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(delw 0003)






Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Gal
les i Catalunya
The Wales-Catalonia Website

Y Gwe-eiriadur
An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English


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Beth syn newydd?



(delw 4665)




























bbb7000_kimkat1676e-II, J, K









bbb7000_kimkat1073e-PLPL, Q







bbb7000_kimkat1025e_UU, V

bbb7000_kimkat1731e-WW, X

bbb7000_kimkat1586e-YY, Z







cebb ke BAB, ke B be / ke BABS (masculine noun) [kɛˡbab, kɛˡbabz]
1 kebab = meat and vegetables cooked on a skewer
cebb sbeisiog spicy kebab (colloquially, cebb sbeisi)
shish-cebb shish-kebab


cebystr, cebystrau KE bist, ke BƏS tre [ˡkeˑbɪstr, kɛˡbɪstrɛ, -aɪ] (masculine noun) (North Wales)

The colloquial form is ceb
yst [ˡkeˑbɪst]

1 halter (rope for holding animals);
2 hangmans noose 

3 beth gebyst... (North Wales) = what the hell...?


Cedewain ke DEU ain [kɛˡdɛuaɪn] (feminine noun) (kantrev name)
1 medieval territory in the North-east

Llanfair yng Nghedewain
former hamlet in Powys, replaced in 1279 by the Norman borough of Y Drenewydd (the place called Llanfair which is in Cedewain). There are many settlements called Llanfair (Marychurch) and in most cases they are differentiated by the addition of a tag, as in this case.


cedor <KEE-dor> [ˡkeˑdɔr] feminine and masculine noun
cedorau <ke-DOO-rai, -rai, -e> [kɛˡdoˑraɪ, -ɛ]
1 pubic hair(s)
y gedor = the pubic hair

llau cedor pubic lice, lice in the pubic hair; crab lice, crabs (Phthirus pubis)

Cywydd y Cedor (the) poem (of )the pubic hair, a strict-metre work in praise of the vulva by Gwerful Mechain, a female poet in the 1400s from the kmmud of Mechain in Powys.

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic

Breton: kezhour (= pubic hair), Irish: caithir (= down, pubic hair)
NOTE: see cedowrach (= deadly nightshade, belladona), from cedor y wrach (= (the) pubic hair (of) the witch)


cedor gelc <KEE-dor GELK> [keˑdɔr ˡgɛlk] feminine noun
North Wales
1 hair of the armpit

ETYMOLOGY: hidden pubic-like hair (cedor = pubic hair, hair resembling pubic hair) + soft mutation + (celc = hidden)


cedor y wrach <KEE-dor ə wRAAKH> [keˑdɔr ə ˡwrɑːɑˑx] feminine noun
1 see cedowrach


cedorol <ke-DOO-rol> [kɛˡdoˑrɔl] adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (cedor = pubic hair) + (-ol = suffix for forming adjectives)


cedowrach <ke-DOU-rakh> [kɛˡdourax] feminine noun
Atropa belladonna = deadly nightshade, belladona
y gedowrach = the belladona

ETYMOLOGY: cedowrach < cedor y wrach = ((the) pubic hair (of) the witch)
NOTE: codwarth (a variant of this word)


cedr KEDR [ˡkɛdr] masculine non
cedar; see cedrwydden

ETYMOLOGY: (in the 1500s) Cymricisation of Latin cedrus (= cedar)


Cedron <KE-dron> [ˡkɛdrɔn]
Kedron, Kidron; a ravine below the eastern wall of Jerusalem, a small stream which rises near Jerusalem, and flows through the Iehosophat valley, disgorging into the Dead Sea

(1) Ioan 18:1 Gwedi ir Iesu ddywed
yd y geiriau hyn, efe a aeth allan, efe ai ddisgyblion, dros afon Cedron, lle yr oedd gardd, ir hon yr aeth efe ai ddisgyblion
John 18:1 When Jesus has spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples

chapel name (eg for example, at Nanmor, near Beddgelert) (name said to be given because the chapel was next to a stream)

NOTE: The stream is mentioned another nine times in the Welsh Bible as Cidron (qv)


cedrwydden <kedr--dhen> [kɛdrˡwəɛn] feminine noun
cedrwydd <KEDR-widh> [ˡkɛdrwɪ]
cedar tree
y gedrwydden = the cedar tree

ETYMOLOGY: (cedr = cedar) + soft mutation + (gwydden = tree)


cedrwydden Lbanus <kedr--dhen LI-ba-nis> [kɛdrˡwəɛn ˡlɪbanɪs] feminine noun
cedrwydd Lbanus <KEDR-widh LI-ba-nis> [ˡkɛdrwɪ ˡlɪbanɪs]
cedar of Lebanon = Cedrus libani, tall tree, level spreading branches

ETYMOLOGY: (cedrwydden = cedar) + (Lbanus = Lebanon)


Cedweli <ked-WEE-li> [kɛdˡweˑlɪ] (feminine noun) (kantrev name)
1 medieval territory in the South-west; town in the South-west


cedyrn <KEE-dirn> [ˡkeˑdɪrn] adjective
1 plural form of the adjective cadarn = strong.

yrn rhyfel mighty (literary) warriors (strong ones (of) war)

Plural adjectives in Welsh are also used as plural nouns - y ced
yrn (= the strong)
ys y Cedyrn the island of Britain ((the) island) of the mighty (warriors))

Y Cefan KEE-van> [ə ˡkvan]
1 south-eastern form of the place name Y Cefn.

This is a short form of name beginning with cefn (= hill):
..1/ Cefncoedycymer
Ma fan b
yw ar y Cefan He lives in Cefncoedycymer

..2/ Cefncribwr

NOTE: cefn > cefen
<KEE-ven> [ˡkvɛn] in the south. In south-east Wales, a final e become a, hence cefan. Dialectally there can also be palatalisation of the c to give Y Ciefan [ə ˡkjeˑvan]


ceffyl, ceffylau KE fil, ke FƏ lai, -e [ˡkeˑfɪl] [kɛˡfəlaɪ, kɛˡfəlɛ] (masculine noun)
Diminutive form: ceffylyn
A clipped form of ceffylau is ffyle [ˡfəlɛ]


yl wedi rhedeg a runaway horse (hore after running)

3 ceffyl pren wooden horse
mor brn chachu ceffyl pren (said of something scarce) as scarce as the shit of a wooden horse

4 Ceffylyn Rhygyngog ((the) ambling nag) A
folk tune in a The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine and Celtic Repertory (1830). The English name is given as Galloping Nag.


ceffyl haearn <KEE-fil HEI-arn> [ˡkeˑfɪl ˡhəɪarn] masculine noun
ceffylau haearn <ke--lai, -le, HEI-arn> [kɛˡfəlaɪ, -ɛ, ˡhəɪarn]
1 (obsolete) (poetic) car

(obsolete) bicycle
In the days of long ago, when bicycles were an object of awe and wonder to the youth of Carnarvon, we never called them by any other name other than ceffyl haearn or car gwyllt
T Hudson Williams (1873-1961), University College, Bangor / Vox Populi - A Plea for the Vulgar Tongue

NOTE: ceffyl haearn = iron horse, car gwyllt = wild sled

(obsolete) train

andiron, fire dog
yl haearn = offeryn haearn, ar lun ceffyl, yn cadw'r tn yn drefnus
(t195 Rhai o Eiriau Llafar Sir Drefaldw
yn BBCS 1, Rhan 3 Tachwedd 1922)
an iron implement, horse-shaped, which keeps the fire tidy
(Some Spoken Words from Montgomeryshire, BBCS 1, Part 3, November 1922)

ETYMOLOGY: iron horse (ceff
yl = horse) + (haearn = iron)


cefn, cefnau <KEVN, KEE-ven, KEV-nai, -ai, -e> [kɛvn, ˡkeˑvɛn,ˡkɛvnaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)

1 back

2 cael eich cefn atoch recover after an illness (get your back to you)

3 bod ch cefn at (person) have ones back turned to (someone); (house) back onto (be with your back towards)

Roedd Elen i chefn ato wrth iddi agor y llythyr
Elen had her back towards him as she opened the letter
Maer t
y i gefn at y parc The house backs onto the par

middle (of a period of time)
gefn trymedd nos in the dead of night
(back (of) heaviness (of) night)

5 clap ar y cefn a clap on the back (a sign of congratulation)

cadw cefn rh
ywun plead someones cause (keep (the) back (of) somebody)

7 torri cefn y gwaith break the back of the work

adnabod rh
ywbeth fel cefn eich llaw know something like the back of your hand

9 wrth gefn set by, in reserve
bod gennych ddigon wrth gefn to have enough to live on
cadw (rh
ywbeth) wrth gefn keep something in reserve
cynllun wrth gefn contingency plan
bod chwestiwn wrth gefn have a question ready to spring on somebody, have a surprise question, have a question up your sleeve

(Topography) (Place-names) ridge, hill; = low long hill
(According to the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society 1936 / 11 / p65: ridge or backbone of a mountain or hill. Cefn is the word generally applied to a ridge or high land at the top of a valley
(See Cefn Coch, Cefn Brith, etc)

11 Hwnnw oedd y gwelltyn olaf ar gefn y camel this was the straw that broke the camels back, this was the last straw (this was the last straw on the back of the camel)

12 trachefn
<tra-KHEE-ven> [traˡxeˑvɛn] obsolete, preposition behind (tra = beyond) + spirant mutation + (cefn = back)
In South Wales, trachefn > trachefen, trachefan

Kae tracheuen y skibbor, Year 1676; Llangrallo / Laleston (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Bridgend)

In modern spelling this is

Cae Trachefen y Sgubor
<KAI tra-KHEE-ven ə SKII-bor> [ˡkai traˡxeˑvɛn ə ˡskiˑbɔr],

a colloquial form of literary Welsh Y Cae Trachefn yr Ysgubor <ə KAI tra-KHEVN ər ə-SKII-bor> [ə ˡkai traˡxɛvn ər əˡskiˑbɔr],

though the local pronunciation is likely to have been C Trachevan y Sgupor <ə K tra-KHEE-van ə SKII-por> [ə ˡkː traˡxeˑvan ə ˡskiˑpɔr],

the field behind the barn (y = the) + (cae = field) + (trachefn = behind) + (y = the) + (ysgubor = barn)

13 drachefn
<dra-KHEE-ven> [draˡxeˑvɛn] adverb again

NOTE: diminutive form cefnen (qv)


Cefncribwr KEE-ven-KRII-bur
village in Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr

The local form would be Cefancripwr

Cofiant Matthews, Ewenni, John James Morgan, 1922, p397
Meddwyn yn y trn nos Sadwrn yn methu agor ond cil un llygad, yn bloeddion barhaus, Blodaur byd ywr Pil a Chefancribwr.
A drunk on the train one Saturday night, with one eye half open (unable to open but the corner of one eye), shouting out constantly, Y Pl and Cefncribwr are the best places on earth.

ETYMOLOGY: ??cefn y cribwr


Cefnbychan ke-ven- -khan
locality in Wrecsam. English name: Newbridge

ETYMOLOGY: y cefn bychan = liitle hill (y definite article) + (cefn = back, hill) + (bychan = little)


cefnder ("cender"), cefnderwyr KEVN der, KEN der; kevn DER wir (masculine noun)
1 cousin


cefndir, cefndiroedd KEVN dir, kevn-DII-roidh, -rodh (masculine noun)
1 background

2 cilio ir cefndir take a back seat, fade into the background, move out of the public eye (retreat to the background)

ETYMOLOGY: (cefn = back) + soft mutation + (tir = land, ground)


cefndrum KEVN drim (feminine noun)
1 ridge

y Gendrum
O GEN drim


cefnen, cefnenni <KEV-nen, kev-NE-ni> [ˡkɛvnɛn, kɛvˡnɛnɪ] (feminine noun)

1 hillside, ridge
Mae terfyn y ddwy dafodiaith 'a' ac 'e' ar y gefnen rhwng Pandytudur
a Gwytherin

The boundary between the two dialects a and e is on the ridge between Pandytudur and Gwytherin


(delwedd 7416)

cefnen dywod, cefnenni tywod sandbank

ETYMOLOGY: (cefn = ridge, hillside) + (en diminutive suffix)


cefnffordd, cefnffyrdd KEVN-fordh, KEVN-firdh [ˡkɛvnfɔr, ˡkɛvnfɪr] (masculine noun)
1 ridgeway, road along a ridge

ETYMOLOGY: (cefn = back) + (ffordd = road)

NOTE: In South Wales as cenffordd
KEVN-fordh, KEVN-firdh [ˡkɛvnfɔr, ˡkɛvnfɪr]

cefnffordd > cenffordd / cenffordd

The loss of [v] in compounds where cefn is the first element is common

Hence Y Genffordd SO1730, a farm south of Talgarth, Powys, and Pengenffordd SO1730, a hamlet here.

pen y gefnffordd (the) end (of) the ridgeway (pen = end) + (y definite article) + (cefnffordd = ridgeway)


(delwedd 7487)

cefnfor, cefnforoedd KEVN vor, kevn-VORR-oidh, -odh (masculine noun)
1 ocean

ETYMOLOGY: (cefn = back) + soft mutation + (mr = sea)

NOTE: In South Wales as cenfor
KEN vor.

In many words in Welsh with the element cefn in the penultimate syllable , the [v] is elided

cefnraff > cenraff, cefnfordd > cenffordd, cefnder > cender, cefnllif > cenlli, Y Gefnros > Y Genros / Y Gendros, etc


cefngrwm KEVN grum (adjective)
having a curved back
(Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) eog cefngrwm (m) eogiaid cefngrwm pink salmon


cefn gwlad ke-ven gwlaad masculine noun
countryside = the rural part of a land;

yng nghefn gwlad in the countryside, upcountry

yw yng nghefn gwlad live in the country

yng nghefn gwlad Cymru in the Welsh countryside

Un o synau cyfarw
ydd yr haf yng nghefn gwlad Cymru yn y dyddiau a fu
oedd crawcian y rhegen yr
One of the familiar summer sounds in the Welsh countryside in days gone by was the croaking of the corncrake

Deddf Byw
yd Gwyllt a Chefn Gwlad the Wildlife and Coutnryside Act (= environmental protection law)

Rheolau Cefn Gwlad The Countryside Code (recommendations and prohibitions for visitors to rural areas e.g. keep dogs on a lead, not to light fires, not to leave farm gates open, etc)

yw cefn gwlad yn Baradwys Ddaearol o bell ffordd
The countryside is not an earthly Paradise by any manner of means

parc cefn gwald country park a countryside area close to a built-up area to give town-dwellers and city-dwellers an easily accessible rural environment

ETYMOLOGY: (the) middle / the back(bone) (of the) country (cefn = middle; back) + (gwlad = country)

Cefnhafodau KEE-ven-ha-VOO-dai, -de
farm in Powys, in Llangurig parish

ETYMOLOGY: cefn yr hafodau (the) hill (of) the summer places / the summer pastures / the summer dwellings (cefn = back, hill) + + (yr definite article) + (hafodau, plural of hafod = summer place)


cefn haul KEE-ven hail
place shaded from the sun
yng nghefn haul out of the suns reach

Yr oedd yn dyddyn bychan, gwlyb, oer, creigiog, anial, yn nghefn haul, ar ochr ogleddol y llechwedd serth hwnw a elwir Newydd Fynyddog.
It was a tiny smallholding, wet, cold, craggy, barren, out of the suns reach, on the northern side of the steep slope called Newydd Fynyddog

ETYMOLOGY: (cefn = back) + (haul = sun)


Cefn Hirfynydd KEE-ven hir--nidh
(SO4194 ) ridge 13 km long by Church Stretton in Shropshire, England.
English name: The Long Mynd (mynd is an adaptation of Welsh myn

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) ridge (of) Hirfyn
(cefn = ridge); Hirfyn
ydd is long mountain (hir = long) + soft mutation + ( mynydd = mountain, hill)


Cefn Llangatwg KEE-ven lhan-GAA-tug
place (formerly?) in Llangatwg Lingoed, Mynwy

25 July 1534 also 1 close of arable land called Teer Lloyn Deed, late in tenure of Howell David Hoell lying in a place called Kevenne Llangattok in the parish of Llangattoke. Hanbury Family Papers


(delwedd 7287)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) hill / ridge (of / overlooking) Llangatwg )

NOTE: The spelling represents the local form Cefen Llangatwg. It would seem that Llangatwg was not in fact within the south-eastern final a zone



cefnllif kevn -lhi masculine noun
deluge, torrent; see cenllif


cefnogi kev NO gi (verb)
1 to back, to support


cefn wrth gefn ke ven urth ge-ven adjective
back to back
tai cefn wrth gefn back to back houses

ETYMOLOGY: (cefn = back) + soft mutation + (cefn)


Cefn y Castell ke-ven-ə- ka -stelh
third highest (364m) of three peaks of Mynydd Breiddin
English name: Middletown Hill

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) hill (of) the castle)
(cefn = back, hill) + (y definite article) + + (castell = castle)


Cefn-y-coed kevn-ə-koid
name of a house in Bangor (Gwynedd)

2 farm north of Llanfaglan, and to the west of Y Bontnewydd, near Caernarfon, Gwynedd SH4860 map

3 farm in Deuddwr SJ2417, Powys

4 Cefn-y-coed Isaf SH7969 Farm near Eglwys-bach, county of Conwy (though spelt incorrectly on the Ordnance Survey map as Cefn-y-Coed Isaf). isaf = lower

ETYMOLOGY: (the) hill (of) the wood, wood hill , wooded hill

(cefn = back, hill) + (y definite article) + (coed = wood)


Cefn y Fedw kevn-ə- ve -du
Place by Rhiwabon. Called by the English Ruabon Mountain

ETYMOLOGY: (the) hill (of) the birch trees / (of) the birch wood

(cefn = back, hill) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (bedw = birch wood, birch grove)


Cefyn <KEE-vin> [ˡkeˑvɪn] (masculine noun)

1 Cymricised form of the English name Kevin, ultimately from Irish Caoimhn, from caomh (= dear, loved) + diminutive suffix n. The word caomh corresponds to Welsh cu (= loved)


ceg, cegau KEEG, KEE ge (feminine noun)
1 mouth
y geg = the mouth

2 brechl
yn trwyr geg oral vaccine (through the mouth)

3 tarian geg (Sport) gumshield

4 cau ceg fel llyffant = shut up on purpose (in the district dArfon, now part of the county of Gwynedd)

bod yng ngheg y byd be common knowledge (be in the mouth of the world)


cega K ga (verb)
cega ar (r
ywun) go on at (somebody)


cegaid ke -ged feminine noun
cegeidiau ke- geid -ye
y gegaid = the mouthful
yd gormod o gegaid bite off more than you can chew (take (an) excess of mouthful)

ETYMOLOGY: (ceg = mouth) + (-aidd suffix for forming nouns indicating the content or capacity of a container )
NOTE: also cegiad in the north


cegddu keg -dhii adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (ceg = mouth) + soft mutation + (du = mouth)


cegddu keg -dhi masculine noun
cegdduon ke- dh -on
(Merluccius merluccius) = hake

ETYMOLOGY: (the) blackmouthed (fish), the fish with a black mouth
(See the previous entry)


cegid k-gid plural
See cegiden = hemlock


cegiden ke-g-den feminine noun
cegid k-gid
Conium maculatum hemlock
y gegiden = the hemlock


(delwedd 7054)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British
From the same British root: Cornish kegez (= hemlock), Breton kegid (= hemlock)


cegiden leiaf ke-g-den lei-av feminine noun
cegid lleiaf c-gid lhei-av
y gegiden leiaf fools parsley Aethusa cynapium; alternative name of gwyn y cloddiau "white (flower) of the hedges"

ETYMOLOGY: "lesser hemlock" (cegiden = hemlock) + soft mutation + (lleiaf = least, smallest)


Cegidfa <ke-GID-va> [kɛˡgɪdva] feminine noun
Ordnance Survey Map Reference: SJ2211
SJ2211 locality in northern Pow
ys, north of Y Trallwng / Welshpool.

English name: Guilsfield
Population: 852 (1961)
Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 14% (1961)

(delwedd 7055)

2 seat on Cyngor Sir Pow
ys (the county council of Powys) representing this locality

ETYMOLOGY: "hemlock place", place where hemlock grows (cegid = hemlock) + (-fa suffix, = place).

Unusually this place name, unlike others of the same type, is not preceded by the definite article (*Y Gegidfa would be the form otherwise)


cegidog ke-g-dog adjective
abounding in hemlock

2 feminine noun place abounding in hemlock

3 Ordnance Survey Map Reference: SH9775 Cegidog former name of Llan-sain-sir, between Abergele and Cinmel (county of Conw

4 Ordnance Survey Map Reference: SJ2556 Afon Cegidog This is a river in the county of Wrecsam, 6km north of the town of Wrecsam, running into the Afon Alun south of the village of Cefn-y-bedd

ETYMOLOGY: (cegid = hemlock) + (-og adjectival suffix, common with plant names)


cegin, ceginau KE gin, ke GI ne (feminine noun)
1 kitchen
y gegin = the kitchen

2 cegin gawl PLURAL ceginau cawl soup kitchen

3 cegin fach, ceginau bach
KE gin VAAKH, ke gi ne BAAKH back kitchen

4 cegin gefn, ceginau cefn
CE gin GE ven, ke gi ne KE ven back kitchen


..1 ceglyn ke-glin masculine noun
caglau ka-gle
sheep dropping, goat dropping
2 Meirionn
ydd, a district of the county of Gwynedd rascal

ETYMOLOGY: (cagl = excrement) + (-
yn, diminutive suffix); the suffix has caused affection of the preceding vowel a > e


..2 ceglyn keg -lin masculine noun
ceglynnoedd, ceglynnau keg nodh, -ne
1 mouthwash, gargle; = liquid for gargling;
(colloquially = peth golchi ceg thing (for) washing mouth)

ETYMOLOGY: (first recorded example: 1773) (ceg = mouth) + soft mutation + ( ll
yn = liquid )


cei kei verb
you will get, you will have < cael
cei di youll get
Annwyd gei di Youll catch a cold
Fei cei di hi! Youll cop it! Youll get it! (= you will be punished)


cei, ceiau 2 KEI, KEI e (masculine noun)
1 quay


ceibr (Southern ceibir) <KEI-bir> [ˡkəɪbɪr] masculine noun
ceibrau <KEI-brai, -bre> [ˡkəɪbraɪ, -brɛ]

Pen-rhiw-ceibr place name from pen rhiwr ceibr (top of the slope of the beam, top of the hill of the beam probably indicates a place where there were trees which were felled to use as roof beams) (a linking definite article, in this case r, is often omitted in place names)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh ceibr < British < Latin * caprio, caprion- (= beam) < caper (= goat)
From the same British root: Cornish keber (= beam, rafter, joist), Breton kebr (= beam, rafter, joist);

Cf other languages also with words derived from Latin *caprio, caprion- (= beam)

(1) French chevron, (2) Irish cabar (= pole, rafter)
Cf Latin capreoli (= little goats, two pieces of wood forming rafters), Catalan cabri (= rafter)

NOTE: There is a diminutive form: ceibren, plural ceibrenni


ceibren, ceibrenni <KEI-bren, kei-BRE-ni> [ˡkəɪbrɛn, kəɪˡbrɛnɪ] (feminine noun)
1 beam
y geibren = the beam

2 ceibren cafn valley rafter, rafter of the angle where two slopes of a roof meet

ETYMOLOGY: diminutive form of ceibr (= beam), through the addition of the suffix -en


Ceidiog <KEID-yog> [ˡkəɪdjɔg] masculine noun
1 stream name
The church of Llandrillo is situated on a mound by the Ceidiof stream not far from the point that it flows into the river Dyfrdwy / Dee

Nant Ceidiog
(the) Ceidiog stream name of a house in Llandrillo


ceidwad, ceidwaid <KEID-wad, KEID-waid, -wed> [ˡkəɪdwad, ˡkəɪdwaɪd, -wɛd]
(masculine noun)
1 keeper

2 ceidwad parc park keeper


ceiliagwydd <keil-YAA-guidh> [kəɪlˡjɑˑgʊɪ] masculine noun
ceiliagwyddau <keil-ya-GUI-dhai, -dhe> [kəɪljaˡgʊɪaɪ, -ɛ]
gander = male goose

2 term of disrespect: noisy fool

3 mis y clacw
ydd "(the) month (of) the gander" the gandermonth; the month when the gnader sits on the gooses eggs; the month when a husband stays at home to tend to his wife who is about to give birth and do the domestic chores

NOTE: Colloquial forms are North Wales clagw
ydd, South Wales clacwydd and clacwdd

ETYMOLOGY: (ceiliag, form of ceiliog = cock, male bird) + soft mutation + (gw
ydd = goose); from the same British root: Cornish keliogoedh = gander

<KEIL-yog> [ˡkəɪljɔg]masculine noun
ceiliogod <keil-YOO-god> [kəɪlˡjoˑgɔd]

1 (American: rooster) (Englandic: cock) = male hen

2 cock = the male bird of a named species
ceiliog cwcw = male cuckoo ("male-bird (of) cuckoo")
ceiliog colomen male pigeon, cock pigeon ("male-bird (of) pigeon")

3 dominant partner in a relationship
Pa un air gŵr ynteur wraig
ywr ceiliog?
Which one wears the trousers - the husband or the wife?
("which one whether the husband or the wife is the rooster?")

4 South-east Wales "cilog" woman chaser, womaniser, ladies man, philanderer
Sometimes as an epithet: Dai Cilog
(= Dafydd y Ceiliog) David the womaniser
mor sionc cheiliog ar bol
yn as nimble as a rooster on a pole

6 mor iach r ceiliog as healthy as the rooster

7 cock = emblem of the French state; and especially as a symbol of the rugby team

8 Mae na ragor ofnadw
y rhwng ebol a cheiliog
Theyre as different as chalk from cheese, theyre completely different
(theres a terrible difference / an enormous difference between a foal and a rooster)

9 pit ceiliogod (North) cockpit
Standard form: talwrn

talwrn ceiliogod cockpit

11 ceiliog pen y domen the top dog, king of the castle, the big cheese, the one who gives the ordres (the cock on top of the dunghill)

12 cam ceiliog cockstride

bydd y dydd yn ymestyn gam ceiliog bob dydd the day gets longer by a cockstride each day

Also in Scots (Germanic language of the Lowlands of Scotland):

Cockstride, n. a short distance; used figuratively of the lengthening of days
A Scots Dialect Dictionary / Alexander Warrack / 1911

(A cock when walking lifts its foot very high, but in fact each step is very short)

Y: Welsh ceiliog < ceiliawg < British *kaljk-os < Celtic.
From the same British root: Cornish keliog (= rooster), Breton kilhog (= rooster).
In Irish: coileach (= rooster).

The bird was so named in Celtic because of its loud crowing. This is borne out by the meanings of related words in non-Celtic languages:
..a/ Greek kalein (= to call),
..b/ Latin calare (= to call, to summon)
..c/ English to low (= make the the sound of a cow)

NOTE: the southern form is generally ciilog
<KII-log> [ˡkiˑlɔg]
(1) In the south, the consonant i at the beginning of a final syllable is typically absent, hence ceiliog (= rooster, cock) > ceilog

(2) The reduction of the diphthong ei to a simple vowel
<i> [ɪ] (half long in the penult) is also typical of the south. Hence ceiliog (= rooster, cock) > ceilog > ciilog

(3) A similar word showing both these changes is ceiniog (= penny) > ciinog


ceilioges <keil-YOO-ges> [ˡkəɪlˡjoˑgɛs]feminine noun
ceiliogesau <keil-yo-GE-sai, -se> [kəɪljɔˡgɛsaɪ, -sɛ]

1 bossy woman, dominant woman

ETYMOLOGY: (ceiliog = cock) + (-es noun suffix indicating a female)


ceiliog hwyad, ceiliogod hwyad <KEIL-yog HUI-ad, keil-YOO-god HUI-ad> [ˡkəɪljɔg ˡhʊɪad, kəɪlˡjoˑgɔd ˡhʊɪad] (masculine noun)
1 male duck


ceiliog y rhedyn <KEIL-yog ə HREE-din> [ˡkəɪljɔg ə ˡhreˑdɪn] (masculine noun)
1 grasshopper (the rooster of the bracken)


ceilysyn <kei--sin> [kəɪˡləsɪn]masculine noun
ceilys <KEI-lis> [ˡkəɪlɪs]

ys is from an earlier form in English of the English word kails (= skittles, ninepins; = the plural form of kail).

The English word is from a Germanic root - note the similar words in Dutch kegel (= skittle), German Kegel (= skittle); and French (from a Germanic word) quille = (skittle)


ceillgwd <KEILH-gud> [ˡkəɪɬgʊd] masculine noun
ceillgydau <keilh-GƏƏ-dai, -de> [kəɪɬˡgəˑdaɪ, -dɛ]

ETYMOLOGY: testicle-bag (ceill- penult form of caill = testicle) + soft mutation + ( cwd = bag)


ceimiad <KEIM-yad> [ˡkəɪmjad]masculine noun
ceimiaid <KEIM-yaid, -yed> [ˡkəɪmjaɪd, -jɛd]

1 obsolete champion, hero

2 obsolete eminent person, distinguished person; found in the epithets of two saints,
Elian Geimiad "eminent Elian, Beuno Geimiad eminent Beuno"

ETYMOLOGY: ceimiad < ceimhiad < *ceimp-iad (camp = feat) + (-iad suffix to denote a person)


ceimion <KEIM-yon> [ˡkəɪmjɔn]
1 plural form of cam = bent, crookd

2 (a) pennau ceimion (in the Arfon area of Gwynedd county, north-west Wales) a nickname for Calvinistic Methodists ("bent heads", "lowered heads")

(b) garrau ceimion bandy legs

ETYMOLOGY: cam + plural suffix -ion ; the i of the suffix causes vowel affection a > ei


cein- (1) <KEIN> [ˡkəɪn] adjective
1 penult form of cain = fair, beautiful


cein- (2) <KEIN> [ˡkəɪn] masculine noun
place names penult form of *cain = ridge. See Ceinmerch


ceinach <KEI-nakh> [ˡkəɪnax] feminine noun
ceinachod, ceinych <kei-NAA-khod, KEI-nikh> [kəɪˡnɑˑxɔd,ˡkəɪnɪx]
obsolete hare
y geinach = the hare

ETYMOLOGY: (cein = ?hare) < British *kasn; with the additon of a suffix + -ach.
Cf German Hase (= hare)


ceinachgi <kei-NAKH-gi> [kəɪˡnaxgɪ] masculine noun
ceinachgwn <kei-NAKH-gun> [kəɪˡnaxgʊn]
obsolete harrier, dog which hunts hares

ETYMOLOGY: (ceinach) + soft mutation + (ci = dog); first example noted in 1850


ceiniog <KEIN-yog> [ˡkəɪnjɔg] (feminine noun)
PLURAL: ceiniogau [ˡkəɪnjɔg] [kəɪnˡjoˑgaɪ, -gɛ]
1 penny
y geiniog the penny

un geiniog one penny

y geiniog two pence
tair ceiniog three pence
pedair ceiniog four pence
pum ceiniog five pence
chwe cheiniog six pence

saith geiniog / saith ceiniog seven pence
wyth geiniog / wyth ceiniog eight pence
naw ceiniog nine pence
deg ceiniog ten pence

un geiniog ar ddeg eleven pence

deuddeg ceiniog twelve pence

tair ceiniog ar ddeg thirteen pence
pedair ceiniog ar ddeg fourteen pence
pymtheg ceiniog fifteen pence
un geiniog ar bymtheg sixteen pence

dwy geiniog ar bymtheg seventeen pence
deunaw ceiniog eighteen pence
pedair ceiniog ar bymtheg nineteen pence
ugain ceiniog twenty pence

deg ceiniog ar hugain thirty pence

deugain ceiniog forty pence

hanner can ceiniog fifty pence

trigain ceiniog sixty pence

deg ceiniog a thrigain seventy pence

pedwar ugain ceiniog eighty pence

deg ceiniog a phedwar ugain ninety pence

2 peiriant ceiniogau slot machine, fruit machine, gambling machine (machine (of) pennies)

3 gwario swllt er ennill ceiniog penny wise and pound foolish (spending a shilling to gain a penny)

4 llygad y geiniog (the) eye (of) the penny miser; (adjective) miserly, stingy, frugal
Sin lygad y geiniog
(also Sin llygad y geiniog) miser
Ieuan lygad y geiniog
(also Ieuan llygad y geiniog) miser

5 edr
ych yn llygad y geiniog count the pennies, be frugal, practise thrift, look twice at every penny (look in (the) eye (of) the penny

6 bod yn gynnil ar geiniog look twice at every penny, be very careful with money

NOTE: NOTE: the southern form is generally ciinog <KII-nog> [ˡkiˑnɔg]

Ceinmeirch <KEIN-meirkh> [ˡkəɪnməɪrx]
division (cwmwd / commote) of the kantrev of Rhufoniog (in the country of Gwynedd Is Conwy, North-east Wales).

The name survives today as Cinmeirch <KIN-meirkh> [ˡkɪnməɪrx]
(with simplification of the diphthong ei > i) in the village name Llanrhaeadr yng Nghinmeirch SJ0863 4km south-east of Dinb
ych on the road to Rhuthun.

(the Llanrhaeadr which is in the cwmwd (commote / district) of Cinmeirch).

Llanrhaeadr = (the) church (of the) river called Rhaeadr (= waterfall)

(delwedd 7232)

ETYMOLOGY: Ceinmeirch = ((the) ridge (of the) horses)
(cein = back, ridge) + (meirch = horses, plural of march = horse)


Ceintaidd <KEIN-taidh, -edh> [ˡkəɪnˡtaɪ, -tɛ]adjective
1 Kentish; pertaining to the county of Kent in the south-east of England

ETYMOLOGY: (Ceint-, penult-syllable form of Caint, a county of Kent in the south-east of England) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)


Ceintun <KEIN-tin> [ˡkəɪntɪn]
1 English name: Kington (SO2956) English village on river Arw
y 20km west of the English town of Leominster (Welsh name: Llanllieni) and some 10km south east of the Welsh town of Maesyfed Heol yr Eglwys, Church Street

2 Llanfihangel yng Ngheintun (SJ3614) Welsh name of the English village of Alberbury (Shropshire) 13 km west of the English city of Shrewsbury (Welsh name: Amw
ythig), just north of the Shrewsbury - Y Trallwng main road (A458), on the Welsh border by the Welsh village of Cryw-grin

It is about 44 km north of Ceintun / Kington

The village of Llanfihangel situated in Ceintun.
(Llanfihangel = church of Michael the Archangel) + (yn = in) + nasal mutaiton + (Ceintun) map


(delwedd 7106)

ETYMOLOGY: Ceintun (SO2956) from the English name Kington


Ceinwedd <KEIN-wedh> [ˡkəɪnwɛ] (feminine noun)
1 womans name (cain = fine, splendid; gwedd = aspect, face)


Ceinwen <KEIN-wen> [ˡkəɪnwɛn] (feminine noun)
1 womans name (cain = fine, splendid; -wen = suffix)


ceir <KEIR> [kəɪr] verb
(impersonal form, present-future tense of cael = to get, to receive); is got, will be got, is had, will be had, there is, there are, there will be

Blew geifr, glaw geir (= glaw a geir)
Weather saying cirrus clouds bring rain (hairs of goats,
it is rain that will be had)

Ni cheir y mel
ys heb y chwerw
There is no happiness without sadness, life is both happiness and sadness (it is not received the sweet without the bitter)


ceir <KEIR> [kəɪr]
cars, plural of car (= car)


ceirch <KEIRKH> [kəɪrx] (plural noun)
1 oats. See ceirchen


ceirchen <KEIR-khen> [ˡkəɪrxɛn] (feminine noun)
ceirch <KEIRKH> [kəɪrx]
1 oat
y geirchen = the oat, the grain of oats

2 (North-west) Ceirch iddi! Get moving! (oats to it?) (?an alteration of cyrch, from cyrchu = to take, fetch) 


Ceirchiog <KEIRCH-yog> [ˡkəɪrxjɔg]
1 Locality in the parish of Llechylched
(SH3476) in the county of Mn.
The old name was Betws y Grog
((the) church (of) the cross) map

According to Melville Richards
(Enwau Tir a Gwlad, 1998), mae crog yn cyfeirio at sgrin yn yr eglw
ys. Yr enw Saesneg oedd Holy Rood Church. (= crog refers to a screen in the church. The English name was Holy Rood Church)

ETYMOLOGY: ??oat field (ceirch = oats) + (-iog, suffix for forming adjectives; in place names, as a noun. Often indicates a crop or type of vegetation)
Cf Haydock, Lancashire, apparently an Old Welsh name corresponding to modern heiddiog (= barley field; haidd = barley)


ceiriosen, ceirios <keir-YO-sen> [kəɪrˡjɔsɛn] (feminine noun)
PLURAL: ceirios KEIR-yos [ˡkəɪrjɔs]
1 cherry
y geiriosen = the cherry

2 ceirios y gŵr drwg (Atropa belladona) deadly nightshade ((the) cherries (of) the bad man / the devil)

3 ceiriosen siwgwr PLURAL ceirios siwgwr glac cherry


Ceir Llechi <keir LHEE-khi> [kəɪr ˡɬeˑxɪ] masculine noun
place name, Caernarfon (= "slate quay")


ceirnos <KEIR-nos> [ˡkəɪrnɔs] plural
small heaps, small mounds, little mounds
With plural suffix -os (diminutives with -os behave as feminine singular nouns after the definite article there is soft mutation)
(found in place names in south Wales)
ceirnos > Y Geirnos

ETYMOLOGY: (curn = pile, heap) + (-os suffix for forming diminutives of collective nouns, especially those of certain plants) curnos > ceirnos (with a change to the tonic vowel possibly the influence of ceirniog = abundant in cairns )


ceirw <KEI-ru> [ˡkəɪrʊ] (plural noun)
1 stags; see carw


Ceirwyn <KEIR-win> [ˡkəɪrwɪn] (m)
1 male forename

ETYMOLOGY: Apparently (cr- root of caru = to love) ) + (-wyn suffix for male names, soft-muated form of gwyn = white; fair) > car-wyn > ceirwyn (the final y causes the preceding a to become the diphthong ei cf gwan = weak, plural gweinion; glas = blue, plural gleision)

ceisbwl <KEIS-bul> [ˡk əɪsbʊl] (m) 
ceisbyliaid <keis-BƏL-yaid, -yed> [k əɪsˡbəljaɪd, -jɛ]
1 (hanes = history) bailiff, minor justice officer, officer who detains debtors or demands payment of dents

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh ceisbwl (showing influence of ceis-, cais = attempt) < English catchpole (= constable) < Norman French cachepol (= chase-hen, chaser of hens), equivalent to Old French chacepol (chacier, modern French chasser, = chase) + (poul = cock)
Poul < Latin pullus (= cock, young animal); cf. modern French poule (= hen) < Latin pulla (= hen), feminne form of pullus 
A catchpole did not catch polls, i.e. heads, nor did he catch people 
with a pole, although a very ingenious implement, 
exhibited in the Tower of London Armoury, 
is catalogued as a catchpole. It corresponds to a French compound chasse-poule, catch-hen, in Picard cache-pole, the official's chief duty being to collect dues, or, in default, poultry.


The Romance of Words / Ernest Weekley, M.A / 1912 / p.153


ceisio <KEI-sho> [ˡkəɪʃɔ] (verb)
1 to try, to attempt

2 ceisio gwneud yr amhosib try to do the impossible

3 atgeisio
..a/ to seek again

Corinthiaid-1 7:18 A alwyd neb wedi ei enwaedu? nac adgeisied ddienwaediad. A alwyd neb mewn dienweidiad? nac enwaeder arno. (let not him seek again uncircumcision)
atgenhedlu < ad-genhedlu (ad- = re-, de nou) + mutaci suau + (ceisio = intentar, cercar)
Corinthians-1 7:18 Is any man called being circumcised? let him not become uncircumcised. Is any called in uncircumcision? let him not be circumcised

..b/ (information) retrieve = to bring (something) out of storage
atgeisio < ad-geisio (ad- = re-, again) + soft mutation + (ceisio = search, try)


cl <KEEL> [keːl] (adjective)
1 hidden

argel hidden; secluded
(ar = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (cl = hidden).

3 gogel (obsolete) (= take care, be wary)
(go) + soft mutation + (cel- = to hide) < British < Celtic *wo-kel

From this the current word diogel (= safe)
(di) + soft mutation + (gogel).
This corresponds to Cornish diogel, Breton diogel (= safe)

celain <KEE-lain, len> [ˡkeˑlaɪn, -lɛn] feminine noun
celanedd, celaneddau <ke-LAA-nedh, ke-la-NEE-dhai, -dhe> [kɛˡlɑˑnɛ, kɛlaˡneˑaɪ, -ɛ]
dead body, carcase, cadaver, corpse
y gelain = the corpse

Jeremeia 31:40 a holl ddyffr
yn y celaneddau, a'r lludw, a'r holl feysydd, hyd afon Cidron, hyd gongl porth y meirch tua'r dwyrain, a fydd sanctaidd i'r Arglwydd;
Jeremiah 31:40
And the whole valley of the dead bodies, and of the ashes, and all the fields until the brook of Cedron, unto the corner of the horse gate towards the east, shall be holy unto the Lord

Genesis 15:11 A phan ddisgynnai yr adar ar y celaneddau, yna Abram au tarfai hwynt.
Genesis 15:11 And when the fowls came down upon the carcases, Abram drove them away.
syrthion gelain drop down dead
saethu (rh
ywun) yn gelain shoot (someone) dead

2 anything dead

3 marw gelain stone dead, dead as a doornail
"corpse dead" - (marw = dead) + soft mutation + (celain = corpse)

4 celanedd (qv) = pile of bodies; killing, slaughter

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
In Irish collainn (= body, person)

NOTE: celaneddau is a double plural (-edd) + (-au)


celanedd <ke-LAA-nedh > [kɛˡlɑˑnɛ]
1 dead bodies; plural of celain

sometimes as a feminine noun; pile of bodies, massacre, slaughter, bloodshed; cruelty
Eiseia 33:15 Yr hwn a rodia mewn cyfiawnder, ac a draetha uniondeb, a wrth
yd elw trawster, a ysgwydo ei law rhag derbyn gwobr, a gaeo ei glust rhag clywed celanedd, ac a gaeo ei lygaid rhag edrych ar ddrygioni
Isaiah 33:15 He that walketh righteously, and speaketh uprightly; he that despiseth the gain of oppressions, that shaketh his hands from holding of bribes, that stoppeth his ears from hearing of blood, and shutteth his eyes from seeing evil;

chwythu bygythiadau a chelanedd breathe out threatenings and slaughter
Actau 9.1 A Saul eto yn chwythu bygythiadau a chelanedd yn erbyn disgyblion yr Arglw
ydd, a aeth at yr archofferiad,
Acts 9:1 And Saul, yet breathing out threatenings and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, went unto the high priest,

North Wales bod yn glana chwerthin be doubled up with laughter (= "be corpses (from) laughing (so much)") glana < clana / clana < clanadd < celanadd < celanedd (corpses)


celc <KELK> [kɛlk] masculine noun
celcau <KEL-kai, -ke> [ˡkɛlkaɪ, -kɛ]
(North Wales)
1 hoard

2 fortune

3 money put by

yw ar eich celc (north-west) live off your savings

5 (Ceredigion) defect
celc ar = something wrong with (but not immediately obvious)
Mae rh
yw hen gelc arno Hes a bit odd, theres something not quite right about him (there is some old defect on him)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < Irish cealg (= deceit)


celf, celfau <KELV, KEL-vai, -ve> [kɛlv, ˡkɛlvaɪ, -vɛ] (feminine noun)
1 art
y gelf = the art

celf a chrefft <KELV a KHREFT> [ˡkɛlv a ˡxrɛft] art and craft


celfi <KEL-vi> [ˡkɛlvɪ] (plural noun)
1 furniture; plural of celfic


celficyn, celfi <kel-VI-kin, KEL-vi> [kɛlˡvɪkɪn, ˡkɛlvɪ] (masculine noun)
(South Wales)
1 piece of furniture
2 fan gelfi removal van, furniture van (South)


celfyddyd, celfyddydau <kel-VƏƏ-dhid, kel-və-DHƏƏ-dai, -de> [kɛlˡvəˑɪd ,kɛlvəˡəˑdaɪ, -dɛ] (masculine noun)
1 art
oriel gelfydd
yd PLURAL orielau celfyddyd art gallery
3 celfyddyd yr ogofu cave art (art (of) the caves)


Celfyn <KEL-vin> [ˡkɛlvɪn] (masculine noun)
1 mans name (respelling of English Kelvin)


cell, cellau <KELH, KE-lhai, -lhe> [ˡkɛɬ, ˡkɛɬaɪ, -ɬɛ] (feminine noun)
1 cell
y gell = the cell


celli <KE-lhi> [ˡkɛɬɪ] feminine noun
celloedd <ke-LHII-oidh, -odh> [kɛˡɬiˑɔɪ, - ɔ]
wood, spinney
y gelli = the wood
celli geirios cherry orchard

2 Y Gelligandr
yll (the shattered wood), short form Y Gelli, town in the county of Powys, on the border with England

3 often in place names with gelli used as if it were the base form, instead of celli was would be expected
Gelli-gaer < gellir gaer, instead of cellir gaer

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *kall- < Celtic *kald-

From the same British root:

Cornish kelli
(= wood) (as in the Cornish place name Roskelli promontory of the wood, in English Rosekilly);

From the same Celtic root: Irish coille
(= wood)

Related words in other languages are:

Latin: callis
(= glade),
Greek klados
(= branch);
German das Holz
(= wood), Dutch hout (= wood), English holt
hoult [ˡhɔʊlt] (in place names = wood); cf the Dutch name Holland (region in the western Netherlands consisting of the tho provinces of North Holland and South Holland; and as a pars pro toto used to refer to the whole of the Netherlands. From Middle Dutch holtland (= woodland, wooded land), referring originally to the region around Haarlem.)

The word " gelli " is a common name in Merioneth for a farm or field situated in a sheltered nook.
Y Cymmrodor. Vol. XXXVIII. 1927. Merioneth Notes.

By T. P. ELLIS, I.C.S. (retired), M.A., F.R.Hist.S., Author of "Welsh Tribal Law and Custom"


celli geirios <KE-lhi GEIR-yos> [ˡkɛɬɪ ˡgəɪrjɔs] (feminine noun)
celloedd ceirios <ke-LHII-oidh, -odh KEIR-yos > [kɛˡɬiˑɔɪ, - ɔ kəɪrjɔs]
1 cherry orchard


cellwair <KELH-wair, -wer> [ˡkɛɬwaɪr, -wɛr] (masculine noun)
1 joke
Mae llawer o gellwair yn wir Many a true word is spoken in jest, Many a truth is said in jest (a lot of joking is true)


cellwair <KELH-wair, -wer> [ˡkɛɬwaɪr, -wɛr] (verb)
1 to joke


cellweirio <kelh-WEIR-yo> [kɛɬˡwəɪrˡjɔ]
1 joke = make jokes, jest

Tybiai ei frawd ar gweinidog mai cellwair oedd, ond yr oedd Ifan mor ddifrifol mynach His brother and the minister thought that he was joking, but Ifan was deadly serious (as serious as a monk)

Y: (cellweir- < cellwair = a joke, a wisecrack) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)

NOTE: also cellwair as a verbnoun


Celt, Celtiaid <KELT, KELT-yaid, -yed> [ˡkɛlt, ˡkɛltjaɪd, -jɛd]
(masculine noun)
1 Celt

2 The bardic name or pen name of Edward Morgan Humphreys (Dyffrynardudwy 1882-1955), journalist and author


Celtaidd <KEL-tedh> [ˡkɛltaɪ, -ɛ] adjective
Celtic = of the modern Celts (Welsh, Breton, Cornish, Irish, Scots, Manx)

Yr Undeb Celtaidd The Celtic League - an organisation which campaigns for the political independence of the Celtic countries and the restoration of their native languages as the first language of the country

2 Celtic = related to the Celtic territories
Y Mr Celtaidd the Celtic Sea, the sea between Wales and Ireland

3 Celtic = of the ancient Celts

4 Celtic = connected with the study of Celtic cultures and languages
Astudiaethau Celtaidd Celtic Studies

5 Celtic = of a style characteristic of the Celts
yn Geltaidd Celtic harp
croes Geltaidd Celtic cross

6 ffug-Geltaidd pseudo-Celtic

ETYMOLOGY: (Celt = Celt) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)


Celteg <KEL-teg> [ˡkɛltɛg] feminine noun, adjective
Celtic = the Celtic language which was widely spoken in Europe some two thousand years ago; it survived only in the islands off the north-western mainland of Europe, where it it is divided into two groups -
British (eastern - Welsh, Cornish, Breton) and Hibernian (western - Irish, Scottish, Manx). Also known as P-Celtic (the eastern division) and Q-Celtic (the western division) because many words with an original initial q
kw in Celtic preserved this sound in Hibernian, although nowadays it is pronounced k, and in the British group it became p.

For example, head is ceann in Irish and pen in Welsh.

Latin words in general retained the q
<kw> [kw] and it survives in the pronunciation in some modern languages derived from Latin, and in the spelling if not the current pronunciation of others.
<k> [k] ceithre (= four), Welsh <p> [p] pedwar (= four), Latin <p> [p] quattor (= four), Catalan <kw> [kw]quatre (= four), French <k> [k]quatre (= four)

Celteg Q
<kel-teg KIU> [ˡkɛltɛg ˡkɪʊ] = Q Celtic
Celteg P
<kel-teg PII> [ˡkɛltɛg ˡpiː] = P Celtic

ETYMOLOGY: (Celt = Celt) + (-eg suffix for forming nouns and adjectives indicating a specific language)


Celtegwr <kel-TEE-gur> [kɛlˡteˑgʊr] masculine noun
Celtegwyr <kel-TEG-wir> [kɛlˡtɛgwɪr]

Y: (Celteg = Celtic language) + (-wr, 'man', agent suffix)
NOTE: Also Celteg


celu <KEE-li> [ˡkeˑlɪ] verb
1 to hide
Llawer gwir gorau ei gelu
Many things are best left unsaid
(many a truth best its hiding)
Ni ellir celur ffaith fod... theres no disguising the fact that


celwydd <KEE-luidh> [ˡkeˑlʊɪ]

PLURAL: celwyddau <ke-LUI-dhai, -e> [kɛˡlʊɪaɪ, -ɛ] masculine noun
lie, untruth, fabrication, fairy tale, pork pie
yth o gelwyddau a pack of lies (a load of lies)

2 heb air o gelw
ydd no kidding, honestly, without a word of a lie

3 clap a chelwydd gossip and lies

4 Mae i bob celw
ydd ei gymar One lie leads to another (there is to every lie its partner)

celwydd golau a barefaced lie (a clear / plain / evident lie) (golau also means light, illuminated)

celwydd gln golau a barefaced lie (an evident + pure lie)

ETYMOLOGY: British "*kalwi-jos"; cf Latin "calumnia" from an earlier form "calwomnia"
LOCAL VARIANTS: In the north-west celw
yddau (= lies) > clwydda <klu-II-dha> [ˡklʊiˑa]

In the south celw
ydd (= a lie) > celwdd <KEE-ludh> [ˡkeˑlʊ]


celwyddgi <ke-LUIDH-gi> [kɛˡlʊɪgɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL celwyddgwn <ke-LUIDH-gun> [kɛˡlʊɪgʊn]
(South Wales)
1 liar, storyteller (one who tells untrue stories)
Mae en gythraul o gelw
yddgi Hes a hell of a liar

ydd = lie) + soft mutation + (ci = dog; also in compound words as a term of contempt for a person)


celwyddog <ke-LUI-dhog> [kɛˡlʊɪɔg] adjective
Mae en ddiawl celw
yddog Hes a lying bastard
Un celw
yddog tost yw a Hes a terrible liar, Helies through his teeth

NOTE: Also colloquially clwyddog, clwddog

celwyddwr <kel-UI-dhur> [kɛˡlʊɪʊr] masculine noun
celwddwyr <kel-WƏDH-wir> [kɛˡlʊɪwɪr]
yw e Hes a liar

ydd = lie) + (-wr suffix = man)


celynnen ke--nen [kɛˡlənɛn]
celyn <KEE-lin> [ˡkeˑlɪn] feminine noun
1 (Ilex aquifolium) holly, evergreen tree with prickly leaves and bright red berries; holly bush
y gelynnen = the holly bush

{attribute} holly = relating to the plant
pren cel
yn holly wood, the wood of a holly tree
dail cel
yn holly leaves

{substantive adjective} holly = made of the wood of a holly

ke-lə- -ne individual hollies
(in the district of Eifion
ydd, Gwynedd, in the form clenna)

Y Clenennau A farm SH5342 by Golan, Gwynedd Y Clenennau
The development might have been as follows:
Y Celynennau > Y Clynennau > Y Clenennau > (Y Clenenna) 

(plant name) Celynnen Fair (Ruscus aculeatus) butcher's broom
((the) holly (of the Virgin) Mary)

maes y cel
yn ((the) field (of) the holly-bushes)
(maes = field) + (definite article y) + (cel
yn holly-bushes)

Occurs in the following places as a street name:
..a/ Llanbedr Dyffryn Clwyd, Rhuthun (county of Dinb
ych) (Maes Celyn)
..b/ Llaneurgain (county of Y Fflint) (Maes Cel
..c/ Coed-y-gl
yn (county of Wrecsam) (Maes Celyn)

7 celynnen > clynnen / clynnen
In the 1881 Census
(Tywyn, District 3) David Davies (55) mariner is recorded as living at Pantyglynnen (spelt as Pant y Glynen) (= hollow of the holly bush)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cel
yn < British *kolin- < Celtic

From the same British root:

Breton kelenn (= holly trees / bushes),

Cornish kelenn (= holly trees / bushes). It occurs in Cornwall in the place name Roskelenn, in English Treskilling (ros = upland, hill) + (kelenn holly trees) upland of the holly trees

From the same Common Celtic root: Irish cuileann (= holly)

Cf Old English holegn > modern English holly
Cf English holm oak
(The word holm houm, is a dialect word for holly: holm 1300+ < holin < Old English holegn)


celynllwyn ke-LƏN-lhuin [kɛˡlənɬʊɪn]masculine noun
1 holly bush; (holly = Ilex aquifolium, evergreen tree with prickly leaves and bright red berries)

yn farm name in Pontarddulais (county of Abertawe),
= tal y cynllw
yn < tal y clynllwyn < tal y celynllwyn (place facing / opposite the holly grove / holly wood / holly-bush)
(Place-names in and around the Bont, Deric John, 1999)

yn = holly bushes) + soft mutation + (llwyn = bush, grove) > *celyn-lwyn > celynllwyn (loss of the soft mutation)

NOTE: More usually, rather than celynllwyn, holly bush is llw
yn celyn.

Other examples with llw
yn as a second element are:

yn / bedlwyn (birch grove), also llwyn bedw

yn / derlwyn (= oak grove), also llwyn derw

yn (heather clump), also llwyn grug

yn (alder grove), also llwyn gwern

yn (ash grove), also llwyn on(n),


celynnog <ke-LƏ-nog> [kɛˡlənɔg]
1 (adj) abounding in holly bushes

2 (noun)
place abounding in holly bushes, place of holly bushes

It occurs in place names as Clynnog (= Clynnog)
<KLƏ-nog> [ˡklənɔg] , a reduced form of celynnog)

..a/ In Llanrhaeadr ym Mochnant there is a farm Clynog SJ1225 which is probably Clynnog map

..b/ Clynnog-fawr SH4149 also known simply as Clynnog

A village in Gwynedd y pentref / the village

ynn- penult form of celyn = holly bushes) + (-og adjectival suffix ) > celynnog (adj) (= abounding in holly bushes) > celynnog (noun) (= place abounding in holly bushes)


cemais <KE-mais, -mes> [ˡkɛmaɪs, -mɛs] (masculine noun)
(obsolete; present in place names)
1 bend in a river

2 bend in the coastline

In place names, often misspelt Cemaes / Cemmaes, through assuming some connection with maes (= field)


Cemais <KE-mais, -mes> [ˡkɛmaɪs, -mɛs]
1 SH8306 A village in Powys map
The local form is Cemes, and a former spelling Cemmes reflects this local pronunciation:


The Engineer day Coach to Oswestry runs from the Talbot Hotel every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, at 7 a.m., through Machynlleth, Cemmes, Mallwyd, Llanfair, and Meifod, returning on the alternate days from Oswestry by 8 o'clock p.m.

New Guide to Aberystwith and its Environs; Third edition, 1858. Thomas Owen Morgan, Esq.
ETYMOLOGY: The basis of the word is cam (= bent, crooked)


Cemais Comawndwr KE-mais, -mes, ko-MAUN-dur [ˡkɛmaɪs, -mɛs, kɔˡmaʊndʊr]
1 village in the county of Mynw
y (Gwent)
In earlier Welsh Cemais Cymawndwr

English name: Kemeys Commander

ETYMOLOGY: (the place called) Cemais (which is in the possession of a) commander.

The church here and its lands were at one time a possession or commandery of the Knights Templars, and were administered by a commander. 

(The addition of Comawndwr serves to distinguish it from other parishes in Wales with the name Cemais)

cemeg <KE-meg> [ˡkɛmɛg] (feminine noun)
1 chemistry


cen <KEN> [kɛn] masculine noun
cennau <KE-nai, -me> [ˡkɛnaɪ, -mɛ]
cennyn KE-nin [ˡkɛnɪn], PLURAL cennau

(obsolete) skin

(obsolete) hyddgen deerskin
(hydd- < h
ydd = deer) + soft mutation + (cen = skin)

Cen is also used as a collective / plural form:

2 scales of a fish or a reptile

3 dandruff
(South Wales: can)

4 lichen

5 fur in pipes

6 film of dirt on the skin

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cen < British *kend
From the same British root: Cornish kenn (= skin, hide, peel)

Cognates: Cf Modern English skin < Middle English skin < Old Norse skinn.
The Scandinavian word is a cognate of Welsh cen


cen / cen <ken> [kɛn]
1 form of cefn <KEE-ven> [ˡkeˑvɛn] in the pronunciation of some compound words where it is the first element.

....1/ First element in a compound word (as a stressed penultimate syllable)

....a/ cefnffordd < cenffordd / cenffordd (= ridgeway, road along a ridge) (ffordd = road)

....b/ cefnfor > cenfor / cenfor (= ocean) (mr = sea)

....c/ cefnfro > cenfro > cenffro / cenffro (= part of beach above high water for leaving boats) (bro = low-lying land, coastal land) (change of v > f after n; for other examples see the entry ff)

....d/ cefnlli > cenlli / cenlli (= flood, torrent) (llif = flow)

....e/ cefnrhaff > cefnraff > cenraff > cendraff (= back band of a horses harness) (rhaff = rope)

....2/ qualified first element in a place name (as a prepenultimnate syllable, or an unstressed penultimate syllable before a final strsesed syllable)

....a/ Cefnsidan > Censhidan / Censhidan (place name, county of Caerfyrddin)

....b/ Cefn-tre-baen > Cen-tre-baen > Pentre-baen (place name (the) ridge (of) (the farm called) Tre-baen)

(Paen = Cymricised form of the English surname Payne)

....c/ cefn y coed > Cefn-coed > Cen-coed / Cen-coed (place name (the) ridge (of) the wood

....d/ cefn y don > Cefn-don > Cen-don, Cen-don (place name, (the) ridge (of) the pasture (example quoted in
GPC Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / University of Wales Dictionary t1578)

....e/ cefn y lle oer > Cefn-lle-er > Cen-lle-er > Cenller > Cnlloer > Cnllor > Y Genllor < (place name (the) ridge (of) the cold place)

2 as a second element

..a/ in the word gwarcen, made up of (gwar) + (cefn)

gwar cefn or gwarcfn > gwrcefn > gwarcen > gwarcen (= upper part of back, shoulders)


-cen <KEN> [kɛn]
feminine diminutive suffix, corresponding to the masculine suffix -cyn

..1/ botgen (obsolete) little thumb
(bawd = thumb;
bawd + cen > bawd-gen > bod-gen > botgen)

..2/ ffolcen fool, foolish woman

..3/ hanercen (county of Penfro) dwarf (woman)


Cenarth <KEE-narth> [ˡkeˑnarθ] (feminine noun)
1 village, south-west


cenau KEE-nai, -e [ˡkeˑnaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun) masculine noun
cenawon <ke-NAU-on> [kɛˡnaʊɔn]
cub, whelp
Eseia 11:6 a'r blaidd a drig gyda'r oen, a'r llewpart a orwedd gyda'r m
yn; y llo hefyd, a chenau y llew, a'r anifail bras, fyddant ynghyd, a bachgen bychan a'u harwain
Isaiah 11:6 The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.

(North Wales) (term of reproach) rascal, cur, low dog, scoundrel, lout
Jon Robaitsh - y cena drwg iddo Jon Robaitsh - that old scoundrel
cenau glas out and out scoundrel, complete rogue, incorrigible rogue, despicable person

3 rascal
(mildly reproving term for a child)

4 an element in old personal names
(intensifying prefix gwor, great whelp
(mawr = great) great whelp
(rhi = king) king whelp

5 See cenawes
(North Wales) (colloquially cnawes) she-cub; (term of reproach for a woman) vixen

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *kanou-
From the same Celtic root: Irish cana
(= literary Irish cub, whelp; poet of the fourth order)
Related to Latin canis
(= dog), hence English canine (= doglike; relating to dogs)

NOTE: cenawon colloquial forms: cenafon, cynafon, cnafon
The old form of cenawon had a canawon, but changed in order to match the singular form, cenau, with an e


cenawes <ke-NAU-es> [kɛˡnaʊɛs]feminine noun
cenawesau <ke-nau-ES-ai, -e> [kɛnaʊˡɛsai, -ɛ]

(North Wales) (term of reproach for a woman) vixen
yr hen gnawes 'na that old bitch

ETYMOLOGY: (cenaw = cub, whelp) + (-es noun suffix indicating a female)
(colloquially cnawes)


cender KEN-der [ˡkɛndɛr] (m)
1 see cefnder (= male first cousin)

In many words in Welsh with the element cefn in the penultimate syllable , the [v] is elided

cefnraff > cenraff, cefnfordd > cenffordd, cefnder > cender, cefnllif > cenlli, Y Gefnros > Y Genros / Y Gendros, etc


cenedl, cenhedloedd <KE-nedl, ken-HED-loidh, -odh> [ˡkeˑnɛdl, kɛnˡhɛdlɔɪ, -ɔ] (feminine noun)
1 nation
y genedl = the nation

(Old Testament) Y Cenhedloedd the Gentiles = non-Jewish people, non-Jews

Actau 4:27 Herod a Phontius Peilat, gyda'r Cenhedloedd, a phobl Israel
Acts 4:27 both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel

apostol y cenhedloedd the apostle to the Gentiles (name given to Saint Paul)

3 Y Cenhedloedd (as used by Christians) the Gentiles = non-Christian people


cenedlaethau <ke-ned-LEI-thai, -e> [kɛnɛdˡləɪθaɪ, -ɛ] (plural noun)
1 generations: see cenhedlaeth


cenedlaethol <ke-ned-LEI-thol> [kɛnɛdˡləɪθɔl] (adjective)
1 national

2 national = symbolic of a nation
Yr elc yw anifail cenedlaethol Norwy Norways national animal is the elk


cenedlaetholwr <ke-ned-lei-THOO-lur> [kɛnɛdləɪˡθoˑlʊr] masculine noun
cenedlaetholwyr <ke-ned-lei-THOL-wir> [kɛnɛdləɪˡθɔlwɪr]
nationalist, nationist = one who seeks to protect national rights threatened with abolition by an invading state, or regain the full national rights abolished or disallowed by an occupying state

2 nationalist, expansionist = one who believes in the superiority of a state and its dominant culture and its right to incorporate other nations into its territory, eradicate their languages and cultures, and impose its own linguistic and cultural values

ETYMOLOGY: (cenedlaethol = national) + (-wr = person, man); imitation of the English word nationalist, from (national) + (-ist)


cenfaint, cenfeiniau <KEN-vaint, -vent, ken-VEIN-yai, -ye> [ˡkɛnvaɪnt, -vɛnt, kɛnˡvəɪnjaɪ, -jɛ] (feminine noun)
1 flock


cenffordd KEN-fordh [ˡkɛnfɔr] (f)
1 see cefnfordd (= ridge road)

In many words in Welsh with the element cefn in the penultimate syllable , the [v] is elided

cefnraff > cenraff, cefnfordd > cenffordd, cefnder > cender, cefnllif > cenlli, Y Gefnros > Y Genros / Y Gendros, etc


cenffro KEN-fro [ˡkɛnfrɔ] (f)
1 part of beach above high water for leaving boats) (bro = low-lying land, coastal land)

See cefnfro

cefnfro > cenfro > cenffro / cenffro

In many words in Welsh with the element cefn in the penultimate syllable , the [v] is elided

cefnraff > cenraff, cefnfordd > cenffordd, cefnder > cender, cefnllif > cenlli, Y Gefnros > Y Genros / Y Gendros, etc


cenfigen <ken-VII-gen> [kɛnˡviˑgɛn] (feminine noun)
1 jealousy, envy

2 bod yn las gan genfigen be green with envy


cengl <KENGL, KE-ngel> [ˡkɛŋl, kɛŋɛl] feminine noun
cenglau <KENG-lai, -e> [ˡkɛŋlaɪ, -ɛ]
saddle girth, belly band;

y gengl = the saddle girth
tynhur gengl tighten the saddle girth

2 cengl fain (said of somebody very thin) (" a thin saddle girth")

3 county of Mn llacior gengal
<GE-ngal> [ˡgɛŋal] feminine noun take a break during work; take some days off from work, take a holiday ("loosen the saddle girth")

4 skein = loosely tied coil of yarn

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin *cingla < cngula = belt, < cingere to gird.

In English

1.. a Latin masculine form cingulum
<SING-yu-ləm> [ˡsɪŋgjʊləm] is used in anatomy - girdle-like ridge around the base of a tooth, band of fibres connecting parts of the cerebrum)

2.. and in surcingle
<SƏƏ-sing-gəl> [ˡsəəsɪŋgəl] ( = a girth for a horse which goes around the body and is used especially with racing horses), a word taken from French (sur + cengle)

North Wales = cengal (west), cengel (east)
<KE-ngal,-KE-ngel> [ˡkɛŋal, ˡkɛŋɛl]
South Wales = cingel (east), cingal (west)
ki-ngel, ki-ngal <KI-ngel, KI-ngal> [ˡkɪŋɛl, ˡkɪŋal]


cenglog <KENG-log> [ˡkɛŋlɔg] adjective
(cow) having streaks

buwch genglog cow with streaks

ETYMOLOGY: (cengl = saddle girth) + (-og)


cenglu <KENG-li> [ˡkɛŋlɪ] verb
fasten a girth around (a horses belly)

(Hen Dstament)
Jeremeia 46:4 Cenglwch y meirch, ac ewch arn
ynt, farchogion; sefwch yn eich helmau, gloywch y gwaywffyn, gwisgwch y llurigau
(Old Testament)
Jeremiah 46:4 Harness the horses; and get up, ye horsemen, and stand forth with your helmets; furbish the spears, and put on the brigadines

2 form into skeins

ETYMOLOGY: (cengl = saddle girth, skein) + (-u = suffix for forming verbs)


cenglwr <KENG-lur> [ˡkɛŋlʊr] masculine noun
cenglwyr <KENGL-wir> [ˡkɛŋlwɪr]
reel, hose-reel = circular box with an axis inside around which a hose or cable is wound for storage


cenhad- <KEN-had...> [ˡkɛnhad...]
in derivative words, the penult form of cennad (= mission). The original penult form was also cennad, but it has acquired influenced by the organic h- in canhiad-, penult form of caniad = (obsolete word) permission


cenhadaeth ken-hAA-daith, -eth [kɛnˡhadaɪθ, -ɛθ] feminine noun
cenadaethau ke-na-DEI-thai. -e [kɛnadˡəɪθaɪ, -ɛ]
Religion mission = group of people sent by a church to a foreign country to promote the religion and do social work
y genhadaeth = the mission

2 Diplomacy diplomatic mission = group of people in a foreign country representing a country

3 Commerce trade mission = group of people in a foreign country representing a company or companies

4 mission = work of such a group

5 mission = buildings of such; mission station

6 llysgenhadaeth embassy ("court + mission")

ETYMOLOGY: cenhad- (penult form) < cennad (original penult form) influenced by the organic h- in canhiad-, penult form of caniad = (obsolete word) permission


cenhades <ken-HA-des> [kɛnˡhɑˑdɛs] feminine noun
cenadesau <ke-na-DE-sai, -se> [kɛnaˡdɛsaɪ, -sɛ]
missionary (female)
y genhades = the missionary

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhad-, penult-syllable form < cennad = mission) + (-es, female agent suffix)


cenhadfa <ken-HAD-va> [kɛnˡhadva] feminine noun
cenhadfydd <ken-had-VEIDH> [kɛnhadˡvəɪ]
mission (= place), mission station, mission house
y genhadfa = the mission house

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhad-, penult-syllable form < cennad = mission) + (-fa, suffix = place)


cenhadol <ken-HAA-dol> [kɛnˡhɑˑdɔl] adjective
missionary = undertaking a religious mission

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhad-, penult-syllable form < cennad = mission) + (-ol, suffix for forming adjectives)


cenhadon <ke-NHAA-don> [kɛˡnhɑˑdɔn] noun plural
Plural form of
cennad, or cenhadwr


cenhadu <ken-HAA-di> [kɛnˡhɑˑdɪ] verb
work as a missionary

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhad-, penult-syllable form < cennad = mission) + (-u, suffix for forming verbs)


cenhadwr <ken-HAA-dur> [kɛnˡhɑˑdʊr] masculine noun
cenhadon, cenhadwyr <ken-HA-don, ken-HAD-wir> [kɛnˡhɑˑdɔn, kɛnˡhadwɪr]

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhad-, penult-syllable form < cennad = mission) + (-wr, man, agent suffix)


cenhedlaeth <ke-NHED-laith, -leth> [kɛˡnhɛdlaɪθ, -lɛθ] feminine noun
cenedlaethau <ke-ned-LEI-thai, -the> [kɛnɛdˡləɪθaɪ, -θɛ]
generation = all the individuals of roughly the same age;
y genhedlaeth = the generation
pobl om cenhedlaeth = people of my generation

generation = (as a measure of time) average lifetime of a generation; the period of years considered to separate one generation from another (often regarded as being thirty years)
genhedlaeth yn l a generation ago
ers cenedlaethau for generations

Buont yn ceisio cael ateb i h
yn ers cenedlaethau
Theyve been trying to find an answer for this for generations

cenedlaethau lawer o brofiad many generations of experience

hyd genhedlaeth a chenhedlaeth from generation to generation

Arhosed ein haith yn ei bri hyd genhedlaeth a chenhedlaeth
May our language remain predominant over the generations

Croniclau-1 16:15 Cofiwch yn dragwydd y cyfamod; y gair a orchmynnodd efe i fil o genedlaethau
Chronicles-1 16:16 Be ye mindful always of his covenant; the word which he commanded to a thousand generations

3 generation = a single step in the evolution of an animal or a plant etc

generation = period of technological development, differing from a previous period through having general characteristics unknown in an earlier period

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhedl-, penult-syllable form < cenhedlu = propagate) + (-aeth, suffix for forming nouns)


cenhedliad <ke-NHEDL-yad> [kɛˡnhɛdljad] masculine noun
2 propagation

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhedl-, penult-syllable form < cenedlu = propagate) + (-iad, suffix for forming nouns)


cenhedlig <ke-NHED-lig> [kɛˡnhɛdlɪg] adjective
obsolete pagan
2 masculine noun; obsolete pagan

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhedl-, penult-syllable form < cenedl = nation / gender / (obsolete) family) + (-ig, suffix for forming adjectives)


cenhedloedd <ke-NHED-lodh, -loidh> [kɛˡnhɛdlɔɪ, -lɔ] noun plural
See: cenedl


Y Cenhedloedd Unedig <ə ke-NHED-loidh, -lodh, i-NEE-dig> [ə kɛˡnhɛdlɔɪ, -lɔ, ɪˡneˑdɪg]
the United Nations


cenhedlu <ke-NHED-li> [kɛˡnhɛdlɪ] verb
verb without an object
procreate = to create offspring
cenhedlu a magu teulu
to procreate and to raise a family

verb with an object
(man) beget = to father, beget a child

Job 38:28 A oes dad ir glaw? neu pw
y a genhedlodd ddefnynnau y gwlith?
Job 38:28 Hath the rain a father? or who hath begotten the drops of dew?

3 (woman) conceive = become pregnant with
cenhedlu plent
yn conceive a child, become pregnant
4 engender, give rise to, create, bring about, spawn
William Owen-Pughe ai dylw
yth a genhedlodd erthylod o eiriau megis "merchaid" a "ciwaid" yn lle "merched" a "ciwed"
It was William Owen-Pughe and his followers who created such bastardisations of words as "merchaid" and "ciwaid" instead of "merched" and "ciwed"

5 atal
ydd cenhedlu contraceptive ("preventer of conceiving")

6 rheoli cenhedlu birth control ("regulating conceiving")

7 atgenhedlu regenerate
atgenhedlu < ad-genhedlu (ad- = re-, again) + soft mutation + (cenhedlu = procreate, generate)

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhedl-, penult-syllable form < cenedl = nation / gender / (obsolete) family) + (-u, suffix for forming verbs)


cenhedlwr <ke-NHED-lur> [kɛˡnhɛdlʊr] masculine noun
cenhedlwyr <ke-NHEDL-wir> [kɛˡnhɛdlwɪr]
begetter, progenitor

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhedl-, penult-syllable form < cenhedlu = propagate) + (-wr, man, agent suffix)


cenhinen <ke-NHII-nen> [kɛˡnhiˑnɛn] feminine noun
cennin <KE-nin> [ˡkɛnɪn]
leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum (L.), also called allium porrum )
y genhinen = the leek


(delwedd 6990)

2 the leek as the national emblem of Wales; probably because white and green were the colours of the Welsh chiefs in the medieval period (though apocryphal stories abound of a Welsh army fighting the English in a leek field, and the Welsh fighters used the leek to identify themselves to each other)

3 In the phrase of comparison mor lased r cennin ("as green as the leeks")

4 Llanbedr y Cennin (SH7569) village in the county of Conw
y ("the Llanbedr of the leeks"; Llanbedr = the church of Saint Peter)

ETYMOLOGY: British *kannin-.
..1/ Cornish kinenn (= leek), kinenn ewinek (= garlic);
..2/ Breton kignen (= garlic),
..3/ Irish cainnean (= leek)
The relationship between leek and garlic is seen too in the English word garlic, a gar-leek, gar being from an Old English word for spear.

cenhinen Bedr <ke-NHII-nen BEDR / BEE-der> [kɛˡnhiˑnɛn ˡbɛdr, ˡbeˑdɛr] feminine noun
cennin Pedr <KE-nin PEDR / PEE-der> [ˡkɛnɪn ˡpɛdr, ˡpeˑdɛr]
daffodil (narcissus pseudonarcissus)
this flower as a national symbol of Wales
Cennin-pedr Name of a street in Y Barri (Bro Morgannwg) (spelt as Cennin Pedr)

ETYMOLOGY: "(the) leek (of) (Saint) Peter")
(cenhinen = leek) + soft mutation + (Pedr = [Saint] Peter)


cenlli <KEN-lhi> [ˡkɛnɬɪ]
deluge, flood, torrent; see cenllif

2 kestrel; see cenlli goch

In many words in Welsh with the element cefn in the penultimate syllable , the [v] is elided

cefnraff > cenraff, cefnfordd > cenffordd, cefnder > cender, cefnllif > cenlli, Y Gefnros > Y Genros / Y Gendros, etc


cenllif <KEN-lhi> [ˡkɛnɬɪ] masculine noun

Also in the older form cefnllif

deluge, flood, torrent
Roedd y nant yn rhuthro yn gefnllif gw
yllt ar l y storm
The stream was a raging torrent (rushed as a wild torrent) after the storm

Maesygenlli ((the) field (of) the torrent) street name in Cletwr, Caer-sws (Powys) (apparently cenlli = torrent, but see also cenlli goch)

ybr Cenllif place east of Dolgellau in the county of Gwynedd (name on English maps: Torrent Walk)
ybr y cenllif = (the) path (of) the torrent
ybr = path) + (y = definite article) + (cenllif = torrent)

2 downpour, heavy rain
bod yn genlli = be pouring down

ar l hanner awr a chenllir storm yn arafu...
after half an hour when the rainstorm subsided...

Dywedodd wrthym iddi fod yn genlli drw
yr wythnos
He told us it had poured down all week

ETYMOLOGY: (cefn = back) + soft mutation + (llif = current, flow) > *cefnlif > cefnllif (loss of the mutation) > cenllif (loss of the final
<v> [v], normal in polysyllabic words in colloquial Welsh) > cenlli (loss of the <v> [v] in cefn, occurs in other words of two syllables where it is the first element in a compound.)
See cen-
NOTE: also occurs as a feminine noun > y genllif


cenlli goch <KEN-lhi GOOKH> [ˡkɛnɬɪ ˡgoːx] feminine noun
North Wales
1 kestrel
y genlli goch = the kestrel

ETYMOLOGY: : (cenlli = kestrel) + soft mutation + (coch = red);
cenlli < cefnlli < cefnllif;

Possibly < cefnlliw ((bird) (with a) coloured back);

(cefn= back) + soft mutation + (lliw = colour)

> *cefnliw > cefnlliw (loss of the mutation)

> cefnlli > cenlli (this loss of the
<v> [v] in cefn, occurs in other words of two syllables where it is the first element in a compound.
See cen-)

A final f is lost in polysyllables generally in Welsh (cyntaf = first, cynta; siaradaf = I shall speak, siarada, etc)

If the missing final consonant is w (cefnlliw > cefnlli) , this is to be compared with these other words in Welsh:
(1) heddiw / heddi (today),
(2) tanlliw / tanlli (flame-coloured), etc


cenllysg <KEN-lhisk> [ˡkɛnɬɪsk] (masculine noun) (North Wales)
1 hail
bwrw cenll
ysg <BUU-ru KEN-lhisk> [ˡbuˑrʊ ˡkɛnɬɪsk] (verb) to hail


cenllysgen <ken-LHƏ-sken> [kɛnˡɬəskɛn] (feminine noun)
(North) hailstone


..1 cennad <KE-nad> [ˡkɛnad] feminine noun
cenhadau <ken-HAA-dai, -de> [kɛnˡhɑˑdaɪ, -dɛ]
permission, leave
y gennad = the permission
gyda'ch cennad by your leave, with your permission
gyda chennad with permission

2 ar gennad (USA: on furlough) (Englandic: on leave)
ynd ar gennad go on leave
bod ar gennad be on leave
cennad absenoldeb leave of absence

3 rhoi cennad i give leave to (USA: to furlough) (Englandic: to leave)

ETYMOLOGY: cennad < cannad
(can- = with) + (gad- = stem of gadael = to leave; influence of cennad = messenger )


cenmyl KEN-mil [ˡkɛnmɪl]
(indicative mood, third.-person singular present-future tense) he / she / it praises < canmol

Apocrypha: Ecclesiasticus 21:15 Gŵr doeth, os clyw air doeth, a'i cenmyl, ac a chwanega ato: yr annoeth a'i clybu, ac nid oedd fodlon ganddo, eithr efe a'i trodd yn l ei gefn.

Apocrypha: Ecclesiasticus 21:15 If a skilful man hear a wise word, he will commend it, and add unto it: but as soon as one of no understanding heareth it, it displeaseth him, and he casteth it behind his back.


..2 cennad <KE-nad> [ˡkɛnad] (masculine noun)
1 emissary, messenger


cennau <KE-nai, -ne> [ˡkɛnaɪ, -nɛ]
1 plural form of cen / cenn


cennin <KE-nin> [ˡkɛnɪn] (plural noun)
1 leeks; see cenhinen


Cennydd KE-nidh [ˡkɛnɪ]
1 saints name, a variant form of Cynydd

2 Llangennydd, a variant of Llangynydd SS4291 (English name: Llangennith). Village in the county of Abertawe. y pentref / the village yr eglwys / the church Pen y Brenin / The Kings Head

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

3 Also Trecennydd (Trecenydd) in Caerffili.

The medieval kntrev of Senghennydd lay between the rivers Taf and Rhymni. In the 1800s it was popularly explained as meaning Saint Cennydd, though the saint was not connected with this area.

However, the popularity of this explanation is to be seen in the numerous references to Cennydd in the area Ysgol Gyfun Cenydd Sant (St. Cenydds Comprehensive School) in Caerffili, Eglwys Cenydd Sant a Sant Pedr
(the Church of St Cenydd and St Peter), Heol Cenydd Sant (St. Cenydd Road) in Caerffili, Rhestr Cenydd (Cenydd Terrace) in Senghennydd village, etc.

NOTE: The name Cenydd is sometimes given to males in an English form as Kenneth, though in fact the names are not related, though the pronunciation is somewhat similar

NOTE: Melville Richards / Enwau Tir a Gwlad / 1998, a compilation of articles written for Y Cymro 1967-1970,
gives Cynydd as an alternative form of Cenydd.

He also suggests that Senghennydd is very possibly Sangans territory; ydd is a territorial suffix, and the first part of the name is a mans forename, Sangan, stem Sanghann-


cennyn ke -nin [ˡkɛnɪn]
1 See cen (= scale, skin)


cenol <KEE-nol> [ˡkeˑnɔl] adjective

(South-east Wales) equivalent to canol (= middle)

2 Y Bont Genol
(the middle bridge) A bridge name noted by John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cern
yw) 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911)

The middle bridge" (y bont genol), across the mill-stream by the Roath mill. (Roath is the name used by the English for Y Rhath, Caer-dydd)

3 Dw
y Erw a Hanner Genol (the middle two and a half acres) A field name noted by John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911)

DWY-ERW-A-HANER-GENOL (the middle two and a half acres.) A piece of land on the shore of the East Moor (1764.)

3 Nedd Genol

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales / Samuel Lewis / 1849:
NEATH- GENOL, or MIDDLE (NEDD- GENOL, or GANOL), a township, in the parish of CADOXTON, union and hundred of NEATH, county of GLAMORGAN, SOUTH WALES, 10 miles (N. E.) from Neath; containing 262 inhabitants.

4 Hafod Genol
On the
1847 Tithe Apportionment Map in the area where today stands the village of Trehafod south of Y Porth and north of Pont-y-pridd there were three farms called Hafod - Hafod Uchaf (= upper), Hafod Genol (= middle) and Hafod Fawr (= great)

5 Llwyncenol Ycha (Llwyncanol Uchaf)
Probate of the Last Will and Testament, dated 29 March 1797, of David Davies, Llwyncenol ycha in the Parish of Llanafan, co. Brecon, gent.

Calendar of Deeds and Documents Volume 1, The Coleman Deeds, Francis Green, 1921

Cae Cenol

Calendar of Deeds and Documents Volume 1, The Coleman Deeds, Francis Green, 1921, p. 217:

(22-07-1643) Llansamlett, co. Glamorgan a bakehouse, little garden and barn and eight parcels of land called Kaer ffwrndy, Kae cenoll, Kae newydh, Gwayn ynis y pandy, Ynys y pandy vach, Ynys y pandy vawr, Y koedgae and Y kae dy


cenraff KEN-raf [ˡkɛnraf] (f)
1 see cefnraff (= back band of a horses harness)

In many words in Welsh with the element cefn in the penultimate syllable , the [v] is elided

cefnraff > cenraff,

cefnfordd > cenffordd

cefnder > cender,

cefnllif > cenlli,

Y Gefnros > Y Genros / Y Gendros,


cenros KEN-ros [ˡkɛnrɔs] (f)
1 see cefnros (=moorland on a ridge)

In many words in Welsh with the element cefn in the penultimate syllable , the [v] is elided

cefnraff > cenraff,

cefnfordd > cenffordd

cefnder > cender,

cefnllif > cenlli,

Y Gefnros > Y Genros / Y Gendros,


cer! <KER> [kɛr] (verb) (South Wales)
1 go!

ETYMOLOGY: Used as the second-person singular imperative of mynd (= to go), though in fact it is cer, the stem of cered < cerdded (= to walk)

NOTE: The second-person plural form is cerwch! (= go!). A colloquial form is cera! with the a of the second-person singular imperative ending, not needed in this case, being added. See -a


cerbyd <KER-bid> [ˡkɛrbɪd] masculine noun
cerbydau <ker--dai, -de> [kɛrˡbədaɪ, -dɛ]
yd cyhoeddus public service vehicle (PSV)

2 carriage, coach
yd phr coach and pair (coach drawn by two horses)

Y Cerb
yd ar Meirch (public house name) the Coach and Horses
yn Nhafarn y Cerb
yd ar Meirch in the "Coach and Horses", at the sign of the "Coach and Horses"

3 chariot
yd rhyfel chariot, war chariot
yd rhyfel Rhufeinig Roman chariot

4 (railway) (American: car) (Englandic: carriage, coach)
yd trn (American: railroad car) (Englandic: railway carriage)
cerbyd metro (American: subway car), underground railway carriage, metro carriage

5 coach, motor coach
Cerbydau Caelloi "Caelloi Motors", coach company in Pwllheli (the company uses the form Caelloi, the correct spelling would be Cae-lloi, with a hyphen; from Caer-lloi = the field of the calves, calf field)

6 saer cerbydau
carriage builder, coach builder; person who builds bodies of cars, lorries, railway cars (Englandic: carriages), etc

7 (history) ffordd gerbyd
coach road, road for horse-drawn coaches

8 l-gerb
yd (lorry) trailer = wheeled flat frame towed by a tractor unit; the flat frame may be a base for carrying a container, or may support an open or closed box-like structure - (l = back) + soft mutation + (cerbyd = vehicle)

9 cerb
ytffordd carriageway

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Irish (modern Irish carbad = chariot);

cf (1) Celtic *karbant-,

(2) in Gaulish karpent (= war vehicle).

(3) Taken into Latin as carpentum (= wagon),

(4) From carpentum came French charpente = (building) framework, skeleton; (body) constitution, build; (speech, novel) structure

(5) Derivatives in French: (a) charpenter (= (wood) shape; construct; (speech, novel) shape, plan); (b) from the Latin derivative carpentarius (= wagon builder) is French charpentier (= carpenter); and charpenterie (= carpentry, carpenters workshop, timberyard)

(6) The English word carpenter with
k is from Norman; in many Norman words an initial <k> [k] coresponds to sh [ʃ] in modern French, in earlier French ch [ʧ]


cerbytffordd <ker-BƏT-fordh> [kɛrˡbətfɔr] feminine noun
PLURAL cerbytffyrdd
<ker-BƏT-firdh> [kɛrˡbətfɪr]

yd = vehicle) + (ffordd= road) > *cerbydffordd > cerbytffordd (d-ff > t-ff)


cerbyty <ker--ti> [kɛrˡbətɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL cerbytai
<ker--tai> [kɛrˡbətaɪ] 1 coach house

yd = vehicle) + soft mutation + (ty = house) > cerbyddy > cerbyty (d-d > t)
NOTE: Also coetsiws < English "coachhouse"


cerdd, cerddi <KERDH, KER-dhi> [ˡkɛr, ˡkɛrɪ] (f)
1 poem
y gerdd = the poem
cerddi caeth a rhydd poems in strict metre and in free metre

rhiangerdd hri-AN-gerdh [hrɪˡangɛr] (qv) love poem, poem in praise of a young woman

(rhian = maiden) + soft mutation + (cerdd = poem)
This form of the word was popular in the 1800s, though historically it is rhieingerdd

rhieingerdd hri-EIN-gerdh [hrɪˡəɪngɛr] (qv) love poem, poem in praise of a young woman (rhiein- = penult form of rhiain = maiden) + soft mutation + (cerdd = poem)

cerdd arobryn prize-winning poem, winning poem

2 music

cerdd dant
<kerdh DANT> [kɛr ˡdant] harp music
This is literally string music < tant (= harpstring)

Mae pob aderyn yn hoff o'i gerdd ei hun, ebe'r frn (saying) every bird likes his own music, says the crow (what is badly done may seem quite satisfactory to the person who does it)

siop gerdd, siopau cerdd music shop, shop selling musical instruments and music books

sioe gerdd, sioeau cerdd theatrical show with a simple plot with dialogue interspersed with songs and dancing

Coleg Cerdd a Drama College of Music and Drama

blodeugerdd, blodeugerddi
blo-DEI-gerdh, blo-dei-GER-dhi (f) anthology
(blodeu-, blodau = the flower [of something], the best [of something]) + soft mutation + (cerdd = song, poem) > best song, best poem > anthology, collection of the best poems

pencerdd, penceirddiaid chief musician in the medieval Welsh court
(pen = head; principal person) + (cerdd = music)

3 (obsolete) craft, art, occupation

4 angerdd passion
ngerdd (= ng-erdd) < ngerdd (= ang-gerdd)
(an- = prefix) + soft mutation + (cerdd = craft);

The change (
ang-g...) > (ang...) is due to the influence of the words angau (= death)
ANG-ai aŋaɪ], angen (= neeed, necessity) ANG-en aŋɛn],

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Common Celtic
Irish: ceird (= trade, craft), ceard (= craftsman)
Cf Greek kerdos (= profit, cunning, craftiness)


cerdd <KERDH> [kɛr] (f)
1 (obsolete) walk, journey

2 movement

3 (place names) slope (land moving downwards)

Y Gerlan (qv) <GER-lan> SH6366 district of Bethesda
the slope Y Gerlan < Y Gerddlan (y definite article) + soft mtuation + (cerddlan = slope, bank) cerddlan < (cerdd = slope) + soft mtuation + (glan = river bank, slope)

(qv) slope, ledge < gwogerdd (gwo- prefix, = under) + soft mtuation + (cerdd = slope)

Occurs in the names Gogerddan and Y Gogarth

ETYMOLOGY: Cornish kerdh (= journey), Breton kerzh (= jouney), e-gerzh (= during)

<KERDH> [kɛr] (verb)
1 walk!

(dal aderyn du) Tyn dy gap yn barod, a cherdd yn ddystaw ato, mi dali o mewn mynyd.
Adgofion Bywgraffyddol - Dewi Wnion (1800-1884)
(Catching a blackbird) Take off your cap ready, walk slowly towards it, and youll catch it in no time


cerdda <KER-dha> [ˡkɛra] (verb)
1 walk!

Diarhebion 6:6 Cerdda at y morgrugyn, tydi ddiogyn; edrych ar ei ffyrdd ef, a bydd ddoeth:
Proverbs 6:6 Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise:


cerdded <KER-dhed> [ˡkɛrɛd] (verb)
1 to walk
taith cerdded, teithiau cerdded walk, march (as in a protest walk over a long distance)

2 walk = go across, step on the surface of
Na cherddwch ar y glaswellt Keep off the grass (Do not walk on the grass)

3 Cerddodd ias trwof A shiver went down my spine (a shudder went / walked through me)

4 news, rumour - spread, (old-fashioned: go abroad)

maer si yn cerdded bod... theres a rumour going round that..., its rumoured that...
fe gerdodd y gair bod... the rumour went around that...
fe gerdodd y sn bod... the rumour went around that...
Bur sn am Sin Llywelyn Gwl-y-don yn cerdded fel tn w
The rumour about Sin Llywelyn from Gwl-y-don quickly went around (went like wildfire)


cerddor, cerddorion <KER-dhor, ker-DHOR-yon> [ˡkɛrɔr, kɛrˡɔrjɔn] (masculine noun)
1 musician


cerddorfa, cerddorfydd <ker-DHOR-va, ker-dhor-VEIDH> [kɛrˡɔrva, kɛrɔrˡvəɪ] (feminine noun)
1 orchestra

y gerddorfa the orchestra

Cerddorfa Farc Cymru the Welsh Baroque Orchestra

(Cerddorfa Baroc Gymreig is not correct)


cerddoriaeth <ker-DHOR-yaith, -yeth> [kɛrˡɔrjaɪθ, -ɛθ] (feminine noun)
1 music
y gerddoriaeth = the music


cerddorol <ker-DHOO-rol> [kɛrˡoˑrɔl] (adjective)
1 musical


cerddwr, cerddwyr <KER-dhur,-KERDH-wir> [ˡkɛrʊr,ˡkɛrwɪr] (masculine noun)
1 pedestrian


cerdyn, cardiau <KER-din, KARD-yai, -e> [ˡkɛrdɪn, ˡkardjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1 card

2 cerd
yn prawf test card - an image broadcast by a television channel when the transmitter is active but there is no programme being shown. It indicates what company is using the channel, and a pattern on it serves for adjusting the TV set to obtain a correct setting.


cerdyn atgoffa <KER-din at-GOO-fa> [ˡkɛrdɪn atˡgoˑfa] masculine noun
cardiau atgoffa <KARD-yai, -ye, at-GOO-fa> [ˡkardjaɪ, -ɛ, atˡgoˑfa]
reminder, a postcard sent to remind someone (e.g. from a library to say that the loan period for a book has been exceeded, from a doctor or dentist to say that it is time to arrange a time for a periocical check-up, etc)

ETYMOLOGY: "card (of) reminding", (cerd
yn = card) + (atgoffa = to remind)


cerdyn banc <KER-din BANGK> [ˡkɛrdɪn ˡbaŋk] masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau banc <KARD-yai, -ye, BANGK> [ˡkardjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡbaŋk]
bank card, bankers card; card issued by a bank which guarantees the recipient of a cheque that it will be paid in full up to a stated amount

ETYMOLOGY: card (of) bank", (cerd
yn = card) + ("banc" = bank)


cerdyn byrddio <KER-din BƏRDH-yo> [ˡkɛrdɪn ˡbərjɔ] masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau byrddio <KARD-yai, -ye, BƏRDH-yo > [ˡkardjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡbərjɔ]
boarding card = identification card for a passenger going on to a boat or plane

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English boarding card; (cerd
yn = card) + (byrddio = to embark, go on board)
NOTE: cerd
yn byrddio is the standard form. In the south, carden fyrddio


cerdyn catalog <ker-din KA-ta-log> [kɛrdɪn ˡkatalɔg] (masculine noun)
1 catalogue card


cerdyn coch <KER-din KOOKH> [ˡkɛrdɪn ˡkoːx] masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau coch, cardiau cochion <KARD-yai, -ye, KOOKH, KOKH-yon> [ˡkardjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡkoːx, ˡkɔxjɔn] kard-ye kookh, kard-ye kokh-yon
(football) red card = card shown by a referee to a player who has broken a rule or rules of the game, used as a visual command to leave the football field;
dangos y cerd
yn coch = show the red card (to a player)

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English red card
NOTE: cerd
yn coch is the standard form. In the south, carden goch


cerdyn cofnodi <KER-din kov-NOO-di> [ˡkɛrdɪn kɔvˡnoˑdɪ] (masculine noun)
1 file card


cerdyn cyfarch <KER-din -varkh> [ˡkɛrdɪn ˡkəvarx] masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau cyfarch <KARD-yai, -ye, -varkh> [ˡkardjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡkəvarx]
greetings card (Christmas, birthday, wedding, etc)

ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of English greeting card; (cerd
yn = card) + (cyfarch = to greet)
NOTE: cerd
yn cyfarch is the standard form. In the south, carden gyfarch


cerdyn debyd <KER-din DEE-bid> [ˡkɛrdɪn ˡdeˑbɪd] masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau debyd <KARD-yai, -ye, DEE-bid> [ˡkardjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡdeˑbɪd]
debit card, electronic card which can be used for payment and automatically takes the amount to be paid from the holders bank account and transfers it to the account of the payee

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English debit card; (cerd
yn = card) + (debyd = debit)
NOTE: Cerd
yn debyd is the standard form. In the south, carden ddebyd is possible


cerdyn glanio <KER-din GLAN-yo> [ˡkɛrdɪn ˡglanjɔ] masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau glanio <KARD-yai, -ye, GLAN-yo> [ˡkardjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡglanjɔ]
landing card = identification card for a passenger leaving a boat or plane

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English landing card; (cerd
yn = card) + (glanio = to land, to disembark)
NOTE: cerd
yn glanio is the standard form. In the south, carden lanio


cerdyn mynegai <KER-din mə-NEE-gai, -e> [kɛrdɪn məˡneˑgaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1 index card


cerdyn pen-blwydd <KER-din pen-BLUIDH> [ˡkɛrdɪn pɛnˡblʊɪ] masculine noun
cardiau pen-blwydd <KARD-yai, -ye, pen-BLUIDH>> [ˡkardjaɪ, -ɛ, pɛnˡblʊɪ]
1 birthday card

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English birthday card
NOTE: cerd
yn pen-blwydd is the standard form. In the south, carden ben-blwydd


yn post <KER-din POST> [ˡkɛrdɪn ˡpɔst] masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau post <KARD-yai, -ye, POST>> [ˡkardjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡpɔst]
1 postcard
2 cerd
yn post darluniadol picture postcard

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English postcard
NOTE: cerd
yn post is the standard form. In the north post > pst (Compare Southern rhost (= rhoasted), Northern rhst; Southern cost (= cost, Northern cst; etc) . In the south, carden bost


yn priodas <KER-din pri-OO-das> [ˡkɛrdɪn prɪˡoˑdas] masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau priodas <KARD-yai, -ye, pri-OO-das>> [ˡkardjaɪ, -ɛ, prɪˡoˑdas]
1 postcard
yn priodas wedding card, card sent to congratulate a couple on their marriage

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English wedding card
NOTE: cerd
yn priodas is the standard form. In the south, carden briodas


cerdyn siec <KER-din SHEK> [ˡkɛrdɪn ˡʃɛk] (masculine noun)

cardiau siec <KARD-yai, -ye, SHEK> [ˡkardjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡʃɛk]
check card (Englandic: cheque card)


cerdyn ymwld <KER-din əm-WELD> [ˡkɛrdɪn əmˡwɛld] masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau ymwld kard-ye əm-weld <KARD-ye əm-WELD> [ˡkardjaɪ, -ɛ, əmˡwɛld]
(American: calling card) (Englandic: visiting card)

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English visiting card
NOTE: cerd
yn ymwld is the standard form. In the south, carden ymwld


cered <KEE-red> [ˡkeˑrɛd] verb
South Wales
1 form of cerdded = to walk, to go

2 bod ar gered be away from home
rhoi ar gered put into action, set in motion

3 Ceredigion; masculine noun hurry, rush
ywr cered sy arnat ti? Whats the rush? Whats all the hurry? (What is the hurry which is on you?)

ETYMOLOGY: cerdded with the loss of the consonant
<dh> []


Cered <KEE-red> [ˡkeˑrɛd] masculine noun
menter iaith (centre for the promotion of the Welsh language) serving the county of Ceredigion. Set up in October 2000, based in the village of Felin-fach.

ETYMOLOGY: a play on words it is the abbreviaiton for Ceredigion (see Cered.), as well as being the southern form of cerdded (= to walk). In the county of Ceredigion cered also has the sense of hurry, intense activity (see cered)


Cered. <KEE-red> [ˡkeˑrɛd]
abbreviation of Ceredigion (county name / region / old kingdom)


Ceredigion <ke-re-DIG-yon>