast] (masculine noun)
1
mess

:_______________________________.

Llanbad LHAN-bad [ˡɬanbad]
1
The name Llanbad is the south-eastern form of Llanbedr

...(1) in this name generally in Welsh the final r is lost Llanbedr > Llanbed

...(2) In south-east Wales an e in a final syllable becomes a (this is also typical of the Welsh of the North-west) Llanbed > Llanbad


...(3) Although Llanbad is the form found on the map, the spoken form of Llanbedr usually has the change n > m before b
Llanbed > Llambed, Llanbad > Llambad

(A change typical of many European languages cf the name of the town in the English Midlands Banbury, colloqually Bambry)

2
Llanbad Fawr is a farm north of Brynna SS9883 (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) and south-west of the remains of Llan Bedr ar Fynydd SS9885 (Llan Bedr on mountain)

The farm is by Llan Bedr = (the) church (of) Peter) (on English-language maps marked as St. Peters Church).

3
By Llanbad Fawr farm there is
...(1) Nant Llanbad (the stream of Llanbad farm, or of Llanbedr church), and
...(2) Cwm Llanbad (the valley of the Llanbad stream)

:_______________________________.

Llanbedr (Llanbed / Llambed) LHAN-bedr, LHAN-bed, LHAM-bed [ˡɬanbɛdr, ˡɬanbɛd, ˡɬambɛd] (feminine noun)
1 Name of many villages

ETYMOLOGY: (the) church (of) Peter, Saint Peters Church.

(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Pedr = Peter).

 

..a/ through assimilation, n + b becomes m + b

Other examples of this change occur i Welsh. For example, enbyd (= danger) > embyd

 

..b/ A final -r in the consonant cluster dr and tr is dropped in colloquial Welsh

ffenestr (= window) > ffenest

Llangynidr (= place name) > Llangynid

Cadwaladr (= forename) > Dwalad


:_______________________________.

Llan-bryn-mair lhan-brin-MAIR [ɬanbrɪnˡmaɪr]
1
(SH8800) locality in Maldwyn (Powys);
2
a parish at this place

ETYMOLOGY: The name means ((the) church (at) Bryn-mair)

Before the 1400s the place was simply Bryn-mair
((the) hill (of) (the Virgin) Mary)
(bryn = hill) + (Mair = Mary).

Later Llan (= parish church) was added.

NOTE: The Rhestr o Enwau Lleoedd / Gazetteer of Welsh Place Names, which lists recommended forms, has the infelicitous Llanbryn-mair.

Under the entry aere (= attack) in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / University of Wales Dictionary (tudalen / page 37) there appears the more logical spelling Llan-bryn-mair

:_______________________________.

llanc, llanciau LHANGK, LHANGK-yai, -e [ˡɬaŋk, ˡɬaŋkjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
lad

:_______________________________.

llances, llancesau LHANG-kes, LHANG-ke-sai, -e [ˡɬaŋkɛs, ˡɬaŋkɛsaɪ, -ɛ]
(feminine noun)
1
lass

:_______________________________.

Llandderfael lhan-DHER-vail [ɬanˡɛrvaɪl]
Local form: Llandderfel lhan-DHER-vel [ɬanˡɛrvɛl]
This local form is also the offical form of the name, though in general the literary form is preferred for use as the standard name

The diphthong ae is reduced to e over much of Wales in the spoken language

1 (SH9837) village in the county of Gwynedd.
Also the name of a parish at this place

ETYMOLOGY:
llan Dderfael (the) church (of) Derwfael
(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Derfael name of a Celtic saint).

Derfael
DER-vail [ˡdɛrvaɪl], now usually Derfel, is from Derwfael DERW-vail [ˡdɛrwvaɪl],
(der
W - a word now obsolete in modern Welsh - = true) + soft mutation + (mael = prince, leader).

From the same Celtic root, and corresponding to Welsh derw in the Hibernian Celtic languages:
Irish dearbh (= real, true),
Scottish dearbh (= sure, certain)

There is a hill by the village called Bryn Derfel ((the) hill (of) Derfel)

NOTE: Robert Jones Derfel, (1824-1905), a radical author born near Llandderfel, adopted Derfel as a surname.

Derfel
is in use as a male forename, and usually indicates some connection with the parish of Llandderfael

3
Llandderfael / Llandderfel locality in Torfaen (Gwent)

:_______________________________.

Llandderfel lhan-DHER-vel [ɬanˡɛrvɛl]
1
See: Llandderfael

:_______________________________.

Llanddeusant lhan-DHEI-sant [ɬanˡəɪsant] (feminine noun)
1
village name, north-east (church of the two saints - Marchell, Marchellin)

:_______________________________.

Llanddewi lhan-DHEU-i [ɬanˡɛʊɪ]

1 church of David

:_______________________________.

Llanddewi Cilpeddeg lhan-DHEU-i kil-PEE-dheg [ɬanˡɛʊɪ kɪlˡpeˑɛg]
1
(SO4430) locality in Gwent-in-England, in the county of Herefordshire, England, 6km northeast of Pontrilas

English name: Kilpeck

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) Llanddewi (at) Cilpeddeg). Llanddewi = chruch of David; Cilpeddeg is source (of the stream called) Peddeg

(cil = corner, nook; source) + (Peddeg meaning unknown, but the name of two other streams in the south-east)

(Etymologies suggesting that cil is monastic cell, and that Peddeg is an unknown saint, are erroneous; cil in this sense is an Irish word, and is from Latin cella. Welsh cil is a word of Celtic origin, with a completely different meaning)

:_______________________________.

Llanddewi Cilrhedyn lhan-DHEU-i kil-HREE-din [ ɬanˡɛʊɪ kɪlˡhreˑdɪn]
1
(SN2734) the old name of Cilrhedyn, a locality in the county of Ceredigion, 6km southwest of Castellnewydd Emlyn

:_______________________________.

Llanddewi Nant Hodni lhan-DHEU-i nant HOD-ni [ ɬanˡɛʊɪ nant ˡhɔdnɪ]
1 (SO2827) locality in Mynwy county
Local form: Llantoni [lhan-TOO-ni]

ETYMOLOGY: the Llanddewi which is situated in Nant Hodni
Llanddewi (church (of) David) (llan = church) + soft mutation + (Dewi = David)
Nant Hodni valley (of the stream called) Hodni or Hoddni

The local form of Hodni was probably Hoddni (cf gwadn = sole of the foot, south Wales gwaddan < gwaddn)

A possible explanation of the change is:

1 The tag came to replace the qualified element Llanddewi (there are other instances of this process in the place names of Wales): Nant Hoddni

2
In South Wales h is not traditionally part of the phonology of the language, and is omitted in speech
Nantoddni

3 a dd has a tendency to be unstable and to disappear > Nantoni / Nantoni

4 Ther was confusion about the first element, and llan (= church) took its place: Llantoni

NOTE: Compare the reduction of Llanfihangel Nant Teyrnon > Llan Teyrnon > Llantarnam (county of Torfaen)

:_______________________________.

Llanddoged lhan-DHOO-ged [ɬanˡoˑgɛd]
1
(SH8063) locality in the county of Conwy

2 a parish at this place

ETYMOLOGY: ?

NOTE: Sgrogennan < Is Cregennan is the old name for this place

:_______________________________.

Llanddona lhan-DHOO-na [ɬanˡoˑna] (feminine noun) (church of Dona)
1
village name, north-west (church of Dona)

:_______________________________.

Llanddulas lhan-DHII-las [ɬanˡiˑlas]

1 SH9078 village in the county of Dinbych

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/29590

2 SN8741 church in the county of Powys, near Llangamarch

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/469002 the church

ETYMOLOGY: church (of) (the) Dulas (stream / river) .
(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Dulas = river name)
dulas = blackish blue (du = black) + soft mutation + (glas = blue)

:_______________________________.

Llandduw (= Llndduw) LHAN-dhiu [ˡɬanɪʊ]
1
SO0561 ancient name of Llandrindod, a town in the county of Powys.

ETYM
OLOGY: church (of) God, church dedicated to God.
(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Duw = God)

The name Llandrindod referred specifically to a new church here built in Llandduw to replace the old one and is first found in 1536.

Llan y Drindod - (the) church (of) the trinity

:_______________________________.

Llandinam lhan-DII-nam [ɬanˡdiˑnam]
1
(SO0288) locality in the district of Maldwyn (county of Powys)
2
a parish at this place

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/413152

ETYMOLOGY: the llan by the fort (llan = monastic cell, church) + soft mutation + (dinan = fort)

*llan-ddinan > llan-dinan
(the mutation is lost other examples of (dd-n) > (d-n) occur in Welsh e.g. benddith > bendith = blessing)
> Llandinam (final n becomes m).

There are a couple of other place name examples with dinam < dinan. See dinan

:_______________________________.

Llandochau Fach lhan-DOO-khai, -e, VAAKH [ɬanˡdoˑxaɪ, -ɛ, ˡvɑːx] (feminine noun)
1
village name, south-east

:_______________________________.

Llandogo lhan-DOO-go [ɬanˡdoˑgɔ]
1
English form of the name Llaneuddogwy, name of a village in south-east Wales.
Maybe represents a local form Llandogw, which would result from well-known features of spoken Welsh

..a/ Reduction of the diphthong wy in the final vowel to w
A common feature in South Wales ofnadwy (= terrible) > ofnadw, cannwyll (= candle) > cannwll

Euddogwy > Euddogw
(or perhaps Ouddogwy > Ouddogw with the older pronunciation of the diphthong eu, probably retained locally)

eu was historically ou, and this has been retained in southern Welsh to this day:
deu (= two) (now dau) is doi in the south
yn gleu (= quickly) (now yn glau) is (yn) gloi in the south

..b/ Loss of the pretoninc syllable in the name Euddogwy > Ddogwy,
Llaneuddogw > Llanddogw

..c/ dd > d after n
Occurs too in the shortened form of Llanymddyfri > Llanddyfri > Llan'dyfri)
(hence the English name Llandovery, an adaptation of the local name, with semi-Englished spelling)

The change w > o probably occurred in English
Llandogw > Llandogo
A similar cas might be Monnow, the river in the town of Trefynwy Monmouth, if we assume a local Welsh form of Monw, Mynw < Mynwy
:_______________________________.

Llandrillo lhan-DRI-lho [ɬanˡdrɪɬɔ]
1
Llandrillo a village near Bala

2 Llandrillo = Llandrillo yn Rhos, a suburb of Colwyn Bay (English name: Rhos on Sea)

ETYMOLOGY: (llan = church) + soft mutation + (Trillo, a saints name). Trillo is probably a hypochoristic name. The final o is probably (-o diminutive ending)

:_______________________________.

Llandrindod lhan-DRIN-dod [ɬanˡdrɪndɔd] (feminine noun)
1
village name, south-east
= llan y drindod, church of the trinity

:_______________________________.

Llandudoch lhan-DII-dokh [ɬanˡdiˑdɔx] (feminine noun)
1
village name, south-west

:_______________________________.

Llandutglyd lhan-DIT-glid [ɬanˡdɪtglɪd]
1
Old name for Penmachno (SH7950), a locality in the county of Conwy


(delw 7025)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) church (of) Tutglyd)
(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Tutglyd)

:_______________________________.

Llan-dw lhan-DUU [ɬanˡduː] (feminine noun)
1
village name, south-east

:_______________________________.

Llandyfodwg lhan-də-VOO-dug [ɬandəˡvoˑdʊg] feminine noun
1
SS9587 church in the village of Glynogwr (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/475342

2
a parish at this place

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) church (of) Tyfodwg)
(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Tyfodwg)

:_______________________________.

Llandyfrog lhan-də-VRII-og [ɬandəˡvriˑɔg]
1
locality 3 km east of Castellnewydd Emlyn (Ceredigion county, South-west Wales)

2
a parish at this place

ETYMOLOGY: (llan = church) + soft mutation + (Tyfrog, hypochoristic form of the saints name Briafael)

Tyfrog (ty- = your, thy, used in older Welsh as a prefix to form hypochoristics) + (Brog)

Briog is (bri-, first syllable of Briafael) + (-og, diminutive suffix)

Briafael < British *Brigo-magl-os, as in modern Welsh bri (= respect, esteem), corresponding to Irish br (= strength, valour); and the element mael found in various male forenames (= great man, leader, chief), related to Latin magnus (= great)

:_______________________________.

Llanedern lhan-EE-dern [ɬanˡeˑdɛrn]
1
former village in Caer-dydd (name altered to Llanedeyrn, apparently in the 1800s, and apparently to make the final syllable resemble teyrn Old Welsh = monarch) (but Modern Welsh = tyrant!).

The local name would have been Llanetarn (b-d-g introducing a final syllable are devoiced in the traditonal dialect of the south-east of Wales). It is found written as Llanedarn in texts from the 1800s.

ETYMOLOGY: church of Eternus (llan = church) + (Edern = Eturnus)
Edern < Latin ternus / aeternus, contracted form of aeviternus (= lasting an age), from vum (= age)

:_______________________________.

Llanegryn lhan-E-grin [ɬanˡɛgrɪn] (feminine noun)

1
SH6005 village name, north-west

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/288810


(delw 7085)

ETYMOLOGY:
church of Egryn (llan = church) + (Egryn)

:_______________________________.

Llanegwestl (Llanegwest) lhan-E-gwestl, lhan-E-gwest [ɬanˡɛgwɛstl, ɬanˡɛgwɛst]
1 SJ2044 north-east Wales the Welsh name of the village razed for the construction of the Cistercian abbey here in 1201 - Abaty Glyn y Groes / Valle Crucis Abbey. The inhabitants were removed to Stansty, north-west of Wrecsam



http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/115551

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/132019

Llyn Egwestl a pool near the abbey which served as its fishpond (the) pool (of) Egwestl
http://richardloomis.com/gutorglyn.htm

Glyn Egwestl the valley in which the Abbey stands (the) valley (of) Egwestl
Also Glyn y Groes (the) valley (of) the cross

:_______________________________.


Llaneigon lhan-EI-gon [ɬan ˡəɪgɔn]
1 see Llanigon

:_______________________________.

*llanerch LHA-erkh [ˡɬanɛrx] feminine noun
1
clearing in a wood, woodland glade.

NOTE: This spelling with a single n is incorrect, though used by some writers in the 1800s. The correct form is llannerch. The spelling with a single n (originally a nineteeth-century mispelling in Welsh) is common on English-language maps. On the other hand, the plural form with a single n llanerchau is correct in this case, a spelling with nn would be incorrect

Tafarn y Llannerch, Llandrindod (Llanerch Inn)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/412688

:_______________________________.

Llaneuddogwy lhan-ei-DHOO-gui [ɬanəɪˡoˑgʊɪ]
1 (SO5204) locality in the county of Mynwy

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/86309

The English name is Llandogo which would be from a local form in Welsh: Llandogw
lhan-DOO-gu [ɬanˡdoˑgʊ]

..a/ simplification of the final diphthong wy > w, typical of the language of South Wales
Euddogwy > Euddogw

..b/ Loss of the pretonic syllable (or syncopation), a common feature of Welsh Llaneuddogw > Llanddogw

Another llan name showing this feature is:
Llanymddyfri > Llanddyfri > Llandyfri (and from here the form used in English Llandovery)

..c/ a change dd > d caused by the preceding n (as in Llanddyfri > Llan'dyfri)

There is a street called Dogo Street in Pontcanna, Caer-dydd, which appears to be this name it must have been supposed that the saint was Dogo. It is a district with other streets named after saints from south-east Wales. If this is the case, then the Welsh name would be Heol Euddogwy


(delw 7065)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) church (of) Euddogwy.
(llan = monastic cell, church) + (Euddogwy = saints name)
(In
Liber Landavensis / Llyfr Llan-daf / Book of Llandaff, circa 1125, as Lann Oudocui, which in modern Welsh spelling would be Llan Ouddogwy.

Old Welsh ou ou [ɔʊ] become modern Welsh eu in non-final syllables of polysyllables) (peunod = peacocks) and au in the final syllables of polysyllables, and in monosyllables (pethau = things, dau = two)

NOTE: The name Ouddogwy was (imperfectly) Latinised as Oudoceus. The c in Lann Oudocui in fact represents [g]. British c between vowels became g, but in Old Welsh it was not the practice to spell it as such rather like gh in English laugh no longer represents gh [ɣ], but is retained in the spelling even though f would be the better spelling

:_______________________________.

Llanfabon lhan-VAA-bon [ɬanˡvɑˑbɔn]
1
ST1093 hamlet in the county of Caerffili, 2km south of Ffosygerddinen on the road to Cilfynydd
2
a parish at this place

ETYMOLOGY: (llan = church) + soft mutation + (Mabon name of a Celtic saint); (mab = son) + (-on suffix used with deity names)

:_______________________________.

Llanfachraith lhan-VAKH-raith, -eth [ɬanˡvaxraɪθ, -ɛθ] feminine noun
1
SH7522 locality in Gwynedd, near Dolgellau; usually written to reflect the popular pronunciation (Llanfachreth), rather then the literary one (Llanfachraith)

2
SH3182 locality in Ynys Mn, by Caergybi; the name is usually written Llanfachreth with a final e, but the local form is Llanfachrath (a final e in this region > a)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) church (of) Machraith (llan = church) + soft mutation + (Machraith = saints name)

:_______________________________.

Llanfaelog lhan-VEI-log [ɬanˡvəɪlɔg] (feminine noun)
1
village name, north-east

:_______________________________.

Llan-faes lhan-VAIS [ɬanˡvaɪs] (the) church (of the) clearing (llan = church) + soft mutation + (maes = clearing)

1 (SO0328) locality in the district of Brycheiniog (county of Powys); formerly the centre of a kingdom centred around Dyffryn Wysg (the valley of the river Wysg) ruled by Tewdrig, and of a larger kingdom which replaced it, Brycheiniog, founded by Brychan, a chief of Irish descent

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO0328 map

2 (SH6077) locality in the county of Ynys Mn

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH6077 map

3 a parish at this place

4 (SS9869) locality in the county of Bro Morgannwg (South-east Wales)
Name used by the English: Llanmaes

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SS9869

ETYMOLOGY: (the) church (of the) clearing
(llan = church) + soft mutation + (maes = clearing)

:_______________________________.

Llanfaethlu lhan-VEITH-li [ɬanˡvəɪθlɪ] (feminine noun)
1
village name, north-west

:_______________________________.

Llanfair LHAN-vair, -ver [ˡɬanvaɪr, -vɛr] (feminine noun)
1
name of many villages; Mary church

:_______________________________.

Llan-fair lhan-VAIR [ˡɬanˡvaɪr] feminine noun
1
ST0071 locality in the county of Bro Morgannwg (South-east Wales).
Name used by the English: Saint Mary Church

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/97726 Llan-fair

2 a parish at this place

3
SN1202 locality in the county of Penfro, 2km north of Dinbych y Pysgod.
Name used by the English: New Hedges

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN1202

ETYMOLOGY: (the) church (of) Mary (llan = church) + soft mutation + (Mair = Mary). In Llan-fair (note the hyphen) the accent remains in the expected place, on the second syllable.

But generally names with llan + Mair are Llanfair (no hyphen), where the accent has shifted to the first syllable

:_______________________________.

Llanfair ar y Bryn LHAN-vair, -ver, ar ə BRIN [ˡɬanvaɪr, -vɛr ar əˡbrɪn] feminine noun
1
locality in the county of Caerfyrddin SN7735
2
a parish at this place

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/979559 eglwys Llanfair ar y Bryn

ETYMOLOGY: (the) Llanfair (which is) on the hill
(Llanfair = (the) church (of) Mary, Marychurch) + (ar y bryn = on the hill)

:_______________________________.

Llanfair Dyffryn Tefeidiad LHAN-vair, -ver, -frin te-VEID-yad [ˡɬanvaɪr, -vɛr, ˡdəfrɪn tɛˡvəɪdjad]
1
village in England, on the Welsh border 6km north of Trefclo.
(in English as Llanfair Waterdine)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/705709
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

ETYMOLOGY: (Llanfair = (the) church (of) Mary, Marychurch) (very common in Welsh village names).

The Welsh name means the Llanfair in the valley of the Tefeidiad river.

In English the river is called Teme.

:_______________________________.

Llanfair Pwllgwyngyll LHAN-vair, -ver, pulh-GWƏN-gilh [ˡɬanvaɪr, -vɛr, pʊɬˡgwəngɪɬ]
1 SH5271 village in Ynys Mn

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/943672

:_______________________________.

Llanfechain lhan-VEE-khain, -khen [ɬanˡveˑxaɪn, -ɛn] feminine noun
1
SJ1820 locality in Maldwyn (Powys) on the river Cain; 5km east of Llanfyllin.
population: (1961) 461; proportion of Welsh-speakers: (1961) 41%
Old name: Llanarmon ym Mechain

2
a parish at this place

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/518983
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

ETYMOLOGY: church (of the kntrev called) Mechain, but originally (the) Llanarmon (which is) (in the kntrev of) Mechain

(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Mechain, division (kantrev) of the country of Powys Wenwynwyn).

Mechain (the) plain (of) (the river) Cain < *Mechein < *Machein

(ma = plain) + spirant mutation + (Cain (Middle Welsh Cein) river name, = beautiful, but possibly a personal name otherwise Afon Gain would be expected, but it is called Afon Cain).


(delw 7509)

 

ETYMOLOGY: church (of the kntrev called) Mechain, but originally (the) Llanarmon (which is) (in the kntrev of) Mechain
:_______________________________.

Llanfechell lhan-VEE-khelh [ɬanˡveˑxɛɬ] (feminine noun)
1
village name, north-west

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/158121
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) church (of) Mechell or Mechyll

(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Mechell = name of a saint, from an earlier form Mechyll)
:_______________________________.

Llanfeuno lhan-VEI-no [ɬanˡvəɪnɔ]
1
SO3031 village in Gwent-within-England. In the valley of the river Olchon above the town of Y Fenni. English name: Llanveynoe.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/713232
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) church (of) Beuno, Beunos church

(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Beuno = name of a male saint)

:_______________________________.

Llanffynhonwen lhan-fən-HON-wen [ɬanfənˡhɔnwɛn]

1
Chirbury SO2598, village in England (in Shropshire) 5km north-east of the Welsh village of Trefaldwyn


(delw 7087)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/149820

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

ETYMOLOGY: (llan = church) + (ffynhonwen, apparently white well, meaning either a whitewashed well, or (less likely) a holy well)
This is (ffynhon- penult form of ffynnon = well) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white; holy)

:_______________________________.

Llanfihangel lhan-vi-HA-ngel [ɬanvɪˡhaŋɛl]
1
name of many villages; Michael church

:_______________________________.

Llanfihangel Dyffryn Arwy lhan-vi-HA-ngel -frin A-rui [ɬanvɪˡhaŋɛl ˡdəfrɪn ˡarʊɪ]
1
(SO2450) locality in the district of Maesyfed (county of Powys)
English name: Michaelchurch on Arrow

2 a parish at this place

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/910538 yr eglwys / the church

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

ETYMOLOGY: the Llanfihangel in the valley of the river Arwy
(Llanfihangel = church of Michael) + (dyffryn = valley) + (Arwy = river name)

:_______________________________.

Llanfihangel Esglai lhan-vi-HA-ngel E-sklai [ɬanvɪˡhaŋɛl ˡɛsklaɪ]
1
SO3134 village in the county of Hereford, England
English name: Michaelchurch Escley

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/890905

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/399752

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/73939

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

ETYMOLOGY: (Llanfihangel = church of Michael (Arch)angel) + (Esglai stream name)

:_______________________________.

Llanfihangel Nant Teyrnon lhan-vi-HA-ngel nant TEIR-non [ɬanvɪˡhaŋɛl nant ˡtəɪrnɔn]
1
the older name of Llantarnam (qv) in Torfaen, south-east Wales

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/822352 yr eglwys / the church

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

ETYMOLOGY: the Llanfihangel which is in Nant Teyrnon
Llanfihangel = (the) church (of) Michael (the) (Arch)angel
Nant Teyrnon = (the) valley (of) Teyrnon

NOTE:
Llanfihangel y Fynachlog ((the) Llanfihangel (which is) (next to) the monastery. In Parochiale Wallicaaum / Rev. A. W. Wade-Evans / Y Cymmrodor (1910) , a footnote states: "Llantarnam is called, colloquially, in Welsh Llanvihangel y Vynachlog." J.A.B. (This is Sir Joseph Alfred Bradney, 1859-1933), (The church is a short distance from the Abbey)

_______________________________.

Llanfihangel Tor y Mynydd lhan-vi-HA-ngel TOOR ə MƏ-nidh [ɬanvɪˡhaŋɛl ˡtoˑr ə ˡmənɪ]
1
village name, south-east Wales SO4601 (near Llanishe, Mynwy)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/751691 yr eglwys / the church

:_______________________________.

Llanfihangel yng Ngheintun lhan-vi-HA-ngel əng HEIN-tin [ɬanvɪˡhaŋɛl əŋ ˡhəɪntɪn]
1
(SJ3614) Welsh name of the English village of Alberbury (Shropshire) 13 km west of the English city of Shrewsbury (Welsh name: Amwythig), just north of the Shrewsbury - Y Trallwng main road (A458), on the Welsh border by the Welsh village of Cryw-grin

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/463595
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)


(delw 7106)

ETYMOLOGY: the village called Llanfihangel which is situated in Ceintun . Llanfihangel = church of Michael the Archanngel

:_______________________________.

Llanfilo lhan-VII-lo [ɬanˡviˑlɔ]
1
village SO1133 in Powys (church of Bilo or Beilo)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/61865 yr eglwys / the church
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

To the west of the village is Allt Filo (the) wood (of) Bilo or Beilo

ETYMOLOGY: The church was formerly dedicated to Millburgh, and the name was taken as meaning (the) church (of) Milo
(llan = church, cell) + soft mutation + (Milo = Millburgh)

Milo
is in English Milburgh or in Latin Milburga or Milburgha. The daughter of a Mercian king (King Merewald of Magonset), she became a nun (as Abbess of Wenlock Abbey in Shropshire) and was later canonised.

The form of the name in Welsh would be hypochoristic (Mil- first syllable of Milburgh) and (-o diminutive suffix)

Milburgh is commemorated at Stoke St. Milborough SO5682 (Shropshire, England) (St. Milburghas Church) http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/120227

and in the church of St Mary & St Milburgh, Offenham, near Evesham (Worcestershire, England) http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/379415

However, it seems that Llanfilo = church of Milburgh is an erroneous interpretation, as the saint in question is Beilo, a daughter of Brychan (in south-eastern Welsh, ei > i in a penultimate syllable is a common feature).

(llan = church, cell) + soft mutation + (Beilo) > Llanfeilo > Llanfilo

Another example of ei > i in a place name is
Llangatwg Feibion Afel, in the county of Mynwy / Monmouth, Englished as Llangattock Vibon Avel. This English form actually indicates a local pronunciation of feibion, a soft mutated form of meibion (= sons), which in the south east is meibon (typical omission of the semi-consonant i at the head of the final syllable) > mibon (reduction of the diphthong ei to the half-long vowel i)

:_______________________________.

Llanfuddwalan lhan-vidh-WAA-lan [ɬanvɪˡwɑˑlan]

1
(SO5731) locality in Gwent-within-England (in the county of South Herefordshire, England).

The English name is Ballingham. The church is dedicated to Dyfrig (Dubricius in Latin)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/877972
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)



(delw 7102)
ETYMOLOGY: (llan = church, cell) + soft mutation + (Buddwalan personal name )
(budd = wealth, riches) + soft mutation + (gwal- ?) + (-an diminutive suffix)
:_______________________________.

Llangadog lhan-GAA-dog [ɬanˡgɑˑdɔg]
1 SN7028 locality 9km south-west of Llanymddyfri (county
of Caerfyrddin); a parish at this place
2 SN4006 locality al north-east of Cedweli (county
of Caerfyrddin)

In the south-east Llangadog > Llangatwg (qv)

..a/ Llangatwg Lingoed SO3620 (county
of Mynwy) 9km north-east of Y Fenni

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/441187 yr eglwys / the church

..b/ Llangatwg SO2127 locality in Powys, 1km south-west of Crugywel

..c/ Llangatwg Dyffryn Wysg SO3309 locality 6km south-east of Y Fenni (county
of Mynwy). English name: Llangattock-juxta-Usk / Llangattock-nigh-Usk

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/284552
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

..d/ Llangatwg Feibion Afel SO4515 6km north-west of Trefynwy (county
of Mynwy)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/247457 yr eglwys / the church

..e/ Llangatwg SS7598 village on the north side of Castell-nedd (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)

ETYM
OLOGY: ((the) church (of) Cadog)
(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Cadog saints name)

Cadog is a hypochoristic form of Cadfael
(cad-, first element of the name Cadfael) + (-og suffix)
The equivalent name in Breton is Kazeg

Cadfael is battle chief (cad = battle) + soft mutation + (mael = chief) < British *katu-magl-os

:_______________________________.

Llangadwaladr (Llangadwalad) lhan-gad-WAA-la-dər, lhan-gad-WAA-lad [ɬangadˡwɑˑladr, ɬangadˡwɑˑlad] (feminine noun)



(delw 7284)

1 SH3869 village name (Ynys Mn)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/776782
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

2 SJ1830 village name (Powys)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/708028
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) church (of) Cadwaladr)
(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Cadwaladr = saints name)

:_______________________________.

Llangamarch lhan-GA-markh [ɬanˡgamarx]
1
(SN9347) locality in Brycheiniog (Powys)
English name: Llangammarch Wells

Postal address: LLANGAMARCH, Powys

2
a parish at this place

ETYMOLOGY: (the) church (by the river) Camarch)
(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Camarch river name)

Camarch < Camfarch ((the) winding (river / stream called) March)
(cam = winding) + soft mutation + (March = stream name, literally horse)

:_______________________________.

Llangatwg lhan-GAA-tug [ɬanˡgɑˑtʊg]
This is the south-eastern form of the place name Llangadog


(delw 7287)

..a/ Llangatwg Lingoed SO3620 (county
of Mynwy) 9km north-east of Y Fenni

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO3620

.

..b/ Llangatwg SO2017 locality in Powys, 1km south-west of Crugywel
A parish at this place. Englished as Llangattock.
(1961) Population: 655. Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 7%
(1971) Population: 760. Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 5%
Differentiated from the other villages called simply Llangatwg by referring to it as Llangatwg ger Crucywel (= Llangatwg near Crucywel)


http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO2017

.

..c/ Llangatwg Dyffryn Wysg
SO3309 locality 6km south-east of Y Fenni (county of Mynwy). Ordnance Survey map notes only Llangattock House.
English name: Cadoxton nigh Usk

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO3310

.

..d/ Llangatwg Feibion Afel SO4515 6km north-west of Trefynwy (county
of Mynwy)

Englished as Llangattock-Vibon-Avel

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/247457

.

..e/ Llangatwg SS7598 village on the north side of Castell-nedd (county
of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)
English name: Cadoxton juxta Neath
Differentiated from the other villages called simply Llangatwg by referring to it as Llangatwg ger Castell-nedd (= Llangatwg near Castell-nedd / Neath)


http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SS7598

.

..f/ Llangatwg ST1269 village subsumed in the town of Y Barri (Bro Morgannwg)

Differentiated from the other villages called simply Llangatwg by referring to it as Llangatwg ger y Barri (= Llangatwg near Y Barri)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/ST1269

.

ETYMOLOGY: Llangatwg = Llangadog ((the) church (of) Cadog)
(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Cadog saints name)

Cadog is a hypochoristic form of Cadfael
(cad-, first element of the name Cadfael) + (-og suffix)

In Breton, the name Kazeg corresponds to Welsh Cadog

Cafael is battle chief (cad = battle) + soft mutation + (mael = chief)

< British *katu-magl-os

NOTE:

Cadog > Cadwg

-wg
instead of an original -og is found in other place names in the south-east
Morgannwg < *Morgannog territory of Morgan

Gwynllŵg < Gwynllyw-wg < *Gwynllyw-og
territory of Gwynllyw

Nant Talwg < Nant Rhyd Halog Rhyd Halog stream; Rhyd Halog = dirty ford

In the south-east the initial d of a final syllable is regularly devoiced to t
Cadwg > Catwg

:_______________________________.

Llangefni lhan-GEV-ni [ɬanˡgɛvnɪ] (feminine noun)
1
town name, Ynys Mn

:_______________________________.

Llangeinwen lhan-GEIN-wen [ɬanˡgəɪnwɛn] (feminine noun)
1
SH4365 village name, Ynys Mn

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/838772 yr eglwys / the church
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)
:_______________________________.

Llangan lhan-GII-an [ɬanˡgiˑan]
1
SH2928 locality in the area of Dwyfor (county of Gwynedd)

ETYMOLOGY: (llan = church) + soft mutation + (Can saints name; = little warrior, little dog)

:_______________________________.

Llanglydwen lhan-GLƏD-wen [ɬanˡglədwɛn] (feminine noun)
1
SN1826 village name, Caerfyrddin

Samuel Lewis, 1844,
A Topographical Dictionary of Wales:
"LLANGLYDWEN (LLAN-GLEDWYN), a parish, in the union of NARBERTH The church, dedicated to St. Cledwyn, is a small neat edifice

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN1826 map, llun / map, photo

:_______________________________.

Llangoed LHAN-goid [ˡɬangɔɪd] (feminine noun)
1
SH6079 village name, Ynys Mn

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH6079 map

:_______________________________.

Llangunllo lhan-GIN-lho [ɬanˡgɪnɬɔ]
1
See Llangynllo

:_______________________________.

Llangurig lhan-GII-rig [ɬanˡgiˑrɪg]
1
SN 9079 village in Powys, near Llanidloes
2
a parish at this place

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/70880 y pentre / the village
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) church (of) Curig)
(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Curig = saints name)

:_______________________________.

Llangwnadl > Llangwnnadl

:_______________________________.

Llangwnnadl (Llangwnnad) lhan-GU-nadl, lhan-GU-nad [ɬanˡgʊnadl, ɬanˡgʊnad] (feminine noun)
Locally Llangwnnad (loss of final l)

1
SH2132 village name, north-west.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/sh2132

ETYMOLOGY: llan Gwynhoedl ((the) church (of) Gwynhoedl)
(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Gwynhoedl = saints name)

NOTE: Since the penultimate element has an underlying form gwynn- with nn-, Llangwnnadl is a better spelling than Llangwnadl

The alteration in the name shows common features of Welsh generally and in particular spoken north-western Welsh

(The sequence of the changes may not be as laid out here)

1 Gn-hoedl > Gnn-oedl
Loss of h, initial consnonant of the final syllable
Compare
gylfin hir (long beak) > gylfnhir > gylfinir (curlew)
main + hir (slim + tall) > minhir > meinir > Meinir (forename for a female)

2 Gynn-oedl > Gynn-odl
Final syllable oe > o colloquially
Compare
mynyddoedd (= mountains) > mynyddodd

3 Gynn-odl > Gynn-adl
Final syllable o > a colloquially
Compare
tywod (= sand) > tŵad (in Ynys Mn / Anglesey)
dyfod (= to come) > dywod > dywad > dŵad

4 G
ynn-adl > Gwnn-adl
Llanynnog > Llanwnnog

5
The colloquial form Llangwnnadl > Llangwnnad with the loss of the final l is also a feature found in othe words in Welsh
Compare
banadl (= broom plants) > banad
danadl
(= nettles) > danad

It occurs too with final r after d
Cadwaladr > Cadwalad, Dwalad
rhaeadr (= waterfall) > rhaead
Llangynidr > Llangynid
:_______________________________.

Llangynidr (Llangynid) lhan-GƏ-nidr, lhan-GƏ-nid [ɬanˡgənɪdr, ɬanˡgənɪd] (feminine noun).
Locally Llangynid (loss of final r)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/407645 Sardis

1
village in the county of Powys (Brycheiniog district)

Pont Llangynidr name of a bridge here

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/sh2132

:_______________________________.

Llangynllo lhan-GƏN-lho [ɬanˡgənɬɔ]
1
(SN3543) locality in Ceredigion

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN3543 map

2
a parish at this place

3
(SO2171) locality in the district of Maesyfed (county of Powys)
Form used in English: Llangunllo

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO2171 map

4 a parish at this place
..
1971: Population: 230. Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 2%



(delw 7290)

ETYMOLOGY: (llan = church) + soft mutation + (Cynllo saints name)

:_______________________________.

Llangynog lhan-GƏ-nog [ɬanˡgənɔg]



(delw 7289)

1 Powys (between Y Bala and Croesoswallt) (Llangynog)

To differentiate it from the other villages called Llangynog it may be referred to as Llangynog Maldwyn or Llangynog Sir Drefalwyn (= Llangynog in Montgomeryshire)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ0526

2 Brycheiniog, Powys parish at Cwmowen (Llangynog)
T
o differentiate it from the other villages called Llangynog it may be referred to as Llangynog Brycheiniog or Llangynog Sir Frycheiniog (= Llangynog in Breckonshire)


http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO0143

3 Caerfyrddin south-west of the town (Llangynog)
T
o differentiate it from the other villages called Llangynog it may be referred to as Llangynog Shir Gr or Llangynog Sir Gaerfyrddin (= Llangynog in Carmarthenshire)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN3316

4 in Swydd Henffordd / Herefordshire in England (Llangunnock)
T
o differentiate it from the other villages called Llangynog it may be referred to as Llangynog Swydd Henffordd (= Llangynog in Herefordshire)


http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO5123

5 Llanfihangel Tor y Mynydd, Mynwy
(Llangunnog)
T
o differentiate it from the other villages called Llangynog it may be referred to as Llangynog Sir Fynwy (= Llangynog in Monmouthshire)


http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO4501

ETYMOLOGY: (the) church (of) Cynog

(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Cynog, name of a saint of the Celtic Church)

:_______________________________.

Llangystennin lhan-gə-STE-nin [ɬangəˡstɛnɪn]
1 SH8279 village and parish in Conwy
The parish is south-east of the parish of Llan-rhos (in which Llandudno is situated). Cyffordd Llandudno (Llandudno Junction) is in Llangystennin parish.

NOTE: According to the wikipedia entry http://cy.wikipedia.org/wiki/Llangystennin
there is a variation of the name with w instead of y: Llangwstennin

NOTE: One n instead of two is incorrect Llangwstenin / Llangystenin

Llangwstenin Hall Plas Llangystennin

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH8279 map



(delw 7079)
:_______________________________.

Llangystennin Garth Brenni lhan-gə-STE-nin garth BRE-ni
1 Welsh Bicknor, Herefordshire SO5917

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO5917

ETYMOLOGY: (the) Llangystennin (which is at) Garth Brenni

Garth Brenni:
(garth = hill) + (Brenni?)
Llangystennin:
(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Cystennin = Constantine)

:_______________________________.

Llanhiledd lhan-HII-ledh [ɬanˡhiˑlɛ]
1
SO2100 locality in the county of Blaenau Gwent

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO2100 map

2
a parish at this place
(1961): Population: 3,933; Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 2%

Mynydd Llanhiledd the upland of Llanhiledd parish

ETYMOLOGY: ??

NOTE: Local form: Llaniddal
..1/ typical south-eastern loss of h Llanhiledd > Llaniledd;

..2/ metathesis : L-DD > DD-L Llaniledd > Llaniddel
(cf south-eastern form of cywilydd / cwilydd = shame > cwiddyl)

..3/ final e > a, a typical south-eastern feature Llaniddel > Llaniddal

:_______________________________.

Llani LHAN-i [ˡɬanɪ]
1 a local name for Llanidloes (Powys) among English speakers.

Probably an innovation in English, and not a Welsh name (such names locally would be Y Llan the parish church, the church village, the village whose name begins with Llan- in Welsh).

ETYMOLOGY: (Llan = first element of the name Llanidloes) + (i-, the first syllable of Idloes)

NOTE: Compare Ponty for Pont-y-pridd the local name in Welsh is Y Bont (= the bridge), but English speakers have added the English diminutive suffix [i] to the first element in the name (Pont first element of Pont-y-pridd) + (-y diminutive suffix)

:_______________________________.

Llanidris lhan-I-dris [ɬanˡɪdrɪs]
1
imaginary village, said to be the birthplace of the main character in the novel Dafydd Dafis (1898) by Beriah Gwynne Evans (1848-1927).

Ac mi ddala i nad yn aml y cewch chi well nofel na fhanes i o'r dydd y deuthym i'r ddinas fawr yma, yn hogyn o'r wlad, heb geiniog goch yn fy mhocad, hyd 'rwan, pan y medrwn, tae fater am hyny, brynu holl stad y sgweiar yn Llanidris lle ces fy magu.
And Ill bet you that it isnt often that you will get a better novel than my account of the day I came to this great city, a lad from the country, without a single penny in my pocket, until now, when I could, if it came to that, buy the whole estate of the squire in Llanidris where I was brought up.

ETYMOLOGY: (llan = church) + (Idris, mans name; proabably in allusion to Cadair Idris, (chair of Idris) name of a mountain near the town on Dolgellau in the north-west)

:_______________________________.

Llanifan lhan-II-van [ɬanˡiˑvan]
1
Welsh name of a village called Ednop in English (also called Edenhope in English), Shropshire, England (north of Mainstone and east of Bishops Castle)

The Shropshire Gazetteer, with an Appendix, including a Survey of the County and Valuable Miscellaneous Information, with Plates. Printed and Published by T. Gregory, Wem, 1824:

Edenhope, Upper and Lower. A township in the parish of Mainstone, and in the Mainstone division of the hundred of Clun. 3 miles west of Bishopscastle.

"The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland" (1868):

MAINSTONE, a parish partly in the hundred of Clun, county Salop, and partly in the hundred and county of Montgomery, 4 miles S.W. of Bishop's Castle, its post town. It is situated on Offa's Dyke, and includes the townships of Castlewright, Edenope, Knuck, and Reilth. The village is a small agricultural place. The living is a rectory in the diocese of Hereford, value 293, in the patronage of the lord chancellor. The church is dedicated to St. John the Baptist. The parochial charities produce about 4 16s. per annum. A school for boys and girls is supported by subscription.

ETYMOLOGY: Llanifan < Llanieuan church (of) (saint) John
(
llan = church) + (Ieuan = John)

Ieuan > Iewan > Iefan > Ifan
:_______________________________.

Llanifyny lhan-i-VƏ-ni [ɬanɪˡvənɪ]
1 SN8681 a district in the parish of Llangurig (Powys), at Y Pant-mawr

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=253308 map

ETYMOLOGY: the upper part of the parish (llan = church; parish) + (i fyny up, upper)

NOTE:
South-west of Llangurig and west of Dl-fach is Llaniwared SN8877 the lower part of the parish (llan = church; parish) + (i wared down, lower)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=249706



(delw 7466)

:_______________________________.


Llanigon lhan-II-gon [ɬanˡiˑgɔn]
1 SO2139 a village in Powys.

The present name in fact represents the local pronunciation of
Llaneigon lhan-EI-gon [ɬanˡəɪgɔn]

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/471046 yr eglwys / the church

ETYMOLOGY: church of Eigon (llan = church) + (Eigon)

NOTE: In the penultimate syllable, especially in South Wales, the diphthong
EI [əɪ] becomes a simple vowel, short I [ɪ] or semi-long II [iˑ], depending on the following consonant

:_______________________________.

Llanisien lhan I shen [ɬanɪˡʃɛn]
1 ST1781 former village in the kmmud of Cibwr, now a part of Caer-dydd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/ST1781 map

2 SO4703 village in the county of Mynwy, south-west of Trefynwy / Monmouth

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1223254

NOTE: Generally spelt Llanishen, to indiciate that si- is not pronounced
sy [sj] as the spelling suggests, but has the typical south-eastern palatalisation of this consonant group

In fact, to repersent fully the local pronunciation it would have to be written
Llanishan lhan I shan [ɬanɪˡʃan] (south-east Wales is a final-a zone, where e in a final syllable is replaced by a)

John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in Cardiff Records (1889-1911):
1756. Coroner's Inquest taken at the house of Lewis Leyson, innkeeper, in the parish of Lanishan in the county aforesaid, 6 October 1755, before William Gibbon, Coroner, on view of the body of David Rees, found that the deceased, in a certain lane called Hewl hr in the parish of Lanishan, as he was riding upon a horse before a wagon and oxen, and attempting to turn into a gate, fell down from his horse and was killed.



(delw 7465)

The saint is Isan, commemorated ina road name in Llanisien
Saint Isan Road, which would be Heol Isan in Welsh (the title of sant is not used with Celtic saints)

There is also a Heol Llanishen Fach in Llanisien

ETYMOLOGY: The saint seems to be Isan. If so, the name of the two churches was Llanisan. In south-eastern Welsh there is palatalisation of an s before or after an i, hence Llanishan (as in the above text from 1756). Since in the south-east an a in a final syllable very often corresponds to e in literary Welsh (carrag < carreg = stone, corad < cored = weir), it may have been thought that the real name was Llanishen. The standard Welsh name keeps the palatalised form and the e in the final syllable, but spells it Llanisien, since si is the standard Welsh spelling (though ambiguous, since it could represent s + i, rather than sh). The informal Welsh spelling with sh is the one used in English.

:_______________________________.

Llaniwared lhan-i-WAA-red [ɬanɪˡwɑˑrɛd]
1 A district SN8877 in the parish of Llangurig (Powys), south-west of Llangurig village and east of Dl-fach.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=249706 map

ETYMOLOGY: the lower part of the parish (llan = church; parish) + (i wared down, lower)

NOTE: Corresponding to this is
Llanifyny SN8681 the upper part of the parish, at Y Pant-mawr

(llan = church; parish) + (i fyny up, upper)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=253308 map



(delw 7466)

:_______________________________.

llannerch, llanerchau LHA-nerkh, lha-NER-khai, -e [ˡɬanɛrx, ɬaˡnɛrxaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
woodland glade

2 Llanerchir, SO1749 Bryn-gwyn, Maesyfed, Powys. Llannerch-hir? (the) long glade

NOTE: The singular form has nn-, which occurs at the end of a penultimate syllable; the plural form has a single n. The singular form with a single n (llanerch) is a misspelling.

NOTE: The plural form llanerchi appears in the farm name Llanerchigwynion SH8059 near Penmachno (county of Conwy).
white glades (llanerchi = glades) + (gwynion = white, plural of gwyn = white)

:_______________________________.

Llannerch LHA-nerkh [ˡɬanɛrx]
1
house name / farm name

..a/ farm name, Llantarnam
(Mentioned in Llantarnam Burials 1813-74)
John s/o D'l Daniel (son of Daniel Daniel), Llannerch in Lantarnam (died) 15 Mar 1820 (aged) 1 yr, 6mths
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~monfamilies/llantarnbur1813-74.htm

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/822352 Llantarnam

ETYMOLOGY: woodland glade - See the preceding entry

NOTE: In south-east Wales the local form Llannarch would be expected (the south-east is an a-zone spellings ae, ai, au, e in a final syllable are generally pronounced as [a])


:_______________________________.

Llannerch Hudol LHA-nerkh HII-dol [ˡɬanɛrx ˡhiˑdɔl] 1 medieval division (cwmwd) of Caereinion

ETYMOLOGY: See the next entry

:_______________________________.

Llannerch-hudol LHA-nerkh HII-dol [ˡɬanɛrx ˡhiˑdɔl]

1
(SJ2007) locality in Maldwyn (Powys)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2007 map

2
Trallwng - Llannerch-hudol (Welshpool Llanerchydol) seat on Cyngor Sir Powys

3
Plas Llannerch-hudol (Llanerchydol Hall) 19th century Gothic house with park and gardens

4
Parc Llannerch-hudol (Llanerchydol Park) SY21 9QE

ETYMOLOGY: Apparently ((the) glade (of) (the) sorcerer) (llannerch = glade) + (hudol = sorceror), unless Hudol is a person name

Llannerchydol may represent a local pronunciation
(1) loss of initial h after a word with final ch: hudol > udol
(2) weakening of the vowel u > y: udol > ydol


:_______________________________.

Llannerch-y-medd LHA-nerkh ə MEEDH [ˡɬanɛrx ə ˡmeː] (feminine noun)
1
SH4184 village in the county of Mn (the glade of the mead - probably from beehives kept in a clearing)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH4184 map

Llanoronwy lhan-o-ROO-nui [ɬanɔrˡoˑnʊɪ]

1 SO4810 Village in Herefordshire (English name: Wonastow)

 


NOTE: The Welsh Academy English Welsh Dictionary gives for Wonastow the names Llanwarw and Llanoronwy



:_______________________________.

Llanwarw lhan-WAA-ru [ɬanˡwɑˑrʊ]

1 SO4810 Village in Herefordshire (English name: Wonastow)

 

It is not generally known that there is a church possibly dedicated to this saint [Winnalo, or Gwennol] in Wales, viz., Wonastow, near Monmouth (locally pronounced Winnastow), anciently (see Liber Landavensis, p. 191) called Lannguarwi (that, or Lannguariu, is the reading of the MS., though the printed text alters it into Lann Gungarui), and still called in Welsh, by one of the few remaining Welsh-speaking natives of central Monmouthshire, Llanwarrw; thus the English would appear to have preserved the first, the Welsh the last part of the saint's name. In his Additional Notes to the Liber Landavensis (p. 11, top), the late Mr. Thomas Wakeman says that " Wonostow is called in old writings Llanwarrow, Walwanstow, Wonewalstow, and Owenstow; " we think, however, that the last name is equivalent to the Owenstowne of Additional Charter 7156 at the British Museum, and an English translation of the well-known Treowen, near Wonastow. Lann Guorhoc (the place on whose name Mr. Wakeman's note is written, Lib. Land., 153-4) is certainly not Wonastow ; it is in Erging, not in Gwent uwch Coed, Guorhoc being a scribal error for Guorhoe, and the place meant being the church of Garway in Herefordshire, spelt Garewy in what is described as a continuation of Matthew of Westminster in Royal MS. 14, C. vi., fo. 255 col. 2, where one "Thomas de Garewy iuxta Grossum Montem " (i.e., Grosmont) and his brother Stephen are mentioned. In modern literary Welsh the name Gurhoe would be Gwrfwy. 
The Settlement of Brittany. By William Edwards, M.A. In Y Cymmrodor : Transactions of the Society of Cymmrodorion of London. 1890-1891. Volume 10.

 


NOTE: The Welsh Academy English Welsh Dictionary gives for Wonastow the names Llanwarw and Llanoronwy
:_______________________________.

Llanwrfwy lhan-UR-vui [ɬanˡʊrvʊɪ]

1 A spelling in modern Welsh of the name Lann Guorboe (occurs in the Liber Landavensis, early 1100s).

According to the website Archenfield Archaeology this is Eaton Bishop SO4439, village 7km west of Hereford,

http://www.archenfield.com/Longtown.htm

rather than Garway, 17km south-west of Hereford

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/919801 Eaton Bishop



In his Additional Notes to the Liber Landavensis (p. 11, top), the late Mr. Thomas Wakeman says that " Wonostow is called in old writings Llanwarrow, Walwanstow, Wonewalstow, and Owenstow; " we think, however, that the last name is equivalent to the Owenstowne of Additional Charter 7156 at the British Museum, and an English translation of the well-known Treowen, near Wonastow. Lann Guorhoc (the place on whose name Mr. Wakeman's note is written, Lib. Land., 153-4) is certainly not Wonastow ; it is in Erging, not in Gwent uwch Coed, Guorhoc being a scribal error for Guorhoe, and the place meant being the church of Garway in Herefordshire, spelt Garewy in what is described as a continuation of Matthew of Westminster in Royal MS. 14, C. vi., fo. 255 col. 2, where one "Thomas de Garewy iuxta Grossum Montem " (i.e., Grosmont) and his brother Stephen are mentioned. In modern literary Welsh the name Gurhoe would be Gwrfwy. 

The Settlement of Brittany. By William Edwards, M.A. In Y Cymmrodor : Transactions of the Society of Cymmrodorion of London. 1890-1891. Volume 10.


ETYMOLOGY: ((the) church (of) Gwrfwy)

(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Gwrfwy)

:_______________________________.

Llanrhaeadr ym Mochnant lhan-RHEI-adr əm MOKH-nant [ɬanˡhrəɪadr əm ˡmɔxnant] feminine noun
1
SJ1225 village in the county of Powys

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/193294 y pentre / the village


(delw 7232)

ETYMOLOGY: (the place called) Llanrhaeadr in (the kntrev of) Mochnant
(Llanrhaeadr) + (yn preposition = in; becomes ym if the following consonant is m) + (Mochnant)

Llanrhaeadr (the) church (of the) waterfall.
:_______________________________.

Llanrhaeadr yng Nghinmeirch lhan-HREI-adr ə NGHIN-meirkh [ɬanˡhrəɪadr ə ˡŋhɪnməɪrx] feminine noun
1
locality the county of Dinbych. SJ0863 4km south-east of Dinbych on the road to Rhuthun .

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ0863 map

2
a parish at this place

Pentre Llanrhaeadr SJ0862 village south-east of Llanrhaeadr
(the place called) Pentre (which is next to) Llanrhaeadr

ETYMOLOGY: the place called Llanrhaeadr in the cwmwd (kmmud / commote / district) of Cinmeirch (in medieval times, Ceinmeirch).

Llanrhaeadr (the) church (of the) waterfall.
Ceinmeirch (the) ridge (of the) horses (q.v.)

NOTE: A misspelling on English-language maps and in some nineteenth-century Welsh texts is Llanrhaiadr

:_______________________________.

Llanrhymni lhan- hrəm -ni
1
(ST2181) Originally the name of a mansion, now the name of a suburb of Caer-dydd
English name: Llanrumney

ETYMOLOGY: (the) church (by the river) Rhymni. But originally it was Lanrymni (the) bank (of the river) Rhymni, with lan (a mutated form of glan = bank, riverside). More correctly, the name would be Glanrhymni.

There are other examples of lan used instead of glan as the first element in a name
..a/Lan-dŵr (Abertawe)

..b/ Lan y Parc ((the) hill (of) the field)
Street name in Llancaeach, county of Caerffili

The lan of Lanrhymni was confused with llan (= church)
Another name showing this same confusion is Llanyrafon in Cwm-brn (county of Torfaen), originally Lanyrafon < Glanyrafon (the) bank (of) the river, riverbank, riverside

NOTE: 1856 / Archaeologia Cambrensis / Vol 2 / 2nd series
Can anyone tell me authoritatively the proper way to spell the name of the house in which I now live? Practically every man spelled it as is right in his own eyes, while every Welsh scholar I ask gives me a different interpretation of its origin. On tombs, in parish documents etc, it is indifferently written Lanrumney and Llanrumney. I have ventured to substitute Rhymney for Rumney; but I am puzzled, as to the first syllable. Persons, all of whom ought to know, say it should be, some Lan, some Llan, some Glan. Will someone tell me the exact difference between the three? The house stands very near the river Rhymney, whence doubtless the name. There is no church or tradition of any church.

Edward Freeman
Lan-, Llan-, or Glan-rhymney, Cardiff
January 15 1856


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Llan-sain-sir lhan-sain- shoor
1
SH9775 locality in Conwy, near Abergele
English name: Saint George

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) church (of) Saint George)
(llan = church) + (sain = saint) + (Sir = George)

NOTE: A variant form is Llan-san-sir

On roadsigns in the area with the curious and impossible spelling of Llansan Sir

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/112825

:_______________________________.

Llansanffrid lhan-san-fraid feminine noun
1
The short form of various place names which have a differentiating tag (usually a river name or territorial name)

(The acute accent is not standard; used here to indicate that the stress is on this final syllable)


(delw 7288)

.....(1) Llansanffrid ar Eli (ST0977) (county of Bro Morgannwg) (on) (the) (river) Eli.
http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/ST0977 map (Englished as St. Brides-super-Ely)

.....(2) Llansanffrid ar Ogwr (SS9184) (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (on) (the) (river) Ogwr.
http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SS9184 map, Bryncethin

.....(3) Llansanffrid Cwmteuddwr (SN9667) (district of Maldwyn, county of Powys) (in) (the kmmud / cwmwd of) Deuddwr. cwmwd Deuddwr > cwmwteuddwr > cwmteuddwr

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN9667 map

.....(4) Llansanffrid Glan Conwy (SH8076) (county of Conwy) (on) (the) bank (of) (the river) Conwy.
http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH8076 map

.....(5) Llansanffrid Glyn Ceiriog (SJ2038) (county of Wrecsam)
http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2038 map

According to wikipedia 2009-01-17 Llansantffraid Glyn Ceiriog can be translated to the "Church of Saint Ffraid in the Ceiriog Valley" .

This is not exactly the case. The meaning of the name is the Llansanffrid which is located in Glyn Ceiriog / the Valley of the Ceiriog river, to differentiate it from the other Llansantffrids, and especially Llansanffrid Glyn Dyfrdwy

.....(6) Llansanffrid Glyn Dyfrdwy (SJ1143) (county of Dinbych) (in) Glyn Ceiriog / the Valley of the Dyfrdwy river / the river Dee
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/2421

.....(7) Llansanffrid Gwynllŵg (ST2982) (county of Casnewydd) (called by the English St Brides Wentlooge) (in) (the kmmud / cwmwd of) Gwynllŵg. Gwynllŵg means territory of Gwynllyw (Gwynllyw) + (-wg territorial suffix) > Gwynllw-wg > Gwynllẃ-wg > Gwynllŵg

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/ST2982

.....(8) Llansanffrid ym Mechain (SJ2220) (district of Maldwyn, county of Powys) ) (in) (the kntrev / cantref of) Mechain


http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2220 map

 

Mechain is (the) plain (of) (the river) Cain < *Mechein < *Ma-chein
(ma = plain) + spirant mutation + (Cein, the older form of Cain river name)


(delw 7509)


.....(9) Llansanffrid yn Elfael (SO0954) (district of Maldwyn, county of Powys)

(in) (the kmmud / cwmwd of) Elfael.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO0954 map (on map as Llansantffraed-in-Elwel)

2
Other places of this name have no differentiating tag:

...(1) Llansanffrid SO5824 locality in South Herefordshire, England.
English name: Bridstow (Brid = Brd, Bride, stow = church)
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/520207 map, neuadd y plwyf / map, parish hall

...(2) Llansanffrid (SN5167) locality in the county of Ceredigion; and a parish at this place
http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN5167 map

...(3) Llansanffrid (SO1223) locality in the district of Brycheiniog (county of Powys); and a parish at this place
http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO1223 map

...(4) Llansanffrid (SO3510) locality in the county of Mynwy
Gwesty Cwrt Llansanffrid Llansantffraed Court Hotel

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO3510 map

ETYMOLOGY: (the) church (of) saint Brd; Llansanffrid is from *Llan-san-frid (llan = church) + (sant = saint) + (Braid = Welsh form of the name of the Irish female saint Brd < (older Irish spelling) Brighid)

:_______________________________.

Llansanffrid Glan Conwy lhan- lhan -san- fraid glan ko -nui
1 (SH8076) locality in the county of Conwy 6km to the south-west of Baecolwyn
Also Glanconwy

2 a parish at this place

ETYMOLOGY: the place called Llansanffrid which is on the bank if the river Conwy
(Llansanffrid) + (glan = river bank) + (Conwy river name) Llansanffrid (the) church (of) saint Brd < *Llan-san-frid (llan = church) + (sant = saint) + (Braid = Welsh form of the name of the Irish female saint Brd)

:_______________________________.

Llantarnam lhan- tar-nam
1 (ST3192) locality in the county of Torfaen
, south-east Wales

The earlier name was Llanfihangel Nant Teyrnon
lhan-vi- ha -ngel nant teir non

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/822352
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)


ETYMOLOGY: Llanfihangel Nant Teyrnon the Llanfihangel which is in Nant Teyrnon
Llanfihangel = (the) church (of) Michael (the) (Arch)angel
Nant Teyrnon = (the) valley (of) Teyrnon

Because this is an irregular reduction of a long name there is no soft mutation *Llandarnam

Llanfihangel Nant Teyrnon > llan Teyrnon

There are three changes involved in Teyrnon the following sequence may not be the actual one
(1) Teyrnon
[ˡtəirnɔn] > *Tarnon [ˡtarnɔn] (compare the southern prnounciation of Maerdy [ˡməirdɪ] as Mardy [ˡməirdɪ], and Maerdref / Maerdre [ˡməirdrɛv, ˡməirdrɛ] as Mardra [ˡmardra] (Llanilltud Vaerdre, county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

(2) *Tarnon > *Tarnom
The change of final n > m occurs sporadically in Welsh. Compare place names such as
Y Trallwng (= the mire) > Y Trallwn > Y Trallwm,
Llandinan (church (by) (the) little hillfort) > Llandinam (Powys).
English button became Welsh botwn, now botwm (= button)

(3) *Tarnom > Tarnam. The change of final o > a occurs in other words in Welsh. Compare the southern pronunciaiton of ofn
[ɔvn] (= fear) which is generally ofon [oˑvɔn], and a variantt ofan [oˑvan].

A similar reduction in a place name in this general area in Llanddewi Nant Hodni > Llan Nant Hodni > Llantoni

NOTE: Llanfihangel y Fynachlog ((the) Llanfihangel (which is) (next to) the monastery. In Parochiale Wallicanum'/ Rev. A. W. Wade-Evans / Y Cymmrodor (1910) , a footnote states: "Llantarnam is called, colloquially, in Welsh Llanvihangel y Vynachlog."
J.A.B. (This is Sir Joseph Alfred Bradney, 1859-1933), (The church is a short distance from the Abbey)

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Llantoni
lhan- too -ni
1 village in the county of Mynwy, south-east Wales

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/312942 Abaty Llantoni / the abbey
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)


ETYMOLOGY: Originally Llanddewi Nant Hodni (the) Llanddewi (in) Nant Hodni
Llanddewi = (the) church (of) David
Nant Hodni = (the) valley (of the) Hodni (stream)

A similar reduction in a place name in this general area in Llanfihangel Nant Teyrnon > Llan Teyrnon > Llantarnam

:_______________________________.

Llantrisant lhan- tri -sant
ETYMOLOGY: llan y tri sant (the) church (of the) three saints
(llan = church) + (y = the) + (tri = three) + (sant = saint)

1
ST0483 locality (town) in the county of Rhondda-Cynon-Taf, south-east Wales, and a parish at this place
Local name: Y Llan
The three saints are Illtud, Gwynno and Tyfodwg

Gwyr Rhyddion Llantrisant (Gwyr Ryddon Llantrisant colloquially) nickname for the inhabitants of the town ((the) free men (of) Llantrisant)

Twyn Llantrisant the name of the hill on which Llantrisant stands (twyn = hill)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/939283 Y Twyn / Llantrisant Hill

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/979714 Twyn / Llantrisant Hill

Comin Llantrisant ST0484 Llantrisant Common
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/969647

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/411124

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/969367
(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales / Samuel Lewis / 1849: The town is romantically situated, on the road from Cowbridge to Merthyr-Tydvil, in a pass over a mountainous ridge, between two lofty hills, and is irregularly and indifferently built; but its whitewashed houses, with the dismantled tower of its castle, form conspicuous and interesting features in the scenery on approaching the mountains. The vicinity is indescribably beautiful and highly picturesque ; and the views embrace a tract of country abounding with features of romantic character and almost unrivalled magnificence.

2
Former name of the church at Llywel (Powys), according to
A Topographical Dictionary of Wales / Samuel Lewis / 1849:
The church, once called Llantrisant, from its dedication to three saints, viz.,
David, Padarn, and Teilo, is an ancient structure, consisting of a nave and chancel, with a strong tower at the west end, and is situated on ground of more lofty elevation than perhaps any other church in Brecknockshire, except that of Penderin


3 Place in Llanfihangel y Creuddyn (Ceredigion)
A Topographical Dictionary of Wales / Samuel Lewis / 1849:
The chapel of Eglwys-Newydd, which is within the precincts of the estate of Havod, and forms an interesting and beautiful feature in the landscape, was originally at a place called Llantrisant, nearer to the mother church, by Vron Gch mine, the remains of the cemetery being still plainly visible; but it was removed to the present site early in the 17th century, through the influence of the Herberts of Havod, and the growing population of Cwm-Ystwith works: a stone in the east end of the chapel, inscribed 1642, was brought from the original building and placed in its present position 30 years ago, when the chapel was rebuilt at the expense of Colonel Johnes, the then spirited proprietor of Havod.

ETYMOLOGY: llan y tri sant (the) church (of the) three saints
(llan = church) + (y = the) + (tri = three) + (sant = saint)

:_______________________________.

1 llanw LHAA nu (verb) (South Wales)
1
to fill (North - llenwi)

:_______________________________.

2 llanw LHAA nu (masculine noun)
1
tide
2
ton lanw, tonnau llanw tidal wave
creigres lanw, creigresi llanw tidal reef

morlyn llanw, morlynnoedd llanw tidal lagoon
:_______________________________.

Llanwenog lhan-we-nog feminine noun
1
(SN4945) locality in Ceredigion, south-west Wales

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/735635 yr eglwys / the church

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)




2
A parish at this place. The parish has a hilly part and a lowland part, known as Blaenau Llanwenog (the highland / stream-sources / valley-heads of Llanwenog, and Bro Llanwenog (the lowland / plain of Llanwenog)

3
The parish was the home John Gwenogvryn Evans, editor of medieval Welsh texts, (1852-1930), born in Llanybydder (SN5244) in the county of Caerfyrddin but brought up in Llanwenog.
Gwenogfryn is (hill (of) Gwenog); this middle name was used to make the very common name John Evans more distinctive. John Gwenogvryn Evans probably devised it himself.

As a place name a more natural form would be Bryngwenog but in forming personal names from existing place names or hypothetical place names the elements were sometimes reversed).

It is possibly a synonym of Blaenau Llanwenog (upper part of the parish of Llanwenog).

(The name Bryn Gwenog / Bryngwenog may however occur in the parish any confirmation of this?)
The use of v instead of f in some cases indicated support for a proposed spelling change advocated in the 1800s but finally abandoned the use of v for
v , and f for f , as in English and other European languages, to replace Welshf for v and ff for f . This might be the reason for Gwenogvryn instead of Gwenogfryn.

ETYMOLOGY: ( llan = church) + soft mutation + (Gwenog = saints name)

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Llanwnnog lhan-u-nog
1
(SO0293) village in Powys (Sir Drefaldwyn division)

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales / Samuel Lewis / 1849
LLANWNNOG (LLAN-WYNNOG), a parish, in the union of Newtown and Llanidloes, Lower division of the hundred of Llanidloes, county of Montgomery, North Wales, 6 miles (W. by N.) from Newtown; containing 1716 inhabitants. Its name is derived from the dedication of its church to St. Gwynnog, an eminent member of the congregation of Catwg, who flourished about the middle of the sixth century, and was canonized after his decease.


ETYMOLOGY: church (of) Gwynnog (llan = church) + soft mutation + (Gwynnog).
The saints name is (gwyn, gwynn- = white; pure; holy) + (suffix og)

The change of [wi] in the penult syllable to [u] occurs in other words in Welsh

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Llanwrtud lha NUR tid
1
town, south-west (church of Gwrtud)

:_______________________________.

Llanwynno lhan- -no
1
(SO0395) locality in the county of Rhondda-Cynon-Taf (South-east Wales)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/340261 yr eglwys / the church

2
a parish at this place

3
Daearwynno (qv) A farm by Llanwynno church ST0295 (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)
In English as Daerwonno, from the Welsh colloquial form of the name

((the) land (belonging to the church dedicated to) Gwynno
(daear = land) + soft mutation + (Gwynno = saints name)
In South Wales daear > daer [dair] > dar [daar]

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/109579

ETYMOLOGY: (the) church (of) Gwynno
(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Gwynno = saints name)

:_______________________________.

Llanwynnog lhan-wi-nog
1
See Llanwnnog

:_______________________________.

Llanycil lhan-Ə-kil
1
a village SH9134 and parish in Gwynedd, by Llyn Tegid, south-west of Y Bala, about 20 km south-west of Corwen and 24 km to the north-east of Dolgellau

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/139591 Llanycil



(delw 7497)
:_______________________________.

Llanymddyfri lhan əm DHƏV ri
1
town, south-west

:_______________________________.

Llan-y-tair-mair lhan-ə-tair-mair feminine noun
1
SS4688 locality in the county of Abertawe. English name: Knelston [nlstən]

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SS4688 map

2 a parish at this place



(delw 7460)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) church (of) the three Marys (llan = church) + (y definite article) + (tair = three, feminine form of tri = three) + (Mair = Mary)

The three Marys are
(1) Mary, the mother of Christ,
(2) Mary Magdalen and
(3) Mary of Cleophas

They are depicted in illustrations in the Middle Ages standing at the foot of the cross as witnesses of the Crucifixion of Christ.



(delw 7219)

El Greco (15411614), El Expolio the three Marys appear at the bottom of the painting

Sant Ioan 19.25 Ac yr oedd yn sefyll wrth groes yr Iesu, ei fam ef, a chwaer ei fam ef, Mair gwraig Cleoffas, a Mair Magdalen
Saint John 19.25 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mothers sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene

:_______________________________.

llarieidd-dra lha-ri-eidh-dra
1
gentleness
Nid oedd ei larieidd-dra yn peri iddo fod yn feddal a gwasaidd.
His gentleness did not make him (did not cause him to be) soft and servile

ETYMOLOGY: (llarieidd- < llariaidd = gentle) + (-dra suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

llarpio lharp -yo verb
verb with an object
1
rip to pieces, tear to pieces, pull to bits, maul

2
South Wales get, acquire, catch

3
South Wales (food) guzzle down, swallow up

4
South Wales insult

5
North Wales to sock (somebody), to belt (somebody)

ETYMOLOGY: possibly from llaprau = rags, tatters, from some English word (for example, dialect larrups = rags, tatters)

South Wales llarpo (in the South generally there is -o instead of -io, i.e. the i at the beginning of a final syllable is lost)

:_______________________________.

llarpiog lharp -yog adjective
1
in tatters, torn to pieces
2
(insect) greedy and destructive

ETYMOLOGY: (llarp-i-, stem of llarpio = rip to bits) + (-og = suffix for forming adjectives)

South Wales llarpog (in the South generally there is -og instead of -iog, i.e. the i at the beginning of a final syllable is lost)

:_______________________________.

llath lhaath
southern form of llaeth (= milk)
Usually spelt (less correctly) llth
See aa / llaath


:_______________________________.

llath, llathau LHAATH, LHA the (feminine noun)
1
yard (= measure, three feet); see llathen
2 hudlath magic wand
(hud = magic) + soft mutation + (llath = stick)

:_______________________________.

llathen, llathenni LHA then, lha THE ni (feminine noun)
1
yard (= measure, three feet) (91.44 cm)

:_______________________________.

llathrydd lha -thridh masculine noun
PLURAL llathryddion lha-thrədh-yon
1
polisher, device for polishing
2
polisher, man or woman who polishes

ETYMOLOGY: (llathr-, stem of llathru = to polish) + (-ydd = suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

llaw, dwylo LHAU, DUI lo (feminine noun)
1
hand, hands

2
clymu rhywun draed a dwylo hogtie somebody, bind hand and foot

3
curo eich dwylo / curoch dwylo
ki ro DUI lau clap ones hands

4
llaw flewog
lhau VLEU og hairy hand
Mae ganddo law flewog Hes got sticky fingers, hes apt to steal things (hes got a hairy hand)

It is also a metonym for a person: llaw flewog thief
Mae en llaw flewog Hes a thief

dwylo blewog
(hairy hands)
Mae ganddo ddwylo blewog Hes a thief (he has hairy hands)
y bobl dwylo blewog the thieving fraternity, people prone to steal things

5
law yn llaw
lau ən LHAU (adverb) hand in hand

6
ysgwyd llaw
ə skuid LHAU to shake hands (to shake a hand)

7
golchich dwylo
wash your hands of = disclaim all involvement in a matter, disclaim responsibility

Mathew 27:24 A Peilat a gymerth ddwfr ac a olchodd ei ddwylo gerbron y bobl gan ddywedyd Dieuog ydwyf fi wrth waed y cyfiawn hwn
Mathew 27:24 He took water and washed his hands before the multitude saying I am innocent of the blood of this just person

8 rhoi clap ar eich dwylo clap your hands together (in expectation) (give a clap on your hands)

9 adnabod rhywbeth fel cefn eich llaw know something like the back of your hand

10
Dyw e byth yn llaesu dwylo He never slackens, He never relaxes his efforts, He sticks at it constantly

11
unllaw
in-lhau one-handed
(un = un) + soft mutation + ( llaw = hand) unlaw > unllaw
Also: un llaw iin lhau , ag un llaw aag iin lhau

12
trwy law by the hand of
'through the hand of (trwy = through) + soft mutation + (llaw = hand)

Samuel-1 18:25 A dywedodd Saul, Fel hyn y dywedwch wrth Dafydd; Nid yw y brenin yn ewyllysio cynnysgaeth, ond cael cant o flaengrwyn y Philistiaid, i ddial ar elynion y brenin. Ond Saul oedd yn meddwl peri lladd Dafydd trwy law y Philistiaid.
Samuel-1 18:25 And Saul said, Thus shall ye say to David, The king desireth not any dowry, but an hundred foreskins of the Philistines, to be avenged of the king's enemies. But Saul thought to make David fall by the hand of the Philistines.

13
talu ar law pay cash (pay on hand)

14 cymryd y gyfraith yn eich dwylo eich hunan take the law into your own hands

15 llaw is the first element in llofrudd (= murderer)
This is in fact a metonym, being literally red hand.

Originally llaw was llawf, but in modern Welsh this final f has disappeared
llawf rudd
(llawf = hand) + soft mutation + (rhudd = red)
> *llawfrudd > llofrudd (aw > o in the penult)

16 lloffa
(= to glean, to gather fallen grains) < *llawffa < llawf-ha
(llawf, old form of llaw = hand) + (-ha, suffix for forming verbs)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic. Cognate with Old English folm (= hand) and Latin palma (= the palm of the hand, the flat of the hand).

From an Indo-European root which also gave rise to Latin planus (= flat)

:_______________________________.

llawdyn lhau -din adjective
1
mean, stingy, tightfisted

ETYMOLOGY: (llaw = hand ) + soft mutation + (tyn or tynn = tight)

:_______________________________.

llawen LHAU en (adjective)
1
merry

Yr oedd yn llawen iawn ganddi fy ngweld She was very glad to see me (it was very merry with her my seeing)

Nadolig Llawen Merry Christmas

:_______________________________.

llawenhu lhau en HAI (verb)
1
to rejoice

:_______________________________.

llawenydd lhau-EE-nidh (masculine noun)
1
joy, merriment

:_______________________________.

llawer LHAU er (masculine noun)
1
many
(llawer o bobl = many people)

Llawer hagr hygar fydd Beauty is only skin deep
(Many (an) ugly (one) (it-is) amiable that-is)
(hy- = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (car- < caru = to love)

2
much (+ adjective)

llawer gwaeth much worse

Yr oedd y tŷ newydd ar y pryd mewn llawer gwaeth cyflwr nar hen dŷ
At the time the new house was in a far worse state then the old house

3 Ers llawer dydd... Once upon a time (conventional phrase for beginning a fairy tale, etc)
(Also:
Unwaith... Once upon a time
Un tro...
Once upon a time
Gynt...
Once upon a time
Ers talwm...
Once upon a time
Ryw dro...
Once upon a time
:_______________________________.

llawes, llewys LHAU es, LHEU is (feminine noun)
1
sleeve

bod gennych rywbeth i lan eich llawes / bod rhywbeth lan eich llawes gyda chi
(South) have something up your sleeve

bod gennych rywbeth i fynych llawes
(North) have something up your sleeve

gorwedd ar y soffa a llawes eich siaced dros eich llygaid
lie on the sofa with the sleeve of your jacket over your eyes

2
yn llewys eich crys ən lhau es i GRIIS (adverb) in your shirtsleeves (in (the) sleeves (of) your shirt)

:_______________________________.

llawfeddyg lhau- v -dhig masculine noun
PLURAL
llawfeddygon lhau-ve- dhə -gon
1
surgeon

ETYMOLOGY: (llaw = hand) + soft mutation + (meddyg = doctor)

:_______________________________.

llawfeddygaeth lhau-ve- dhə -geth feminine noun
1
surgery

2
llawfeddygaeth gosmetig cosmetic surgery
llawfeddygaeth gadwrol conservative surgery
llawfeddygaeth plastic conservative surgery

ETYMOLOGY: (llawfeddyg = surgeon) +(-aeth suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

llawffon lhau -fon femen
PLURAL
llawffyn lhau -fin
1 walking stick
cerdded wrth lawffon walk with the aid of a walking stick

2 club, cudgel
llawffon Ercwlff Herculess club / Herculess cudgel

3 handstave, war club
Ezeciel 39:9 A phreswylwyr dinasoedd Israel a nt allan, ac a gynneuant ac a losgant yr arfau, ar tarian, ar saethau, ar llawffon, ar waywffon; e, llosgant hwynt yn tn saith mlynedd
Ezekiel 39:9 And they that dwell in the cities of Israel shall go forth, and shall set on fire and burn the weapons, both the shields and the bucklers, the bows and the arrows, and the handstaves, and the spears, and they shall burn them with fire seven years:

ETYMOLOGY: (llaw = hand) + (ffon = stick)

:_______________________________.

llafrwynen lha-VRUI-nen femen
PLURAL
llafrwyn LHAU-vruin
1 rush, bulrush
darlun o Moses yn ei gawell llafrwyn ar fin yr afon
a picture of Moses in his crib of rushes on the bank of the river

ETYMOLOGY:
(a) llafrwynen = (llafrwyn = rushes) + (-en suffix added to nouns to make a singular form out of a collective noun or plural noun)

(b) llafrwyn < *llawfrwyn < *llawrfrwyn
(llawr = ground) + soft mutation + (brwyn = rushes)

:_______________________________.

llawgaead lhau-gei-ad adjective
1
tight-fisted, miserable, stingy, mean

ETYMOLOGY: (llaw = hand) + soft mutation + (caead = closed)

:_______________________________.

llawn LHAUN (adjective)
1
full

2
ar eich llawn dwf fully grown (on your full growth)

3
yn eich llawn dwf

..1/ (person) fully grown, grown-up, adult, mature
gweld dynion yn eu llawn dwf yn chwarae threnau bach
seeing grown men playing with toy trains

..2/ (fruit) ripe
afal yn ei lawn dwf
a ripe apple

4
Prn chwedl, llawn chwedl No news is good news (scarce report, full report)

5
lawn cymaint just as much, to the same extent
(llawn = full, fully) + (cymaint so much, the same quantity).

There is soft mutation of an initial consonant in adverbial phrases,
hence llawn > lawn (ll > l)

Rw in hoffir darlun bach ma ond rw in hoffir darlun arall lawn cymaint
I like this small picture but I like the other picture just as much

6 Rhy lawn, a gyll Grasp all, lose all (too full, he will-lose)

7 drych maint-llawn full-length mirror

:_______________________________.

llawr, lloriau LHAUR, LHOR ye (masculine noun)
1
floor

2
ground floor
ar y llofft ac ar y llawr upstairs and downstairs
y llawr isa the ground floor (the lowest floor)

3
ar y llawr
ar ə LHAUR (adverb) on the floor

4
chwalu yn wastad r llawr raze to the ground (destroy flat with the ground)

5
esgynlawr
cockloft, hen roost
( esgyn(n)- ə , stem of esgyn i = to raise) + soft mutation + (llawr = floor)

6 llawr is the first element in llafrwyn (= bulrushes)
llafrwyn < *llawfrwyn < *llawrfrwyn
(llawr = ground) + soft mutation + (brwyn = rushes)

7 llorio to floor somebody, to knock somebody to the floor or to the ground
*llawrio > llorio (aw > o in the penult)
(llawr = floor, ground) + (-i-o suffix per forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

llawryfen lhau-RƏ-ven
PLURAL:
llawryf LHAU-riv
1
laurel tree

Salmau 37:35 Gwelais yr annuwiol yn gadarn, ac yn frigog fel y llawryf gwyrdd.
Psalms 37:35 I have seen the wicked in great power, and spreading himself like a green bay tree.

2 Coedllawryf koid LHAU-riv laurel wood; a street in Abergele (Conwy) (Coed Llawryf)

ETYMOLOGY: (y) coed llawryf (the) wood (of) laurel trees, (the) laurel wood
(y definite article) + (coed = wood) + (llawryf = laurel trees)


ETYMOLOGY: Either
..1/ (lawri = laurel) + (final [v]); lawri < English laury, a form of the word laurel
(Because there is a general tendency to drop a final [v] in plysyllables, but to retian it in the literary language, sometimes a [v] is added where it is not warrented, in the belief that the form without the final [v] is only a colloquial form.

But examples of this are rare perhaps the most well-known is hunllef (= nightmare) < hunlle sad sleep (hun = sleep, lle, obsolete adjective = sad), but the f is added proabably in the belief that the final syllable is llef (a shout, a cry), as if hunllef (a sleep-shout, a sout during sleep)

or

llawryf < llawrydd < llawrwydd (= laurel trees) (llawr = laurel, < Latin laur(us)) + soft mutation + (gwydd = trees)

:_______________________________.

lle, lleoedd LHEE, LHE odh (masculine noun) colloquial plural: llefydd LHE vidh
1
place

enw lle, PLURAL enwau lleoedd place name

2 place = usual location of something

rhoi popeth yn ei le put everything in place / in its place

3 reason, motive, cause
lle i gasglu fod... reason to suppose

maen amlwg nad oes gennyf le i gwyno its evident that I have no reason to complain

Nid oes, gan hynny, le i ameu tystiolaeth y rhan fwyaf o'r awdurdodau diweddarach, mai yn 1123 y bu Omar farw
. (Caniadau / John Morris Jones / 1907) So there is no reason to doubt the evidence of most of the latest authorities that Omar died in 1123

4 place = seat or space occupied by somebody
Pawb iw le! Everybody (please) be seated!
Ich lefydd bob un! Go to your seats, everyone!

5
(North Wales) y lle sgwr the bedroom

mynd ir lle sgwr go to bed (go to the square place)

6
Gwnewch le!
Make way! gangway! (make space / make room / make a place)

7
yn lle
ən LHEE (preposition) instead of

8
scope, possibilities
bod cryn le i wella ar (rywbeth) leave a lot to be desired (to be a considerable place to improve on something)

9
ni + rhoi cam o'i le not put a foot wrong, not make a mistake ("not put a step (out) of its place")

10
unlle anywhere
(unlle = anywhere, any place, literally one place
, un = one, lle = place)

(ni / nid) + unlle nowhere (literally (not) anywhere)

In North Wales nunlle nowhere
nunlle < yn unlle < nid yn unlle
(nid = no, not) + (yn = in) + (unlle = any place, un = one, lle = place)

-Ble buost ti? Nunlle
-Whereve you been? -Nowhere

11 creigle rocky place, crag
(creig- < craig = rock) + soft mutation + (lle = place)

12 cael lle braf get a cushy job (get a fine place)

13 Cartrefle (house name) home
home place (cartref = home) + soft mutation + (lle = place)

lle y gellir ei ddenyfddio a usable place, a place which can be used ((a) place which it-is-able its using)

14 mynd oi le go wrong (go from its place)
Beth all fynd oi le? What could go wrong? What might go wrong? (What can go wrong)

15 Hyfrydle pleasant place house name; also a chapel name (eg Calvanistic Methodist chapel in Caergybi, county of Mn)
(hyfryd = pleasant) + soft mutation + ( lle = place)

16 lle geni
lhee GE ni (masculine noun) place of birth
:_______________________________.

Llebenydd lhe-b-nidh feminine noun
1
(History) neighbourhood or kmmud - (cwmwd) in the cantref of Is Coed, country of Gwent (South-east Wales), anglicised as Libeneth



(delw 7384)

2
There is a street called Heol Llebenydd in the city of Casnewydd (Postal Code: NP19 9AP), officially Libeneth Road

:_______________________________.

Lle-braf lhe-braav
1
house name in Bangor (Gwynedd) (Lle Braf)

ETYMOLOGY: y lle braf the fine place, the splendid place
(y definite article) + (lle = place) + (braf = fine, splendid)

:_______________________________.

Lle bydd mwg bydd tn lhee biidh muug biidh taan
1
Theres no smoke without fire = however unlikely a rumour may seem, there is often some basis for the rumour starting ((the) place there-is smoke there-is fire)

ETYMOLOGY: (lle = place) + (bydd = there is, there will be) + (mwg = smoke) + (bydd = there is, there will be) + (tn = fire)

:_______________________________.

llech PLURAL llechi, llechau LHEEKH, LH khi, LH khe (feminine noun)
1
slate

2
tomen lechi plural tomenni llechi, tomennydd llechi slate tip, tip with waste stones from slate extraction

:_______________________________.

llech faen lheekh vin feminine noun
PLURAL llechau maen, llechau meini lh-khi min, lh-khi mei-ni
1
tablet of stone

Deuteronomium 4:13 Ac efe a fynegodd i chwi ei gyfamod a orchmynnodd efe i chwi iw wneuthur, sef y dengair; ac au hysgrifennodd hwynt ar ddwy lech faen
Deuteronomy 4:13 And he declared unto you his covenant, which he commanded you to perform, even ten commandments; and he wrote them upon two tables of stone.

Deuteronomium 9:9 Pan euthum i fyny ir mynydd i gymryd y llechau meini, sef llechau y cyfamod, yr hwn a wnaeth yr Arglwydd chwi; yna yr arhoais yn y mynydd ddeugain niwrnod a deugain nos; bara ni fwyteais, a dwfr ni yfais (9:10) A rhoddes yr Arglwydd ataf y ddwy lech faen, wedi eu hysgrifennu bys Duw; ac arnynt yr oedd yn l yr holl eiriau a lefarodd yr Arglwydd wrthych yn y mynydd, o ganol y tn, ar ddydd y gymanfa (9:11) A bu, ymhen y deugain niwrnod ar deugain nos, roddi or Arglwydd ataf y ddwy lech faen; sef llechau y cyfamod
Deuteronomy 9:9 When I was gone up into the mount to receive the tables of stone, even the tables of the covenant which the Lord made with you, then I abode in the mount forty days and forty nights, I neither did eat bread nor drink water: (9:10) And the Lord delivered unto me two tables of stone written with the finger of God; and on them was written according to all the words, which the Lord spake with you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly. (9:11) And it came to pass at the end of forty days and forty nights, that the Lord gave me the two tables of stone, even the tables of the covenant.

2
slab of stone; see the place name Llech-faen

3
llechfaen (qv) slab; bakestone

ETYMOLOGY: (llech = slab) + soft mutation + (maen = stone)

:_______________________________.

llechfaen LHEKH-vain [ˡɬɛxvaɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL llechfeini lhekh-VEI-ni [ɬɛxˡvəɪnɪ]
1
slate = impervious rock easily split along parallel planes; thick pieces can be used for doorsteps, windowsills, mantlepieces; and thin pieces for roofing tiles or as a writing surface for chalk

2
a roofing slate

3
slab
Llechwan y gelwir carreg gymharol drwchus, ac yn meddu gryn hyd a lled - digon i guddio llawr ystafell, neu darn o gae Tarian y Gweithiwr 23 04 1899
Llechwan is the name given to a relatively thick stone, with a considerable length and breadth - enough to cover the floor of a room, or part of a field

4
bakestone = flat stone or a plate of iron for baking cakes on

bara llechwan = bread baked on a bakestone

Llechwan hefyd y gelwir y teclyn haearn a osodir ar y tn i grasu teisen. Yr oedd mewn bri mawr ers llawer dydd i wneud bara gwenith, haidd a cheirch. Ar hwn y crasir bara llechwan a bara prwmlyd Tarian y Gweithiwr 23 04 1899
Llechwan was also the name given to the iron implement placed on the fire to bake a cake. Long ago it was greatly in use for making wheaten bread, barley bread and oat bread. On this bara llechwan, also called bara prwmlyd, is baked.

ETYMOLOGY: see llech faen

NOTE: South-east Wales llechwan or llychwan

..1/ llechfaen > llechfen (In colloquial Welsh, a final ae is reduced to e)

..2/ llechfen > llechwen (in some words in Welsh there occurs the change v [v] > w [w]; for example, efallai (= maybe) > falle > walle)

..3/ llechwen > llechwan (in the South-east, a final e > a)

..4/ llechwan > llychwan LHƏKH-wan [ˡɬəxwan] (in the south-east, in some words, the vowel before the tonic accent becomes y, the obscure vowel)

:_______________________________.

Llech-faen lheekh-VAIN [ɬeːx ˡvaɪn] feminine noun
1
SO0828 locality in the Brycheiniog area of the county of Powys

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/442057 y pentref / the village

ETYMOLOGY: see llech faen (= slab of stone)

NOTE: The spelling is Llech-faen, with a hyphen, as set out in Rhestr o Enwau Lleoedd, / The Gazetteer of Welsh Place-Names (1967), because the accent falls on this final syllable. Otherwise the spelling suggests Llechfaen (accent on the first syllable).

:_______________________________.

llechfeini lhekh-VEI-ni [ɬɛxˡvəɪnɪ]
1
plural form of llechfaen (= slab, bakestone)

:_______________________________.

llechingalw LHEE-khin-GAA-lu [ˡɬeˑxɪn ˡgɑˑlʊ] masculine noun
1
(referring to a place whose name the speaker (1) cannot bring to mind, or (2) is reluctant to say; but in either case, the speaker expects the listener to know which place it is) where-d-y-call-it

ETYMOLOGY: (lle, a form of pa le = what place, where) + (chin galw, part of the phrase beth ych chin galwr lle? what do you call the place?)

:_______________________________.

Y Llech Lydan lheekh LƏ-dan [ɬeːx ˡlədan] (f)

1 name of a sea rock SH3343 west of Llithfaen, Gwynedd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=309161 map

ETYMOLOGY: the wide rock (y = definite article) + (llech = rock, boulder, stone; gravestone) + soft mutation + (llydan = wide)

:_______________________________.

llechwan LHEKH-wan [ˡɬɛxwan] masculine noun
1
south-eastern form of llechfaen = slab; bakestone, iron bakestone

:_______________________________.

Llechylched LHEKH-ƏL-khed [ɬɛxˡəlxɛd] masculine noun
1
SH3476 former church in Ynys Mn

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1001278 mynwent yr eglwys / the churchyard

ETYMOLOGY: (the) stone (of) Ylched, Ylcheds stone (llech = rock, boulder, stone; gravestone) + (Ylched saints name)
:_______________________________.

lle chwarae lhee KHWAA-rai, -e [ɬeː ˡxwɑˑraɪ, -ɛ] masculine noun
1
playground, childrens playground

:_______________________________.

llechwedd, llechweddau LHEKH-wedh, lhekh-WEE-dhai, -e [ˡɬɛxwɛ, lhɛxˡweˑaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
hillside, slope

Tynyllechwedd
name of an old long house in Pant-mawr, Powys
farm on the hillside, (the) farm (of) the hillside (tyn < tyddyn = smallholding) + (y linking definite article) + (llechwedd = slope)

:_______________________________.

llechwen LHEKH-wen [ˡɬɛxwɛn] masculine noun
1
southern colloquial form of llechfaen (= slab; bakestone, iron bakestone)

:_______________________________.

..1 lled, lledau LHEED, LHEE-dai, -e [ˡɬeːd,ˡɬeˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
width, breadth

2
gwybod ei hyd ai led have somebody sized up (know his length and his width)

3
bod gyd-led gyd-hyd be as long as it is broad
(bod = to be) + soft mutation + (cyd-led = co-length) + soft mutation + (cyd-hyd = co-width). There is soft mutation of an initial consonant in adverbial phrases. hence cyd > gydd

4
lled- > llet- before g (= mutation of c), b (= mutation of p), t (= originally td, where d is a mutation of t)

..1/ lletraws diagonal, diagonal line (noun, adjective)
(lled = half) + soft mutation + (traws = oblique, slanting) > llet-draws > lletraws

..2/ llety lodging

Cf Scottish (Gaelic)

An Leth Bhaile / Level (Moireabh / Moray) "the half farm"

:_______________________________.

..2 lled LHEED [ɬeːd] (adverb)
1
fairly (+ soft mutation);
da = good, lled dda = fairly good, quite good
drwg = bad, lled ddrwg = fairly bad

:_______________________________.

lled-dargludydd lheed-dhar-GLII-didh [ɬeːd- arˡgliˑ] masculine noun
PLURAL
lled-dargludyddion lheed-dhar-glid-ƏDH-yon [ɬeːd- arglɪdˡəjɔn]
1
semiconductor

ffatri led-ddargludyddion, ffatroedd lled-ddargludyddion semiconductor factory, semiconductor plant

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/503992

ETYMOLOGY: (lled = half, semi) + soft mutation + (dargludydd = carrier, conductor)
:_______________________________.

lleddf LHEDHV [ˡɬɛv] (adjective)
1
(music / cerddoriaeth) minor

2
(obsolete / hynafol) slope.

Lleddf is not found as an independent noun meaning slope in modern Welsh, but it occurs in goleddf (= slope, hillside)

Origin: goleddf < *gwoleddf
(gwo-, prefix = under) + soft mutation + ( lleddf = sloping, slope)

Regional forms are:
goledd
(North Wales),
oledd (South Wales)

ar oleddf , colloquially ar oledd' (on (a) slope) equvialent to the English adjectives slanting, sloping, diagonal or the adverbs slantwise, diagonally.
(ar = on) + soft mutation + (goleddf = slope)

:_______________________________.

lledfaddau lhed-VAA-dhai, -e [ɬɛdˡvɑˑaɪ, -ɛ] verb
1 (verb with an object) to reprieve (somebody) = to postpone the punishment which somebody must undergo

ETYMOLOGY: (lled = half) + soft mutation + (maddau = pardon)

:_______________________________.

lledfilwr lhed-VII-lur [ɬɛdˡviˑlʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL lledfilwyr lhed-VIL-wir [ɬɛdˡvɪlwɪr]
1
paramilitary = one of a group of citizens who act as soldiers to assist an army

ETYMOLOGY: half soldier (lled = half) + soft mutation + (milwr = soldier)

:_______________________________.

lledfilwrol lhed-vi-LUU-rol [ɬɛdvɪˡluˑrɔl] adjective
1
paramilitary = relating to citizens who act as soldiers to assist an army

ETYMOLOGY: (lledfilwr = paramilitary) + (-ol = suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

lledfron LHED-vron [ˡɬɛdvrɔn] feminine noun
PLURAL
lledfronnau lhed-VRO-nai, -e [ɬɛdˡvrɔnaɪ, -ɛ]
1 (obsolete) slope

2 Lledfron SJ1120 farm overlooking the stream called Nant Fyllon, 2km north-west of Llanfyllin (Powys)

ETYMOLOGY: (lled = half ) + soft mutation + ( bron = hill)

:_______________________________.

lled-l lhed-OOL [ɬɛdˡoːl] masculine noun
1 rear, back

2
yn eich lled-l back, going back the way you have come, retracing your steps

Ymaith Dic yn ei led-l ir cae Dic went back into the field (away with Dic retracing his steps into the field)

3
ar led-l following
ar eich lled-l following you

4
South-east Wales o led-l from behind
oi led-l from behind it

ETYMOLOGY: (lled = half) + (l = trace, footprint; behind part)

:_______________________________.

lledr, lledrau LHEDR, LHEE-der, LHE-drai, -e [ɬɛdr, ˡɬeˑdɛr, ˡɬɛdraɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
leather

cadair freichiau ledr a leather armchair
ct ledr hir ddu a long black leather coat
crefftau lledr leather crafts
croen lledr, pl. crwyn lledr leather hide
crwban cefn lledr leatherback turtle
cynrhonyn lledr, pl. cynrhon lledr leatherjacket grub (Tipula spp.)
darn o ledr a piece of leather
dillad lledr leather clothes
gwaith lledr 1 leatherwork (objects made with leather) 2 leather works (factory producing leather)
maneg ledr drom a heavy leather glove
nwyddau lledr leather goods
pl rygbi ledr a leather rugby ball, a rugby ball made of leather
lledr ffug imitation leather
potasen ledr (archaic) leather boot
siaced ledr leather jacket
trowsus lledr coch red leather trousers
wedii wneud o ledr made of leather

:_______________________________.

llef, llefau LHEEV, LHEE-vai, -e [ɬeːv, ˡɬɛvaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
a shout, a cry

Datguddiad 10:3 ...y saith daran a lefarasant eu llefau hwythau.
Revelations 10:3 ...seven thunders uttered their voices.

llefau galar cries of woe


2 crochlef strident cry, clamour
(croch = loud) + soft mutation + ( llef = cry )


:_______________________________.

llefain LHEE-vain, -en [ˡɬeˑvaɪn, -ɛn] (verb)
(often spelt llefen in colloquial dialogues, etc)

1
to cry, to weep (South Wales)

paid llefen dont cry
rw i wastod yn llefen wrth dorri winwns I always cry when I cut onions
dechre llefen (= dechrau llefain) to begin to cry
llefen y glaw cry your eyes out (crying (like) the rain)

:_______________________________.

Llefelys lhe-VEE-lis [ɬɛˡveˑlɪs]
1
male forename

It occurs in the name of the seventh tale in the Mabinogion compilation,
Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys
KƏV-rank LHIIDH a lhe-VEE-lis [ˡkəvraŋk ˡɬiː a ɬɛˡveˑlɪs] (the tale of Lludd {and his brother} Llefelys)

:_______________________________.

llefnyn LHEV-nin [ˡɬɛvnɪn] masculine noun
1
(= llafn) blade (of a knife)

2
lad, young man; teenager, adolescent
llefnyn ifanc digywilydd insolent young man

Bu'n gweithio yn y tanerdy pan oedd yn llefnyn He worked in the tannery when he was a lad

ETYMOLOGY: (llafn = blade) + (-yn diminutive suffix);
change a > e under the influence of the final vowel i (vowel affection)

:_______________________________.

llefren LHE-vren [ˡɬɛvrɛn] (feminine noun)
1
girl

:_______________________________.

llefrith LHEV-rith [ˡɬɛvrɪθ] masculine noun
1
North Wales milk
2
fel llyn llefrith (like a pool of milk) said of a very calm sea = like a millpond

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh llefrith < lleflith (*llef = weak, soft, tepid) + soft mutation + (blith = milk)

From the same British root: Cornish levrith (= sweet milk), Breton livrizh (= sweet milk);

From the same Hibernian root: the Irish words
..1/ leamh (= soft, insipid, tepid) (corresponding to Welsh *llef),
..2/ bligh (= to milk) (corresponding to Welsh blith)

:_______________________________.

lleiaf (lleia) LHEI-av, LHEI-a [ˡɬəɪav, ˡɬəɪa] (adjective)
1
y lleiaf = the least, the smallest

2
cynhyrfu ynghylch y pethau lleiaf get excited about the least thing, over nothing

3
bird names = lesser
cnocell fraith leiaf (Dendrocopos minor) lesser spotted woodpecker

4
helygen leiaf plural: helyg lleiaf
(Salix herbacea) dwarf willow

5
minor, in parish names
Saint Andras Leiaf parish by Dinaspowys
(Saint Andras) + soft mutation + (lleiaf = smallest)
(1971) Population: 10, Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 0%
English name: Saint Andrews Minor

6 gorau po leiaf the less the better
Gorau po leiaf a ddywedir The less said the better; Least said, soonest mended

:_______________________________.

lleian LHEI-an (f)

PLURAL:
lleianod lhei-AA-nod

1 nun

2 Sanffraid Leian Saint Brd or Bridget

3 Llanlleiana SH3894

llan y lleianau (the) church (of) the nuns > llan lleianau (loss of the linkng definite article) > llan lleiana (north-western Welsh has a in a final syllable for standard au)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1111845 map

4 Llan-lleian-wen SS6799 llan y lleian wen church (of) the white nun

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1007764 map

5 Llanlleian (or Llanlluan), by Llanarthne SN5320

6 lleian, lleianod Lymantria monacha nun moth



(delw 7451)

ETYMOLOGY: (llei- < llai = grey) + (suffix an)

Cf Breton lean (= monk), leanez (= nun)


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Lleian LHEI-an (f)

1 name of a daughter of Brychan Brycheiniog (probably more correctly Lluan. Lluan occurs in the Latin manuscript De Situ Brecheniauc circa 1200 as one of Brychans 24 daughters)

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lleiandy lhe-AN-di (f)

PLURAL:
lleiandai lhei-AN-dai

1 convent

ETYMOLOGY (lleian = nun) + soft mutation + (ty^ = house)
Breton: leandi (= convent)

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lleian wen LHEI-an WEN (f)
PLURAL:
lleianod gwynion lhei-AA-nod GWƏN-yon

1 Mergus albellus smew



(delw 7450)

ETYMOLOGY: white nun, (lleian = nun) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white)

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lleiddiad lheidh -yad masculine noun
PLURAL:
lleiddiaid lheidh -yed
1
killer = (1) substance which kills, (2) person who kills. Found as the combining form -leiddiad
..1/ dynleiddiad = killer, manslaughterer
..2/ bacterleiddiad bactericide (bacter- < bacteria = bacteria) + soft mutation + (lleiddiad = substance which kills)

..3/ ffwngleiddiad = fungicide, substance for killing fungi
..4/ germleiddiad = germicide
..5/ hunanleiddiad = suicide
..6/ pryfleiddiad = insecticide

ETYMOLOGY: (lleidd- = form of lladd = matar, before the vowel i) + (-i-ad noun-forming suffix)

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lleiddiol lleidh -yol adj
1 (in compound words) = which kills
bacterleiddiol bactericidal(bacter- < bacteria = bacteria) + soft mutation + (lleiddiol adjective = which kills)

ETYMOLOGY: (lleidd- = form of lladd = matar, before the vowel i) + (-i-ol, suffix for forming adjectives)


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lleidiau LHEID ye (plural noun)
1
muds; plural of llaid = mud

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lleidio LHEID-yo (v)

1 (vi) to muddy = become muddy

2 (vt) to muddy = make (water) muddy

3 (vt) spatter with mud

ETYMOLOGY: (lleid-, penult form of llaid = mud) + (-i-o suffix for forming verbs)

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lleidiog LHEID-yog (adj)

1 muddy ENG-Z
dw^r lleidiog y porthladd the muddy water of the harbour

2 Fachleidiog SH7875 Farm by Conwy, at Aber Conwy, the mouth of the Conwy river

If the origin of the name is as it appears on the map, this is y fach leidiog the muddy nook

(y definite article) + soft mutation + (bach = corner, nook, recess) + soft mutation + (lleifiog = muddy)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=337916

ETYMOLOGY: (lleid-, penult form of llaid = mud) + (-i-og suffix for forming adjectives)


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lleidr, lladron LHEI dir, LHA dron (masculine noun)
1
thief = a person who steals
carn-leidr arrant thief
lleidr gwartheg
cattle thief, rustler
lleidr pocedi pickpocket

2
Mae pob peth wrth lygad lleidr Opportunity makes the thief (everything is in the eye of a thief)

3
lladrad, lladradau
LHA drad, lha DRA de (masculine noun) theft

4 lladrata lha DRA ta (verb) to steal
lladrata (rhywbeth) oddi ar (rywun) steal (something) from (somebody)

5
lleidr y nos a thief in the night
Pedr-2 3:10 Eithr dydd yr Arglwydd a ddaw megis lleidr y nos; yn yr hwn y nefoedd a nt heibio gyda thwrf, ar defnyddiau gan wir wres a doddant, ar ddaear ar gwaith a fyddo ynddi a losgir.
Peter-2 3:10 But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in the which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burned up.

6 lleidr weiddiff lleidr gyntaf a thief is always the first to accuse others of thieving (a thief shouts thief first)

(Sefyllfa: Maer gof ar fin dychwelyd iw efail) "Well i mi roi'r troed gora mlaen'" ebe Huw, 'swybod ar y ddaear na fydd o wedi gweld i wyn ar rwbath os bydd o acw o mlaen i. Mae o'n meddwl fod pawb yn lladron, a lleidar weiddith lleidar gynta wyddoch
Plant y Gorthrwm / 1908 / Gwyneth Vaughan (= Anne Harriet Hughes 1852-1910)
(Situation: The smith is about to go back to his smithy) Id better put my best foot forward, said Huw.
Theres no knowing whether hell take a fancy to something if hes down there before me. He thinks that everybody is a thief, but a thief is always the first to accuse others of thieving

7 ogof lladron a den of thieves, robbers' hideout, thieves' den, brigands' cave

lleidr pen ffordd highwayman, highway robber

maer banciau wedi ymddwyn fel lladron pen ffordd the banks have behaved like highway robbers
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lleied LHEI ed (adjective)
1
so little
er cyn lleied however little
pa gyn lleied bynnag however little

2
cynlleied - so small, as small

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lleihadig lhe-ha- -dig adjective
1
diminished, lessened
cyfrifoldeb lleihadig diminished responsibility

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lleihol lhei h -ol adjective
1
diminishing
Deddf Adenillion Lleihaol Law of Diminishing Returns


ETYMOLOGY: (lleih- = stem of lleihu = diminish, decrease) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

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lleill LHEILH (plural noun)
1
y lleill = the others; see llall

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lleiniau LHEIN ye (plural noun)
1
strips; see llain

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lleisiau LHEIS ye (plural noun)
1
oices; see llais

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Lleision lhei -shon masculine noun

1
Lleision mans name

2
Lleision patronymic, form of ap Lleision (son of Lleision)

3
surname = descendant of Lleision; English form: Leyshon

4
Leison soft-mutated form (ll > l) used as a genitive form in certain place names

(1) Coed Leison ((the) wood (of) Lleision) name of a wood west of Pendeulwyn (Bro Morgannwg)

(2) Gwaunleision ((the) moor (of) Lleision) name of a village by Gwauncaegurwen (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)
Also a street in this place: Waunleision

(Waunleision would be the local form, with gwaun (= meadow) regarded as a radical form; Gwaunleision is the standard form with the correct radical form gwaun)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh Lleision < Lleisian little voice (lleis-, = llais = voice) + (-an diminutive suffix). There are other examples in the south of the change in the final vowel a > o the most well-known is wastod (= always) < yn wastad < gwastad (= flat)

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lleithder LHEITH der (masculine noun)
1
humidity, dampness

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lleithydd lhei-thidh masculine noun
PLURAL lleithyddion lhei-thədh-yon
1
moisturiser
rhaid glanhaur croen a rhoi lleithydd arno ddwywaith y dydd
it is necessary to clean the skin and put moisturiser on it twice a day

ETYMOLOGY: (llaith = hmid) + (-ydd suffix for forming nouns)

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llen, llenni LHEN, LHE ni (feminine noun)
1
curtain
2
dan lennir nos under cover of night

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lln LHEEN (masculine noun)
1
literature

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lleng, llengoedd LHENG, LHE ngodh (feminine noun)
1
legion

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llengfilwr lheng- v lur masculine noun
PLURAL llengfilwyr lheng- vil -wir
1
legionnaire, legionary

ETYMOLOGY: (lleng = legion ) + soft mutation + (milwr = soldier)

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llengig lheng -gig m
1 diaphragm

2 tor llengig hrnia (breaking (of) diaphragm)

ETYMOLOGY: tissue meat; lln|gig < llin|gig < lli|in|gig
(lliein- < lliain = tissue ) + soft mutation + (cig = flesh, meat)
Breton lienenn-gig (same meaning)

NOTE: Caerfyrddin: llyn|gig (ng-g) Cwm Tawe: llengig (ng)

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llenni LHE ni (plural noun)
1
curtains; see llen

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llennig lhe -nig feminine noun
1
obsolete little church
In Llyfr Llan-daf (the book of Llan-daf, centuries 1100 and 1200) there is mention of Hen Lenhic Lann Gvern in Ercicg (= Hen Lennig Llan Wern yn Ergyng) the old church of Llan Wern in (the territory of) Ergyng

ETYMOLOGY: (llann- < llan = church) + (-ig diminutive suffix) There is vowel affection (a > e as a result of the i in the suffix)

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llenor, llenorion LHE nor, lhe NOR yon (masculine noun)
1
writer

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lleol LHE ol (adjective)
1
local

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lles LHEES (masculine noun)
1
benefit, advantage

2
Pa les fydd hynny? What good will that do? What good will it do?

3
clinig lles plant child welfare clinic

4 gwneud mwy o drwg nag o les do more harm than good

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llesiant lhes -yant masculine noun
1
welfare
neuadd lesiant welfare hall, hall for community activities
cymdeithas lesiant friendly society (society (of) welfare)

ETYMOLOGY: (lles = benefit) + (-iant = noun suffix)

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llesol LH sol (adjective)
1
wholesome
bwyd llesol wholesome food

2
aflesol unwholesome
bwyd aflesol unwholesome food

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llestr lhe-ster masculine noun
PLURAL llestri lhe-stri
1
vessel = cup, dish, pot, etc, container especially for liquid

2
(sometimes a feminine noun) vessel = ship (probably because llong (= ship) is feminine)

3
llestr pridd earthernware pot; in the south-east llestar priddyn

4 llestri te = tea things, cups and saucers for tea

5
llestri = dishes (eating utensils - dishes, cup; also knives, forks, spoons)
golchir llestri do the washing up, wash the dishes; wash the plates and cutlery

6
county of Ceredigon llestr wy (llester wi) = egg cup

7
llestr godro (vessel (of) milking); llestr llaeth (vessel (of) milk) = milking pail, milking receptacle

8
medium = substance for carrying an active ingredient;
Oherwydd ei ddawn i dreiddio ir cnawd or tu allan, defnyddid saim gwydd fel llestr i gynnwys meddyginiaethau eraill
because of its ability to penetrate into the flesh from the outside goose fat was used as a medium to carry other medicaments

9
llestr pysgod goldfish bowl

10
llestr mesur = measuring vessel (vessel (of) measuring)

11
llestr diferu = colandor (vessel (of) dripping)

12
llestr sebon soapdish (vessel (of) soap)

13
llestr toddi crucible (vessel (of) melting); crucible = vessel for melting substances which melt at a very high temperature and so need extreme heat

14
South-west Wales llestr gwenyn (llester gwenyn) = beehive

15
South-east Wales llestr cinio (llestar cino) = dinner dish (large meat plate, etc)

16
South-east Wales llestr menyn (llestar menyn) = butter dish, plate for holding butter at a meal table

17
county of Caerfyrddin chamber pot, pot placed under the bed for urinating in during the night

18
South-east Wales jam pot

19
llestr gwaed = blood vessel (vessel (of) blood)

20
(= llestr llo) uterus (of cow) (vessel (of) calf); organ in pelvic cavity where fetus develops

21
South-east Wales llestri main porcelain (thin vessels)

22
utensil; llestri bwyta eating utensils
llestri cegin kitchen utensils, kitchenware

23
Bible vessel = human body as a recipient of some spiritual quality
llestr trugaredd vessel of mercy
Rhufeiniaid 9:23
Ac i beri gwybod golud ei oganiant ar lestri trugaredd, y rhai a ragbaratdd efe i ogoniant
Romans 9:23
And that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory

24
Bible y llestr gwannaf allusion to a woman, the weaker vessel (in Welsh, a superlative form rather than a comparative form the weakest vessel)

Pedr-1 3:7 Y gwyr, yr un ffunud, cydgyfanheddwch hwynt yn l gwybodaeth, gan roddi parch ir wraig megis ir llestr gwannaf
Peter-1 3:7 Likewise ye husbands dwell with them according to knowledge, giving honour unto the wife, as unto the weaker vessel

25
Mwyau trwst, llestri gweigion Empty vessels make most noise, people with the least reliable information or most foolish opinions like to express themselves vociferously (biggest / greatest their noise, empty vessels)

26
dyfrlestr watering can (dyfr-, penultimate form of dwfr = water) + soft mutation + (llestr = vessel)

27 priddlestr earthernware pot, piece of pottery
(pridd = earth ) + soft mutation + ( llestr = vessel )

28 llestri metel metalware

NOTE: In the North llestr lhestr .
In south-west Wales, llester lhe-ster . In south-east Wales llester > llestar

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *les-tro-
From the same British root: Cornish lester, Breton lestr.
Irish leastar la-stər (= vessel, cask) is from Welsh

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llestr gweini lhe ster GWEI ni (masculine noun)
1
serving dish

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llestr inc lhe-ster ingk masculine noun
1
inkwell = vessel for holding ink into which a pen nib is dipped

ETYMOLOGY: (llestr = vessel) + (inc = ink)

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llestri LHE stri (plural noun)
1
dishes; see llestr

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lletchwith LHET khwith (adjective)
1
awkward (South: lletwith - LHET with ) .

ETYMOLOGY: lletchwith < lld-chwith (lled = half, quite, somewhat) + (chwith = left-handed; awkward, clumsy)




From lled chwith = left-handed

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llethr, llethrau LHE ther, LHE thre (feminine noun)
1
slope

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lletraws lhe -traus masculine noun
PLURAL lletrawsau lhe- trau -se
1
diagonal, diagonal line
ar letraws diagonally, sloping, slanting

ETYMOLOGY: lletraws (noun, adjective) > llet-draws < (lled = half) + soft mutation + (traws = oblique, slanting)

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lletwith LHET-with adj
1 (South Wales) See lletchwith

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Lleu lhei masculine noun
1
Lugos (Latin: Lugus), the most prominent of the Celtic gods. His name is found all over the former Celtic area, but especially in what was once Gaul. With the conquest and occupation of Gaul by the Romans, the cult of Lugos was transferred to the Roman god Mercury.

2
found as an element in Welsh forenames
..1/ Clodleu c1300 (obsolete); clod (= fame)

..2/ Llywarch < *Lugu-varkos; the second element is (in modern Welsh) march (= horse). There is an obsolete form with the elements reversed: Marchlew

..3/ Llywelyn < *Lugu-belinos; the second element meaning war

..4/ Lliwelydd < *Luguvalion strong like Lugus (valos = strong). The Roman camp at the English town of Carlisle (on the border with Scotland) was Luguvalium, and the name in modern Welsh is Caerliwelydd fort of Lliwelydd

..5/ Lleuri (obsolete); rhi = king

..6/ Lleuddun (obsolete); with the suffix ion, it is found in the territorial name Lleuddunion, a district in south-eastern Scotland. The name survives in Scottish (Gidhlig) as Lodain and as English Lothian lou-dhiən

..7/ Lleubryd (obsolete); pryd (= appearance, shape)

2
found as an element in Welsh place names
..1/ Dinas Dinlle (= Dinlleu, fort of Lleu), by Llandwrog, south-west of Caernarfon
..2/ Dyffryn Nantlle the valley called Nantlle. This is from Nantlleu (valley of Lleu)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British
From the same British root: Cornish Lew

Two possible derivations have been suggested (1) the bright one - Indoeuropean *leuk- (= light), as in Greek leukos (= white); or (2) the raven - leug- = (blackish), which gave rise to Gaulish lougos (= raven).
NOTE: See Lugu-dunum

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lleuad, lleuadau LHEI ad, lhei AA de (feminine noun)
1
moon

2
noson olau leuad No son O la LEI ad moonlit night

3
Rhys Llwyd y Lleuad the man in the moon ("Rhys Llwyd (of) the moon")
Also: Hen Ŵr y Lleuad ((the) old man (of) the moon)

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lleuad fedi lheiad VE di (feminine noun)
1
harvest moon

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lleuad gwyr Il lhei ad gwiir YAAL (feminine noun)
1
harvest moon (in North-east Wales) the moon of the people of the commote of Il

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lleuadol lhei- -dol adj
1 lunar
mis lleuadol lunar month

ETYMOLOGY: (lleuad = moon) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

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lleuad y naw nos olau
lhei ad ə NAU noos O le (feminine noun)
1
harvest moon (in North-east Wales) the moon of nine light nights because it rises at the same time every night

:_______________________________.

lleuad yr heliwr lhei ad ər HEL yur (feminine noun)
1
harvest moon (the moon of the hunter)

:_______________________________.

Lleucu LHEI ki (feminine noun)
1
womans name

:_______________________________.

lleuer lhei -er masculine noun
1 = light, illumination ; see lleufer

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lleufer
lhei -ver masculine noun
PLURAL lleuferau lhei-v -re
1
(obsolete) light, radiance

2
Lleufer
name of the magazine (founded 1944) of Cymdeithas Addysg y Gweithwyr (Workers Educational Organisation)

ETYMOLOGY: (lleu = light) + probably the element *ber < *bher (= to carry), if not *ber < *bher (= to flow)

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llew, llewod LHEU, LHEU od (masculine noun)
1
lion

2
dal fel llew yn rhywbeth hang onto something like grim death (hold-on like a-lion in something)

3
said of somebody roaring: rhuo fel llew roaring like a lion

4
said of a man with a strong singing voice
Mae ganddo lais fel llew He has a powerful voice (hes got a voice like a lion)

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Llew LHEU (masculine noun)
1
diminutive of Llewelyn / Llywelyn

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Llewela lhe WE la (feminine noun)
1
feminine form of Llywelyn (Llywel- + -a)

:_______________________________.

Llewelyn lhe WE lin (masculine noun)
1
mans name, variant of Llywelyn (llyw = leader, and apparently Belyn = god of war).

:_______________________________.

llewes, llewesau LHEU es, lheu E se (feminine noun)
1
lioness

:_______________________________.

llewyg lheu ig masculine noun
PLURAL llewygon lheu- ə -gon
1
faint, swoon
cael llewyg bach faint (have a small faint)
mewn llewyg in a faint

2
llewyg y ci Apocynum, plant said to be poisonous to dogs (faint (of) the dog)

ETYMOLOGY: ??

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llewygu lhe- -gi verb
1
(verb sense objecte) faint, swoon

Yr oeddwn i bron llewygu o eisiau bwyd (n i bron llewycu isha bwyd)
I was almost fainting from hunger

Bu bron i mi lewygu I nearly fainted, my heart stood still

2
be famished, be starving

ETYMOLOGY: (llewyg = faint) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)
NOTE: Colloquial form: llwgu. Also in the south-east llewycu

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llewys LHEU is (plural noun)
1
sleeves; see llawes

:_______________________________.

lleyg LHEIG (adjective)
1
lay, secular

:_______________________________.

LlGG
1
Abbreviation for Llyfr Gweddi Gyffredin (Book of Common Prayer)

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lli lhii feminine noun
1
y lli the sea

2
Y Coleg ger y Lli nickname for the university in Aberystwyth (the college by the sea); the university in Bangor is Y Coleg ar y Bryn (the college on the hill)

3
Glan-lli - street name in Pen-clawdd (county of Abertawe)
glan y lli ((the) shore (of) the sea, sea shore)

ETYMOLOGY: colloquial form of llif (= flow, flood, flow of the tide, sea). The loss of a final [v] in monosyllables is generally a feauture of the Welsh spoken in the north of the country.

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Llia lhi -a feminine noun
1
SN9216 Afon Llia = river in Brycheiniog (Powys)

ETYMOLOGY: ??

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lliain LHII-ain, -en [ˡɬiˑaɪn, -ɛn] masculine noun
PLURAL llieiniau lhi-EIN-yai, -e [ɬɪˡəɪnjaɪ, -ɛ]