Free counter and web stats A Welsh to English Dictionary in page format 09-08-2012

Yr Hafan / Home Page

..........2659e Y Porth Saesneg / English Gateway to this Website

0010e Y Gwegynllun / Siteplan

..............................0417e Geiriaduron / Dictionaries

........................................1813e Geiriaduron yn Saesneg / Dictionaries in English

....................................................1818e Y mynegai i'r geiriadur arlein hwn / Index to this online dictionary

.................................................................Y Tudalen Hwn / This Page


(delw 0003)






Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Gal
les i Catalunya
The Wales-Catalonia Website

Y Gwe-eiriadur
An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English



1853e Ein llyfr ymwelwyr / OUR GUESTBOOK

Archwiliwch y wefan hon
Adeiladwaith y wefan
Beth sydd yn newydd?


(delw 4666)




























7000_kimkat1676e.jpgI, J, K









7000_kimkat1073e.jpgPL, Q







7000_kimkat1025e.jpgU, V

7000_kimkat1731e.jpgW, X

7000_kimkat1586e.jpgY, Z







ke BAB, ke B be / ke BABS (masculine noun) [kɛˡbab, kɛˡbabz]
kebab = meat and vegetables cooked on a skewer
cebb sbeisiog spicy kebab (colloquially, cebb sbeisi)
shish-cebb shish-kebab


ystr, cebystrau KE bist, ke BƏS tre [ˡkeˑbɪstr, kɛˡbɪstrɛ, -ai] (masculine noun) (North Wales)

The colloquial form is ceb
yst [ˡkeˑbɪst]

1 halter (rope for holding animals); hangmans noose;
beth geb
yst... (North Wales) = what the hell...?


Cedewain ke DEU ain [kɛˡdɛuaɪn] (feminine noun) (kantrev name)
medieval territory in the North-east

Llanfair yng Nghedewain
former hamlet in Powys, replaced in 1279 by the Norman borough of Y Drenewydd (the place called Llanfair which is in Cedewain). There are many settlements called Llanfair (Marychurch) and in most cases they are differentiated by the addition of a tag, as in this case.



cedor <KEE-dor> [ˡkeˑdɔr] feminine and masculine noun
PLURAL cedorau
<ke-DOO-rai, -rai, -e> [kɛˡdoˑraɪ, -ɛ]
pubic hair(s)
y gedor = the pubic hair

llau cedor pubic lice, lice in the pubic hair; crab lice, crabs (Phthirus pubis)


Cywydd y Cedor (the) poem (of )the pubic hair, a strict-metre work in praise of the vulva by Gwerful Mechain,  a female poet in the 1400s from the kmmud of Mechain in Powys.

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic

Breton: kezhour (= pubic hair), Irish: caithir (= down, pubic hair)
NOTE: see cedowrach (= deadly nightshade, belladona), from cedor y wrach (= (the) pubic hair (of) the witch)


cedor gelc
<KEE-dor GELK> [keˑdɔr ˡgɛlk] feminine noun
North Wales
hair of the armpit

ETYMOLOGY: (cedor = pubic hair) + soft mutation + (celc = hidden)


cedor y wrach
<KEE-dor ə wRAAKH> [keˑdɔr ə ˡwrɑːɑˑx] feminine noun
see cedowrach


<ke-DOO-rol> [kɛˡdoˑrɔl] adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (cedor = pubic hair) + (-ol = suffix for forming adjectives)


<ke-DOU-rakh> [kɛˡdourax] feminine noun
Atropa belladonna = deadly nightshade, belladona
y gedowrach = the belladona

ETYMOLOGY: cedowrach < cedor y wrach = ((the) pubic hair (of) the witch)
NOTE: codwarth (a variant of this word)


KEDR [ˡkɛdr] masculine non
cedar; see cedrwydden

ETYMOLOGY: (in the 1500s) Cymricisation of Latin cedrus (= cedar)


Cedron <KE-dron> [ˡkɛdrɔn]
Kedron, Kidron; a ravine below the eastern wall of Jerusalem, a small stream which rises near Jerusalem, and flows through the Iehosophat valley, disgorging into the Dead Sea

(1) Ioan 18:1 Gwedi ir Iesu ddywed
yd y geiriau hyn, efe a aeth allan, efe ai ddisgyblion, dros afon Cedron, lle yr oedd gardd, ir hon yr aeth efe ai ddisgyblion
John 18:1 When Jesus has spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples

chapel name (eg for example, at Nanmor, near Beddgelert) (name said to be given because the chapel was next to a stream)

NOTE: The stream is mentioned another nine times in the Welsh Bible as Cidron (qv)


<kedr-WƏ-dhen> [kɛdrˡwəɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL cedrw
ydd <KEDR-widh> [ˡkɛdrwɪ]
cedar tree
y gedrwydden = the cedar tree

ETYMOLOGY: (cedr = cedar) + soft mutation + (gwydden = tree)


cedrwydden Lbanus
<kedr-WƏ-dhen LI-ba-nis> [kɛdrˡwəɛn ˡlɪbanɪs] feminine noun
PLURAL cedrw
ydd Lbanus <KEDR-widh LI-ba-nis> [ˡkɛdrwɪ ˡlɪbanɪs]
cedar of Lebanon = Cedrus libani, tall tree, level spreading branches

ETYMOLOGY: (cedrwydden = cedar) + (Lbanus = Lebanon)


<ked-WEE-li> [kɛdˡweˑlɪ] (feminine noun) (kantrev name)
medieval territory in the South-west; town in the South-west


yrn <KEE-dirn> [ˡkeˑdɪrn] adjective
plural form of the adjective cadarn = strong.

yrn rhyfel mighty (literary) warriors (strong ones (of) war)

Plural adjectives in Welsh are also used as plural nouns - y ced
yrn (= the strong)
ys y Cedyrn the island of Britain ((the) island) of the mighty (warriors))

Y Cefan
<ə KEE-van> [ə ˡkvan]
south-eastern form of the place name Y Cefn.

This is a short form of name beginning with cefn (= hill):
..1/ Cefncoedycymer
Ma fan b
yw ar y Cefan He lives in Cefncoedycymer

..2/ Cefncribwr

NOTE: cefn > cefen
<KEE-ven> [ˡkvɛn] in the south. In south-east Wales, a final e become a, hence cefan. Dialectally there can also be palatalisation of the c to give Y Ciefan [ə ˡkjeˑvan]


yl, ceffylau KE fil, ke FƏ lai, -e [ˡkeˑfɪl] [kɛˡfəlaɪ, kɛˡfəlɛ] (masculine noun)
Diminutive form: ceffylyn
A clipped form of ceffylau is ffyle [ˡfəlɛ]


ceffyl wedi rhedeg a runaway horse (hore after running)

3 ceffyl pren wooden horse
mor brn chachu ceffyl pren (said of something scarce) as scarce as the shit of a wooden horse

4 Ceffylyn Rhygyngog ((the) ambling nag) A
folk tune in a The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine and Celtic Repertory (1830). The English name is given as Galloping Nag.


yl haearn <KEE-fil HEI-arn> [ˡkeˑfɪl ˡhəɪarn] masculine noun
PLURAL ceffylau haearn
<ke-FƏ-lai, -le, HEI-arn> [kɛˡfəlaɪ, -ɛ, ˡhəɪarn]
(obsolete) (poetic) car

(obsolete) bicycle
In the days of long ago, when bicycles were an object of awe and wonder to the youth of Carnarvon, we never called them by any other name other than ceffyl haearn or car gwyllt
T Hudson Williams (1873-1961), University College, Bangor / Vox Populi - A Plea for the Vulgar Tongue

NOTE: ceffyl haearn = iron horse, car gwyllt = wild sled

(obsolete) train

andiron, fire dog
yl haearn = offeryn haearn, ar lun ceffyl, yn cadw'r tn yn drefnus
(t195 Rhai o Eiriau Llafar Sir Drefaldw
yn BBCS 1, Rhan 3 Tachwedd 1922)
an iron implement, horse-shaped, which keeps the fire tidy
(Some Spoken Words from Montgomeryshire, BBCS 1, Part 3, November 1922)

ETYMOLOGY: iron horse (ceff
yl = horse) + (haearn = iron)


cefn, cefnau
<KEVN, KEE-ven, KEV-nai, -ai, -e> [kɛvn, ˡkeˑvɛn,ˡkɛvnaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)

1 back

2 cael eich cefn atoch recover after an illness (get your back to you)

3 bod ch cefn at (person) have ones back turned to (someone); (house) back onto (be with your back towards)

Roedd Elen i chefn ato wrth iddi agor y llythyr Elen had her back towards him as she opened the letter
Maer t
y i gefn at y parc The house backs onto the par

middle (of a period of time)
gefn trymedd nos in the dead of night (back (of) heaviness (of) night)

5 clap ar y cefn a clap on the back (a sign of congratulation)

cadw cefn rh
ywun plead someones cause (keep (the) back (of) somebody)

7 torri cefn y gwaith break the back of the work

adnabod rh
ywbeth fel cefn eich llaw know something like the back of your hand

9 wrth gefn set by, in reserve
bod gennych ddigon wrth gefn to have enough to live on
cadw (rh
ywbeth) wrth gefn keep something in reserve
cynllun wrth gefn contingency plan
bod chwestiwn wrth gefn have a question ready to spring on somebody, have a surprise question, have a question up your sleeve

(Topography) (Place-names) ridge, hill; = low long hill
(According to the journal of the Cardiganshire Antiquarian Society 1936 / 11 / p65: ridge or backbone of a mountain or hill. Cefn is the word generally applied to a ridge or high land at the top of a valley
(See Cefn Coch, Cefn Brith, etc)

11 Hwnnw oedd y gwelltyn olaf ar gefn y camel this was the straw that broke the camels back, this was the last straw (this was the last straw on the back of the camel)


12 trachefn <tra-KHEE-ven> [traˡxeˑvɛn] obsolete, preposition behind (tra = beyond) + spirant mutation + (cefn = back)
In South Wales, trachefn > trachefen, trachefan

Kae tracheuen y skibbor, Year 1676; Llangrallo / Laleston (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Bridgend)


In modern spelling this is

Cae Trachefen y Sgubor <KAI tra-KHEE-ven ə SKII-bor> [ˡkai traˡxeˑvɛn ə ˡskiˑbɔr],


a colloquial form of literary Welsh Y Cae Trachefn yr Ysgubor <ə KAI tra-KHEVN ər ə-SKII-bor> [ə ˡkai traˡxɛvn ər əˡskiˑbɔr],

though the local pronunciation is likely to have been C Trachevan y Sgupor <ə K tra-KHEE-van ə SKII-por> [ə ˡkː traˡxeˑvan ə ˡskiˑpɔr],


the field behind the barn (y = the) + (cae = field) + (trachefn = behind) + (y = the) + (ysgubor = barn)

13 drachefn <dra-KHEE-ven> [draˡxeˑvɛn] adverb again


Cefnbychan ke-ven- bə -khan
locality in Wrecsam. English name: Newbridge

ETYMOLOGY: y cefn bychan = liitle hill (y definite article) + (cefn = back, hill) + (bychan = little)


cefnder ("cender"), cefnderw
yr KEVN der, KEN der; kevn DER wir (masculine noun)



cefndir, cefndiroedd
KEVN dir, kevn-DII-roidh, -rodh (masculine noun)

cilio ir cefndir take a back seat, fade into the background, move out of the public eye (retreat to the background)


ETYMOLOGY: (cefn = back) + soft mutation + (tir = land, ground)


KEVN drim (feminine noun)

y Gendrum
O GEN drim



cefnfor, cefnforoedd
KEVN vor, kevn-VORR-oidh, -odh (masculine noun)

ETYMOLOGY: (cefn = back) + soft mutation + (mr = sea)


NOTE: In South Wales as cenfor KEN vor.


In many words in Welsh with the element cefn in the penultimate syllable , the [v] is elided

cefnraff > cenraff, cefnfordd > cenffordd, cefnder > cender, cefnllif > cenlli, Y Gefnros > Y Genros / Y Gendros, etc


KEVN grum (adjective)
having a curved back
2 (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) eog cefngrwm (m) eogiaid cefngrwm pink salmon


cefn gwlad
ke-ven gwlaad masculine noun
countryside = the rural part of a land;

yng nghefn gwlad in the countryside, upcountry

yw yng nghefn gwlad live in the country

yng nghefn gwlad Cymru in the Welsh countryside

Un o synau cyfarw
ydd yr haf yng nghefn gwlad Cymru yn y dyddiau a fu
oedd crawcian y rhegen yr
One of the familiar summer sounds in the Welsh countryside in days gone by was the croaking of the corncrake

Deddf Byw
yd Gwyllt a Chefn Gwlad the Wildlife and Coutnryside Act (= environmental protection law)

Rheolau Cefn Gwlad The Countryside Code (recommendations and prohibitions for visitors to rural areas e.g. keep dogs on a lead, not to light fires, not to leave farm gates open, etc)

yw cefn gwlad yn Baradwys Ddaearol o bell ffordd
The countryside is not an earthly Paradise by any manner of means

ETYMOLOGY: (the) back(bone) (of the) country (cefn = back) + (gwlad = country)


cefn haul
ke-ven hail
place shaded from the sun
yng nghefn haul out of the suns reach

Yr oedd yn dyddyn bychan, gwlyb, oer, creigiog, anial, yn nghefn haul, ar ochr ogleddol y llechwedd serth hwnw a elwir Newydd Fynyddog.
It was a tiny smallholding, wet, cold, craggy, barren,
out of the suns reach, on the northern side of the steep slope called Newydd Fynyddog

ETYMOLOGY: (cefn = back) + (haul = sun)


Cefn Hirfyn
ydd ke-ven hir- və -nidh
(SO4194 ) ridge 13 km long by Church Stretton in Shropshire, England.
English name: The Long Mynd (mynd is an adaptation of Welsh myn

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) ridge (of) Hirfyn
(cefn = ridge); Hirfyn
ydd is long moutain (hir = long) + soft mutation + ( mynydd = mountain, hill)


kevn -lhi masculine noun
deluge, torrent; see cenllif


kev NO gi (verb)
to back, to support


cefn wrth gefn
ke ven urth ge-ven adjective
back to back
tai cefn wrth gefn back to back houses

ETYMOLOGY: (cefn = back) + soft mutation + (cefn)


Cefn y Castell
ke-ven-ə- ka -stelh
third highest (364m) of three peaks of Mynydd Breiddin
English name: Middletown Hill

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) hill (of) the castle)
(cefn = back, hill) + (y definite article) + + (castell = castle)


name of a house in Bangor (Gwynedd)


2 farm north of Llanfaglan, and to the west of Y Bontnewydd, near Caernarfon, Gwynedd SH4860 map


ETYMOLOGY: (the) hill (of) the wood, wood hill , wooded hill

(cefn = back, hill) + (y definite article) + (coed = wood)


Cefn y Fedw
kevn-ə- ve -du
Place by Rhiwabon. Called by the English Ruabon Mountain

ETYMOLOGY: (the) hill (of) the birch trees / (of) the birch wood

(cefn = back, hill) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (bedw = birch wood, birch grove)


<KEE-vin> [ˡkeˑvɪn] (masculine noun)

1 Cymricised form of the English name Kevin, ultimately from Irish Caoimhn, from caomh (= dear, loved) + diminutive suffix n. The word caomh corresponds to Welsh cu (= loved)



ceg, cegau
KEEG, KEE ge (feminine noun)
y geg = the mouth

brechlyn trwyr geg oral vaccine (through the mouth)

tarian geg (Sport) gumshield

cau ceg fel llyffant = shut up on purpose (in the district dArfon, now part of the county of Gwynedd)

bod yng ngheg y byd be common knowledge (be in the mouth of the world)


K ga (verb)
cega ar (rywun) go on at (somebody)


ke -ged feminine noun
PLURAL cegeidiau
ke- geid -ye
y gegaid = the mouthful
yd gormod o gegaid bite off more than you can chew (take (an) excess of mouthful)

ETYMOLOGY: (ceg = mouth) + (-aidd suffix for forming nouns indicating the content or capacity of a container )
NOTE: also cegiad in the north


keg -dhii adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (ceg = mouth) + soft mutation + (du = mouth)


keg -dhi masculine noun
PLURAL cegdduon
ke- dh -on
(Merluccius merluccius) = hake

ETYMOLOGY: (the) blackmouthed (fish), the fish with a black mouth
(See the previous entry)


k-gid plural
See cegiden = hemlock


ke-g-den feminine noun
PLURAL cegid
Conium maculatum hemlock
y gegiden = the hemlock

(delw 7054)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British
From the same British root: Cornish kegez (= hemlock), Breton kegid (= hemlock)


cegiden leiaf
ke-g-den lei-av feminine noun
PLURAL cegid lleiaf
c-gid lhei-av
y gegiden leiaf fools parsley Aethusa cynapium; alternative name of gwyn y cloddiau "white (flower) of the hedges"

ETYMOLOGY: "lesser hemlock" (cegiden = hemlock) + soft mutation + (lleiaf = least, smallest)


<ke-GID-va> [kɛˡgɪdva] feminine noun
Ordnance Survey Map Reference: SJ2211
SJ2211 locality in northern Pow
ys, north of Y Trallwng / Welshpool.

English name: Guilsfield
Population: 852 (1961)
Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 14% (1961)


(delw 7055)

2 seat on Cyngor Sir Pow
ys (the county council of Powys) representing this locality

ETYMOLOGY: "hemlock place", place where hemlock grows (cegid = hemlock) + (-fa suffix, = place).

Unusually this place name, unlike others of the same type, is not preceded by the definite article (*Y Gegidfa would be the form otherwise)


ke-g-dog adjective
abounding in hemlock

2 feminine noun place abounding in hemlock

3 Ordnance Survey Map Reference: SH9775 Cegidog former name of Llan-sain-sir, between Abergele and Cinmel (county of Conw

4 Ordnance Survey Map Reference: SJ2556 Afon Cegidog This is a river in the county of Wrecsam, 6km north of the town of Wrecsam, running into the Afon Alun south of the village of Cefn-y-bedd

ETYMOLOGY: (cegid = hemlock) + (-og adjectival suffix, common with plant names)


cegin, ceginau
KE gin, ke GI ne (feminine noun)
y gegin = the kitchen

2 cegin gawl PLURAL ceginau cawl soup kitchen

3 cegin fach, ceginau bach KE gin VAAKH, ke gi ne BAAKH back kitchen

4 cegin gefn, ceginau cefn CE gin GE ven, ke gi ne KE ven back kitchen


..1 cegl
yn ke-glin masculine noun
PLURAL caglau
sheep dropping, goat dropping
ydd, a district of the county of Gwynedd rascal

ETYMOLOGY: (cagl = excrement) + (-
yn, diminutive suffix); the suffix has caused affection of the preceding vowel a > e


..2 cegl
yn keg -lin masculine noun
PLURAL ceglynnoedd, ceglynnau
keg lə nodh, -ne
mouthwash, gargle; = liquid for gargling;
(colloquially = peth golchi ceg thing (for) washing mouth)

ETYMOLOGY: (first recorded example: 1773) (ceg = mouth) + soft mutation + ( ll
yn = liquid )


kei verb
you will get, you will have < cael
cei di youll get
Annwyd gei di Youll catch a cold
Fei cei di hi! Youll cop it! Youll get it! (= you will be punished)


cei, ceiau 2
KEI, KEI e (masculine noun)


kei -bir masculine noun
PLURAL ceibrau
kei -bre

Pen-rhiw-ceibr place name from pen rhiwr ceibr (top of the slope of the beam, top of the hill of the beam probably indicates a place where there were trees which were felled to use as roof beams) (a linking definite article, in this case r, is often omitted in place names)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh ceibr < British < Latin * caprio, caprion- (= beam) < caper (= goat)
From the same British root: Cornish keber (= beam, rafter, joist), Breton kebr (= beam, rafter, joist);

Cf other languages also with words derived from Latin *caprio, caprion- (= beam)

(1) French chevron, (2) Irish cabar (= pole, rafter)
Cf Latin capreoli (= little goats, two pieces of wood forming rafters), Catalan cabri (= rafter)

NOTE: There is a diminutive form: ceibren, plural ceibrenni


ceibren, ceibrenni
KEI bren, kei BRE ni (feminine noun)
y geibren = the beam

2 ceibren cafn valley rafter, rafter of the angle where two slopes of a roof meet

ETYMOLOGY: diminutive form of ceibr (= beam), through the addition of the suffix -en


kei di-yog masculine noun
1 stream name
The church of Llandrillo is situated on a mound by the Ceidiof stream not far from the point that it flows into the river Dyfrdwy / Dee

Nant Ceidiog
(the) Ceidiog stream name of a house in Llandrillo


ceidwad, ceidwaid
KEID wad, KEID wed (masculine noun)

2 ceidwad parc keid wad PARK park keeper


ydd keil- ya -guidh masculine noun
PLURAL ceiliagw
yddau keil-ya- gui -dhe
gander = male goose

2 term of disrespect: noisy fool

3 mis y clacw
ydd "(the) month (of) the gander" the gandermonth; the month when the gnader sits on the gooses eggs; the month when a husband stays at home to tend to his wife who is about to give birth and do the domestic chores

NOTE: Colloquial forms are North Wales clagw
ydd, South Wales clacwydd and clacwdd

ETYMOLOGY: (ceiliag, form of ceiliog = cock, male bird) + soft mutation + (gw
ydd = goose); from the same British root: Cornish keliogoedh = gander


keilh -gud masculine noun
PLURAL ceillgydau
keilh- gə -de

ETYMOLOGY: testicle-bag (ceill- penult form of caill = testicle) + soft mutation + ( cwd = bag)


kei- l-ka verb
South-east Wales
philander, chase women

ETYMOLOGY: south-eastern form of ceilioga (ceiliog = male bird, rooster) + (-a, suffix for forming verbs). In the south, the consonant i at the beginning of a final syllable is typically absent, hence ceiliog (= rooster, cock) > ceilog ; a
g at the beginning of a final syllable is typically devoiced to k, hence ceiloga > ceiloca.

NOTE: also ceiloca > ciiloca
kii-l-ka. The reduction of the diphthong ei to a simple vowel i (half long in the penult) is typical of the south. Hence ceiliog (= rooster, cock) > ceilog > ciilog


keil -yog masculine noun
PLURAL ceiliogod
keil- y -god

1 (American: rooster) (Englandic: cock) = male hen

2 cock = the male bird of a named species
ceiliog cwcw = male cuckoo ("male-bird (of) cuckoo")
ceiliog colomen male pigeon, cock pigeon ("male-bird (of) pigeon")

3 dominant partner in a relationship
Pa un air gŵr ynteur wraig
ywr ceiliog?
Which one wears the trousers - the husband or the wife?
("which one whether the husband or the wife is the rooster?")

4 South-east Wales "cilog" woman chaser, womaniser, ladies man, philanderer
Sometimes as an epithet: Dai Cilog (= Daf
ydd y Ceiliog) David the womaniser
mor sionc cheiliog ar bol
yn as nimble as a rooster on a pole

6 mor iach r ceiliog as healthy as the rooster

7 cock = emblem of the French state; and especially as a symbol of the rugby team

8 Mae na ragor ofnadw
y rhwng ebol a cheiliog
Theyre as different as chalk from cheese, theyre completely different
(theres a terrible difference / an enormous difference between a foal and a rooster)

9 pit ceiliogod (North) cockpit
Standard form: talwrn

talwrn ceiliogod cockpit

11 ceiliog pen y domen the top dog, king of the castle, the big cheese, the one who gives the ordres (the cock on top of the dunghill)

Y: Welsh ceiliog < ceiliawg < British *kaljk-os < Celtic.
From the same British root: Cornish keliog (= rooster), Breton kilhog (= rooster).
In Irish: coileach (= rooster).

The bird was so named in Celtic because of its loud crowing. This is borne out by the meanings of related words in non-Celtic languages:
..a/ Greek kalein (= to call),
..b/ Latin calare (= to call, to summon)
..c/ English to low (= make the the sound of a cow)

NOTE: the southern form is generally ciilog
(1) In the south, the consonant i at the beginning of a final syllable is typically absent, hence ceiliog (= rooster, cock) > ceilog

(2) The reduction of the diphthong ei to a simple vowel
i (half long in the penult) is also typical of the south. Hence ceiliog (= rooster, cock) > ceilog > ciilog

(3) A similar word showing both these changes is ceiniog (= penny) > ciinog


keil- y -ges feminine noun
PLURAL ceiliogesau
keil-yo- ge -se

1 bossy woman, dominant woman

ETYMOLOGY: (ceiliog = cock) + (-es noun suffix indicating a female)


ceiliog hw
yad, ceiliogod hwyad KEIL yog HUI ad, keil YO god HUI ad (masculine noun)
male duck


ceiliog y rhed
yn KEIL yog ə HR din (masculine noun)
grasshopper (the rooster of the bracken)


yn kei- lə -sin masculine noun
ys kei -lis

ys is from an earlier form of the English word kails (= skittles, ninepins, the plural of kail).

The English word is from a Germanic root - note the similar words in Dutch kegel (= skittle), German Kegel (= skittle); and French (from a Germanic word) quille = (skittle)


keim -yad masculine noun
PLURAL ceimiaid
keim -yed

1 obsolete champion, hero

2 obsolete eminent person, distinguished person; found in the epithets of two saints,
Elian Geimiad "eminent Elian, Beuno Geimiad eminent Beuno"

ETYMOLOGY: ceimiad < ceimhiad < *ceimp-iad (camp = feat) + (-iad suffix to denote a person)


keim -yon adjective
plural form of cam = bent, crookd

2 (a) pennau ceimion (in the Arfon area of Gwynedd county, north-west Wales) a nickname for Calvinistic Methodists ("bent heads", "lowered heads")

(b) garrau ceimion bandy legs

ETYMOLOGY: cam + plural suffix -ion ; the i of the suffix causes vowel affection a > ei


cein- (1)
kein adjective
penult form of cain = fair, beautiful


cein- (2)
kein masculine noun
place names penult form of *cain = ridge. See Ceinmerch


kei -nakh feminine noun
PLURAL ceinachod, cein
ych kei-na -khod, kei-nikh
obsolete hare
y geinach = the hare

ETYMOLOGY: (cein = ?hare) < British *kasn; with the additon of a suffix + -ach.
Cf German Hase = hare


kei- nakh-gi masculine noun
PLURAL ceinachgwn
obsolete harrier, dog which hunts hares

ETYMOLOGY: (ceinach) + soft mutation + (ci = dog); first example noted in 1850


ceiniog, ceiniogau
KEIN yog (feminine noun)
y geiniog the penny

un geiniog one penny

y geiniog two pence
tair ceiniog three pence
pedair ceiniog four pence
pum ceiniog five pence
chwe cheiniog six pence

saith geiniog / saith ceiniog seven pence
wyth geiniog / wyth ceiniog eight pence
naw ceiniog nine pence
deg ceiniog ten pence

un geiniog ar ddeg eleven pence

deuddeg ceiniog twelve pence

tair ceiniog ar ddeg thirteen pence
pedair ceiniog ar ddeg fourteen pence
pymtheg ceiniog fifteen pence
un geiniog ar bymtheg sixteen pence

dwy geiniog ar bymtheg seventeen pence
deunaw ceiniog eighteen pence
pedair ceiniog ar bymtheg nineteen pence
ugain ceiniog twenty pence

deg ceiniog ar hugain thirty pence

deugain ceiniog forty pence

hanner can ceiniog fifty pence

trigain ceiniog sixty pence

deg ceiniog a thrigain seventy pence

pedwar ugain ceiniog eighty pence

deg ceiniog a phedwar ugain ninety pence

2 peiriant ceiniogau slot machine, fruit machine, gambling machine (machine (of) pennies)

3 gwario swllt er ennill ceiniog penny wise and pound foolish (spending a shilling to gain a penny)

4 llygad y geiniog (the) eye (of) the penny miser; (adjective) miserly, stingy, frugal
Sin lygad y geiniog (also Sin llygad y geiniog) miser
Ieuan lygad y geiniog (also Ieuan llygad y geiniog) miser

5 edr
ych yn llygad y geiniog count the pennies, be frugal, practise thrift, look twice at every penny (look in (the) eye (of) the penny

6 bod yn gynnil ar geiniog look twice at every penny, be very careful with money


division (cwmwd / commote) of the kantrev of Rhufoniog (in the country of Gwynedd Is Conwy, North-east Wales).
The name survives today as Cinmeirch
(with simplification of the diphthong ei > i) in the village name Llanrhaeadr yng Nghinmeirch SJ0863 4km south-east of Dinb
ych on the road to Rhuthun.

(the Llanrhaeadr which is in the cwmwd (commote / district) of Cinmeirch).

Llanrhaeadr = (the) church (of the) river called Rhaeadr (= waterfall)

(delw 7232)

ETYMOLOGY: Ceinmeirch = ((the) ridge (of the) horses)
(cein = back, ridge) + (meirch = horses, plural of march = horse)


cein -tedh adjective
1 from the county of Kent in the south-east of England

ETYMOLOGY: (Ceint-, penult-syllable form of Caint, a county of Kent in the south-east of England) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)


kein -tin
English name: Kington (SO2956) English village on river Arw
y 20km west of the English town of Leominster (Welsh name: Llanllieni) and some 10km south east of the Welsh town of Maesyfed Heol yr Eglwys, Church Street


2 Llanfihangel yng Ngheintun (SJ3614) Welsh name of the English village of Alberbury (Shropshire) 13 km west of the English city of Shrewsbury (Welsh name: Amwythig), just north of the Shrewsbury - Y Trallwng main road (A458), on the Welsh border by the Welsh village of Cryw-grin

It is about 44 km north of Ceintun / Kington

The village of Llanfihangel situated in Ceintun.
(Llanfihangel = church of Michael the Archanngel) + (yn = in) + nasal mutaiton + (Ceintun) map


(delw 7106)


ETYMOLOGY: Ceintun (SO2956) from the English name Kington


KEIN wedh (feminine noun)
womans name (cain = fine, splendid; gwedd = aspect, face)


KEIN wen (feminine noun)
womans name (cain = fine, splendid; -wen = suffix)


ceir verb
(impersonal form, present-future tense of cael = to get, to receive); is got, will be got, is had, will be had, there is, there are, there will be

Blew geifr, glaw geir (= glaw a geir)
Weather saying cirrus clouds bring rain (hairs of goats,
it is rain that will be had)

Ni cheir y mel
ys heb y chwerw
There is no happiness without sadness, life is both happiness and sadness (it is not received the sweet without the bitter)


cars, plural of car (= car)


KEIRKH (plural noun)
oats. See ceirchen


ceirchen, ceirch
KEIR khen (feminine noun)
y geirchen = the oat, the grain of oats
2 (North-west) Ceirch iddi! Get moving! (oats to it)


keirch -yog
Locality in the parish of Llechylched (SH3476) in the county of Mn.
The old name was Betws y Grog ((the) church (of) the cross) map

According to Melville Richards (Enwau Tir a Gwlad, 1998), mae crog yn cyfeirio at sgrin yn yr eglw
ys. Yr enw Saesneg oedd Holy Rood Church. (= crog refers to a screen in the church. The English name was Holy Rood Church)

ETYMOLOGY: ??oat field (ceirch = oats) + (-iog, suffix for forming adjectives; in place names, as a noun. Often indicates a crop or type of vegetation)


ceiriosen, ceirios
kei ri O sen (feminine noun)
y geiriosen = the cherry

ceirios y gŵr drwg (Atropa belladona) deadly nightshade ((the) cherries (of) the bad man / the devil)

ceiriosen siwgwr PLURAL ceirios siwgwr glac cherry


Ceir Llechi
keir lh -khi masculine noun
place name, Caernarfon (= "slate quay")


keir -nos plural
small heaps, small mounds, little mounds
With plural suffix -os (diminutives with -os behave as feminine singular nouns after the definite article there is soft mutation)
(found in place names in south Wales)
ceirnos > Y Geirnos

ETYMOLOGY: (curn = pile, heap) + (-os suffix for forming diminutives of collective nouns, especially those of certain plants) curnos > ceirnos (with a change to the tonic vowel possibly the influence of ceirniog = abundant in cairns )


KEI ru (plural noun)
stags; see carw


KEIR win (m)
male forename


ETYMOLOGY: Apparently (cr- root of caru = to love) ) + (-wyn suffix for male names, soft-muated form of gwyn = white; fair) > car-wyn > ceirwyn (the final y causes the preceding a to become the diphthong ei cf gwan = weak, plural gweinion; glas = blue, plural gleision)




KEI sho (verb)
to try, to attempt

2 ceisio gwneud yr amhosib try to do the impossible

3 atgeisio
..a/ to seek again

Corinthiaid-1 7:18 A alwyd neb wedi ei enwaedu? nac adgeisied ddienwaediad. A alwyd neb mewn dienweidiad? nac enwaeder arno. (let not him seek again uncircumcision)
atgenhedlu < ad-genhedlu (ad- = re-, de nou) + mutaci suau + (ceisio = intentar, cercar)
Corinthians-1 7:18 Is any man called being circumcised? let him not become uncircumcised. Is any called in uncircumcision? let him not be circumcised

..b/ (information) retrieve = to bring (something) out of storage
atgeisio < ad-geisio (ad- = re-, again) + soft mutation + (ceisio = search, try)


keel (adjective)

argel hidden; secluded
(ar = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (cl = hidden).

3 diogel (= safe)
(di) + soft mutation + (gogel); Cornish

(diogel), Breton diogel (= safe)

gogel (obsolete) (= take care, be wary)
(go) + soft mutation + (cel- = to hide) < British < Celtic *wo-kel


k -len feminine noun
PLURAL celanedd, celaneddau
ke-l-nedh, ke-la-n-dhe
dead body, carcase, cadaver, corpse
y gelain = the corpse

Jeremeia 31:40 a holl ddyffr
yn y celaneddau, a'r lludw, a'r holl feysydd, hyd afon Cidron, hyd gongl porth y meirch tua'r dwyrain, a fydd sanctaidd i'r Arglwydd;
Jeremiah 31:40
And the whole valley of the dead bodies, and of the ashes, and all the fields until the brook of Cedron, unto the corner of the horse gate towards the east, shall be holy unto the Lord

Genesis 15:11 A phan ddisgynnai yr adar ar y celaneddau, yna Abram au tarfai hwynt.
Genesis 15:11 And when the fowls came down upon the carcases, Abram drove them away.
syrthion gelain drop down dead
saethu (rh
ywun) yn gelain shoot (someone) dead

2 anything dead

3 marw gelain stone dead, dead as a doornail
"corpse dead" - (marw = dead) + soft mutation + (celain = corpse)

4 celanedd (qv) = pile of bodies; killing, slaughter

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
In Irish collainn (= body, person))

NOTE: celaneddau is a double plural (-edd) + (-au)


dead bodies; plural of celain

sometimes as a feminine noun; pile of bodies, massacre, slaughter, bloodshed; cruelty
Eiseia 33:15 Yr hwn a rodia mewn cyfiawnder, ac a draetha uniondeb, a wrth
yd elw trawster, a ysgwydo ei law rhag derbyn gwobr, a gaeo ei glust rhag clywed celanedd, ac a gaeo ei lygaid rhag edrych ar ddrygioni
Isaiah 33:15 He that walketh righteously, and speaketh uprightly; he that despiseth the gain of oppressions, that shaketh his hands from holding of bribes, that stoppeth his ears from hearing of blood, and shutteth his eyes from seeing evil;

chwythu bygythiadau a chelanedd breathe out threatenings and slaughter
Actau 9.1 A Saul eto yn chwythu bygythiadau a chelanedd yn erbyn disgyblion yr Arglw
ydd, a aeth at yr archofferiad,
Acts 9:1 And Saul, yet breathing out threatenings and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, went unto the high priest,

North Wales bod yn glana chwerthin be doubled up with laughter (= "be corpses (from) laughing (so much)") glana < clana (= clana) < celanadd < celanedd (corpses)


kelk masculine noun
PLURAL celcau
kel -ke
(North Wales)

2 fortune

3 money put by

yw ar eich celc (north-west) live off your savings

5 (Ceredigion) defect
celc ar = something wrong with (but not immediately obvious)
Mae rh
yw hen gelc arno Hes a bit odd, theres something not quite right about him (there is some old defect on him)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < Irish cealg (= deceit)


celf, celfau
KELV, KEL ve (feminine noun)
y gelf = the art

celf a chrefft KELV a KHREFT art and craft


KEL vi (plural noun)
furniture; plural of celficyn


yn, celfi kel VI kin, KEL vi (masculine noun) (South Wales)
piece of furniture
fan gelfi removal van, furniture van (South)


yd, celfyddydau kel VƏ dhid, kel və DHƏ de (masculine noun)
oriel gelfyddyd PLURAL orielau celfyddyd art gallery
3 celfyddyd yr ogofu cave art (art (of) the caves)


yn KEL vin (masculine noun)
mans name (respelling of English Kelvin)


cell, cellau
KELH, KE lhe (feminine noun)
y gell = the cell


ke-lhi feminine noun
PLURAL celloedd
ke- lh -odh
wood, spinney
y gelli = the wood
celli geirios cherry orchard

2 Y Gelligandr
yll (the shattered wood), short form Y Gelli, town in the county of Powys, on the border with England

3 often in place names with gelli used as if it were the base form, instead of celli was would be expected

Gelli-gaer < gellir gaer, instead of cellir gaer


ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *kall- < Celtic *kald-

From the same British root:

Cornish kelli (= wood) (as in the Cornish place name Roskelli promontory of the wood, in English Rosekilly);

From the same Celtic root: Irish coille (= wood)

Related words in other languages are:

Latin: callis (= glade),

Greek klados (= branch);

German das Holz (= wood), English holt holt (in place names = wood)


celli geirios, celloedd ceirios
KE lhi GEIR yos (feminine noun)
cherry orchard


KELH wer (masculine noun)
Mae llawer o gellwair yn wir Many a true word is spoken in jest, Many a truth is said in jest (a lot of joking is true)


KELH wer (verb)
to joke


kelh- weir -yo
joke = make jokes, jest

Tybiai ei frawd ar gweinidog mai cellwair oedd, ond yr oedd Ifan mor ddifrifol mynach His brother and the minister thought that he was joking, but Ifan was deadly serious (as serious as a monk)

ETYMOLOGY: (cellweir- < cellwair = a joke, a wisecrack) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)

NOTE: also cellwair as a verbnoun


Celt, Celtiaid
KELT, KELT yed (masculine noun)


kel -tedh adjective
Celtic = of the modern Celts (Welsh, Breton, Cornish, Irish, Scots, Manx)

Yr Undeb Celtaidd The Celtic League - an organisation which campaigns for the political independence of the Celtic countries and the restoration of their native languages as the first language of the country

2 Celtic = related to the Celtic territories
Y Mr Celtaidd the Celtic Sea, the sea between Wales and Ireland

3 Celtic = of the ancient Celts

4 Celtic = connected with the study of Celtic cultures and languages
Astudiaethau Celtaidd Celtic Studies

5 Celtic = of a style characteristic of the Celts
yn Geltaidd Celtic harp
croes Geltaidd Celtic cross

6 ffug-Geltaidd pseudo-Celtic

ETYMOLOGY: (Celt = Celt) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)


kel -teg feminine noun, adjective
Celtic = the Celtic language which was widely spoken in Europe some two thousand years ago; it survived only in the islands off the north-western mainland of Europe, where it it is divided into two groups -
British (eastern - Welsh, Cornish, Breton) and Hibernian (western - Irish, Scottish, Manx). Also known as P-Celtic (the eastern division) and Q-Celtic (the western division) because many words with an original initial q
kw in Celtic preserved this sound in Hibernian, although nowadays it is pronounced k, and in the British group it became p.

For example, head is ceann in Irish and pen in Welsh.

Latin words in general retained the q
kw and it survives in the pronunciation in some modern languages derived from Latin, and in the spelling if not the current pronunciation of others.
k ceithre (= four), Welsh p pedwar (= four), Latin kw quattor (= four), Catalan kw quatre (= four), French kw > k quatre (= four)

Celteg Q
kel-teg kiu = Q Celtic
Celteg P
kel-teg pee = P Celtic

ETYMOLOGY: (Celt = Celt) + (-eg suffix for forming nouns and adjectives indicating a specific language)


kel- te -gur masculine noun
PLURAL Celtegw
yr kel-teg -wir

Y: (Celteg = Celtic langauge) + (-wr, 'man', agent suffix)
NOTE: Also Celteg


k-li verb
to hide
Llawer gwir gorau ei gelu
Many things are best left unsaid
(many a truth best its hiding)
Ni ellir celur ffaith fod... theres no disguising the fact that


ydd KE luidh celwyddau ke LUI dhe masculine noun
lie, untruth, fabrication, fairy tale, pork pie
yth o gelwyddau a pack of lies (a load of lies)

heb air o gelwydd no kidding, honestly, without a word of a lie

3 clap a chelwydd gossip and lies

4 Mae i bob celw
ydd ei gymar One lie leads to another (there is to every lie its partner)

celwydd golau a barefaced lie (a clear / plain / evident lie) (golau also means light, illuminated)

celwydd gln golau a barefaced lie (an evident + pure lie)

ETYMOLOGY: British "*kalwi-jos"; cf Latin "calumnia" from an earlier form "calwomnia"
LOCAL VARIANTS: In the north-west celw
yddau > clwydda klu i dha; in the south celwydd > celwdd ke ludh


yddgi kel- uidh -gi masculine noun
yddgwn kel- uidh -gun
(South Wales)
liar, storyteller (one who tells untrue stories)
Mae en gythraul o gelw
yddgi Hes a hell of a liar

Y: (celw
ydd = lie) + soft mutation + (ci = dog; also in compound words as a term of contempt for a person)


yddog kel- ui -dhog adjective
Mae en ddiawl celw
yddog Hes a lying bastard
Un celw
yddog tost yw a Hes a terrible liar, Helies through his teeth


kel- wə -dhur masculine noun
PLURAL celwyddw
yr kel- wədh -wir
yw e Hes a liar

ydd = lie) + (-wr suffix = man)


KE mes (masculine noun)
(obsolete; present in place names)

bend in a river

2 bend in the coastline

In place names, often misspelt Cemaes, through assuming some connection with maes (= field)


Cemais Comawndwr ke -mes ko-maun-dur
1 village in the county of Mynw
y (Gwent)
In earlier Welsh Cemais Cymawndwr

The church here and its lands were at one time a possession or commandery of the Knights Templars, and were administered by a commander. Hence the name, which means

the place called Cemais which is of the Commander

(to distinguish it from other parishes in Wales with the name Cemais)

English name: Kemeys Commander

ETYMOLOGY: See cemais


cemeg KE meg (feminine noun)


ken masculine noun
PLURAL cennau

1 Also: cenn
yn ke-lin, PLURAL cennau
cen is also used as a collective / plural form

2 scales of a fish or a reptile

3 dandruff
(South Wales: can)

4 lichen

5 fur in pipes

6 film of dirt on the skin

7 (obsolete) skin

(obsolete) hyddgen deerskin
(hydd- < h
ydd = deer) + soft mutation + (cen = skin )

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cen < British *kend
From the same British root: Cornish kenn (= skin, hide, peel)

Cf Modern English skin < Middle English skin < Old Norse skinn. The Scandinavian word is a cognate of Welsh cen


cen / cen
1 form of cefn ke-ven in the pronunciation of some compound words where it is the first element.

....1/ First element in a compound word (as a stressed penultimate syllable)

....a/ cefnffordd < cenffordd / cenffordd (= ridgeway, road along a ridge) (ffordd = road)

....b/ cefnfor > cenfor / cenfor (= ocean) (mr = sea)

....c/ cefnfro > cenfro > cenffro / cenffro (= part of beach above high water for leaving boats) (bro = low-lying land, coastal land) (change of v > f after n; for other examples see the entry ff)

....d/ cefnlli > cenlli / cenlli (= flood, torrent) (llif = flow)

....e/ cefnrhaff > cefnraff > cenraff > cendraff (= back band of a horses harness) (rhaff = rope)

....2/ qualified first element in a place name (as a prepenultimnate syllable, or an unstressed penultimate syllable before a final strsesed syllable)

....a/ Cefnsidan > Censhidan / Censhidan (place name, county of Caerfyrddin)

....b/ Cefn-tre-baen > Cen-tre-baen > Pentre-baen (place name (the) ridge (of) (the farm called) Tre-baen)

(Paen = Cymricised form of the English surname Payne)

....c/ cefn y coed > Cefn-coed > Cen-coed / Cen-coed (place name (the) ridge (of) the wood

....d/ cefn y don > Cefn-don > Cen-don, Cen-don (place name, (the) ridge (of) the pasture (example quoted in
GPC Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / University of Wales Dictionary t1578)

....e/ cefn y lle oer > Cefn-lle-er > Cen-lle-er > Cenller > Cnlloer > Cnllor > Y Genllor < (place name (the) ridge (of) the cold place)

2 as a second element

..a/ in the word gwarcen, made up of (gwar) + (cefn)

gwar cefn or gwarcfn > gwrcefn > gwarcen > gwarcen (= upper part of back, shoulders)


feminine diminutive suffix, corresponding to the masculine suffix -cyn

..1/ botgen (obsolete) little thumb
(bawd = thumb;
bawd + cen > bawd-gen > bod-gen > botgen)

..2/ ffolcen fool, foolish woman

..3/ hanercen (county of Penfro) dwarf (woman)


KE narth (feminine noun)
village, south-west


ke -ne masculine noun
PLURAL cenawon
ke- nau -on
cub, whelp
Eseia 11:6 a'r blaidd a drig gyda'r oen, a'r llewpart a orwedd gyda'r m
yn; y llo hefyd, a chenau y llew, a'r anifail bras, fyddant ynghyd, a bachgen bychan a'u harwain
Isaiah 11:6 The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.

2 (North Wales) (term of reproach) rascal, cur, low dog, scoundrel, lout
Jon Robaitsh - y cena drwg iddo Jon Robaitsh - that old scoundrel
cenau glas out and out scoundrel, complete rogue, incorrigible rogue, despicable person

3 rascal (mildly reproving term for a child)

4 an element in old personal names
Gorgenau (intensifying prefix gwor, great whelp
Morgenau (mawr = great) great whelp
Rhigenau (rhi = king) king whelp

5 See cenawes (North Wales) (colloquially cnawes) she-cub; (term of reproach for a woman) vixen

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *kanou-
From the same Celtic root: Irish cana (= literary Irish cub, whelp; poet of the fourth order)
Related to Latin canis (= dog), hence English canine (= doglike; relating to dogs)

NOTE: cenawon colloquial forms: cenafon, cynafon, cnafon
The old form of cenawon had a canawon, but changed in order to match the singular form, cenau, with an e


ke- nau -es feminine noun
PLURAL cenawesau
ke- nau -es

(North Wales) (term of reproach for a woman) vixen
yr hen gnawes 'na that old bitch

ETYMOLOGY: (cenaw = cub, whelp) + (-es noun suffix indicating a female)
NOTE: (colloquially cnawes)



cender KEN-der (m)
see cefnder (= male first cousin)


In many words in Welsh with the element cefn in the penultimate syllable , the [v] is elided

cefnraff > cenraff, cefnfordd > cenffordd, cefnder > cender, cefnllif > cenlli, Y Gefnros > Y Genros / Y Gendros, etc


cenedl, cenhedloedd
KE ne dəl, ken HED lodh (feminine noun)
y genedl = the nation

2 (Old Testament) Y Cenhedloedd the Gentiles = non-Jewish people, non-Jews

Actau 4:27 Herod a Phontius Peilat, gyda'r Cenhedloedd, a phobl Israel
Acts 4:27 both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel

apostol y cenhedloedd the apostle to the Gentiles (name given to Saint Paul)

3 Y Cenhedloedd (as used by Christians) the Gentiles = non-Christian people


ke ned LEI the (plural noun)
generations: see cenhedlaeth


ke ned LEI the (adjective)

2 national = symbolic of a nation
Yr elc yw anifail cenedlaethol Norwy Norways national animal is the elk


ke-ned-lei-tho-lur masculine noun
PLURAL cenedlaetholw
yr ke-ned-lei-thol-wir
nationalist, nationist = one who seeks to protect national rights threatened with abolition by an invading state, or regain the full national rights abolished or disallowed by an occupying state

2 nationalist, expansionist = one who believes in the superiority of a state and its dominant culture and its right to incorporate other nations into its territory, eradicate their languages and cultures, and impose its own linguistic and cultural values

ETYMOLOGY: (cenedlaethol = national) + (-wr = person, man); imitation of the English word nationalist, from (national) + (-ist)


cenfaint, cenfeiniau
KEN vent, ken VEIN ye (feminine noun)


cenffro KEN-fro (f)
part of beach above high water for leaving boats) (bro = low-lying land, coastal land)

See cefnfro


cefnfro > cenfro > cenffro / cenffro


In many words in Welsh with the element cefn in the penultimate syllable , the [v] is elided

cefnraff > cenraff, cefnfordd > cenffordd, cefnder > cender, cefnllif > cenlli, Y Gefnros > Y Genros / Y Gendros, etc


ken V gen (feminine noun)
jealousy, envy

2 bod yn las gan genfigen be green with envy


ke-ngel feminine noun
PLURAL cenglau
saddle girth, belly band;

y gengl = the saddle girth
tynhur gengl tighten the saddle girth

2 cengl fain (said of somebody very thin) (" a thin saddle girth")

3 county of Mn llacior gengal
ge-ngal take a break during work; take some days off from work, take a holiday ("loosen the saddle girth")

4 skein = loosely tied coil of yarn

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin *cingla < cngula = belt, < cingere to gird.

In English

1.. a Latin masculine form cingulum
sing-yu-ləm is used in anatomy - girdle-like ridge around the base of a tooth, band of fibres connecting parts of the cerebrum)

2.. and in surcingle
səərr-singgəl ( = a girth for a horse which goes around the body and is used especially with racing horses), a word taken from French (sur + cengle)

North Wales = cengal (west), cengel (east)
ke-ngal, ke-ngel
South Wales = cingel (east), cingal (west)
ki-ngel, ki-ngal


keng -log adjective
(cow) having streaks

buwch genglog cow with streaks

ETYMOLOGY: (cengl = saddle girth) + (-og)


keng-li verb
fasten a girth around (a horses belly)

(Hen Dstament)
Jeremeia 46:4 Cenglwch y meirch, ac ewch arn
ynt, farchogion; sefwch yn eich helmau, gloywch y gwaywffyn, gwisgwch y llurigau
(Old Testament)
Jeremiah 46:4 Harness the horses; and get up, ye horsemen, and stand forth with your helmets; furbish the spears, and put on the brigadines

2 form into skeins

ETYMOLOGY: (cengl = saddle girth, skein) + (-u = suffix for forming verbs)


keng-lwr masculine noun
PLURAL cenglw
yr kengl-wir
reel, hose-reel = circular box with an axis inside around which a hose or cable is wound for storage


in derivative words, the penult form of cennad (= mission). The original penult form was also cennad, but it has acquired influenced by the organic h- in canhiad-, penult form of caniad = (obsolete word) permission


ken-ha-deth feminine noun
PLURAL cenadaethau
Religion mission = group of people sent by a church to a foreign country to promote the religion and do social work
y genhadaeth = the mission

2 Diplomacy diplomatic mission = group of people in a foreign country representing a country

3 Commerce trade mission = group of people in a foreign country representing a company or companies

4 mission = work of such a group

5 mission = buildings of such; mission station

6 llysgenhadaeth embassy ("court + mission")

ETYMOLOGY: cenhad- (penult form) < cennad (original penult form) influenced by the organic h- in canhiad-, penult form of caniad = (obsolete word) permission


ken-ha-des feminine noun
PLURAL cenadesau
missionary (female)
y genhades = the missionary

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhad-, penult-syllable form < cennad = mission) + (-es, female agent suffix)


ken-had-va feminine noun
PLURAL cenhadf
ydd ken-had-veidh
mission (= place), mission station, mission house
y genhadfa = the mission house

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhad-, penult-syllable form < cennad = mission) + (-fa, suffix = place)


ken-ha-dol adjective
missionary = undertaking a religious mission

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhad-, penult-syllable form < cennad = mission) + (-ol, suffix for forming adjectives)


ke- nha -don noun plural
Plural form of cennad, or cenhadwr


ken-ha-di verb
work as a missionary

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhad-, penult-syllable form < cennad = mission) + (-u, suffix for forming verbs)


ken-ha-dur masculine noun
PLURAL cenhadon, cenhadw
yr ken-ha-don, ken-had-wir

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhad-, penult-syllable form < cennad = mission) + (-wr, man, agent suffix)


ke- nhed -leth feminine noun
PLURAL cenedlaethau
ke-ned- lei -the
generation = all the individuals of roughly the same age;
y genhedlaeth = the generation
pobl om cenhedlaeth = people of my generation

generation = (as a measure of time) average lifetime of a generation; the period of years considered to separate one generation from another (often regarded as being thirty years)
genhedlaeth yn l a generation ago
ers cenedlaethau for generations

Buont yn ceisio cael ateb i h
yn ers cenedlaethau
Theyve been trying to find an answer for this for generations

cenedlaethau lawer o brofiad many generations of experience

hyd genhedlaeth a chenhedlaeth from generation to generation

Arhosed ein haith yn ei bri hyd genhedlaeth a chenhedlaeth
May our language remain predominant over the generations

Croniclau-1 16:15 Cofiwch yn dragwydd y cyfamod; y gair a orchmynnodd efe i fil o genedlaethau
Chronicles-1 16:16 Be ye mindful always of his covenant; the word which he commanded to a thousand generations

3 generation = a single step in the evolution of an animal or a plant etc

generation = period of technological development, differing from a previous period through having general characteristics unknown in an earlier period

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhedl-, penult-syllable form < cenhedlu = propagate) + (-aeth, suffix for forming nouns)


ke- nhedl -yad masculine noun

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhedl-, penult-syllable form < cenedlu = propagate) + (-iad, suffix for forming nouns)


ke- nhed -lig adjective
obsolete pagan
masculine noun; obsolete pagan

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhedl-, penult-syllable form < cenedl = nation / gender / (obsolete) family) + (-ig, suffix for forming adjectives)


ke- nhed -lodh noun plural
See: cenedl


Y Cenhedloedd Unedig
ə ke- nhed -lodh i-ne-dig -
the United Nations


ke- nhed -li verb
verb without an object
procreate = to create offspring
cenhedlu a magu teulu
to procreate and to raise a family

verb with an object
(man) beget = to father, beget a child

Job 38:28 A oes dad ir glaw? neu pw
y a genhedlodd ddefnynnau y gwlith?
Job 38:28 Hath the rain a father? or who hath begotten the drops of dew?

3 (woman) conceive = become pregnant with
cenhedlu plent
yn conceive a child, become pregnant
engender, give rise to, create, bring about, spawn
William Owen-Pughe ai dylw
yth a genhedlodd erthylod o eiriau megis "merchaid" a "ciwaid" yn lle "merched" a "ciwed"
It was William Owen-Pughe and his followers who created such bastardisations of words as "merchaid" and "ciwaid" instead of "merched" and "ciwed"

5 atal
ydd cenhedlu contraceptive ("preventer of conceiving")

6 rheoli cenhedlu birth control ("regulating conceiving")

7 atgenhedlu regenerate
atgenhedlu < ad-genhedlu (ad- = re-, again) + soft mutation + (cenhedlu = procreate, generate)

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhedl-, penult-syllable form < cenedl = nation / gender / (obsolete) family) + (-u, suffix for forming verbs)


ke- nhed -lur masculine noun
PLURAL cenhedlw
yr ke- nhedl -wir
begetter, progenitor

ETYMOLOGY: (cenhedl-, penult-syllable form < cenhedlu = propagate) + (-wr, man, agent suffix)


ke- nhi -nen feminine noun
PLURAL cennin
leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum (L.), also called allium porrum )
y genhinen = the leek

(delw 6990)

2 the leek as the national emblem of Wales; probably because white and green were the colours of the Welsh chiefs in the medieval period (though apocryphal stories of a Welsh army fighting the English in a leek field abound)

3 In the phrase of comparison mor lased r cennin ("as green as the leeks")

4 Llanbedr y Cennin (SH7569) village in the county of Conw
y ("the Llanbedr of the leeks"; Llanbedr = the church of Saint Peter)

ETYMOLOGY: British *kannin-.
..1/ Cornish kinenn = leek, kinenn ewinek = garlic;
..2/ Breton kignen = garlic,
..3/ Irish cainnean = leek


cenhinen Bedr
ke- nh -nen be-der feminine noun
PLURAL cennin Pedr
ke-nin pe-der
daffodil (narcissus pseudonarcissus)
this flower as a national symbol of Wales

ETYMOLOGY: "(the) leek (of) (Saint) Peter") (cenhinen = leek) + soft mutation + (Pedr = Saint Peter)


ken -lhi
deluge, flood, torrent; see cenllif

2 kestrel; see cenlli goch

In many words in Welsh with the element cefn in the penultimate syllable , the [v] is elided

cefnraff > cenraff, cefnfordd > cenffordd, cefnder > cender, cefnllif > cenlli, Y Gefnros > Y Genros / Y Gendros, etc


ken-lhi masculine noun

Also in the older form cefnllif

1 deluge, flood, torrent
Roedd y nant yn rhuthro yn gefnllif gw
yllt ar l y storm
The stream was a raging torrent (rushed as a wild torrent) after the storm

Maesygenlli ((the) field (of) the torrent) street name in Caersws (Powys) (apparently cenlli = torrent, but see also cenlli goch)

Llwybr Cenllif place east of Dolgellau in the county of Gwynedd (name on English maps: Torrent Walk)
ybr y cenllif = (the) path (of) the torrent
ybr = path) + (y = definite article) + (cenllif = torrent)

downpour, heavy rain
bod yn genlli = be pouring down

ar l hanner awr a chenllir storm yn arafu...
after half an hour when the rainstorm subsided...

Dywedodd wrthym iddi fod yn genlli drw
yr wythnos
He told us it had poured down all week

ETYMOLOGY: (cefn = back) + soft mutation + (llif = current, flow) > *cefnlif > cefnllif (loss of the mutation) > cenllif (loss of the final
v, normal in polysyllabic words in colloquial Welsh) > cenlli (loss of the v in cefn, occurs in other words of two syllables where it is the first element in a compound.)
See cen-
NOTE: also occurs as a feminine noun > y genllif


cenlli goch
ken-lhi gookh feminine noun
North Wales
y genlli goch = the kestrel

ETYMOLOGY: : (cenlli = kestrel) + soft mutation + (coch = red);
cenlli < cefnlli < cefnllif;

Possibly < cefnlliw ((bird) (with a) coloured back);

(cefn= back) + soft mutation + (lliw = colour)

> *cefnliw > cefnlliw (loss of the mutation)

> cefnlli > cenlli (this loss of the
v in cefn, occurs in other words of two syllables where it is the first element in a compound.
See cen-)

A final f is lost in polysyllables generally in Welsh (cyntaf = first, cynta; siaradaf = I shall speak, siarada, etc)

If the missing final consonant is w (cefnlliw > cefnlli) , this is to be compared with these other words in Welsh:
(1) heddiw / heddi (today),
(2) tanlliw / tanlli (flame-coloured), etc


ke- lə -nen feminine noun
yn ke -lin
(Ilex aquifolium) holly, evergreen tree with prickly leaves and bright red berries; holly bush
y gelynnen = the holly bush

{attribute} holly = relating to the plant
pren cel
yn holly wood, the wood of a holly tree
dail cel
yn holly leaves

{substantive adjective} holly = made of the wood of a holly

ke-lə- nə -ne individual hollies (in the district of Eifionydd, Gwynedd, in the form clenna)

(plant name) Celynnen Fair (Ruscus aculeatus) butcher's broom
((the) holly (of the Virgin) Mary)

street name
..a/ Llanbedr Dyffryn Clwyd, Rhuthun (county of Dinb
ych) (Maes Celyn)
..b/ Llaneurgain (county of Y Fflint) (Maes Cel
..c/ Coed-y-gl
yn (county of Wrecsam) (Maes Celyn)
maes y cel
yn ((the) field (of) the holly-bushes)
(maes = field) + (definite article y) + (cel
yn holly-bushes)

7 celynnen > clynnen
In the 1881 Census (Tywyn, District 3) David Davies (55) mariner is recorded as living at Pantyglynnen (spelt as Pant y Glynen) (= hollow of the holly bush)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cel
yn < British *kolin- < Celtic
From the same British root: Breton kelenn (= holly trees / bushes), Cornish kelenn (= holly trees / bushes; place name in Cornwall Roskelenn, in English Treskilling (ros = hill)
from the same Celtic root: Irish cuileann (= holly)

Cf Old English holegn > modern English holly
cf English holm oak
houm-uk < holm houm = dialect word for holly
1300+ < holin < angls antic holegn


yn ke- lən -lhuin masculine noun
holly bush; (holly = Ilex aquifolium, evergreen tree with prickly leaves and bright red berries)
yn farm name in Pontarddulais (county of Abertawe),
= tal y cynllw
yn < tal y clynllwyn < tal y celynllwyn (place facing / opposite the holly grove / holly wood / holly-bush)
(Place-names in and around the Bont, Deric John, 1999)

yn = holly bushes) + soft mutation + (llwyn = bush, grove) > *celyn-lwyn > celynllwyn (loss of the soft mutation)

NOTE: More usually, rather than celynllwyn, holly bush is llw
yn celyn.

Other examples with llwyn as a second element are:

bdwlwyn / bedlwyn (birch grove), also llwyn bedw

drwlwyn / derlwyn (= oak grove), also llwyn derw

gruglwyn (heather clump), also llwyn grug

gwernllwyn (alder grove), also llwyn gwern

onllwyn (ash grove), also llwyn on(n),


celynnog <KLƏ-nog> [ˡklənɔg]
1 (adj) abounding in holly bushes

2 (noun) place abounding in holly bushes, place of holly bushes


It occurs in place names as Clynnog (= Clynnog), a reduced form of celynnog)

..a/ In Llanrhaeadr ym Mochnant there is a farm Clynog SJ1225 which is probably Clynnog map


..b/ Clynnog-fawr SH4149 also known simply as Clynnog

A village in Gwynedd y pentref / the village


ETYMOLOGY: (celynn- penult form of celyn = holly bushes) + (-og adjectival suffix ) > celynnog (adj) (= abounding in holly bushes) > celynnog (noun) (= place abounding in holly bushes)



cenffordd KEN-fordh (f)
see cefnfordd (= ridge road)


In many words in Welsh with the element cefn in the penultimate syllable , the [v] is elided

cefnraff > cenraff, cefnfordd > cenffordd, cefnder > cender, cefnllif > cenlli, Y Gefnros > Y Genros / Y Gendros, etc



ysg KEN lhisk (masculine noun) (North Wales)
bwrw cenllysg BU ru KEN lhisk (verb) to hail


ken LHƏ sken (feminine noun)
(North) hailstone


..1 cennad
<KE-nad> [ˡkɛnad] feminine noun
PLURAL cenhadau
<ken-HAA-dai, -dai, -e> [kɛnˡhɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
permission, leave
y gennad = the permission
gyda'ch cennad by your leave, with your permission
gyda chennad with permission

2 ar gennad (USA: on furlough) (Englandic: on leave)
ynd ar gennad go on leave
bod ar gennad be on leave
cennad absenoldeb leave of absence

3 rhoi cennad i give leave to (USA: to furlough) (Englandic: to leave)

ETYMOLOGY: cennad < cannad
(can- = with) + (gad- = stem of gadael = to leave; influence of cennad = messenger )


..2 cennad
<KE-nad> [ˡkɛnad] (masculine noun)
emissary, messenger


ke -ne
1 plural form of cen / cenn


KE nin (plural noun)
leeks; see cennin


ydd ke -nidh
1 saints name, a variant form of Cynydd

2 Llangennydd, a variant of Llangynydd SS4291 (English name: Llangennith). Village in the county of Abertawe. y pentref / the village yr eglwys / the church Pen y Brenin / The Kings Head

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

3 Also Trecennydd (Trecenydd) in Caerffili.


The medieval kntrev of Senghennydd lay between the rivers Taf and Rhymni. In the 1800s it was popularly explained as meaning Saint Cennydd, though the saint was not connected with this area.


However, the popularity of this explanation is to be seen in the numerous references to Cennydd in the area Ysgol Gyfun Cenydd Sant (St. Cenydds Comprehensive School) in Caerffili, Eglwys Cenydd Sant a Sant Pedr (the Church of St Cenydd and St Peter), Heol Cenydd Sant (St. Cenydd Road) in Caerffili, Rhestr Cenydd (Cenydd Terrace) in Senghennydd village, etc.

NOTE: The name Cenydd is sometimes given to males in an English form as Kenneth, though in fact the names are not related, though the pronunciation is somewhat similar

NOTE: Melville Richards / Enwau Tir a Gwlad / 1998, a compilation of articles written for Y Cymro 1967-1970,
gives Cynydd as an alternative form of Cenydd.


He also suggests that Senghennydd is very possibly Sangans territory; ydd is a territorial suffix, and the first part of the name is a mans forename, Sangan, stem Sanghann-


yn ke -nin
1 See cen (= scale, skin)


ke -nol adjective

1 (South-east Wales) equivalent to canol (= middle)

2 Y Bont Genol (the middle bridge) A bridge name noted by John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cern
yw) 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911)
The middle bridge" (y bont genol), across the mill-stream by the Roath mill.
Roath is Y Rhath, Caer-dydd

3 Dw
y Erw a Hanner Genol (the middle two and a half acres) A field name noted by John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911)
(the middle two and a half acres.) A piece of land on the shore of the East Moor (1764.)

3 Nedd Genol

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales / Samuel Lewis / 1849:
NEATH- GENOL, or MIDDLE (NEDD- GENOL, or GANOL), a township, in the parish of CADOXTON, union and hundred of NEATH, county of GLAMORGAN, SOUTH WALES, 10 miles (N. E.) from Neath; containing 262 inhabitants.


4 Hafod Genol
On the
1847 Tithe Apportionment Map in the area where today stands the village of Trehafod south of Y Porth and north of Pont-y-pridd there were three farms called Hafod - Hafod Uchaf (= upper), Hafod Genol (= middle) and Hafod Fawr (= great)




cenraff KEN-raf (f)
see cefnraff (= back band of a horses harness)


In many words in Welsh with the element cefn in the penultimate syllable , the [v] is elided

cefnraff > cenraff, cefnfordd > cenffordd, cefnder > cender, cefnllif > cenlli, Y Gefnros > Y Genros / Y Gendros, etc



cenros KEN-ros (f)
see cefnros (=moorland on a ridge)


In many words in Welsh with the element cefn in the penultimate syllable , the [v] is elided

cefnraff > cenraff, cefnfordd > cenffordd, cefnder > cender, cefnllif > cenlli, Y Gefnros > Y Genros / Y Gendros, etc


KER (verb) (South Wales)


ETYMOLOGY: Used as the second-person singular imperative of mynd (= to go), though in fact it is cer, the stem of cered < cerdded (= to walk)


NOTE: The second-person plural form is cerwch! (= go!)


yd ker -bid masculine noun
PLURAL cerbydau
ker- bə -de
yd cyhoeddus public service vehicle (PSV)

2 carriage, coach
yd phr coach and pair (coach drawn by two horses)

Y Cerb
yd ar Meirch (public house name) the Coach and Horses
yn Nhafarn y Cerb
yd ar Meirch in the "Coach and Horses", at the sign of the "Coach and Horses"

3 chariot
yd rhyfel chariot, war chariot
yd rhyfel Rhufeinig Roman chariot

4 (railway) (American: car) (Englandic: carriage, coach)
yd trn (American: railroad car) (Englandic: railway carriage)
cerbyd metro (American: subway car), underground railway carriage, metro carriage

5 coach, motor coach
Cerbydau Caelloi "Caelloi Motors", coach company in Pwllheli (the company uses the form Caelloi, the correct spelling would be Cae-lloi, with a hyphen; from Caer-lloi = the field of the calves, calf field)

6 saer cerbydau
carriage builder, coach builder; person who builds bodies of cars, lorries, railway cars (Englandic: carriages), etc

7 (history) ffordd gerbyd
coach road, road for horse-drawn coaches

8 l-gerb
yd (lorry) trailer = wheeled flat frame towed by a tractor unit; the flat frame may be a base for carrying a container, or may support an open or closed box-like structure - (l = back) + soft mutation + (cerbyd = vehicle)

9 cerb
ytffordd carriageway

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Irish (modern Irish carbad = chariot);

cf (1) Celtic *karbant-,

(2) in Gaulish karpent (= war vehicle).

(3) Taken into Latin as carpentum (= wagon),

(4) From carpentum came French charpente = (building) framework, skeleton; (body) constitution, build; (speech, novel) structure

(5) Derivatives in French: (a) charpenter (= (wood) shape; construct; (speech, novel) shape, plan); (b) from the Latin derivative carpentarius (= wagon builder) is French charpentier (= carpenter); and charpenterie (= carpentry, carpenters workshop, timberyard)

(6) The English word carpenter with
k is from Norman; in many Norman words an initial k coresponds to sh [ʃ] in modern French, in earlier French ch [ʧ]


ytffordd ker-bət-fordh feminine noun
PLURAL cerbytffyrdd

yd = vehicle) + (ffordd= road) > *cerbydffordd > cerbytffordd (d-ff > t-ff)


y ker-bə-ti masculine noun
PLURAL cerbytai
coach house

yd = vehicle) + soft mutation + (ty = house) > cerbyddy > cerbyty (d-d > t)
NOTE: Also coetsiws < English "coachhouse"


cerdd, cerddi
KERDH, KER dhi ( noun)
y gerdd = the poem

2 cerdd dant kerdh DANT harp music
This is literally string music < tant (= harpstring)


KER dhed (verb)
to walk

2 walk = go across, step on the surface of
Na cherddwch ar y glaswellt Keep off the grass (Do not walk on the grass)

3 Cerddodd ias trwof A shiver went down my spine (a shudder went / walked through me)

4 news, rumour - spread, (old-fashioned: go abroad)

maer si yn cerdded bod... theres a rumour going round that..., its rumoured that...
fe gerdodd y gair bod... the rumour went around that...
fe gerdodd y sn bod... the rumour went around that...
Bur sn am Sin Llywelyn Gwl-y-don yn cerdded fel tn w
The rumour about Sin Llywelyn from Gwl-y-don quickly went around (went like wildfire)


cerddor, cerddorion
KER dhor, ker DHOR yon (masculine noun)


cerddorfa, cerddorf
ydd ker DHOR va, ker dhor VEIDH (feminine noun)

y gerddorfa the orchestra

Cerddorfa Farc Cymru the Welsh Baroque Orchestra

(Cerddorfa Baroc Gymreig is not correct)


ker DHOR yeth (feminine noun)
y gerddoriaeth = the music


ker DHO rol (adjective)


cerddwr, cerddw
yr KER dhur, KERDH wir (masculine noun)


yn, cardiau KER din, KARD ye (masculine noun)

2 cerd
yn prawf test card - an image broadcast by a television channel when the transmitter is active but there is no programme being shown. It indicates what company is using the channel, and a pattern on it serves for adjusting the TV set to obtain a correct setting.


yn atgoffa ker -din at-g-fa masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau atgoffa
kard-ye at-g-fa
reminder, a postcard sent to remind someone (e.g. from a library to say that the loan period for a book has been exceeded, from a doctor or dentist to say that it is time to arrange a time for a periocical check-up, etc)

ETYMOLOGY: "card (of) reminding", (cerd
yn = card) + (atgoffa = to remind)


yn banc ker -din bangk masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau banc
kard-ye bangk
bank card, bankers card; card issued by a bank which guarantees the recipient of a cheque that it will be paid in full up to a stated amount

ETYMOLOGY: card (of) bank", (cerd
yn = card) + ("banc" = bank)


yn byrddio ker -din bərdh-yo masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau byrddio
kard-ye bərdh-yo
boarding card = identification card for a passenger going on to a boat or plane

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English boarding card; (cerd
yn = card) + (byrddio = to embark, go on board)
NOTE: cerd
yn byrddio is the standard form. In the south, carden fyrddio


yn catalog ker din KA ta log (masculine noun)
catalogue card


yn coch ker -din kookh masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau coch, cardiau cochion
kard-ye kookh, kard-ye kokh-yon
(football) red card = card shown by a referee to a player who has broken a rule or rules of the game, used as a visual command to leave the football field;
dangos y cerd
yn coch = show the red card (to a player)

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English red card
NOTE: cerd
yn coch is the standard form. In the south, carden goch


yn cofnodi ker din kov NO di (masculine noun)
file card


yn cyfarch ker -din kə-varkh masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau cyfarch
kard-ye kə-varkh
greetings card (Christmas, birthday, wedding, etc)

ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of English greeting card; (cerd
yn = card) + (cyfarch = to greet)
NOTE: cerd
yn cyfarch is the standard form. In the south, carden gyfarch


yn debyd ker -din d-bid masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau deb
yd kard-ye d-bid
debit card, electronic card which can be used for payment and automatically takes the amount to be paid from the holders bank account and transfers it to the account of the payee

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English debit card; (cerd
yn = card) + (debyd = debit)
NOTE: Cerd
yn debyd is the standard form. In the south, carden ddebyd is possible


yn glanio ker -din glan-yo masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau glanio
kard-ye glan-yo
landing card = identification card for a passenger leaving a boat or plane

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English landing card; (cerd
yn = card) + (glanio = to land, to disembark)
NOTE: cerd
yn glanio is the standard form. In the south, carden lanio


yn mynegai ker din mə NE ge (masculine noun)
index card


yn pen-blwydd ker -din pen-bluidh masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau pen-blw
ydd ker -din pen-bluidh
birthday card

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English birthday card
NOTE: cerd
yn pen-blwydd is the standard form. In the south, carden ben-blwydd


yn post ker -din post masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau post
ker -din post
yn post darluniadol picture postcard

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English postcard
NOTE: cerd
yn post is the standard form. In the north post > pst (Compare Southern rhost (= rhoasted), Northern rhst; Southern cost (= cost, Northern cst; etc) . In the south, carden bost


yn priodas ker -din pri-o-das masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau priodas
kard-ye pri-o-das
cerdyn priodas wedding card, card sent to congratulate a couple on their marriage

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English wedding card
NOTE: cerd
yn priodas is the standard form. In the south, carden briodas


yn siec KER din SHEK (masculine noun)
check card (Englandic: cheque card)


yn ymwld ker -din əm-weld masculine noun
PLURAL cardiau ymwld
kard-ye əm-weld
(American: calling card) (Englandic: visiting card)

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English visiting card
NOTE: cerd
yn ymwld is the standard form. In the south, carden ymwld


k-red verb
South Wales
form of cerdded = to walk, to go

2 bod ar gered be away from home
rhoi ar gered put into action, set in motion

3 Ceredigion; masculine noun hurry, rush
ywr cered sy arnat ti? Whats the rush? Whats all the hurry? (What is the hurry which is on you?)

ETYMOLOGY: cerdded with the loss of the consonant


k-red masculine noun
menter iaith (centre for the promotion of the Welsh language) serving the county of Ceredigion. Set up in October 2000, based in the village of Felin-fach.

ETYMOLOGY: a play on words it is the abbreviaiton for Ceredigion (see Cered.), as well as being the southern form of cerdded (= to walk). In the county of Ceredigion cered also has the sense of hurry, intense activity (see cered)


abbreviation of Ceredigion (county name / region / old kingdom)


ke re DIG yon (feminine noun)
(1) medieval territory, south-west Wales;
(2) name of a district in the former county of Dyfed (1972-1996);
(3) modern county (created 1996)


kerf adjective
yd o hyd i dwy garreg gerf anferth o dan lawr yr eglwys
Two enormous carved stones were found under the floor of the church

ETYMOLOGY: stem of the verb cerfio (= to carve)


y kerv -di masculine noun
PLURAL cerfdai
kerv -dai
carvery = restaurant where a customer pays a set price and may have as many portions as he / she wants of meat and vegetables

ETYMOLOGY: (cerf- stem of cerfio = to carve (meat) + soft mutation + (t
y^ = house)


kerv -yad masculine noun
PLURAL cerfiadau
kerv- y -de

ETYMOLOGY: (cerf- stem of cerfio = to carve) + (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)


kerv- y -dig adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (cerf- stem of cerfio = to carve) + (-i-edig suffix for forming a past participle adjective)


kerv -yo verb
(verb with an object)
1 carve = chip away at, or slice, a material (in order to form something)
cerfio pren carve wood
cerfio carreg carve a stone

2 carve = produce (an object) by chipping away at or slicing some material
cerfio delw carve a statue

3 carve (meat), cut slices off meat

4 carve = engrave
cerfio ei enw yn y garreg to carve his name in the stone
of facial expression adopted, as if carved

Yr oedd anobaith wedi ei gerfio ar eu hw
Hopelessness was carved on his face

ETYMOLOGY: (cerf < English kerve (= to carve) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)
(cerf- is from Middle English kerve = to carve. As such, it preserves the original er sound which in later English became ar; other examples are Welsh fferm / clerc / persli / person, English farm / clark / parsley / parson )
Related to German die Kerbe (= notch, nick)


kerv -yur masculine noun
PLURAL cerfw
yr kerv -wir
Bob Gruff, y Cerfiwr o Langwm... Bob Gruff, the woodcarver from Llangwm

ETYMOLOGY: (cerf-, stem of cerfio = to carve, to sculpt) + soft mutation + (-i-wr suffix for indicating a device or an agent; literally = man)


<KERV-lin> [ˡkɛrvlɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL cerfluniau
<kerv-LIN-yai, -yai, -e> [kɛrvˡlɪnjaɪ, -ɛ]
statue, sculpture
cerflun or Forw
yn a Madonna (a statue of the Virgin Mary)

ETYMOLOGY: (cerf-, stem of cerfio = to carve, to sculpt) + soft mutation + (llun = picture)


<kerv-LIN-yaith, -yeth> [kɛrvˡlɪnjaɪθ, -ɛθ] feminine noun
(art) sculpture = making three-dimensional figures; branch of art, a discipline, a profession

ETYMOLOGY: (cerf-, stem of cerfio = to carve, to sculpt) +(-i-aeth suffix for forming nouns)


<kerv-LII-nig> [kɛrvˡliˑnɪg] masculine noun
PLURAL cerflunigau
<kerv-li-NII-gai, -gai, -e> [kɛrvlɪnˡiˑgaɪ, -ɛ]

ETYMOLOGY: (cerflun = sculpture) + (-ig diminutive suffix added to nouns)


<kerv-LIN-yo> [kɛrvˡlɪnjɔ] verb
sculpt, create sculptures

ETYMOLOGY: (cerflun = sculpture) + (-ig diminutive suffix added to nouns) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)


<kerv-LIN-yur> [kɛrvˡlɪnjʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cerflunw
yr <kerv-LIN-wir> [kɛrvˡlɪnwɪr]

ETYMOLOGY: (cerflun-, arrel de cerflunio = to sculpt) + (-ig diminutive suffix added to nouns) + (-i-wr suffix for indicating a device or an agent; literally = man)


<kerv-LIN-waith> [kɛrvˡlɪnwaɪθ] masculine noun
PLURAL cerflunweithiau
<kerv-lin-WEITH-yai, -yai, -e> [kɛrvlɪnˡwəɪθjaɪ, -ɛ]

ETYMOLOGY: (cerflun = sculpture) + + soft mutation + (gwaith = work)


ydd <kerv-LII-nidh> [kɛrvˡliˑnɪ] masculine noun
sculptor; see cerfluniwr


<KERV-wedh> [ˡkɛrvˡwɛ] feminine noun
relief = raised work (art)
cerfwedd isel bas relief, low relief

wedi ei gerfio mewn cerfwedd isel carved in low relief

cerfwedd uchel high relief = a type of relief or sculpture of shapes carved to stand out from a background; in high relief, the carved figure is well above this surface formed to serve as the background

ffug-gerfwedd false relief

mewn cerfwedd in relief

mewn cerfwedd canolig in medium relief

ETYMOLOGY: (cerf-, stem of cerfio = to carve, to sculpt) + soft mutation + (gwedd = aspect)


<KEE-ri> [ˡkeˑrɪ] (masculine or feminine noun)
place name

Village in Powys SO1489. Spelt Kerry by the English.

mans name

womans name


<ke-RID-wen> [kɛˡrɪdwɛn] (feminine noun)
womans name

ETYMOLOGY: The elements of this name (which may have been formed in British rather than in Welsh) are (cerid) + (-wen = white; fair)

Cerid < British *karita, comparable with Latin caritas, accusative caritatem (= dearness, high price; affection)


NOTE: Not connected with cerdd (= poem), which is the derivation given on some name websites


<KERN> [ˡkɛrn] feminine noun
PLURAL cernau
<KER-nai, -nai, -e> [ˡkɛrnaɪ, -ɛ]
cheekbone, side of head
y gern = the cheekbone

Roedd ganddo gernau uchel
He had high cheekbones

Brenhinoedd-1 22.24 Ond Sedseceia mab Cenaana a nesaodd, ac a drawodd Michea dan ei gern, ac a ddywedodd, Pa ffordd yr aeth ysbryd yr Arglwydd oddi wrthyf fi i ymddidan thydi?
Kings-1 22.24 But Zedekiah, the son of Chenaanah went near, and smote Micaiah on the cheek, and said, Which way went the spirit of the Lord from me to speak unto you?

2 county of Mn gwneud cern (cow, bull) make a threatening gesture with the head

3 cernflew (qv) side whiskers

4 cerngoch (qv) having red side whiskers.
Cerngoch was the penname of John Jenkins, a nineteenth-century poet from Llanfihangel Ystrad in the county of Ceredigion

5 cernw
yn (qv) having white side whiskers

6 cernod (qv); cernen (qv); cerniad / cernad (qv); blow to the side of the head, box on the ears

7 slope, hillside

8 corner
Plas Pengwern mewn cern, mn coed (1790 Twm or Nant)
the mansion of Pengwern in a corner, (at the) edge of a wood

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cern < British *kern-a < Celtic *kern-
From the same British root: Breton kern (= summit; top of the head)
From the same Celtic root: Irish cearn (= corner)

NOTE: According to a correspondent in the Western Mail (06 06 1983) gern is used in Cambrian English for cheekbone and side of face


yw <KER-niu> [ˡkɛrnɪʊ] (feminine noun)
pastai Gernyw PLURAL pasteiod Cernyw Cornish pasty, (pasty (of) Cornwall)


yweg <ker-NIU-eg> [kɛrˡnɪʊɛg] (feminine noun) (adjective)
Cornish (language)
y Gernyweg = the Cornish language


yn PLURAL carpau <KER-pin> [ˡkɛrpɪn] <KAR-pai, -pai, -e> [ˡkarpaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
(South Wales) (colloquial) yn eich carpau gorau all dressed up, in one's best clothes ("in your best rags")


yn <KER-pin> [ˡkɛrpɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL carpiaid
<KARP-yaid, -yed> [ˡkarpjaɪd, -ɛd]
(Cyprinus carpio) carp

ETYMOLOGY: (carp = carp) + (-yn diminutive suffix added to nouns) (vowel change a > e under the influence of the y in the final syllable)
Welsh carp < English carp an adaptation of English carp < Old French < Germanic


<KE-rig> [ˡkɛrɪg] (plural noun)
stones (plural of carreg)


Cerrig Ceinwen
<ke-rig KEIN-wen> [ˡkɛrɪg ˡkəɪnwɛn] (feminine noun)
place name (Ceinwens stones)


ydion <KE-rig LHUID-yon> [ˡkɛrɪg ˡɬʊɪdjɔn]
hamlet above Pont-rhyd-y-fen in the Afan valley (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)

ETYMOLOGY: y cerrig llw
ydion = the grey stones (cerrig = stones. plural of carreg = stone) + (llwydion plural form of llwyd = grey)


ynt <KE-rint> [ˡkɛrɪnt] nm
PLURAL cerhyntau
<ker-HƏN-tai, -tai, -e> [kɛrˡhəntaɪ, -ɛ]
1 (obsolete) path, road

2 (obsolete) riverbed

3 (obsolete) ford

ETYMOLOGY: (carr- < car = cart) + (h
ynt = way)

carr-hynt > cerr-hynt (vowel affection, a > e caused by the y in the following syllable) > cerrynt (loss of the h)

Cornish karrhyns (= cart track), Breton karrhent (= sunken lane, lane)

NOTE: Also: cerh


<KERTH> [kɛrθ] (adjective) (Latin: certus)
(obsolete) certain. See coelcerth = bonfire


yn <KE-ruin> [ˡkɛrʊɪn] feminine noun
yni <ke-RUI-ni> [kɛˡrʊɪnɪ]
tub, vat
y gerw
yn = the tub

2 (place names) hollow
Moel Cwm Cerwyn There is a mountain in Pembrokeshire called Moel Cwm Cerwyn which derives its name from Cwm Cerwyn, a crater-like hollow on the summit of it. (Byegones 3 7 1878 p57)

3 cerwn facsu (South Wales) brewing vat

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh cerw
yn < British *kern(a),
possibly from Latin carna (= keel, nutshell) (as in Catalan carena = keel of a boat, hill ridge)

NOTE: Colloquially in the south it is cerwn (w
y > w)

Page 46 / A Welsh Grammar - Historical and Comparative / John Morris-Jones (1864-1929) /
1913: The following words may be mentioned as those most commonly mispronounced: wy is the falling diphthong in cern vat, disgl, look, expect, Gnedd Venedotia, Gndid, id., morn maiden, tern fervent; it is the rising diphthong in oherdd because of, cychn, rise, start, erchn protector, [bed]-side, deddd happy


(delw 7092)


<KE-sail, -sel> [ˡkɛsaɪl , ˡkɛsɛl] feminine noun
PLURAL ceseiliau
<ke-SEIL-yai, -yai, -e> [kɛˡsəɪljaɪ, -jɛ]
y gesail the armpit

cesail y forddwyd groin

2 dan eich cesail (bird) under its wing ("under your armpit");
ir i phen dan ei chesail a hen with its head under its wing

3 armpit = part of garment, where the sleeve joins the main part (shirt, blouse, jacket, dress, etc)

4 poced gesail inside pocket (of a jacket, etc) ("armpit pocket")

5 hollow, nook, recess, sheltered place; sometimes in place names
Y Gesail the nook street name in Johnstown (county of Wrecsam)

6 North Wales creek, inlet

7 South Wales cesail morddw
yd crotch, groin ("(arm)pit (of) thigh")

8 South Wales Cymer gip dan dy gesail See your own faults first; recognise that you too have faults before you accuse others ("take a look under your armpit")



Cesail-y-bryn <KE-sail, -sel, ə BRIN> [ˡkɛsaɪl, sɛl ə ˡbrɪn]
street name in Pwllheli (county of Gwynedd) (Cesail y Bryn)

ETYMOLOGY: cesail y bryn (the) hollow / nook (of) the hill, hill hollow

(cesail = armpit; hollow, nook) + (y definite article) + (bryn = hill)


<KE-sair, -ser> [ˡkɛsaɪr, -ɛr]
South Wales
hailstones, hail
See ceseiren


<KE-sar> [ˡkɛsar]
South-east Wales - local form of cesair (= hail, hailstones). See ceseiren


<KE-sar> [ˡkɛsar] masculine noun
Iwl Cesar Julius Caesar
Telwch chwithau yr eiddo Cesar i Gesar
Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesars ("pay you yourself what belongs to Caesar to Caesar")

Mathew 22:17 Dywed i ni gan hynn
y, Beth yr wyt ti yn ei dybied? AI cyfreithlon rhoddi teyrnged i Gesar, ai nid yw? (22:18) Ond yr Iesu a wybu eu drygioni hwy, ac a ddywedodd, Paham yr ydych yn fy nhemtio i, chwi ragrithwyr? (22:19) Dangoswch i mi arian y deyrnged. A hwy a ddygasant ato geiniog: (22:20) Ac efe a ddywedodd wrthynt, Eiddo pwy ywr ddelw hon ar argraff? (22:21) Dywedasant wrtho, Eiddo Cesar. Yna y dywedodd wrthynt, Telwch chwithau yr eiddo Cesar i Gesar, ar eiddo Duw i Dduw.
Matthew 22:17 Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not? (22:18) But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites? (22:19) Show me the tribute money. And they brought unto him a penny. (22:20) And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? (22:21) They say unto him, Caesar's. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's.

Other verions of the expression in other gospels:
Marc 12:14 Hw
ythau, pan ddaethant, a ddywedasant wrtho, Athro, ni a wyddom dy fod di yn eirwir, ac nad oes arnat ofal rhag neb: canys nid wyt ti yn edrych ar wyneb dynion, ond yr wyt yn dysgu ffordd Duw mewn gwirionedd: Ai cyfreithlon rhoi teyrnged i Gesar, ai nid yw? a roddwn, ai ni roddwn hi? (12:15) Ond efe, gan wybod eu rhagrith hwynt, a ddywedodd wrthynt, Paham y temtiwch fi? dygwch i mi geiniog, fel y gwlewyf fi (12:16) A hwy ai dygasant. Ac efe a ddywedodd wrthynt, Eiddo pwy ywr ddelw hon ar argraff? A hwy a ddywedasant wrtho, Eiddo Cesar. (12:17) Ar Iesu a atebodd ac a ddywedodd wrthynt, Rhoddwch yr eiddo Cesar i Gesar, ar eiddo Duw i Dduw. A rhyfeddu a wnaethant or plegid.
Mark 12:14 And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Caesar, or not? (12:15) Shall we give, or shall we not give? But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said unto them, Why tempt ye me? bring me a penny, that I may see it. (12:16) And they brought it. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? And they said unto him, Caesar's. (12:17) And Jesus answering said unto them, Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's. And they marvelled at him.

Luc 20.22 Ai cyfreithlon i ni roi te
yrnged i Gesar, ai nid yw? (20:23) Ac efe a ddeallodd eu cyfrwystra hwy, ac a ddywedodd wrthynt, Paham y temtiwch fi? (20:24) Dangoswch i mi geiniog. Llun ac argraff pwy sydd arni? A hwy a atbeasant ac a ddyewdasant, Yr eiddo Cesar. (20.25) Ac efe a ddywedodd wrthynt, Rhoddwch chwithau yr eiddo Cesar i Gesar, ar eiddo Duw i Dduw.
Luke 20:22 Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Caesar, or no? (20:23) But he perceived their craftiness, and said unto them, Why tempt ye me? (20:24) Show me a penny. Whose image and superscription hath it? They answered and said, Caesar's. (20:25) And he said unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which be Caesar's, and unto God the things which be God's.

ETYMOLOGY: Cesar < Latin Caesar


<ke-SAA-raidh, -edh> [kɛˡsaraɪ, -ɛ] adjective
Caesarian; genedigaeth Gesaraidd Caesarian birth


ces dillad <KEES DII-lhad> [ˡkeːs ˡdɪɬad] masculine noun
ys dillad <KE-sis DII-lhad> [ˡkɛsɪs ˡdɪɬad]
also: siwtces

ETYMOLOGY: (ces = case) + (dillad = clothes)


ceseiren <ke-SEI-ren> [kɛˡsəɪrɛn]

feminine noun
PLURAL cesair
<KE-sair, -ser> [ˡkɛsaɪr, -ɛr]
South Wales
y geseiren = the hailstone
bwrw cesair to hail ("throw hailstones")
cawod o gesair hailstorm, hail shower ("shower of hail")
cesair hailstones, hail
ceseirio to hail

ETYMOLOGY: ceseiren (cesair = hail) + (-en = singulative suffix)
Welsh cesair < ceseir < British

From the same British root: Cornish keser = hail, Breton kazarch = hail (showing the influence of erch = snow).
From the same Celtic root: Irish casairneach = hail

NOTE: informal spelling: ceser; In South-east Wales it is cesar
<KE-sar> [ˡkɛsar]


<ke-SEIR-yo> [kɛˡsəɪrjɔ] verb
South Wales
to hail

ETYMOLOGY: (cesair = hail) + (-io)
NOTE: The spoken form is ceseiro in the South, the semiconsonant
<y> [j] at the beginning of a final syllable is generally lost


<KE-ser> [ˡkɛsɛr]
Informal spelling of cesair = hail, hailstones. See ceseiren


yll <KE-stilh> [ˡkɛstɪɬ] (plural noun)
castles (plural of castell)


<KEE-ther> [ˡkeˑθɛr] (masculine noun)
(obsolete) lance (Latin centrum)


yn, cetynnau / catiau <KE-tin, ke-TƏ-nai, -ne, KAT-yai, -yai, -e> [ˡkɛtɪn, kɛˡtənaɪ, -ɛ, ˡkatjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
yw ar eich cetyn (south-west) live off your savings

short-stemmed pipe


<KEI-bren> [ˡkəɪbrɛn] nm
PLURAL ceubrennau, ceubrenni
<kei-BRE-nai, -ne,-ni> [kəɪbrɛnaɪ, -nɛ, -nɪ]
1 hollow tree

ETYMOLOGY: (ceu- < cau = empty) + soft mutation + ( pren = tree)


Ceubren yr Ell
yll <KEI-bren ər E-lhilh> [ˡkəɪbrɛn ər ˡɛɬɪɬ]
1 'the hollow tree of the sprite = hollow oak at Nannau where Owain Gl
yndwr is said to have hidden the body of his would-be assassin, his cousin Hywel Sele
Ceubren yr Ell
yll... Yng nghwr isaf gardd Nannau, ger Meirion, safai gynt dderwen fawr a elwid ar yr enw (Brython 1858-9)
At the bottom of the garden at Nannau... there was formerly a large oak called by this name

ETYMOLOGY: (ceubren = hollow tree) + (yr definite article) + ( ell
yll = sprite, pixie)


<KEI-dod> [ˡkəɪdɔd] (masculine noun)
wal geudod cavity wall


<KEI-vron> [ˡkəɪvrɔn] feminine noun
PLURAL ceufronnau, ceufronn
ydd <kei-VRO-nai, -ne,-nidh> [kəɪˡvrɔnaɪ, -ɛ, -ɪ]
hollowed hillside
y geufron = the hollowed hillside
Place names:
(1) Y Geufron (SJ2142) locality in Sir Ddinb
(2) Y Goufron farm north of the village of Llanfihangel Brynpabuan, county of Powys (on English maps as Goyfron)

ETYMOLOGY: (ceu- penult syllable form of cau- = empty) + soft mutation + (bron = hill )
NOTE: In the south ceu- is (or was) generally pronounced as cou-, hence coufron, Y Goufron


<KEI-grum> [ˡkəɪgrʊm] adjective
concave = curving inward
ceugrwm concave (Cf amgrwm convex)
cromlin geugrwm concave line (Cf cromlin amgrwm convex line)

ETYMOLOGY: (ceu- penult syllable form of cau- = empty) + soft mutation + (crwm = curved)
NOTE: feminine form: ceugrom, plural ceugrymion


<KEI-gum> [ˡkəɪgʊm] masculine noun
PLURAL ceugymoedd
<kei-GƏ-moidh, -modh> [kəɪˡgəmɔɪ, -ɔ]
deep narrow ravine

ETYMOLOGY: (ceu- penult syllable form of cau- = empty, hollow) + soft mutation + (cwm = valley)
NOTE: South Wales: cougwm
<KOI-gum> [ˡkɔɪgʊm] . See ou


ceulan, ceulannau
<KEI-lan, kei-LA-nai, -nai, -e> [ˡkəɪlan, kəɪˡlanaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
river bank

coilan southern form of ceulan

y geulan goch > Goilan-goch locality in the county of Caerfyrddin

Marwolaethau: "Awst 20fed, wedi byr gystudd, yn 73 mlwydd oed, Esther Thomas, Goilangoch, Llandilo

(Tyst a'r Dydd 15 6 1882)
Deaths: August 20, after a short illness, at the age of 73, Esther Thomas, of Geulan-goch / Goilan-goch, Llandeilo


<KEIL-vrain, -vren> [ˡkəɪlvraɪn, -ɛn] masculine noun
(South-west Wales)
NOTE: Colloquially in the south colfran
<KOL-vran> [ˡkɔlvran]

colfran cottage cheese
caws colfran cottage cheese

ETYMOLOGY: colfran < coulfraen (an earlier form of ceulfraen) (coul / ceul- = penult form of caul = curds) + soft mutation + ( braen = rotten, putrid)


<KEI-nant> [ˡkəɪnant] masculine noun
PLURAL ceunent
ydd <kei-NAN-tidh> [kəɪˡnantɪ]
ravine, gorge = rocky ravine with stream

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh hollow valley, (ceu-, penult form of cau = hollow) + (nant = valley) < British
From the same British root: Cornish kownans (= ravine), as in the place name Pennkownans (top end of the ravine), in English Kynance

NOTE: (South Wales) Here eu is / was pronounced ou. Thus counant
<KOI-nant> [ˡkɔɪnant]


<KEI-nant> [ˡkəɪnant]
SH 5361 locality in the county of Gwynedd
<KOI-nant> [ˡkɔɪnant] farm 6km south-south-west of Llanboidy SN2123 (county of Caerfyrddin).
........(1) This is a southern pronunciation of ceunant. More examples of this feature at ou
........(2) Sometimes on maps with a spelling showing interference from English spelling conventions - oy instead of ou. Thus Coynant

ETYMOLOGY: See preceding entry


<KEUKH> [ˡkɛʊx] (verb)
you shall have < cael
Mwya gewch chi, mwya fynnwch chi
The more you get / have, the more you want, The more people have, the more they want


<KEU-ri> [ˡkɛʊrɪ]

1 giants; plural form of cawr = giant


yll <KEU-ilh> [ˡkɛʊɪɬ]

1 baskets; plural form of cawell = basket



Abbreviation on maps for Culfor strait, straits = narrow stretch of water joining two areas of sea
Cf Gibraltar = Culfor Gibraltar


abbreviation (in a dictionary entry) = cyfaddasiad


CH, ch
EKH [ɛx] feminine noun
) fourth letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e, 8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y


Certain words in Welsh with ch are borrowings from English borrowed at a time when gh was pronounced
GH [ɣ] in English

..1/ Brychdwn = Broughton, place in the county of Bro Morgannwg

..2/ Cnicht = mountain name in the district of Meirionn
ydd (county of Gwynedd) (from English knight)

..3/ dracht = draught, swig, drink; and the verb formed from this drachtio = drink down

..4/ fflachdar (South Wales) cw
ympon fflachdar = fall head over heels < English dialectal flaughter (= fall head over heels)

..5/ Halchd
yn = village in the county of Wrecsam (from the English name "Halghton")

..6/ Niwbwrch = village in county of Yn
ys Mn (from new + burgh, = "new borough")

..7/ slachdar (= mess) < English slaughter

..8/ Sychd
yn Soughton, place in the county of Y Fflint

In some words in Welsh which are borrowings from English, the sound
<kh> [x] has replaced English <sh> [ʃ]
..1/ fflch = flash < < English flash
..2/ llch = whipstroke < English "lash"
..3/ fflwch = abundant < English flush


<KHAIF> [xaɪf] verb
from ni chaiff, wont get, wont receive, wont be able
(ni negative particle + spirant mutation + caiff, present-future tense third person singular of the verb cael)

Chaiff neb moi dw
yllo fe Hes nobodys fool, Nobody can get the better of him, He cant be taken in ("nobody will achieve his cheating")

Chaiff moi big i mewn He wont get a look in, Hell be prevented from joining in (he wont get his beak in)

Chaiff e fawr o gyfle He wont get much of a chance

chei di ddim
<khei di DHIM> [xəɪ dɪ ˡɪm] verb
(literary Welsh) ni chei = you wont get, you wont be allowed to; I wont let you...
Segond person singular of the future tense of cael (= receive, get, obtain, be allowed to)
Chei di ddim cyffwrdd pen dy f
ys ynddo I wont let you lay a finger on him (you wont get (the) touching (of the) tip (of) your finger in him)


<KHII> [xiː] (pronoun)


chi mod = r
ych chin gwybod <khi MOD> [xɪ ˡmɔd] (phrase)
you know


<KHII-thai, -thai, -e> [ˡxiˑθaɪ, -ɛ] (pronoun)
you too (literary Welsh: chwithau)


<KHII-thai, -e> [ˡxiˑθɛ] pronoun
Colloquial form of chwithau (= you too)

yddyn newydd dda ichi! -Run fath i chithe! (= Yr un fath i chwithau!)

-A Happy New Year to you. -The same to you.


Chlidonias hybrida
corswennol farfog (f) corswenoliaid barfog whiskered tern


Chlywais i mor fath beth
khlə-wes ii moor vaath beeth
(expression of surprise) Ive never heard such a thing! Well I never!

ETYMOLOGY: < ni chlywais i ddim or fath baeth (ni negative particle) + aspirate mutation + (clwais = I heard < clywed = to hear) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (math = type, sort) + soft mutation + (peth = thing)


This initial consonant cluster corresponds to
sk or sh in Irish words of the same Celtic origin
..1/ chwedl (= tale), Irish scal (= tale)
..2/ chwerw (= bitter), Irish searbh (= bitter)
..3/ chw
yd (= vomit), chwydu (= to vomit), Irish sceith (= to vomit)
..4/ chw
ydd (= swelling), Irish siad (= swelling)
..5/ chw
yl (= peal of bells), Irish seal (= turn, go; period, spell)
..6/ chwythu (= to blow), Irish sid (= to blow)
..7/ cychw
yn (= to begin), the final element -chwyn = Irish scinn (= to start)


chwaer, chwior
ydd KHWAIR, khwi O ridh (feminine noun)


KHWEI-thakh (feminine noun)
never mind, not to mention (expression used to indicate that a possiblility does not exist, or even one that could be considered close to it)


Mynd yn gyfreithiwr? Does dim digon yn hen glopa di i neud ysgybwr heolydd chwaethach cyfreithiwr

Become a lawyer? Thers not enough in your noggin to make a road sweeper (out of you), never mind a lawyer



-Ma i enw ar flan y nhafod beth odd e nawr?

-Rw innen ffaelu gofio hefyd. Dyw e ddim ar fn 'y nhafod i, chwaetach ar ei fla'n e.

-His names on the tip of my tongue. What was it nawr?

-I cant remember it either. Its not [even] on the base of my tongue, never mind the tip of my tongue


Fydde fe ddim yn dweud hynny am neb, chwaethach am hen gyfaill iddo,

TES-Y Wel, mi sgwenis i at Tom Ellis, ac mi ges atab yn ol yn
deyd wrtha i am fod yn y lobi am bump or gloch ddydd
Mawrth, ac y gofala fo am dana i wedyn. Mi roeddwn i'n
synu braidd i fod o'n ceisio gin i aros yn y lobi - wrth gwrs
lobi Ty^'r Cyffredin oedd o'n feddwl. Chymwn i ddim
llawar am ddeyd wrth ddyn diarth

chwaethach cyfaill am
aros yn y lobi; mi fydd y forwyn yma bob amsar yn ceisio
gan ddyn diarth i ddod i fiawn i'r hl os nad i'r morning
rwm pan fydd yn galw i ngwelad i. (:REF)
Dafydd Dafis, sef Hunangofiant Ymgeisydd Seneddol.
Awdur: Beriah Gwynfe Evans, 1898. Tudalen 6 (REF:) TES-Z
ENG-Y chwaethach fyth let alone, not to mention ENG-Z
TES-Y [[y]] newyddion i wyddonwyr yn America ddyfeisio pilsen
sy'n medru sobri pobol.
Er bod rhywun yn ymwybodol fod am i hen gi yn meddwi dydw i erioed wedi gweld
ci wedi meddwi. Chwaethach fyth angen pilsan i'w sobri(:REF)Cymro 15 12 93(REF:)(CYM:) TES-Z


KHWAITH (adverb)


chwalfa, chwalf
ydd KHWAL va, khwal VEIDH (feminine noun)

2 chwalfa anadferadwy (marriage) irretrievable breakdown , irremediable breakdown


KHWA li (verb)
disperse, scatter; knock down, demolish (a house)
chwalu (wal) knock down, flatten, smash open (a wall)

chwalu dadl destroy an argument, tear an argument to pieces

3 gwaith chwalu carthion sewage works, sewage farm (work / works (of) destroying excrements)

chwalu yn wastad r llawr raze to the ground

5 Chwalwyd ein gobeithion pan ddaeth y newydd fod y cyngor wedi gwrthod rhoi caniatd i ni fynd rhagddi
Our hopes were dashed when we heard that the local council had refused to give us permission to go ahead


khw -lur masculine noun
PLURAL chwalw
yr khwal -wir

1 (North Wales) chwalwr gwair, or simply chwalwr: haymaker, device which spreads hay for drying

2 chwalwr chwedlau gossip, blabbermouth, someone who tells tales

3 chwalwr llongau ship breaker

4 demolitionist
chwalwr tai housebreaker, person who demolishes old buildings

ETYMOLOGY: (chwal-, stem of chwalu = destroy, scatter) + (-wr agent suffix)


khwa -nen feminine noun
PLURAL chwain
yn pen chwinciad chwannen in the blink of an eye (before the end of a wink of a flea)

3 chweina = look for fleas

4 achub chwannen a cholli croen buwch (catch a flea and lose a cow hide) dedicate too much time and effort to an unimportant matter and lose what is important

5 chwannen ddŵr plural: chwain dŵr water flea, daphnia

6 chwannen y traeth sand hopper (flea (of) the beach)

7 chwain y gof sparks from red-hot iron being hammered (fleas of the smith)

8 lladd chwannen gordd crack a nut with a sledgehammer (kill a flea with a sledgehammer) use absurdly disproportionate measures to deal with a small problem

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh chwain < chwein < British *skond-
Cornish hwannenn, plural hwannennow (= flea),
Breton: c'hwennenn plural c'hwenn (= flea)

NOTE: (1) South-west Wales chw- > hw- (chwannen, chwain)
(2) South-east Wales chw- > hw- > w- (wannan, wain)


chwant, chwantau
KHWANT, KHWAN te (masculine noun)


khwap masculine noun
PLURAL chwapiau
khwap -ye
1 wallop, sudden blow

2 (adverb) yn chwap o chwap instantly; swiftly, soon (South-east Wales: wap)

Pan mae'r Fenni yn gwisgo'i chap
Bydd glaw yn dilyn chwap...

When Y Fenni wears her cap (= when there are clouds over Abergafenni town) rain will soon follow

Y mae gennym ninnau yn yr Wyddgrud ein tafodiaith - ond fe ddowch i'n deall chwap!
We in Yr Wyddgrug (town in north-east Wales) have our own dialect but youll soon get to understand us

3 (South Wales) chwepyn / hwepyn / wepyn clout, smack; instant
(chwap = bang, slap, blow) + (-yn diminutive suffix added to nouns)

(vowel change a > e under the influence of the y in the final syllable)

ETYMOLOGY: angls whap (= blow, impact)

NOTE: South Wales: chwap > hwap, wap


KHWA re (verb)
to play

2 chwarae plant childs play, kids stuff, something very easy ((the) playing (of) children)

3 chwarae mwgwd yr ieir play blind mans buff (play (the) blindfold (of) the hens)
chwarae mwgwd y dall play blind mans buff (play (the) blindfold (of) the blnd man)

4 chwarae dwbl neu ddim play double or quits, game in which by tossing a coin, etc, it is decided whether a stake is to be doubled or withdrawn
chwarae triphl
yg (Baseball) triple play

6 Dos i chwarae efo dy fol! Get stuffed! (go to play with your belly)

7 lle chwarae playground, childrens playground

8 maes chwarae playing field, sports ground, sports field
Street name in Yr Ystg, district of Maldw
yn, county of Powys (Maes Chwarae)

9 cael eich afal i chwarae ac iw fw
yta have your cake and eat it (get your apple to play and to eat it) Chewch chi moch afal i chwarae ac iw fwyta You cant have your cake and eat it

10 hapchwarae gamble
(hap = chance) + (chwarae = to play)
y Ddeddf Hapchwarae The Gambling Act, The Gaming Act


khwa REI on (plural noun)
sports; plural of chwarae


chwarae teg
KHWA re TEEG (masculine noun)
fair play
gwneud chwarae teg do justice to = treat fairly


chwaraewr gw
yddbwyll khwa rei ur GUIDH builh (masculine noun)
chess player


khwardh verb
stem of the verb chwerthin = to laugh
chwarddais = I laughed


<KHWAA-rel> [ˡxwɑˑrɛl] feminine noun
PLURAL chwareli, chwarelau
<khwa-REE-li,-lai, -e> [xwaˡreˑlɪ, -laɪ, -ɛ]
North Wales
quarry = place (usually an open pit) from which building stone is obtained

2 quarry = place (usually an open pit) from which slate (for roofing, etc) is obtained,

chwarel lechi plural chwareli llechi slate quarry

3 ardal chwareli quarrying area, district with many quarries

ETYMOLOGY: chwarel < cwarel < English quarrel < Old French quarriere from *quarre < Latin quadrre (= to make
(something) square).

(1) Dissimulation in English: the sequence r-r became r-l (quarrer > quarrel)

(2) The sequence cw- became (in North Wales) chw-

(3) modern French has carrire (= quarry)

NOTE: In South Wales there are various forms with cw- (1) cwarel, (2) cwar, (3) cware


<KHWART> [xwart] masculine noun
PLURAL chwartiau
<KHWART-yai, -yai, -e> [ˡxwartjaɪ, -ɛ]

1 quarter of a gallon = 1,136 litres

gwin diflas gwerth hanner can ceiniog y chwart
insipid wine worth (the equivalent of) fifty pence a quart

2 chwysu cwartiau to sweat gallons (to sweat quarts)

ETYMOLOGY: English quart < Old French quarte < Latin quartus (= a quarter)
NOTE In South Wales the change cw- > chw- has not occurred, and so here it is cwart
<KWART> [kwart]


<KHWAR-ter> [ˡxwartɛr] masculine noun
PLURAL: chwarteri
<khwar-TEE-ri> [xwarˡteˑrɪ]
NOTE: In the south (chw > cw) cwarter, cwarteri
<KWAR-ter, kwar-TEE-ri> [ˡkwartɛr,kwarˡteˑrɪ]

Y: 1500- English "quarter" < French "quartier" < Latin "quartrius" = fourth part < "quartus" = fourth


<KHWAR-thor> [ˡxwarθɔr] masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL chwarthorion, chwarthorau
<khwar-THOR-yon, khwar-THO-rai, -rai, -e> [xwarˡθɔrjɔn, xwarˡθɔraɪ, -ɛ]
joint of meat (leg, saddle, etc)

2 Ceinew
ydd, county of Ceredigion hwarthol o oen = leg of lamb

3 county of Penfro hwarthol o gig maharen = leg of mutton

4 chwarthor tir obsolete fourth part of a stag to be given to the owner of the land on which it had been hunted (tir = land)

ETYMOLOGY: chwarthor < chwarthawr < Latin quartrius, pars quartria = a fourth part

NOTE: Colloquially there is also a form with dissimulation the sequence r-r becomes r-l
Chwarthor > chwarthol; and this is the basis of the colloquial variants
.....(1) hwarthol
<HWAR-thol> [ˡhwarθɔl] in the south-west initial chw- is simplified to hw-), and
.....(2) gwarthol
<GWAR-thol> [ˡgwarθɔl] (with gw- instead of chw-)


<KHWEAi, -e> [xweː] (nm) (+ noun)
six (before a consonant)
chwe munud
<KHWEE-MII-nid> [ˡxweː ˡmiˑnɪd] six minutes


<KHWEEKH> [xweːx] (n)
six (as an independent numeral, and as a determiner before a vowel)
(in the South, chwech / hwech / wech is also used before consonants)


<KHWEE-khed> [ˡxweˑxɛd] (adjective)


chwedl, chwedlau
KHWEDL, KHWED le (feminine noun)
South Wales: hweddel
HWE dhel
legend, tale

story, gossip

Prn chwedl, llawn chwedl No news is good news (scarce report, full report)


khwed- lon feminine noun
PLURAL chwedlonau
(word not in general use) myth

ETYMOLOGY: stem of the word chwedloniaeth (= mythology).
Used to form derivatives - chwedlonol (= mythical), chwedlonwr (= mythologist), chwedloneg (= the study of myths), chwedloni (= mythologise)


khwed- lon -yeth feminine noun
PLURAL chweloniaethau
khwed-lon- yei -the
mythology = traditional stories of one particular culture

mythology = set of beliefs and traditions and stories related to some object (plant, etc)

ETYMOLOGY: First example 1850. Modelled on the word barddoniaeth (= poetry). (chwedl = legend, myth, tale) + (-oni- element as in barddoniaeth) + (-aeth suffix for forming nouns)
Barddoniaeth was originally barddoni - the modern noun has incorporated the abstract-noun suffix -aeth.

The suffix -oni is from the British suffix *ons, as in
..a/ daioni (= good, goodness),
..b/ drygioni (= bad, evil)
..c/ haelioni (= generosity).

The noun barddoni became a verb (= to compose poems; barddonaf = I compose poems, etc).

The derivative adjective is barddonol (= poetic)


khwed- lo -nol adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (chwedlon = myth) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


KHWEV rol (masculine noun)
regional form of Chwefror


khwev-ror masculine noun
ym mis Chwefror
in February
bob mis Chwefror
every February

Corresponding form in the other British languages: Cornish Hwevrer (= February), Breton Chwevrer (= February).

Welsh Chwefror < Chwefrawr < British *swebrr < Latin februrius.

The initial s is difficult to explain unless it is a vestige of the word mensis in Latin mensis februrius (= February, the month of expiation). Ultimately from februa (= feast of expiation).

Similar examples with preclitic s from the final syllable of a preceding word, in modern Welsh and in English:

(1) Many exist in modern Welsh (for example, the place name Yn
ysmeudwy > Smitw, etc). More information at the entry s

(2) The phenomenon also occurs in English, as with the asseveration Struth! (Gods truth), and others of this type now obsolete (Sdeath! = Gods death, Sblood! = Gods blood); s afternoon in rapid or careless speech for this afternoon

(1) as in Ionor < Ionawr, and many other words in modern Welsh, a final diphthong aw has been reduced to a simple vowel o

(2) Interestingly, English February has been remodelled on the Latin form, replacing Middle English Feverer < Old French < Latin februrius

NOTE: (1) Colloquially there is also a form with dissimulation the sequence r-r becomes r-l (Chwefror > Chwefrol). In this case it is not standard. It also occurs dialectically in

(a) chwarthol < chwarthor (= joint of meat),

but it is standard in

(b) cornel (from English corner), and it also is to be seen in the place name

(c) Hirael (from Hirerw)

(2) February is also called y mis bach (the little month, the short month)

..01 Chwefror (y cyntaf o Chwefror) : the first of February
Gŵyl Sanffrid / Gŵyl Snffred (feast of Saint Brigit)

..02 Chwefror (yr ail o Chwefror) : the second of February
Gŵyl Fair y Canhw
yllau = Candlemas (presentation of Jesus in the Temple, purification of the Virgin Mary) (Gŵyl Fair of the candles - candles were blessed on this day) (Gŵyl Fair = feast of Mary)

Awr fawr Calan, dw
y Ŵyl Eilian, tair Ŵyl Fair (traditional saying)
big hour (on) the calend (awr fawr y Calan), two on Eilians feastday, and three on Marys feastday
that is, the day will have lengthened
(1) a full hour by New Years Day (Y Calan) on January the first, (half an hour in the morning and half an hour in the evening),
(2) two hours on Eilians feastday (Gŵyl Eilian) on January the thirteenth, and
(3) three hours by Lady Day (Gŵyl Fair) on February the second

..03 Chwefror (y tryd
ydd o Chwefror) : the third of February

..04 Chwefror (y pedwer
ydd o Chwefror) : the fourth of February

..05 Chwefror (y pumed o Chwefror) : the fifth of February

..06 Chwefror (y chweched o Chwefror) : the sixth of February

..07 Chwefror (y seithfed o Chwefror) : the seventh of February

..08 Chwefror (yr w
ythfed o Chwefror) : the eighth of February

..09 Chwefror (y nawfed o Chwefror) : the ninth of February
Gŵyl Deilo (feast of Teilo) (Welsh saint)

..10 Chwefror (y degfed o Chwefror) : the tenth of February

..11 Chwefror (yr unfed ar ddeg o Chwefror) : the eleventh of February

..12 Chwefror (y deuddeg o Chwefror) : the twelfth of February

..13 Chwefror (y tryd
ydd ar ddeg o Chwefror) : the thirteenth of February

..14 Chwefror (y pedwer
ydd ar ddeg o Chwefror) : the fourteenth of February
Gŵyl Flentin (Valentines Day)

..15 Chwefror (y pymthegfed o Chwefror) : the fifteenth of February

..16 Chwefror (yr unfed ar bymtheg o Chwefror) : the sixteenth of February

..17 Chwefror (yr ail ar bymtheg o Chwefror) : the seventeenth of February

..18 Chwefror (y deunawfed o Chwefror) : the eighteenth of February

..19 Chwefror (y pedwer
ydd ar bymtheg o Chwefror) : the nineteenth of February

..20 Chwefror (yr ugeinfed o Chwefror) : the twentieth of February

..21 Chwefror (yr unfed ar hugain o Chwefror) : the twenty-first of February

..22 Chwefror (yr ail ar hugain o Chwefror) : the twenty-second of February

..23 Chwefror (y tryd
ydd ar hugain o Chwefror) : the twenty-third of February

..24 Chwefror (y pedwer
ydd ar hugain o Chwefror) : the twenty-fourth of February
Gŵyl Fathias (feast of Mathias)

..25 Chwefror (y pumed ar hugain o Chwefror) : the twenty-fifth of February

..26 Chwefror (y chweched ar hugain o Chwefror) : the twenty-sixth of February

..27 Chwefror (y seithfed ar hugain o Chwefror) : the twenty-seventh of February

..28 Chwefror (yr w
ythfed ar hugain o Chwefror) : the twenty-eighth of February

..29 Chwefror (y nawfed ar hugain o Chwefror) : the twenty-ninth of February


ych khwe -nikh verb
1 covet, envy

2 yearn for, desire greatly
y sawl s
ydd yn chwennych statws yn y gymdeithas
the person who yearns for status in society

Nid dymar fodolaeth yr oedd ef yn chwenn
ych i'r Gymraeg
This was not the kind of existence that he wanted for the Welsh language

Dymar geiriadur y chwenychodd llawer weled ei dd
This is the dictionary that many people wanted to see published ((that it) sees its day)

3 crave for (as a pregnant woman)

ETYMOLOGY: (chwant = desire) + (suffix -ych)
NOTE: Also: chwenychu
khe-no-khi with an additional verbal suffix -u


khwe- nəkh -yon
1 things desired

ETYMOLOGY: (chwenn
ych = to desire, desiring) + (-ion suffix for forming plurals)


KHWER-thin verb
to laugh

Bu bron iddo dorri allan i chwerthin He almost burst out laughing

mynd i sterics o chwerthin am rywbeth become hysterical from laughing about something

cilchwerthin snigger (cil = corner, recess) + (chwerthin = to laugh)
cilchwerthin ar r
ywun to snigger at someone

bod bron marw o chwerthin die of laughter (be nearly dead from laughing)
Bm bron marw o chwerthin I nearly died laughing


yn khwe -pin masculine noun
(South Wales)
1 clout, smack
2 instant
yn chwep
yn at once, instantly

ETYMOLOGY: (chwap = bang, slap, blow) + (-
yn diminutive suffix added to nouns) (vowel change a > e under the influence of the y in the final syllable


chwerw ei flas
KHWE ru i VLAAS (adjective)
having a bitter taste, bitter in taste, bitter-tasting


KHWII pronoun
1 you (formal, singular); you (plural)
In modern spoken Welsh chwi > chi




chwiban 1
KHWII-ban v
1 whistle = whistling sound


2 trill of a bird, trilling of a bird


3 hiss, hissing sound


ETYMOLOGY: from the verb chwiban / chwibanu


chwiban 2
KHWII-ban v
1 to whistle


See chwibanu



chwibanog 1
khwi-BAA-nog adjective
1 whistling

ETYMOLOGY: (chwiban = whistle) + (-og adjectival suffix)




chwibanog 2
khwi-BAA-nog adjective
1 colloquial form of chwibanogl (= whistle; curlew)

NOTE: omission of the final l; the form withount an l is in fact is the historical form of the word



PLURAL: chwibanoglau, chwybenigl khwi-ba-NO-glai, -gle, khwi-BEE-nigl

1 curlew (Numenius arquata)