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__________________________________________

:_______________________________.

R, r <ER> [ɛr] feminine noun
1
) eighteenth letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
...
1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e,
6 f, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z
2
) twenty-second letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e,
8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y

:_______________________________.

r-
1
initial r (or rh) resulting from the wrong division of the sequence (yr = definite article) + (noun beginning with a vowel)

Place name examples:

..a/ Raber
Y Raber
[RAA-ber] [ˡrɑˑbɛr]
1
Two farms in Powys on either side of Gladestry Brook, near Gladestry SO2355

SO2554 Lower Rabber (which must be a partial translation of Welsh Yr Aber Isaf)

SO2455 Upper Rabber (which must be a partial translation of Welsh Yr Aber Uchaf)

ETYMOLOGY: This would seem to be the wrong division of the definite article and the following word
raber (Rabber) < y raber < yr aber (the stream, the brook).


..b/ Rachub (village in the county of Gwynedd) < y rachub < yr achub (= the refuge)

..c/ Rafael < yr afael the holding, the piece of land

..d/ Refail / Refel (the smithy, in minor place names) < yr efail

Refail Farm Estate Name of a housing estate in Caergybi (county of Mn) (the name would be Stad Refail in Welsh)

..e/ Rhewl (localities in north-east Wales) < y rhewl < yr hewl (= the farmyard).

Also as Rheol < y rheol < yr heol (qv)

..h/ Rynys SH4886 Farm by Rhoslligwy, Ynys Mn < yr ynys (= the meadow)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH4886 map

..f/ Y Rhobell (name of a hill in north-west Wales) < *y rhobell < *y robell < yr obell (the saddle, a gap between two peaks which resembles the shape of a saddle). As y + r- is unusual, and y + rh- is a more usual pattern in Welsh, the initial r has become aspirated, probably because the original meaning was no longer understood (whereas achub, (g)afael, (ge)fail, ynys are still current as common nouns in Welsh, and understandable, and so aspiration has not occurred)

..g/ Y Rhyl (town in the county of Dinbych) < yr hyl (= the hill) (but as there are no visible hills at this point, it could perhaps refer to a sandbank). See the entry under Rhyl

Colloquial Welsh:
..1/ radeg ny < yr adeg hynny (at that time)
..2/ y rarmi < yr armi (the army)
..3/ rhen < yr hen (the + old)
..4/ y rig / y rhig < yr hig (hiccups)
..5/ run < yr un (the same)

Colloquial Welsh (in oaths):
..1/ Rarswyd! < yr arswyd (the horror)
..2/ Rargian! < yr argian (the lord), a deformation of arglwydd

2
from the preposition ar = on
rl < ar l (= after)

:_______________________________.

r-
1
In place names, a reduction of the definite article yr after a consonant and before a vowel



a) Brynrefail

bryn yr efail > bryn r efail > Brynrefail (the) hill (of) the smithy, smithy hill

..a/ http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH4886 village in Ynys Mn, northwest of Rhoslligwy

..b/ http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH4886 village SH5562 in Gwynedd, adjoing Cwm-y-glo to the north-east



b) Glanrafon

glan yr afon > glan r afon > Glanrafon (the) bank (of) the river, riverside

..a/ SH4370 a house and a farm by Llangaffo (Ynys Mn)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/852943



c) Tan-rallt

tan yr allt > tan r allt > Tan-rallt (place) below the hill

:_______________________________.

r-
1
In colloquial Welsh in polysyllables an r is sometimes lost in certain environments:

1 is a loss of a final r in the clusters -dr, -gr, -tr, -thr

(1) loss of final r after d

...(a) aradr (= plough) > arad

...(b) Cadwaladr (= mans name) > Dwalad,

...(c) Llanbedr (= place name, various locations church (of) Peter) > Llanbed / Llambed

...(d) Llangynidr (place name e.g. district of Brycheiniog, in the county of Powys, the church of Cynidr) > Llangynid

...(e) rhaeadr (= waterfall) > rhaead

...(f) taradr (= auger, piercing tool) > tarad

(2) loss of final r after t

...(a) cebystr (= halter) > cebyst

...(b) ffenestr (= window) > ffenest

...(c) llanastr (= mess) > llanast

(3) loss of final r after th

...(a) aruthr (= enormous) > aruth

(4) loss of final r after g

...(a) finegr (= vinegar) > fineg

This loss does not occur with words which are of literary origin
theatr (= theatre)
clomedr (= kilometre)

See the entry l for examples of a similar loss in colloquial Welsh with final l
..1/ perygl (= danger) > peryg
..2/ posibl (= possible) > posib
..3/ triagl (= treacle) > triag, etc

2 loss of medial r in colloquial Welsh

1) before th:
coelcerth (= bonfire) > coelceth
gwrthban (= blanket) > gwthban
Iorwerth (male forename) > Iorath (south-eastern surname)
trafferth (= trouble) > traffeth, traffath

2) before n
Coedtalwrn (place name) > Coedtalon
esgyrn Dafydd (by the bones of Saint David; an exclamation) > esgyn Dafydd
Sadwrn (= Saturday) > Sadwn


:_______________________________.

Y Raber
<RAA-ber> [ˡrɑˑbɛr]
1
Two farms in Powys on either side of Gladestry Brook, near Gladestry SO2355

SO2554 Lower Rabber (which must be a translation of Welsh Yr Aber Isaf)

SO2455 Upper Rabber (which must be a translation of Welsh Yr Aber Uchaf)

ETYMOLOGY: This would seem to be the wrong division of the definite article and the following word
raber (Rabber) < y raber < yr aber (the stream, the brook).

:_______________________________.

Y Rachub
<RAA-khib> [ˡrɑˑxɪb] feminine noun
1
SH6268 locality in Arfon (county of Gwynedd)
Population: (1961) 1,009
Proportion of Welsh-speakers: (1961) 85%

ETYMOLOGY: Wrong division of the definite article and the following word
rachub < y rachub < yr achub (the refuge). See achub (= to save), a word of British origin which was taken from Latin

:_______________________________.

rad
<RAAD> [ˡrɑːd] adj
1
Soft mutated form (rh > r) of rhad (= cheap)
siop rad cheap shop, dime store
(Here there is soft mutation of the first consonant of an adjective which follows a feminine noun)

:_______________________________.

radd
<RAADH> [ˡrɑː] feminine noun
1 soft mutation of gradd (= grade, degree)

bod radd yn uwch na be a cut above (be a degree higher than)

(adverbial phrases generally have soft mutation of the initial consonant of the first word in the phrase)

Mae hi radd yn uwch nar gweddill Shes a cut above the rest
(she is a degree higher than the rest)


:_______________________________.

radio, radios
<RAD-yo, RAD-yoz> [ˡradjɔ, ˡradjɔz] (masculine noun)
1
radio
2
set radio
<set RAD-yo> [ˡsɛt ˡradjɔ] (feminine noun) radio set

3 ton radio radio wave

:_______________________________.

Radio Cymru
<RAD-yo KƏM-ri> [ˡradjɔ ˡkəmrɪ] (masculine noun)
1
(a Welsh-language radio station belonging to the BBC)

:_______________________________.

Y Radur
RAA-dir> [ə ˡrɑˑdɪr]
1
ST1280 a farm and a locality (suburb) in Caer-dydd.

The historical form of the name is Aradur. this original three-syllable form of the name (see below) is to be seen in the suburb of Y Radur in the name Heol Aradur, a residential street from the 1970s

Over the river Taf, in the district of Llan-daf facing Y Radur, there is a short residential street called Heol Radur
(tha is, Radyr Road)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/ST1280

2 the parish of this place

3
SO3602 locality in Llanbadog Fawr, county of Mynwy
Coleg Trydyddol Gwent, Y Rhadyr, Brynbuga, Gwent, NP5 1XY
Gwent Tertiary College, The Rhadyr, Usk, Gwent, NP5 1XY

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO3602

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh aradur > yradur > Y Radur. The pretonic vowel a became the obscure vowel y, which was later taken to be the definite article y.

Aradur
is from British, and had been taken into British from Latin.

The source word is rtrium (= place of prayer) < rre (= to pray); as in the English words

..a/ oratorio (= musical composition based on a religious theme) < Italian < the Church of the Oratory in Rome,

..b/ oration (= speech),

..c/ oratory (= speaking skill),

..d/ oratory (= place for private prayer).

NOTE: Why the English spellings Radyr and Rhadyr with a y instead of a u?

(These are in fact superseded Welsh spellings which are used by English speakers and have become official forms in the English language (local administrations, post office, maps, etc))

Although the form with u is technically the correct one, since in modern Welsh u and y have the same pronunciation there is often confusion in spellings of some names between the two letters.

There are other examples of y and u being used one instead of the other.

The most famous one - which makes deliberate use of the fact that y and u have the same pronunciation - is Cymry (= Welsh people), which is spelt Cymru (same pronunciation) in order to refer to the country (Wales, (land of the) Welsh people).

Also gurn in place names (= mound; burial mound) is generally spelt (incorrectly) gyrn.

Why is the place in Mynwy spelt with rh? In south-east Wales, traditionally the h is not part of the sound system apart from exceptional circumstances (especially in the case of emphasising a word).

South-eastern Welsh thus coincides with many modern Latin languages which have lost the h - Catalan, French, Castilian, Italian, Occitan, etc. (In some of these it is kept in the spelling - as in the word for man - homo (Latin), homme (French), home (Catalan), hombre (Castilian). In others it has been eliminated - uomo (Italian), om (Occitan).

Sometimes in south-east Wales an unaspirated r was assumed to be a localism for standard rh, and so the h was restored. Examples of this supposition in place names are:

..1/ Y Rugos near Aber-dr, which is generally written Y Rhigos. (The vowels i and u have the same pronunciation in the south (though not in the north) and there is sometimes confusion in southern spellings.) Y Rugos is from grugos (clumps of heather), a soft-mutated form after the definite article y, since plural forms in -os often behave as if feminine singular nouns.

..2/ Rhisga in Casnewydd; although the meaning is unclear, the traditional form is Risga.

:_______________________________.

raen
<RAIN> [rɑɪn]

1 Soft-mutated form of graen (= good appearance)

:_______________________________.

rafft <RAFT> [raft] femen
PLURAL rafftiau
<RAFT-yai, -ye> [ˡraftjaɪ, -ɛ]

1 raft = floating mass of ice, vegetation, driftwood

2 raft = logs fastened together for transporting by floating

3 raft = structure of logs, planks, oil drums, etc fastened together for transporting goods or people by floating on water, especially as a rudimentary boat after a shipwreck

4 raft = concrete platform laid on soft ground to support a building, a railway line, etc

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < English raft < Scandinavian. Cf Swedish raft, Danish rafte; Old Norse raptr (= rafter)

:_______________________________.

rafftio <RAFT-yo> [ˡraftjɔ] v
1 (verb without an object) go rafting = travel by raft
1 (verb with an object) carry by raft

ETYMOLOGY: (rafft, = raft) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

rafftiwr <RAFT-yur> [ˡraftjʊr] m
PLURAL rafftwyr
<RAFT-wir> [ˡraftwɪr]
1 raftsman = person who guides a raft, floats on a raft

ETYMOLOGY: (raffti-, = stem of rafftio = to raft, go on a raft) + (-i-wr suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

rafu
<RAA-vi> [ˡrɑˑːvɪ]
1
a clipped form of arafu (= slow down; (pain) ease off; (rain) ease off; (sea) mutation of rhai = some

:_______________________________.

rai
<RAI> [raɪ]
1
soft mutation of rhai = some

2 rhai = some; rai occurs at the head of adverbial phrases; there is soft mutation of an initial consonant in adverbial phrases, hence rh- > r-

rai troeon a few times
rai dyddiau cyn hynny some days before some days after this
rai blynyddoedd yn l some years ago
rai misoedd yn hwyrach some months later
rai oriau yn ddiweddarach some hours later

:_______________________________.

raich
<RAIKH> [raɪx] feminine noun
PLURAL
<REIKH-yai, -ye> [ˡrəɪxjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
(History) reich = the lands of the German peoples considered as a unit

2 former German name for Germany and German-dominated territories

The name originates in
das erste Reich (the first kingdom) German name for the Holy Roman Empire (y Raich Gyntaf)

The second was das zweite Reich = Hohenzollern Empire 1871-1919 (yr Ail Raich)
After the Weimar republic 1919-1933 came das dritte Reich, the Nazi dictatorship from 1933-1945 (y Drydedd Raich)

ETYMOLOGY: German das Reich (= the kingdom).

The Welsh form usually respects the German spelling, but the ei tends to be prounced as if it is Welsh ei. Respelling it raich would resolve this problem (accepting that it is a problem!)

:_______________________________.

Rallt
<RALHT> [raɬt]
1
place name Yr Allt (= the hill) with the loss of the first syllable

..1/ place names
Rallt locality by Pwllheli (county of Gwynedd)

..2/ street name

....a/ Pen-rallt Llangefni (county of Mn) (Penrallt)

....b/ Pen-rallt Pentre Broughton (county of Wrecsam) (Penrallt)

....c/ Pen-rallt Porthaethwy (county of Mn) (Penrallt)

....d/ Pen-rallt Saron, Caernarfon (county of Gwynedd) (Penrallt)

....e/ Stad Pen-rallt Llanystumdwy (county of Gwynedd) (Stad Penrallt)

....f/ Penrallt Road, Tywynycapel, Baetrearddur, near Caergybi (county of Mn) > Ffordd Pen-rallt

....g/ Penrallt Street, Machynlleth (county of Powys) > Stryd Pen-rallt

....h/ Penrallt Terrace, Casnewydd > > Rhestr Pen-rallt

Rallt-goch (Rallt Goch) (the red hill) name of a street in Llanberis (county of Gwynedd)

:_______________________________.

rn
<RAAN> [rɑːn]

Soft-mutated form of grn (better spelt gran), a southern pronunciation of graen (= good appearance)

:_______________________________.

randibŵ
<ran-di-BUU> [randɪˡbuː] (m)
PLURAL: randibŵs <ran-di-BUUZ> [randɪˡbuːz]
1 bustle, commotion;

Pan greiddson nir camp odd no alibalw or short ora: odd taligrafft weti cyrradd yn gwed fod yn Ridgemant ni i fynd ir front. Odd y boys yn ryttag o un tent ir llall, yn gweiddu nes odd Solsbri Plain yn ecco. I joinson ninna pan ddiallson ni beth odd achos y randiboo
Nin Doi 1918 Glynfab t 36

I greiddson y dec or diwadd, mor appus a dou ganary bach miwn crge. Na randiboo! Odd in wath na Ffair Llwnpia.
Nin Doi 1918 Glynfab t 39

2 spree, booze-up

ETYMOLOGY: dialect English randivoo < French rendezvous

Dorset dialect (south-western England): Randy, a merry uproar or meeting.
http://home.clara.net/anvil/DORSET.pdf

:_______________________________.

ran or ffordd
<RAN or FORDH> [ˡran ɔr ˡfɔr] adverb
1
part of the way (with soft mutation)

mynd ran or ffordd gyda rhywun go part of the way with someone

ETYMOLOGY: rhan or ffordd (= part of the way)
(rhan = part) + (or = of the) + (ffordd = way)
There is soft mutation of an initial consonant in adverbial phrases, hence rhan > ran

:_______________________________.

ras, rasus
<RAAS, RA-sis> [rɑːs, ˡrasɪs] (feminine noun)
1
race
ras gychod boat race, rasus cychod, boat races

ras farathon (i.e. ras frathon) marathon race

2
cae ras racecourse (field (of) race)
cae rasys racecourse (field (of) races)

Y Cae Ras is the name Wrexham Football Clubs home ground (The Racecourse)
Stadiwm y Cae Ras the Racecourse Stadium

:_______________________________.

raser, raseri (f)
<RA-ser, ra-SEE-ri> rasɛr, raˡseˑrɪ]
1 (southern dialect) puzzle The Treatment of English Borrowed Words in Colloquial Welsh / Thomas Powel / Y Cymmrodor Vol. VI 1883. / p133

The following paper is an attempt to give a general account
of the use and treatment of English words in the colloquial
Welsh of the present day. Most of the statements here made
are applicable to the whole of Welsh-speaking Wales; but
the paper treats more particularly of the dialect spoken, with
slight variations, in the Counties of Brecon, Caermarthen,
and the greater part of Cardigan.

Z. This letter is not known to Welsh, aud in borrowed words
it becomes s. Sl (zeal), d
ăslo (dazzle), pyslo (puzzle), rser
(razor), etc

ETYMOLOGY: English razor
:_______________________________.

ras falŵns, rasus balŵns
<raas va-LUUNZ, ra-sis ba-LUUNz> [ˡrɑːs vaˡluːnz, ˡrasɪs baˡluːnz] (feminine noun)
1
balloon race

:_______________________________.

ras ganllath
<raas GAN-lhath> [ˡrɑːs ˡganɬaθ] feminine noun
PLURAL rasus canllath
<RA-sis KAN-lhath> [ˡrasɪs ˡkanɬaθ]
1
hundred-yard race = a race for sprinters of 91.44 metres, organised sprint on a running track in an athletics competition, or along a street as part of local festivities

ETYMOLOGY: (ras = race) + soft mutation + (canllath = a hundred yards)

:_______________________________.

ras geffylau
<RAAS ge--lai, -e> [ˡrɑːs gɛˡfəˡlaɪ, -ɛ] feminine noun
PLURAL rasus ceffylau
<RA-sis ke--lai, -e> [ˡrasɪs ˡkɛˡfəˡlaɪ, -ɛ]
1
horse race = race with horses and riders

:_______________________________.

ras hir
<raas HIIR> [ˡrɑːs ˡhiːr] feminine noun
PLURAL rasau hir
<RA-sai, -se, -HIIR> [ˡrasaɪ, -ɛ, ˡhiːr]
1
long-distance race (long race)

:_______________________________.

ras hwyl
<raas HUIL> [ˡrɑːs ˡhʊɪl] feminine noun
PLURAL rasus hwyl
<RA-sai, -se, HUIL> [ˡrasaɪ, -ɛ, ˡhʊɪl]
1
fun run

ETYMOLOGY: race (of) fun (ras = race) + (hwyl = fun)

:_______________________________.

rasio
<RAS-yo> [ˡrasjɔ] (verb)
1
to race
2
cae rasio racecourse (field (of) racing)

:_______________________________.

rasiwr ceir
<RAS-yur KEIR> [ˡrasjʊr ˡkəɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL raswyr ceir
<RAS-wir KEIR> [ˡraswɪr ˡkəɪr]
1
racing driver (racer (of) cars)

:_______________________________.

Ratshel
<RA-chel> [ˡraʧɛl] (feminine noun)
1
Rachel

:_______________________________.

Rawys
<RAU-is> [ˡraʊɪs] feminine noun rawys Rawys
1
soft mutated form of Grawys (= Lent)
cacen Rawys, plural cacennau Grawys simnel cake, a fruit cake eaten in Lent or at Easter

:_______________________________.

rebel
<REE-bel> [ˡreˑbɛl] masculine noun
PLURAL rebeliaid <re-BEL-yaid, -yed> [rɛˡbɛljaɪd, -jɛd]

1 rebel = person who opposes authority or conventional values
Aeth yn dipyn o rebel yn ei henaint She became a bit of a rebel in her old age

2 rebel = person who resists a government by means of armed opposition

3
gwely rebel makeshift bed (bed (of) (a) rebel)

:_______________________________.

recordiad tp
<re-KORD-yad TAAP> [rɛˡkɔrdjad ˡtɑːp] masculine noun
PLURAL recordiadau tp
<re-kord-YAA-dai, -de TAAP> [rɛkɔrdˡjɑˑˡdaɪ ˡtɑˑːp]
1
tape recording

ETYMOLOGY: (recordiad = recording) + (tp = tape)

:_______________________________.

recordio
<re-KORD-yo> [rɛˡkɔrdjɔ] verb
1
record

ETYMOLOGY: (record-, from English to record) + (-io, suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

recordydd tp
<re-KOR-didh TAAP> [rɛˡkɔrdɪ ˡtɑːp] masculine noun
PLURAL recordyddion tp
<re-kor-DƏDH-yon TAAP> [rɛkɔrˡdəjɔn ˡtɑːp]
1
tape recorder

ETYMOLOGY: (recordydd = recorder) + (tp = tape)

:_______________________________.

recriwtio
<re-KRIUT-yo> [rɛˡkrɪʊtjɔ] (verb)
1
to recruit

:_______________________________.

redig
<REE-dig> [ˡreˑdɪg] verb
1
clipped form of aredig = (American: to plow) (Englandic: to plough)
agor ffos, torri gwrych, neu redig digging a ditch, trimming a hedge, or ploughing

:_______________________________.

Refail
<REE-vail. -vel> [ˡreˑvaɪl, -vɛl]
1
place name Yr Efail (= the smithy) with the loss of the first syllable
Name of a housing estate - Refail Farm Estate in Caergybi (county of Mn) (the name would be Stad Refail in Welsh)

:_______________________________.

reffer, reffers
<re-fe-RII, re-fe-RIIZ> [rɛfɛˡriː, rɛfɛˡriːz] (masculine noun)
1
referee (colloquial)

:_______________________________.

-reg
<REG> [rɛg] suffix
1
feminine agent, form of -wraig
<wraig> [wraɪg] . The colloquial pronunciation of -wraig is <REG> [rɛg] , and there is an increasing tendency to write the suffix according to this pronunciation

nyddwr (= spinner), nyddwraig > nyddreg (= spinster, female spinner)
gweithiwr (= male worker, workman), gweithwraig > gweithreg (= woman worker)

ETYMOLOGY: The suffix -wraig is in fact the word gwraig (= woman) (with soft mutation of the initial)

:_______________________________.

reiffl
<REIFL, REI-fil> [rəɪfl, ˡrəɪfɪl] feminine noun
PLURAL reifflau, reiffls
<REI-flai, -e, REI-filz> [ˡrəɪflaɪ, -ɛ, ˡrəɪfɪlz]
1
rifle

bataliwn reifflau rifle battalion (battalion (of) rifles)

carn reiffl rifle butt

cafodd ei daron anymwybodol gan garn reiffl un or milwyr
he was struck unconscious with the butt of a rifle of one of the soldiers

ergyd reiffl rifle shot; ergydion reiffl rifle shots (USA: riflery)

o fewn ergyd reiffl within rifle shot

o fewn taniad reiffl within rifle shot

reiffl aildanio magazine rifle (second-firing rifle, re-firing rifle)

reiffl awyr air rifle

reiffl stondin ffair gallery rifle, fairground rifle (rifle (of) stand (of) fair)

saethu reiffl rifle shooting

taniad reiffl rifle shot

2
gosod reiffl mewn ystum tanio position a rifle ready for firing, bring a rifle to the firing position

ETYMOLOGY: English rifle < French < Old French rifler (= to scratch) < Low German. Modern French has rifler = ((woodwork, plane) to plane, smooth with a plane; (scissors) to pare)

:_______________________________.

reifflwr
<REI-flur> [ˡrəɪflʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL reifflwyr
<REIFL-wir> [ˡrəɪflwɪr]
1
rifleman
2
(military formation) Y Reifflwyr the Rifles

ETYMOLOGY: (reiffl = rifle) + (-wr = man)

:_______________________________.

reis
<REIS> [rəɪs] masculine noun
1
rice
reis ml ground rice
pwdin reis rice pudding

blawd reis ground rice, rice flour
reis grawn hir long-grain rice


ETYMOLOGY: English rice < French < Italian < Latin < Greek orza < an Oriental language

:_______________________________.

rensen
<REN-sen> [ˡrɛnsɛn] f

PLURAL rns <REENS> [reˑns]
1
(colloquial) rein

The standard form is carrai ffrwyn / careiau ffrwyn (thong (of) bridle), or llinyn ffrwyn / llinynnau ffrwyn (line (of) bridle)

ETYMOLOGY: English rein

:_______________________________.

resin cnabis
<re-sin KAA-na-bis> [ˡrɛsɪn ˡkɑˑnabɪs] (masculine noun)
1
cannabis resin

:_______________________________.

reslo <RE-slo> [ˡrɛslɔ] (verb)
1
wrestle

:_______________________________.

RH, rh <HROO>
[hroː] feminine noun
1
) twenty-third letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
1
a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e,
8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y

:_______________________________.

rh-
1) in some
instances, the result of wrong word division

..a/ Y Rhobell SH7825 mountain in the parish of Llanfachreth, district of Meirionnydd (county of Gwynedd)

The mountain name is explained as follows:

..a/ Ўr Obell (= the saddle)
(ў definite article) + soft mutation + (gobell = saddle)
(go- prefix = under) + soft mutation + (an unknown element *pell)

..b/ Later there was confusion about the word division Ўr Obell > Ў Robell

..c/ and aspiration occurred r > rh (Robell > Rhobell) since the aspirate rh is far more usual than r as an initial consonant
..

..b/ Y Rhyl, formerly Yr Hyl (town in the county of Dinbych)
..

:_______________________________.

rhaca, rhacanau <HRA-ka, hra-KAA-nai, -e>
[ˡhraka, hraˡkɑˑnaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
rake

:_______________________________.

rhad <HRAAD>
[hrɑːd] (adjective)
1
cheap
2
rhad fel baw dirt cheap
bod yn rhad fel baw be dirt cheap
cheap like dirt / shit (rhad = cheap) + (fel = like) + (baw dirt / shit)

:_______________________________.

Rhad arnat! <HRAAD AR-nat>
[ˡhrɑːd ˡarnat] (phrase)
1
Bless you!

:_______________________________.

Y Rhadyr <HRAA-dir>
[ˡhrɑˑdɪr]
1
place in Llanbadog Fawr, county of Mynwy; more correctly Y Radur (qv)

:_______________________________.

rhaeadr (rhaead), rhaeadrau <HREI-adr, HREI-ad, hrei-A-drai, -dre>
[ˡhrəɪadr, ˡhrəɪad, hrəɪˡadraɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
waterfall

Coed y Rhaeadr SN9011 (the) wood (of) the waterfall

Name of woodland near Ystradfellte, Powys

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=190304

2 (SJ1027) Afon Rhaeadr = river rising in Powys and flowing into the river Tanat
(the name of the river in fact means the river of the waterfall - rhaeadr = waterfall)

Pistyll Rhaeadr
(SJ0729) waterfall
73 metres in height on the river Rhaeadr 6km north-west of Llanrhaeadr ym Mochnant (SJ1225) (county of Powys)
pistyll (afon) Rhaeadr ((the) waterfall (of the river) Rhaeadr)

3 Llanrheadr church (next to the) Rhaeadr (river)

(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Rhaeadr river name, literally waterfall) > *Llanraeadr > Llanrhaeadr (soft mutation is annulled in the combination when final -n occurs before initial ll-)

..a) Llanrhaeadr ym Mochnant ((the) Llanrhaeadr (which is) in (the kntrev of) Mochnant)
Llanrhaeadr is church (next to the) Rhaeadr (river)

..b)
Llanrhaeadr-yng-Nghinmeirch ((the) Llanrhaeadr (which is) in (the kntrev of) Mochnant)

NOTE: On English-language maps rhaeadr is sometimes seen misspelt as rhaiadr

:_______________________________.

Rhaeadrau Mynach <hrei-A-drai, -e, -nakh>
[hrəɪˡadraɪ, -ɛ, ˡmənax] plural noun
1
SN7477 a series of waterfalls on the river Mynach near its confluence with the river Rheidol at Pontarfynach; English name Mynach Falls

ETYMOLOGY: (the) waterfalls (of the) Mynach (river)
(rhaeadrau = waterfalls, plural of rhaedr = waterfall) + (Mynach (qv), river name, literally monk)
:_______________________________.

Y Rhaeadr Fawr HREI-adr, HREI-ad, VAUR>
[ə ˡhrəɪadr ˡvaʊr, ə ˡhrəɪad ˡvaʊr]
1 waterfall
15 metre high above the village of Aber or Abergwyngregyn SH 6572 (county of Conwy)
English names: Aber Falls

ETYMOLOGY: the great waterfall (y definite article) + (rhaeadr = waterfall) + soft mutation + (mawr = big)

:_______________________________.

Rhaeadr-gwy <HREI-adr GUI, HREI-ad GUI>
[ˌhrəɪadr ˡgʊɪ, ˌhrəɪad ˡgʊɪ]
1
locality (town) in the district of Maesyfed (county of Powys)
Short form: Y Rhaeadr <
ə HREI-adr> [ə ˡhrəiadr] (more colloquially, Y Rhaead) <ə HREI-ad> [ə ˡhrəiad]

English name: Rhayader
Topographical History of South Wales / 1819 / Rees p902): Rhayader or Rhayadergwy. The name, literally translated, signifies the cataract of the Wye or in transatlantic phraseology, the falls of the Wye and is derived from the situation of the place near the descent of that river over a ledge of rocks. Formerly the fall was considerable, but on the building of the present bridge in 1780, the channel was cleared of its principal obstructions, and a freer passage opened
for the water, so that its characteristic feature has been almost entirely destroyed


2
a parish at this place

3
name of an electoral ward; a seat on the county council of Powys

ETYMOLOGY: (the) waterfall (of the river) Gwy
(rhaeadr = waterfall) + (Gwy river name)

:_______________________________.

rhaff, rhaffau <HRAAF, HRAA-fai, -e>
[hrɑːf, ˡhrɑˑfaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
rope
blaen rhaff end of a rope
llusgraff a towrope, a rope for towing
rhaff deircainc three-strand rope
rhaff halio
a towrope, a rope for towing

rhaff deircainc ni thorrir ar frys (Pregethwr 4:12) a threefold cord is not quickly broken (Ecclesiastes 4:12)

:_______________________________.

rhafnwydden <hrafn--dhen>
[hrafnˡwəɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL rhafnwydd <HRAVN-widh>
[ˡhravnwɪ]
1
buckthorn Rhamnus cathartica thorny shrub formerly used as a purgative


(delwedd 7224)

2 melyn y rhafnwydd ((the) yellow (butterfly) (of) the buckthorn) Gonepteryx rhamni = brimstone butterfly


(delwedd 7225)

ETYMOLOGY: The first example of the word is seen in the Archaeologia Britannica (1707) by the naturalist Edward Lhuyd.

(rhafn = buckthorn) + soft mutation + (gwydden = bush, tree); the word rhafn is a modern adaptation of Latin rhamnus (in historical borrowings from Latin a medial m > f <v>
[v] )

:_______________________________.

rhg HRAG (preposition)
1
(obsolete) in front of

2
against, to avoid

3 It completes the sense of many verbs:

A...

achub rhag
save from

..... achub rhg angau save from death

arbed rhag
save from

.....arbed rhg angau save from death

amddiffyn rhag protect from

arbed rhag save from

atal rhag stop oneself from

B...

brechu rhg
vaccinate / innoculate against

..brechu rhg difftheria inoculate against diptheria

C...

cadw rhag
stop oneself from

.....cadw rhag annwyd escape a cold

.....Prin y medrwn gadw rhag chwerthin I could scarcely contain my laughter, I was hardly able to stop myself from laughing

cael llonydd rhag be left in peace by

celu rhag hide from

cuddio'ch beiau rhag (rhywun) hide your faults from (someone)

cilio rhag run away from, back away from

cwato rhag hide from

cymryd gofal rhag take care not to

.....Cymerais ofal rhag deffro John Jones I took care not to wake John Jones

cysgodi rhag shelter from

.....Buom yn cysgodu yn yr eglwys rhag yr haul tanbaid We took refuge from the blazing sun the church

D...

dianc rhag escape from

diogelu rhag protect from, keep safe from

E...

eithrio rhg
exempt from

.....eithrio (rhywun) rhg talu trethi grant a tax exemption to (somebody), exempt (somebody) from paying taxes

esgusodi rhag excuse from

F...

ffoi rhag
flee

..ffoi rhag y llid a ddaw flee the wrath that is to come

..... ffoi rhag rhywbeth flee / run away from something

......Ffowch rhag y farn a ddaw! Flee from the wrath to come!

G...

gwaredu / gwaredu rhag
save from

..gwared rhg angau save from death

..Duw an gwaredo rhg y fath beth God save us from such a thing!

gwylio rhag
watch out for

R...

rhoi lloches rhag
give shelter from

rhwystro rhag prevent (someone) from, stop (someone)from (doing something)

.....rhwystro rhywun rhag ffoi stop someone from running away (impede somebody in front of fleeing)

rhybuddio rhag warn about

Y...

ymesgusodi rhg gwneud rhywbeth
excuse oneself from doing something

ymgilio rhag
shy away from

____________________________________________________________

b) after adjectives

D...

diogel rhag
safe from

.....diogel rhag cael eich adnabod safe from recognition, in no danger of being recognised

R...

rhydd rhag
clear of

c) after nouns with a sense close to to eliminate, to prevent, against, to escape from

C...

cysgod rhag y glaw
shelter from the rain

D...


dryll rhag terfysg riot gun

E...

eli:

rhag pob clwyf, eli amser time cures all (against every wound, (the) ointment (of) time)

G...

gwn rhag terfysg riot gun

M...

meddyg:

Nid oes meddyg rhag henaint theres no avoiding old age (there is no doctor against old age)

R...

rhyddid rhag newyn
freedom from hunger

S...

saer da rhag suro diod
(expression) a drunkard, a person who drinks a lot {(a) good craftsman to prevent (the) souring (of) (a) drink; person skilled at not letting a drink spoil by not consuming it}

tabled: cymryd tabledi haearn rhag diffyg gwaed take iron tablets to prevent anaemia

T...


tarian rhag terfysg riot shield


Y...

ynysiad rhag
insulation from

ynysiad rhag sŵn insulation from noise

:_______________________________.

rhagafon, rhagafonydd hra GA von, hra ga VO nidh (feminine noun)
1
tributary

:_______________________________.

rhagbrawf, rhagbrofion HRAG brawv, hrag BROV yon (masculine noun)
1
preliminary heat

:_______________________________.

rhagbrofol hrag-broo-vol
1
(match) qualifying, preliminary, knockout
yn y rowndiau rhagbrofol in the qualifying rounds

ETYMOLOGY: (rhagbrawf = preliminary round, qualifying match ) + (-ol = suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

rhagfanylion hrag-va-nəl-yon plural noun
1
specifications

ETYMOLOGY: (rhag = pre-) + soft mutation + (manylion = details)

:_______________________________.

Rhagfyr HRAG vir (masculine noun)
1 December

mis Rhagfyr December ((the) month (of) December)

ym mis Rhagfyr in December
ar ddechrau mis Rhagfyr at the beginning of December
ar ganol mis Rhagfyr
in the middle of December, in mid-December
ar ddiwedd mis Rhagfyr
at the end of December

bob mis Rhagfyr every December


...01 Rhagfyr (y cyntaf o Ragfyr)
the first of December

...02 Rhagfyr (yr ail o Ragfyr)
the second of December

...03 Rhagfyr (y trydydd o Ragfyr)
the third of December

...04 Rhagfyr (y pedwerydd o Ragfyr)
the fourth of December

...05 Rhagfyr (y pumed o Ragfyr)
the fifth of December

...06 Rhagfyr (y chweched o Ragfyr)
the sixth of December

...07 Rhagfyr (y seithfed o Ragfyr)
the seventh of December

...08 Rhagfyr (yr wythfed o Ragfyr)
the eighth of December
Gŵyl Fair yn y Gaeaf (8 Rhagfyr) = Conception

...09 Rhagfyr (y nawfed o Ragfyr)
the ninth of December

...10 Rhagfyr (y degfed o Ragfyr)
the tenth of December

...11 Rhagfyr (yr unfed ar ddeg o Ragfyr)
the eleventh of December

...12 Rhagfyr (y deuddegfed o Ragfyr)
the twelfth of December

...13 Rhagfyr (y trydydd ar ddeg o Ragfyr)
the thirteenth of December
Gŵyl Luwsi (the) feastday (of) Lucy)

...14 Rhagfyr (y pedwerydd ar ddeg o Ragfyr)
the fourteenth of December

...15 Rhagfyr (y pymthegfed o Ragfyr)
the fifteenth of December

...16 Rhagfyr (yr unfed ar bymtheg o Ragfyr)
the sixteenth of December

...17 Rhagfyr (yr ail ar bymtheg o Ragfyr)
the seventeenth of December

...18 Rhagfyr (y deunawfed o Ragfyr)
the eighteenth of December

...19 Rhagfyr (y pedwerydd ar bymtheg o Ragfyr)
the nineteenth of December

...20 Rhagfyr (yr ugeinfed o Ragfyr)
the twentieth of December

...21 Rhagfyr (yr unfed ar hugain o Ragfyr)
the twenty-first of December
Gŵyl Domas (the) feastday (of) Thomas) or
Gŵyl Tomos yr Apostol (the) feastday (of) Thomas the Apostle)

...22 Rhagfyr (yr ail ar hugain o Ragfyr)
the twenty-second of December

...23 Rhagfyr (y trydydd ar hugain o Ragfyr)
the twenty-third of December

...24 Rhagfyr (y pedwerydd ar hugain o Ragfyr)
the twenty-fourth of December

...25 Rhagfyr (y pumed ar hugain o Ragfyr)
the twenty-fifth of December
Dydd Nadolig Christmas Day

...26 Rhagfyr (y chweched ar hugain o Ragfyr)
the twenty-sixth of December
Gŵyl y Bocs (the) feastday (of) the box) or
Gwy^l Steffan (the) feastday (of) Stephen) or Gwyl Sant Steffan
Boxing Day

...27 Rhagfyr (y seithfed ar hugain o Ragfyr)
the twenty-seventh of December
Gwyl Ioan yr Apostol (the) feastday (of) John the Apostle

...28 Rhagfyr (yr wythfed ar hugain o Ragfyr)
the twenty-eighth of December
Gŵyl y Gwirioniaid Holy Innocents Day (the) feastday (of) the innocents
Gŵyl y Fil Feibion Holy Innocents Day (the) feastday (of) the one thousand children

...29 Rhagfyr (y nawfed ar hugain o Ragfyr)
the twenty-ninth of December

...30 Rhagfyr (y degfed ar hugain o Ragfyr)
the thirtieth of December

...31 Rhagfyr (yr unfed ar ddeg ar hugain o Ragfyr)
the thirty-first of December
Nos Galan New Years Eve ((the) eve (of) (the) calend)

:_______________________________.

rhaglen, rhaglenni HRA glen, hra GLE ni (feminine noun)
1
program

:_______________________________.

rhagluniaeth hra-GLN-yaith, -yeth (feminine noun)
1
providence = care and protection given by a deity or nature to its creatures

2 Rhagluniaeth (Christianity) Providence = the care and protection given by God to his creatures


rhagluniaeth fawr y nef
divine providence

3 Rhagluniaeth (Christianity) Providence = God in his role as a benevolent organiser of the universe and protector of humankind

ymostwng i drefn Rhagluniaeth submit to the dispensations of Providence

:_______________________________.

rhagnant hrag-nant masculine noun
PLURAL rhagnentydd hrag-nen-tidh
1
tributary, feeder; = a stream which flows into another

ETYMOLOGY: (rhag-, prefix = pre-, before) + soft mutation + (nant = stream)

:_______________________________.

rhagod hraa-god masculine noun
PLURAL rhagodau hra-goo-de
1
ambush
gosod rhagod (ar gyfer rhywun) prepare an ambush (for somebody)
aros mewn rhagod (am rywun) wait in ambush (for somebody)

2
obstacle, obstruction, impediment

3
cylchfa ragod buffer zone
gwladwriaeth ragod buffer state

4
(Railway) buffer (front part of a locomotive; end of a track)


ETYMOLOGY: rhagod < rhagawd; apparently rhag (= before, in front) is the first element;
and an unknown second element

NOTE: in south-east Wales, racod, which shows phonological changes typical of this region
..1/ rh > r (loss of h)
..2/ voiced cononsonant g at the beginning of the final syllable > unvoiced consonant c k

:_______________________________.

rhagod hraa-god verb
1
ambush, waylay
2
catch, seize
3
hunt
4
(region of Morgannwg) round up animals
5
(region of Morgannwg) prevent (somebody) (from doing sth)
6
(region of Morgannwg) rhagod tref rhywun keep house for somebody
7
(region of Morgannwg) save, protect


ETYMOLOGY: Verb formed from the noun rhagod (See preceding entry)
NOTE: in south-east Wales, racod. See preceding entry.

:_______________________________.

rhagofal hra-goo-val masculine noun
PLURAL rhagofalon hra-go-vaa-lon
1
precaution = action to prevent some risk or accident
2
rhagofalon tn fire precautions, precautions in case of fire

ETYMOLOGY: (rhag-, prefix = pre-, before) + soft mutation + (gofal = care)

:_______________________________.

rhagolwg, rhagolygon hra GO lwg, hra go LƏ gon (masculine noun)
1
forecast
rhagolygon y tywydd weather forecast

ETYMOLOGY: (rhag-, prefix = pre-, before) + soft mutation + (golwg = view)

:_______________________________.

rhagolygon hra go LƏ gon (plural noun)
1
plural of rhagolwg

:_______________________________.

rhagom
hra-gom
1
before us (from the preposition rhag)
Rhagom Filwyr Iesu Onward Christian Soldiers (hymn) (there is soft mutation of
milwyr = soldiers as it is used here in the vocative case; such phrases in Welsh require this mutation)

ETYMOLOGY: (rhag = in front) + (-om first person plural termination )

:_______________________________.

rhagor hraa-gor masculine noun
1
superiority

2 difference, distinction

Mae na ragor ofnadwy rhwng ebol a cheiliog
Theyre as different as chalk from cheese, theyre completely different
(theres a terrible difference / an enormous difference between a foal and a rooster)

Mae rhagor rhyngddyn nhw Theres a difference between them, They differ from each other, Theyre different to each other

gweld rhagor rhwng... see a difference between...

gweld y rhagor rhwng da a drwg

differenciate between good and bad (see the difference between good and bad)

Malachi
3:18 Yna y dychwelwch, ac y gwelwch ragor rhwng y cyfiawn ar drygionus, rhwng yr hwn a wasanaetho DDUW ar hwn nis gwasanaetho ef.
Malachi 3:18 Then shall ye return, and discern between the righteous and the wicked, between him that serveth God and him that serveth him not

3
Exodus 11:7
Ond yn erbyn neb o blant Israel ni symud ci ei dafod, ar ddyn nac anifail;
fel y gwypoch fod yr ARGLWYDD yn gwneuthur rhagor rhwng yr Eifftiaid ac Israel.

Exodus 11:7 But against any of the children of Israel shall not a dog move his tongue, against man or beast: that ye may know how that the LORD doth put a difference between the Egyptians and Israel.

Brenhinoedd-1 3:9 Ath was sydd ymysg dy bobl, y rhai a ddewisaist ti; pobl aml, y rhai ni rifir ac nis cyfrifir gan luosowgrwydd.
Kings-1 3:8 And thy servant is in the midst of thy people which thou hast chosen, a great people, that cannot be numbered nor counted for multitude.

Corinthiaid-1 15:41 Arall yw gogoniant yr haul, ac arall yw gogoniant y lloer, ac arall yw gogoniant y sr; canys y mae rhagor rhwng seren a seren mewn gogoniant.
Corinthians1 15:41 There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars: for one star differeth from another star in glory.

And phrases based on this:
A oes rhagor rhwng ŵy ac ŵy mewn gogoniant? Ateb: Oes yn wir - ac maen talu i holi cyn prynu (Cymro 11 01 1995)
Is there any difference between one egg and another? Answer Indeed there is and it pays to ask before buying

Dacwr arwerthwr yn esgyn iw lwyfan, ai glerc yn ei ddilyn. Mae rhagor rhwng seren a seren yn y gogoniant hwn. Yr ydym wedi dyfod i gyffyrddiad phump neu chwech o arwerthwyr mewn gwahanol ocsiynau oddiar pan yr ymsefydlasom yn Nyffryn Tywi, a phob un yn meddu ar ei neillduolion arbenig ei hun
Over there the auctioneer goes up onto the stage, and his clerk follows him.
There is a difference between each one (there is a difference between a star and a star in this glory) Ive come into contact with five or six auctioneers in different auctions since weve come to live in the Tywi Valley, and each one has his own special characteristics
(Yn Nyffryn Tywi Sef Brasluniau o Fywyd Gwledig. (In the Valley of the Tywi, being sketches of rural life) Gan y Parch. D. Rhagfyr Jones, Pontargothi. Cyfaill yr Aelwyd ar Frythones. Cyfrol III (Cyfres Newydd) 1894. Tudalen 423


3
(preposition) between
Malachi
3:18 Yna y dychwelwch, ac y gwelwch ragor rhwng y cyfiawn ar drygionus, rhwng yr hwn a wasanaetho DDUW ar hwn nis gwasanaetho ef.
Malachi 3:18 Then shall ye return, and discern between the righteous and the wicked, between him that serveth God and him that serveth him not.

4
(pronoun) more

T ishe rhagor? (a wyt ti yn eisiau rhagor) Do you want any more?
rhagor o arian more money

rhagor o fanylion more details

rhagor o wybodaeth more information

rhagor o dystiolaeth more evidence

5 (adj) additional

Ddweda i ddim gair rhagor I wont say another word

llawer rhagor
a lot more

lot rhagor a lot more

6 ni + fyth rhagor never again / not .. ever again
Soft-mutated form of byth rhagor / eto / mwyach
(byth = never / ever) + (rhagor = more, eto = again, mwyach = any more)

Wela i mohoni fyth rhagor Ill never see her again < Ni welaf fi...

ETYM
OLOGY: rhagor (= more, addition) < (rhag = in front) + (the obsolete element r = limit, brink, edge).

r occurs in the words

..a/ cyfor (= full to the brim) (cyf + r)

..b/ dygyfor (= to surge, to rise up, to be stirred up, to well, well up; to stir up) (dy + cyf + r)

..c/ goror (= limit, boundary) (gor + r)

In the Hibernian languages, it occurs with the meaning of edge, boundary as in Manx oirr, Scottish oir, and Irish fir (with a non-etymological initial f)

:_______________________________.

rhagor hraa-gor preposition
1 than
Mwy swmpus o lawer ywr ail argraffiad rhagor y gyfrol wreiddiol
The second edition is a lot thicker than the original volume

Dywedodd fod llawer mwy o hwyl iw gael yn Steddfod y Buarth rhagor y Brifwyl
He said there was a lot more fun to be had in the Eisteddfod of the Farmyard (The Welsh Agricultural Show) tan the Great Festival (the National Eisteddfod, annual countrywide competition of literature and singing)

:_______________________________.

rhagorach <hra-GOO-rakh>
[hraˡgoˑrax] adjective
1
better
yn rhagorach fyth even better, better than ever
Aeth y gwaith ymlen yn rhagorach fyth the work continued better than ever

2
(masculine noun) better = superior person

Gwrando air gan dy ragorach
Listen to the advice of your better, listen to what somebody who knows better than you has to say (Listen to a word with your better)

ETYM
OLOGY: (rhagor = more, extra quantity) + (-ach comparative suffix)

:_______________________________.

rhagorfraint <hra-GOOR-vraint>
[hraˡgɔrvraɪnt] (m)

PLURAL rhagorfreintiau <hra-gor-VREONT_yai, -ye>
[hragɔrˡvrəɪntjaɪ, -jɛ]
1
privilege

2 y rhagorfraint frenhinol royal prerogative

ETYMOLOGY: (rhagor = more) + soft mutation + (braint = privilege)
:_______________________________.

rhagori <hra-GOO-ri>
[hraˡgoˑrɪ] (verb)
1
excel
2
rhagori arnoch eich hun excel oneself, do something much better than you usually do it, to do something better than you thought you were capable of doing

ETYMOLOGY: (rhagor = more, extra quantity) + (-i verbal suffix)

:_______________________________.

rhagorol <hra-GOO-rol>
[hraˡgoˑrɔl] (adjective)
1 excellent

Un o ddynion rhagorol y ddaear yw eich tad Your father is a prince among men / is one of the worlds finest men / is one of the finest men in the world

2 rhagorol o very, exceedingly,
exceptionally
mae ef yn canu yn rhagorol o dda he sings exceptionally well, his singing is exceedingly good


3 (in the plural as a noun) un o ragorolion y ddaear a prince among men


ETYMOLOGY: (rhagor = more, extra quantity) + (-ol adjectival suffix)
:_______________________________.

..1 rhai <HRAI>
[hraɪ] pronoun
1
the ones (people, animals, things)

Nid pa faint, ond sut rai Quality not quantity (is what matters)

pa rai? which ones?

sut rai? what kind(s) of thing? what kind(s) of people?

y rhai hyn these, these ones (colloquially also y rhain)

y rhai hynny those, those ones (colloquially also y rheiny)

2
with possessive determiners
(1a) yn rhai
The literary form is: fy rhai mine, the ones which are mine
(1b) yn rhai n
The literary form is: ein rhai n ours, the ones which are ours

(2a) dy rai d yours, the ones which are yours
(2b) ych rhai ch
The literary form is: eich rhai ch yours, the ones which are yours

(3a) i rai
The literary form is: ei rai ef his, the ones which are his
(3b) i rhai h
The literary form is: ei rhai hi hers, the ones which are hers
(3c) u rhai nhw
The literary form is: eu rhai nhw theirs, the ones which are theirs

3
individuals, people, those people, those

Dros y blynyddoedd y mae Prifysgol Cymru wedi dewis rhai digon od i roi gradd anrhydedd iddyn nhw.
Over the years the University of Wales has chosen some pretty odd individuals to give honorary degrees to

Gobeithir ymestyn y gwasanaeth i gynnwys rhai sydd yn gaeth i dabledi lliniaru poen hefyd
It is hoped to extend this service to include those who are addicted to painkillers too

4
in some expressions (adjective + rhai). There is soft mutation rhai > rai after a preceding adjective.
..1/ Y Dirmygedig Rai The Old Contemptibles (English expeditionary force to France in 1914, so-called from the Kaisers description of them as a contemptible little army).
..2/ Yr Etholedig Rai The Chosen Few

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh rhai < rhei < British
From the same British root: Breton re (= ones, individuals)

:_______________________________.

..2 rhai <HRAI>
[hraɪ] (determiner)
1 some
rhai buchod some cows

rhai pobl some people (better: rhywrai)

2 rai occurs at the head of adverbial phrases; there is soft mutation of an initial consonant in adverbial phrases, hence rh- > r-
rai troeon a few times
rai dyddiau cyn hynny some days before
rai dyddiau ar l hyn some days after this
rai blynyddoedd yn l some years ago
rai misoedd yn hwyrach some months later
rai oriau yn ddiweddarach some hours later

:_______________________________.

rhaib, rheibiau <HRAIB, HREIB-yai, -ye> [hraɪb, ˡhrəɪbjaɪ, -jɛ] (feminine noun)
1
enchantment

2 rheibio (qv) enchant, bewitch

:_______________________________.

rhaid, rheidiau <HRAID, HREID-yai, -ye>
[hraɪd, ˡhrəɪdjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
necessity

2 os dawn fater o raid should it become necessary, if it comes to the crunch

Dyma lythyr i ti ddaeth y bore ma. Rhaid mai oddiwrth dEwyrth Tom mae e, mae stamp yr Unol Daleithiau arno, ta beth. Heres a letter for you that came this morning. It must be from your uncle Tom. Its got a U.S. stamp on it, at any rate.

cael wrth dy raid get what you need
(Apocrypha) Ecclesiasticus 29:3 Cadw dy air, a gwna yn ffyddlon ag ef, a thi a gei wrth dy raid bob amser.
(Apocrypha) Ecclesiasticus 29:3 Keep thy word, and deal faithfully with him, and thou shalt always find the thing that is necessary for thee.


:_______________________________.

rhaien <HREI-en>
[ˡhrəɪɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL rhaiod <HREI-od>
[ˡhrəɪɔd]
1
ray, fish with winglike fins
rhaien drydan electric ray

ETYMOLOGY: First noted as occurring in Welsh in the year 1604; either from English ray or a modern borrowing from Latin raia (= ray);
The English word ray < French < Latin raia

:_______________________________.

rhain <HRAIN>
[hraɪn] (pronoun)
1
y rhain these

:_______________________________.

rhamant <HRA-mant>
[ˡhramant] feminine noun
PLURAL rhamantau <hra-MAN-tai, -e>
[hraˡmantaɪ, -ɛ]
1
romance = mysterious or marvellous feeling about a place, charm, special feeling;

Ma na ryw ramant yn perthyn ir lle
Theres a certain charm to the place;

Y mae dychwelyd i hen gynefin weithiaun lladd pob rhamant
Returning to an old haunt sometimes kills all the romance (of the place)

2 romance = literary form, narrative in verse or prose, characteristic of the Middle Ages, explaining the adventures of chivalrous heroes, and usually written in a Romance language

3 romance = story, film, book dealing with love in a very idealised and sentimentalised manner
rhamant dau gariad boy-meets-girl romance

4 romance = courtship; love affair
adroddodd ei rhamant Tomos she talked of her courtship with Tomos

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh rhamant < *romant < Old French romanz [ro
ˡmants] < Vulgar Latin rmnic (adverb) (= in a Romance language) < Latin rmnic(us) (= Roman) < (rmn(us) = Roman) + (-icus, suffix for forming adjectives from nouns);

Cf obsolete English romant (= romance)

In both cases (English romant, Welsh rhamant) it seems that there was a form *romant from a misuderstanding that [ro
ˡmants] was a plural form.

This are other examples of this in English (modern French in brackets, though the earlier French form from which the English word comes may have been slightly different: chair (chaise), cherry (crise), asset (assez), etc

:_______________________________.

rhamantiaeth <hra-MANT-yaith, -yeth>
[hraˡmantjaɪθ, -jɛθ] feminine noun
1
Romanticism = the Romantic movement of the late 1700s and early 1800s in literature in art where emotion, imagination and experimentation, nature, and the common man prevailed; a reaction to the stiff styles and content of Classicism

2 romantic idea, idealised and unreal vision, delusion, fanciful idea, conception unrelated to reality;

Rhyw ramantiaeth wirion ydi meddwl y gallwch chi fynd i ben y cei i brynu pysgod gan bysgotwr
Its a daft romantic idea to think you can go to the end of the quay to buy fish off a fisherman

ETYMOLOGY: (rhamant = romance) + (-i-aeth suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

rhan, rhannau <HRAN, HRA-nai, -e>
[hran, ˡhranaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
part
y rhan gyntaf the first part
yr ail ran the second part
y drydedd ran the third part
y bedwaredd ran the fourth part
y bumed ran the fifth part

dwy ran o dair o... two thirds of... (two parts of three [parts] of)
un rhan o bump o one fifth of... (one part of five [parts] of)
tair rhan o bump o... two fifths of... (three parts of five [parts] of)

rhan sylweddol o a substantial part of

rhan ganolog
central part


2 part (in a play or film), rle: part = involvement

Fe syn actio rhan y fam yn y gmedi hon
Hes the one playing the part of the mother in this comedy

Nid oedd gennyf ran ynddo I had nothing to do with it, Im innocent of any involvement in some matter

chwarae rhan amlwg to have a prominent part, play a leading role

3 share = due portion
cael mwy nach rhan (o rywbeth)
have more than your fair share of something, have an unfairly large part (of something)

cael mwy o lawer nach rhan (o rywbeth)
get a lot more than your fair share (of something)

4
(distance) part = less than the total
rhan or ffordd part of the way
(adverb) (with soft mutation) ran or ffordd part of the way

mynd ran or ffordd gyda rhywun go part of the way with somebody

5 Old compound forms are masculine
,,a/ ebran (m) fodder, stover

Welsh ebran horse portion < (eb- = horse) + soft mutation + (rhan = part, portion)

,,b/ canran (m) percentage
(can < cant = hundred ) + soft mutation + ( rhan = part)

,,c/ oedran (m) age
(oed = age) + soft mutation + ( rhan = part)

6 (mid-Wales, South Wales) parting in the hair

7 part = volume of fascicle or instalment of a work

yn Rhan Deunaw o Eiriadur Prifysgol Cymru
in Part 19 of the University of Wales Dictionary

9 fate, destiny, lot (the same idea as ones lot in life, i.e. portion, the fate that has been divinely apportioned to a person. English lot is from Old English hlot = portion)

dod i'ch rhan (success, etc) come your way

Dywedir y daw llwyddiant i'ch rhan os ydych yn meddu ar lain nadroedd am eu bod yn bethau lwcus dros ben
It is said that success will come your way / will be yours if you own a snake bead since they are very lucky objects

Er gwaethaf darogan y clarweledydd nid boddi yn Afon Ebwy oedd ei ran - codwm oddi ar ei geffyl ar Heol y Mynydd a'i lladdodd
In spite of the prediction of the clairvoyant it wasn't drowning in the river Ebwy that was his ultimate fate it was a fall off his horse on the Upland Road that killed him / he was killed when he fell off his horse on the Upland Road

Yr oedd y cwch bach wedi eu llenwi chymaint o ddw^r fel yr oeddynt yn ofni mai suddo fyddai eu rhan
The boat had taken in so much water that they feared that their fate would be to sink

Gweithio llawer ac ennill ond ychydig a fydd fy rhan i drwy f'oes
Working a lot and only earning a littel will be my fate in this life (trhoughout my life)

Diodde yw rhan merched pob oes
The fate of women throughout history has been suffering (suffering is the fate of women of every age)

10 region, territory, place, zone, area; portion of a country
yn y rhan yma or wlad in this part of the country
yn y rhan yma o Gymru in this part of Wales

Daeth ymwelwyr o bob rhan o Gymru
Visitors came from all parts of Wales

11 section; a part detached from a main body or structure

12 part = section of a building
Mae rhan o'r plas sydd bob amser yn oer hyd yn oed ar y tywydd poethaf
One part of the mansion is always cold even in the hottest weather

13 rhannau uchaf upper reaches of a river
yn rhannau uchaf y Taf in the upper reaches of the River Taf

14 responsibility
ac i'w ran ef daeth gofal y tri chi
the czare of the three dgs fell to him

15 quarter of a town, district
y rhan Ladinaidd the Latin quarter

16 part = side, party

o'm rhan i in my view, for my part

17 part, share = proportion of a common debt
Telais fy fy rhan fel pawb arall I paid my part like everybody else

ETYMOLOGY: British (probably as *rand-) < Common Celtic

Breton rann (= part) (f), Irish roinn (f) (= part, share), also rann (obsolete) (m) party or side in a dispute; both from Old Irish rann.

:_______________________________.

rhanbarth, rhanbarthau <HRAN-barth, hran-BAR-thai, -the>
[ˡhranbarθ, hranˡbarθaɪ, -θɛ] (masculine noun)
1
region

ETYMOLOGY: (rhan = part) + soft mutation + (parth = disrtrict)

:_______________________________.

rhanbarthol <hran-BAR-thol>
[hranˡbarθɔl] adjective
1
regional

ETYMOLOGY: (rhanbarth = region) + (-ol = suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

rhanbartholdeb
<hran-barth-OL-deb> [hranbarθˡɔldɛb] masculine noun
1 regionalism

ETYMOLOGY: (rhanbarthol = regional) + (-deb suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

rhandir, rhandiroedd <HRAN-dir, hran-DII-roidh, -odh>
[ˡhrandɪr, hranˡdiˑrɔɪ, -ɔ] (masculine noun)
1
tract of land

2 rhandir Indiaid Americanaidd American Indian reservation = land onto which US native peoples were removed after expulsion from their traditional territories

:_______________________________.

y rhan fwyaf <ə hran VUI-a>
[ə hran ˡvʊɪa]
1
most (of), the greater part (of), the majority (of), the best part (of)
Cymru ar rhan fwyaf o Brydain Wales and most of (the island of) Britain
y rhan fwyaf or plant most of the children

ETYMOLOGY: (rhan = part) + soft mutation + (mwyaf = greatest)

:_______________________________.

rhann- <HRAN>
[hran]
1
stem of the verb rhannu = to share, to divide

(rhann|ais I shared)

2 stem of the noun rhan = a part

(rhann|au parts)

:_______________________________.

rhannol <HRA-nol>
[ˡhranɔl] adjective
1
in part, partly
gwir = true, maen rhannol wir = its partly true
yn rhannol gyfrifol am partly responsible for
rhannol fyddar partially deaf

ETYMOLOGY: (rhann-, stem of rhannu = share, divide) + (-ol = suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

rhannu <HRA-ni>
[ˡhranɪ] (verb)
1
share
rhannun deg share and share alike, share out fairly

:_______________________________.

rhas <HRAAS>
[hrɑːs] feminine noun
PLURAL rhasus <HRA-sis>
[ˡhrasɪs]
1
race; see ras

ETYMOLOGY: from English race;
NOTE: ras is the standard form in Welsh; rhas is a more Cymricised form which is sometimes found

:_______________________________.

rhatach <HRA-takh>
[ˡhratax] (adjective)
1
cheaper

:_______________________________.

rhaw, rhawiau <HRAU, HRAU-yai, -ye>
[hraʊ, ˡhraʊjaɪ, -jɛ] (masculine noun)
1
spade

:_______________________________.

rhawdd <HRAUDH>
[hraʊ]
1
(obsolete) talk, speech, talking, speaking. It occurs as an element in certain words in the modern language

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
From the same Celtic root: Irish r < radh (Old Irish rad) (= speak)

NOTE: this element rhawdd is to be seen in the following words:

(1) adrodd (= to relate, to recite)
< ad- (prefix = to) + rhawdd.
Also with the addition of the reflexive prefix ym- > ymadrodd (= expression)

(2) athrod (= slander, defamation) < athrodd
< athr- (prefix = inter, between) + rhawdd.

(3) brawddeg (= sentence) < mrawddeg < amrawddeg
< am (prefix = around) + rhawdd + suffix -eg

(4) cyfrawdd (obsolete, = conversation)
< cyf- prefix = together) + rhawdd
Corresponds to modern Irish cmhra (= conversation)

(5) Rhondda (river name)
< *rhondde < *rhoddne < *rhoddnei < *rhawddnei < rhawdd + suffix nei
Cf English a murmuring brook for the sound of running water likened to speech

:_______________________________.

rhech, rhechod <HREEKH, HREE-khod>
[hreˑx, ˡhreˑxɔd] (masculine noun)
1
fart

:_______________________________.

rhechlyd
<HREKH-lid> [ˡhrɛxlɪd] adjective
1 farting, full of farts

2 farting (used derogatively)

In this quotation confusion through metathesis - (ll-r) > (rh > ll):
Roedd rhaid seiclo ar yr A470 o Bontnewydd i Gwmbach Rhechlyd - wps, sori, Cwmbach Llechryd. Well i mi gyfeirio at y lle fel Cwmbach er mwyn bod yn hollol saff
It was necessary to cycle on the A470 from Y Bontnewydd to Cwm-bach Rhechlyd (farty Cwm-bach) - oops, sorry, Cwm-bach Llechryd. Its best if I refer to it as Cwm-bach to be on the safe side / Bob Evans Chwefror 2022 / Gwefan y Wennol

ETYMOLOGY: (rhech = fart) + (-lyd adjectival suffix (often suggesting contempt))

:_______________________________.

rhecsyn, rhacs <HREK-sin, HRAKS>
[ˡhrɛksɪn, hraks] (masculine noun)
Also as recsyn, racs <REK-sin, RAKS>
[ˡrɛksɪn, raks]
1 rag

2 (contemptuous) rag = newspaper

3 dyrnu rhywun yn racs knock the living daylights out of somebody, knock the shit out of somebody, beat somebody into a pulp, give somebody a severe beating (punch someone into rags)

colbio rhywun yn racs knock the living daylights out of somebody, knock the shit out of somebody, beat somebody into a pulp, give somebody a severe beating (beat someone into rags)

ETYMOLOGY: rhacs < English rags

(rhacs rags) + (-yn singulative suffix) > (rhacsyn) > rhecsyn (vowel affection: a > e from the influence of the following y)

:_______________________________.

rhedeg
<HREE-deg> [ˡhreˑdɛg] (verb)
1
run
rhedeg nerth eich traed
<HREE-deg nerth əkh TRAID> [
ˡhreˑdɛg nɛrθ əx ˡtraɪd] run as fast as you can

2 (North Wales) oust, take the place of
Rhaid i chi dendio, Miss, ne mi fydda i wedich rhedag chi
t29 Plant y Gorthrwm / 1908 / Gwyneth Vaughan (=Anne Harriet Hughes 1852-1910)
Youd better watch out, Miss, or Ill have taken your place (= Ill be his fiance instead of you)

3
(trwyn = nose) run
Mae nhrwyn in rhedeg
Ive got a runny nose, my nose is running

4
rhedeg allan run out
(South) rhedeg maas

5
(commodity) rhedeg allan run out (in South Wales this is rhedeg maas)
Maer llaeth wedi rhedeg allan The milks run out

6
(Englishism) rhedeg allan o rywbeth run out of something (in South Wales this is rhedeg maas o rywbeth)
Ryn ni wedi rydeg maas o de Weve run out of tea

7
Angen a ddysg i hen redeg being in need can make people peform wonders (need teaches the old people to run)

8
ceffyl wedi rhedeg a runaway horse horse [which is] after running [away]

9 rhedeg yn rhydd (dogs) run free, run around off the leash; (train) run away, be in motion and out of control

Bydd cŵn sy'n cael rhedeg yn rhydd yn debygol o gael eu saethu gan berchnogion tir
Dogs which are allowed to run free are likely to be shot by landowners

wagen wedi rhedeg yn rhydd a runaway wagon
trn wedi rhedeg yn rhydd a runaway train train [which is] after running free


10 ei fryd yn rhedeg ar be inclined towards
Ond ar y weinidogaeth y rhedodd ei fryd yn bennaf but he was mostly inclined towards the ministry, but he had his heart set on being a minister of religion

11
rhedeg or glaw dan ffrwd y pistyll jump out of the frying pan into the fire

(run [out of] the rain [and go] under [the] shoot [of] the waterfall)


:_______________________________.

rhediad, rhediadau
<HRED-yad, hred-YAA-dai, -e> [ˡhrɛdjad, hrɛdˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1 series (of a magazine)
2
rhediad o risiau flight of stairs

:_______________________________.

rhedwr y twyni
<HREE-dur ə TUI-ni> [ˡhreˑdʊr ə ˡtʊɪnɪ] (m)
PLURAL rhedwyr y twyni <HRED-wir ə TUI-ni> [ˡhrɛdwɪr ə ˡtʊɪnɪ]

1
(Cursorius cursor) cream-coloured courser

Wikipedia 2008-11-11:
Although classed as waders, these are birds of dry open country, preferably semi-desert, where they typically hunt their insect prey by running on the ground.

These coursers are found in the Canary Islands, north Africa and southwest Asia. Their two eggs are laid in a ground scrape. They are partially migratory, with northern and northwestern birds wintering in India, Arabia and across the southern edge of the Sahara.

They are rare north of the breeding range, but this species has occurred as far away as Finland, Ireland and Great Britain.



(delwedd 7052)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) runner (of) the sand-dunes / sandhills
(rhedwr = runner) + (y definite article) + (twyni = sandhills, plural of twyn = hill, sandhill)


:_______________________________.

rhedynen, rhedyn <hre-DƏ-nen, HREE-din>
[hrɛˡdənɛn, ˡhreˑdɪn] (feminine noun)
1
fern

Brynrhedyn bryn y rhedyn (the) hill (of) the ferns
House name, Penrhyn-coch, Ceredigion


:_______________________________.

Rhedynfre <hre-DƏN-vre>
[hrɛˡdənvrɛ]
1
Farndon, Cheshire

ETYMOLOGY: fern hill. (rhedyn = ferns) + soft mutation + (bre = hill).

The name is unusual either it is very old (in older Welsh there was a tendency towards place names with the qualifier preceding the qualified noun), or else it is a more recent literary translation of the English name, which means fern hill.

:_______________________________.

rhef <HREEV>
[hreːv] adjective
1
thick
2
(masculine noun) (district of Brycheiniog, in the county of Powys) thickness

ETYMOLOGY: British < Celtic

:_______________________________.

rhefder <HREV-der>
[ˡhrɛvdɛr] masculine noun
1
thickness

Eto aeth ef yn ei flaen, a chynlluniodd yn nesaf beiriant at wau sidanau blodeuog, gyda threfniant i drwsior edau, fel ag i wneyd eiddo pob ysgainc yn gyfartal o ran rhefder
(Jaquard) went ahead in spite of this and next devised a machine for weaving flowered silks, with a contrivance for giving a dressing to the thread, so as to render that of each
skein of an equal thickness.
(Hunan-Gymorth / Samuel Smiles / Cyfiethieidig gan J. Gwrhyd Lewis, Tonyrefail. 1898)

ETYMOLOGY: (rhef = thick) + -der suffix for forming abstract nouns)
NOTE: Also (f). In use in south-east Wales, as refdar or ryfdar

:_______________________________.

rhefru <HRE-vri>
[ˡhrɛvrɪ] (verb)
1
rhefru ar (rywun) go on at (somebody)

:_______________________________.

rheg, rhegfydd <HREEG, hreg-VEIDH>
[hreːg, hrɛgˡvəɪ] (feminine noun)
1
curse, swearword

:_______________________________.

Rheged <HREE-ged>
[ˡhreˑgɛd] (feminine noun)
1
former British kingdom, until c800 AD, today the frontier region of north-east England and Scotland

:_______________________________.

rhegen, rhegennod <HREE-gen, hre-GE-nod>
[ˡhreˑgɛn, hrɛˡgɛnɔd] (feminine noun)
1
rail (bird)

:_______________________________.

rhei- <HREI->
[hrəɪ] pronoun
1 A form of rhai in the combinations

rheicw / y rhai acw those over there

rheina
/ y rhai yna those

rheini
/ y rhai hynny those (not in view)

:_______________________________.

rheicw <HREI-ku>
[ˡhrəɪkʊ] pronoun
1
(= y rheicw) (North Wales) the ones over there

Pwy bia rheicw? Who owns the ones over there?

2 (North Wales) (which are) over there
y defaid rheicw the sheep over there


ETYMOLOGY: y rhai acw (y = definite article) + (rhai = some) + (acw = over there)

(rhei- < rhai), (cw = clipped form of acw)

Cf rhein (= these ones), rheini (= those ones)


:_______________________________.

rheiddiadur <hreidh-YAA-dir>
[hrəɪˡjɑˑdɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL rheiddiaduron <hreidh-ya-DII-ron>
[hrəɪjaˡdiˑrɔn]
1
radiator = device for dissipating heat and cooling engine in a motor car

2
radiator = device for radiating heat into a room, for example, pipes or ducts for circulating steam or hot water or hot air

ETYMOLOGY: (rheiddi-, stem of the verb rheiddio = to radiate) + (-adur noun-forming suffix, indicating a device)

:_______________________________.

rheidiau <HREID-yai, -ye>
[ˡhrəɪdjaɪ, -ɛ] (plural noun)
1
needs; plural of rhaid

:_______________________________.

Rheidol <HREI-dol>
[ˡhrəɪdɔl] (f)
1
Gwlrheidol
Street name (as Gwl Rheidol) in Penparcau, Aberystwyth (county of Ceredigion)
= view of the river Rheidol
(gwl = view) + ( Rheidol = river name )
:_______________________________.

rheilffordd, rheilffyrdd <HREIL-fordh, HREIL-firdh>
[ˡhrəɪlfɔr, ˡhrəɪlfɪr] (feminine noun)
1
railway

2 gorsaf reilffordd plural gorsafoedd rheilffordd (USA: railroad station, railroad depot) (Englandic: railway station) = stopping place for passengers on a railway

rhwydwaith rheilffyrdd railway network

Rheilffordd Dyffryn Conwy Conwy Valley Railway

Rheilffordd Ffestiniog Ffestiniog Railway

Rheilffordd Eryri Welsh Highland Railway

:_______________________________.

rheilgar <HREIL-gar>
[ˡhrəɪlgar] feminine noun
PLURAL rheilgeir <HREIL-geir>
[ˡhrəɪlgəɪr]
1
railcar = single passenger coach with its own power unit

ETYMOLOGY: (rheil = rail) + soft mutation + (car = car, wagon); a calque on the English word railcar

:_______________________________.

rheina <HREI-na>
[ˡhrəɪna] (pronoun)
1
those

:_______________________________.

Rheinallt <HREI-nalht>
[ˡhrəɪnaɬt] (masculine noun)
1
mans name = Reginald

:_______________________________.

rheini <HREI-na>
[ˡhrəɪna] pronoun
1
those (not in view)

:_______________________________.

rheithfarn, rheithfarnau <HREITH-varn, hreith-VAR-nai, -e>
[ˡhrəɪθvarn, hrəɪθˡvarnaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
verdict
cyflwyno'r rheithfarn i'r llys present the verdict to the court

ETYMOLOGY: (rheith- penult form of rhaith = law) + soft mutation + (barn = opinion)

:_______________________________.

rheithgor, rheithgorau <HREITH-gor, hreith-GOO-rai, -e>
[ˡhrəɪθgɔr, hrəɪθˡgoˑraɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
jury

ETYMOLOGY: rheithgor = rheithgordd (rheith- penult form of rhaith = law) + soft mutation + (cordd = group of people)

:_______________________________.

rhelyw <HREE-liu>
[ˡhreˑlɪʊ] (pronoun)
1
y rhelyw the rest

:_______________________________.

rhen <HREEN>
[ˡhreːn]
1 colloquial contraction of yr hen the old

Rhaid cadw rhen iaith yn fyw (= cadw yr hen iaith yn fyw) The Welsh language (the old language) must be kept alive

2 Rhen Ysgol street name in Caergeiliog (county of Ynys Mn) = yr hen ysgol the old school

3 especially in vocatives;
rhen law my friend, my old friend (the old hand)
rhen chwaer my dear (the old sister)

:_______________________________.

rhenc <HRENGK>
[ˡhrɛŋk]
PLURAL rhenciau, rhenci <HRENGK-yai, -ye, HRENG-ki>
[ˡhrɛŋkjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡhrɛŋkɪ]
(North Wales)
1
row
mewn rhenc in a row

2 (haymaking) windrow, a row of raked sun-dried grass

3 row of houses
(Y) Rhencnewydd street name in Niwbwrch, county of Mn (Postal code: LL61 6SB)
It means (the) new row rhenc + newydd

ETYMOLOGY: English rank < Old English ranc (adjective = straight, noble).
In some words from English a was heard as Welsh e

E.g. het = hat
:_______________________________.

rheng, rhengoedd <HRENG, HRE-ngoidh, -odh>
[hrɛŋ, ˡhrɛeŋɔɪ, -ɔ] (feminine noun)
1
rank, row

:_______________________________.

rheng flaen, rhengoedd blaen <hreng VLAIN, HRE-ngoidh, -odh, BLAIN>
[ˡhrɛŋ ˡvlaɪn, ˡhrɛŋɔɪ, -ɔ, ˡblaɪn] (feminine noun)
1
(rugby) the front row (of a team on the field)

:_______________________________.

rhent, rhenti <HRENT, HREN-ti>
[hrɛnt, ˡhrɛntɪ] (masculine noun)
1
rent

2 rheolaeth ar renti rent control (control on rents)

:_______________________________.

rhentu <HREN-ti>
[ˡhrɛntɪ] (verb)
1
to rent

:_______________________________.

rheol <HREE-ol>
[ˡhreˑɔl] feminine noun
PLURAL rheolau <hre-OO-lai, -e>
[hrɛˡoˑlaɪ, -ɛ]
1
rule = regulation governing conduct or procedure
cadwr rheolau observe the rules
yn groes ir rheolau against the rules

bod yn groes ir rheolau be against the rules
yn l y rheolau according to the rules

2 rule = of something which normally happens
fel rheol as a rule

3 rheol y ffordd the rule of the road = keeping to the left; road users move to the left on meeting to allow each other to pass, and to overtake move out to the right

4 Maer eithriad yn brawf ar y rheol The exception proves the rule (the exception is a test on the rule)

5 rule = mathematical method for calculating or problem solving

6 y rheol euraid the golden rule

7 rheolaur gm rules of the game

8 rheolau a rheoliadau rules and regulations

9 bod yn rheol ac nid yn eithriad be the rule, not an exception

ETYMOLOGY: probably from Latin; rheol < rhyol < rhywol < rhwyol < rhwyghol < British < Latin rgula (= rule)

British regularly gives wy

g lenites to gh between vowels

:_______________________________.

Y Rheol <ə HREE-ol>
[ə ˡhreˑɔl] feminine noun

1 Place name. This is Yr Heol (= the farmyard), with wrong division.

yr | heol > y | rheol

It occurs also as Y Rhewl

yr | hewl > y | rhewl

Y Rheol.
SO0256. Farm south of Y Bontnewydd ar Wysg, Powys.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=230792

:_______________________________.

rheolaeth <hre-OO-laith, -leth>
[hrɛˡoˑlaɪθ, hrɛˡoˑlɛθ] (feminine noun)
1
control
rheolaeth ar renti rent control

2 rheolaeth gaeth strict control
rheolaeth lac lax control

:_______________________________.

rheolaidd <hre-OO-laidh, ledh>
[hrɛˡoˑlaɪ, -lɛ] adj
1
regular

ETYMOLOGY: (rheol = rule, regulation) + (-aidd element to form adjectives)


:_______________________________.

rheoledig <hre-o-LEE-dig>
[hrɛɔˡleˑdɪg] adjective
1
controlled
ffrwydrad rheoledig controlled explosion

2
anrheoledig involuntary = not subject to the control of the will
cyhyryn anrheoledig involuntary muscle

ETYMOLOGY: (rheol-, stem of rheoli = to control) + (-edig suffix for forming a past participle adjective)

:_______________________________.



rheoleiddio <hre-o-LEIDH-yo>
[hrɛɔˡləɪjɔ] verb
1
regulate
Swyddfa Rheoleiddio Trydan Office of Electricity Regulation, body to regulate the electricity industry, promote competition, and protect the interests of electricity consumers

ETYMOLOGY: (rheol = rule, regulation) + (-eiddio element to form verbs)

:_______________________________.

rheolfa <hre-OL-va>
[hrɛˡɔlva] masculine noun
PLURAL rheolfydd, rheolfaoedd <hre-ol-VEIDH, hre-ol-VAA-oidh, -odh>
[hrɛɔlˡvəɪ, hrɛɔlˡvɑˑɔɪ, - ɔ]
1
checkpoint

ETYMOLOGY: (rheol-, stem of rheoli = to control) + (-fa noun-forming suffix, indicating a place)


:_______________________________.

rheolfwrdd <hre-OL-vurdh>
[hrɛˡɔlvʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL rheolfyrddau hre-ol-vər-dhe
[hrɛɔlˡvəraɪ, -ɛ]
1
control panel, instrument panel

ETYMOLOGY: (rheol-, stem of rheoli = to control) + soft mutation + (-bwrdd = board, panel)

:_______________________________.

y Rheol Gymreg <ə HREE-ol gəm-RAIG>
[ə ˡhreˑɔl gəmˡraɪg] (feminine noun)
1
The Welsh Rule, introduced at the 1950 National Eisteddfod. It stipulated that the only official language of this Welsh-language festival was to be Welsh. Previously there had been an absurd situation where events had often been introduced in English (to please the English-speaking gentry, the crachach (qv), pro-English local government officials, visitors from England, etc.)
See: ffr-ddy-seic-of-awr-Inglish-ffrens (for the sake of our English friends)



:_______________________________.

rheoli <hre-OO-li>
[hrɛˡoˑlɪ] (verb)
1
to control, to rule
2
rheoli cenhedlu
< ke-NHED-li>
[ kɛˡnhɛdlɪ] contraception

:_______________________________.

rheoliadur, rheoliaduron <hre-ol-YAA-dur, hre-ol-ya-DII-ron>
[hrɛɔlˡjɑˑdʊr, hrɛɔljaˡdiˑrɔn] (masculine noun)
1
controller (machine)

2 rheoliadur calon, rheoliaduron calon hre ol YA dur KA lon, hre ol ya DI ron KA lon heart pacemaker


:_______________________________.

rheolwr, rheolwyr <hre-OO-lur, hre-OL-wir>
[hrɛˡoˑlʊr, hrɛˡɔlwɪr] (masculine noun)
1
manager, director
rheolwr theatr theatre manager

:_______________________________.

rheolwr banc bangk
[baŋk] masculine noun
PLURAL rheolwyr banc
1
bank manager

:_______________________________.

rheolydd <hre-OO-lidh>
[hrɛˡoːˑlɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL rheolyddion <hre-o-LƏDH-yon>
[hrɛɔˡləjɔn]
1
regulator, control
rheolydd sain sound control, knob etc for raising and lowering the volume on a radio, etc

ETYMOLOGY: (rheol- stem of rheoli = to control, to regulate) + (-ydd noun suffix for indicating a device or an agent)

:_______________________________.

Rheon <HREE-on>
[ˡhreˑɔn]
1 Afon Rheon river in Clynnog

2 male forename (rare) (from the river name)

:_______________________________.

rhes, rhesi / rhesau <HREES, HRE-si, HRE-sai, -se>
[hreːs, ˡhrɛsɪ, ˡhrɛsaɪ, -sɛ] (feminine noun)
1
row

rhes o fwu
row of arches

2 rhes o risiau flight of stairs

3 row of houses
rhes tai a row of houses
rhesi tai rows of houses
rhes tai cyngor a row of council houses
rhes tai Sioraidd a row of Georgian houses
rhes tai o bedwar tŷ a row of four houses ( a row of houses of four houses)


Occurs in street names
..1 In Y Morfa, Llanelli, there is a street called Rhes Gwaith Tn
This is rhes y gwaith tn (the) terrace / row (of) the tinworks

..2 Rhes Parc, Glandyfi, Gwynedd rhes y parc (the) row (of) the park

Rhes y Poplys street name in Aberystwyth seen on the bilingual street sign or on some town maps; in origin a translation of the English name for thios street (Poplar Row)

..3 (group photograph) rhes flaen front row, rhes ganol middle row, rhes gefn back row

4 creigres (f) creigresi reef

(creig- < craig = rock) + soft mutation + (rhes = row)

:_______________________________.

rhesog <HRE-sog>
[ˡhrɛsɔg] (adjective)
1
striped

2 troellwr bach rhesog (Locustella lanceolata) lanceloted warbler

:_______________________________.

rhestr (rhester), rhestrau <HRE-ster, HRE-strai, -e>
[ˡhrɛstɛr, ˡhrɛstraɪ, -trɛ] (feminine noun)
1
list
ar waelod y rhestr at the bottom of the list

2 rhestr ohebu PLURAL rhestrau gohebu mailing list
rhestr bostio PLURAL rhestrau postio mailing list

3 tynnu enw rhywun oddi ar restr take somebodys name off a list, remove somebodys name from a list

:_______________________________.

rheswm, rhesymau HRE sum, hre SƏ me (masculine noun)
1
reason
o fewn rheswm within reason

:_______________________________.

rhesymau <HRE-sum, hre-SƏ-mai, -me>
[ˡhrɛsʊm, hrɛˡsəˡmaɪ, -mɛ] (plural noun)
1
reasons; see rheswm

:_______________________________.

rhesymol <hre-SƏ-mol>
[hrɛˡsəmɔl] (adjective)
1
reasonable

:_______________________________.

rhew <HREU>
[hrɛʊ] (masculine noun)
1
(North) ice
2
clap rhew ice cube

3 ewinrhew e-WIN-hreu [ɛˡwɪnhrɛʊ] (m)
numbness in fingers from cold, frozen fingers; frostbite
(ewin = fingernail, toenail) + soft mutation + (rhew = ice, frost) > ewn-rew > ewinrhew (soft mutation lost in the combination n-r)

:_______________________________.

rhewgell, rhewgelloedd HREU gelh, hreu GE lhodh (feminine noun)
1
freezer

:_______________________________.

rhewin HRE win (masculine noun)
1
(South) stream, ditch

:_______________________________.

Rhewl hreul
1 (SJ1160) village on Afon Clywedog, 3km north-west of Rhuthin
Rhewl Rhuthun

2 (SJ1844) village in the county of Dinbych on the north bank of Afon Dyfrdwy 5km north-west of Llangollen
Rhewl Langollen

3 SJ3034 locality in Shropshire, England 5km north-east of Croesoswallt / Oswestry

4 Rhewl-fawr (SJ1581) locality 3km north-west of Mostyn
Alternative name: Rhewl Mostyn

5 farm at Knolton SJ3738, (county of Wrecsam)
3 km south of Owrtyn SJ3741

ETYMOLOGY: y rhewl < yr hewl < yr heol the farmyard

:_______________________________.

rhewlif hreu-liv masculine noun
PLURAL rhewlifau, rhewlifoedd hreu-lii ve, voidh
1
glacier

ETYMOLOGY: (rhew = ice) + soft mutation + (llif = flow)

:_______________________________.

rhewlifol hreu-lii-vol adjective
1
glacial
uchafbwynt rhewlifol glacial maximum

ETYMOLOGY: (rhewlif = glacera) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

rhewllyd HREU lhid (adjective)
1
freezing, icy

:_______________________________.

..1 rhi hrii feminine noun
1
name of the digraph RH, letter
22 in the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet

:_______________________________.

..2 rhi hrii masculine noun
1
obsolete king

2 occurs in some compound words; and many personal names of British or Celtic origin (Bleiddri, Rhirid, Rhodri,Tudri, etc)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh rhi < British *rks = king; also from Celtic is Irish r (= king).
Related words are Latin rex = king, Sanskrit raj = king

:_______________________________.

rhiain hrii-en feminine noun
PLURAL rhianedd hri-AA-nedh

1
obsolete maiden. Also rhian (qv)

2 y Rhiain Gwsg ə hrii-ain, -en, gusk the Sleeping Beauty

ETYMOLOGY: rhiain < British < Common Celtic rgan, related to Latin rgna (= queen)

Cf Welsh
rhi (= king) < Old Welsh *rhigh < British rg-,

Cf the related Latin word
rex, regis (= king).

Cf the related Welsh name
Rhiannon (qv)

:_______________________________.

rhiain y dŵr hrii-en ə duur feminine noun
PLURAL rhianedd y dŵr hri-AA-nedh ə duur
1
Gerris lacustris, pond skater ((the) maiden (of) the water). Thin-bodied insect with long hairy legs which walks across the surface of ponds

:_______________________________.

rhialtwch hri-al-tukh masculine noun
1
splendour, pomp

2 jollity, fun and games

3 riotous behaviour

:_______________________________.

rhian HRII-an feminine noun
PLURAL rhianedd, rhianod hri-AA-od, hri-AA-nedh

Diminutive form
: rhianen hri-AA-nen
1
(obsolete) maiden , lass, girl

2 (obsolete) queen, noblewoman

3 It occurs as an element in the female forenames Rhianedd, Rhianwen, Rhianydd etc (which appear to be modern coinings)

ETYMOLOGY: (rhian, variant of rhiain = maiden)

rhiain < British < Common Celtic rgan, related to Latin rgna (= queen)

Rhian
instead of the historical form rhiain probably shows the influence of the plural form rhianedd


:_______________________________.

Rhian HRII-an feminine noun
1
womans name

ETYMOLOGY: (rhian, variant of rhiain = maiden)

:_______________________________.

Rhianfa hri-AN-va feminine noun
1
house name

..a/ ABERTAWE: Gerddi Rhianfa (Rhianfa Gardens) and Ln Rhianfa (Rhianfa Lane) in Y Ffynhone, Abertawe / Swansea

..b/ CARMEL: house in Carmel, Gwynedd

..c/ CAERGEILIOG: house on Ffordd Caergybi, Caergeiliog, Ynys Mn

..d/ DEINIOLEN: SH5763 name of a farm in Deiniolen, Gwynedd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/343743

..e/ EDERN: House in Edern, Gwynedd

..f/ TYN-Y-GONGL: farmhouse and street name in Tyn-y-gongl, Ynys Mn

..g/ GLASFRYN: House in Glasfryn, Cerrigydrudion

..h/ HARLECH: House in Heol y Bryn, Harlech, Gwynedd

..i/ LLAN-RUG: house in Llan-rug, Gwynedd

..j/ PORTHAETHWY: Rhianfa or Plas Rhianfa House in Porthaethwy, Ynys Mn (the) mansion (called) Rhianfa)

This was built between 1848 and 1851 as a dower house

(Wikipedia 2009-04-27: A dower house is usually a moderately large house on an estate which is occupied by the widow of the late owner. The widow, often known as the dowager (a widow who holds a title or property, or dower, derived from her deceased husband) usually moves into the dower house, from the larger family house, on the death of her husband, the new heir occupies the now vacated principal house.)

..k/ TALWRN: house in Talwrn, ynys Mn

..l/ Y CEINEWYDD: House in Y Ceinewydd, Ceredigion

..m/ Y PONCIAU: house in Y Ponciau, Wrecsam

..n/ Y GROESLON: House in Y Groeslon, Gwynedd

..o/ Y RHYL: House yn Ffordd Russell, Y Rhyl, Conwy

ETYMOLOGY: (rhian, variant of rhiain = maiden) + (-fa = place)

The word seems to be from the 1800s.

QUERY: Is it dower house, as in the house above called Rhianfa or Plas Rhianfa in Porthaethwy / Menai Bridge? And is this the first eample of its use, and the nwme later became popular as a house name because of its connotation of a fine or splendid house?

Plas Rhianfa was designed by Sir John Hay Williams, and he took his inspiration from the Chateau De Blois in the Loire Valley in France. It dates from 1849 and was built as a summer retreat for Sir John Hay Williams wife and daughters from Bodelwyddan Castle.

Rhianfa at Glyn Garth, Anglesey was one of the family homes of the Williams family of Bodelwyddan, Flintshire. The house was built on the site of a former tenement called Brynmelyn, originally part of the Ty Fry Estate of which Margaret Williams (1768-1835), afterwards first Lady Williams of Bodelwyddan, was heiress. She married John Williams (1761-1830), first baronet of Bodelwyddan, created baronet in 1798, who was a grandson of John Williams of Bodelwyddan, Chief Justice of Brecon and Radnor. Their eldest surviving son, Sir John Hay Williams (1794-1859), second Baronet of Bodelwyddan, inherited the property. He and his wife Lady Sarah (d. 1876) built the house, Rhianfa, in 1849-
1850.

Quoted from: Bangor University / Rhianfa Estate Papers

http://www.archivesnetworkwales.info/cgi-bin/anw/fulldesc_nofr?inst_id=39&coll_id=10443&expand=

:_______________________________.

rhiangerdd hri-AN-gerdh [hrɪˡangɛr] feminine noun
PLURAL rhiangerddi
<hri-an-GER-dhi> [hrɪanˡgɛrɪ]
1
love poem, poem in praise of a young woman

ETYMOLOGY: (rhian = maiden) + soft mutation + (cerdd = poem)

NOTE: This form of the word was popular in the 1800s, though historically it is rhieingerdd (qv)

:_______________________________.

Rhiannon hri-a-non feminine noun
1
womans name

ETYMOLOGY: queen. British *rgant-n- > British > Old Welsh rhi|ghan|nhon

Equivalent to modern Welsh elelments (rhiann-) + (-on augmentive suffix, often found in names of deities)

The nt- in British is the reason for the double -nn- in the Welsh form

A related word is rhian (= maiden, lady, queen). This though was originally rhiain, from Common Celtic and British rgan. Related to Latin rgna (= queen)

Derivatives of rhian have a single n: rhianen, rhianedd, rhianod;

rhianen (= [little] womn, [little] girl)

rhianod
(= women, girls)

rhianedd
(= women, girls) < British rganijas

rhiain
most likely became rhian under the influence of the plural form rhianedd
:_______________________________.

rhiant hrii-ant masculine noun
PLURAL rhieni hri-ee-ni
1
parent

2 cymdeithas rieni ac athrawon PLURAL cymdeithasau rhieni ac athrawon parent-teacher association

ETYMOLOGY: the singular form rhiant is recent in Welsh

Cf the obsolete word lliant (flood, stream), plural llienni (equivalent to Old Welsh lliant + plural suffix i)

But Old Welsh did not have a singulat form rhiant

(rhiant) + (plural suffix -i) would have given rhient-i > rhien-nhi > rhienni (loss of h) > rhieni (unusual reduction of nn to n).

In fact, the derivation is (rhy = pro, before) + soft mutation + (form related to geni = be born) = born before, as in Latin progenitor - person born before, ancestor

:_______________________________.

rhiant maeth HRII-ant MAITH masculine noun
PLURAL rhieni maeth hri-EE-ni MAITH
1
foster parent (parent (of) fosterage / nourishment, food)

:_______________________________.

Rhianwen hri-an-wen feminine noun
1
womans name

:_______________________________.

Rhianydd hri-aa-nidh feminine noun
1
womans name

:_______________________________.

rhibidirs <HRI-bi-di-REES>
[hrɪbɪdɪˡreːs] masculine noun
1
string, line, row, list, one (thing) after another;

Ar ddiwedd y ffilm roedd rhibidirs o enwau
At the end of the film there was a long list of names

ETYMOLOGY: < rhibyn di res; (rhibyn = row) + (di = meaningless element) + soft mutation + (rhes = row)

:_______________________________.

rhibyn <HRII-bin>
[ˡhriˑbɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL rhibyniau <hri-BƏN-yai, -e>
[hrɪˡbənjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
(cloth) strip

2
South-east Wales stretch = long way
Maen ripin o ffordd o man yn
Its a long way from here

3
South-east Wales
ripin o dai row of houses

4
mynd yn rhibyn (go as a string)
walk in Indian file, walk in single file

ETYMOLOGY: rhib- probably from English rib (= bone of the ribcage)

NOTE: in South-east Wales, ripin, plural ribina
(Query: Rhubina, farm name, Maerun, Caer-dydd is this ribina?)

:_______________________________.

rhieddog <hri-EE-dhog>
[hrɪˡeˑɔg] adjective
1
noble, magnificent, majestic, glorious

Gynt bygwth bu rhyw luoedd rheddog / Ein rhyddid an tiroed (Chwech Englyn I Gastell Y Faerdref. Ioan Ddu. Yr Eisteddfod Ionawr 1865, tudalen 372)
In the past some majestic armies threatened our freedom and our lands

ceisiodd y llywyd rhiddog gan y Parch. J. GRIFFITH, sgrifenydd y Gymdeithas Gymraidd, i ddarllain hanes gweithrediadau y Gymdeithas
the noble president tried to persuade the secretary of the Cambrian Society to read the history of the activities of the Society
t. 94 Eos Dyfed, sef rhai or cyfansoddiadau a anfonwyd i eisteddfod Caerfyrddin
Medi 24, 25 1823. Caerfyrddin 1824.

ETYMOLOGY: (rhiedd = glory, majesty) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

rhieingerdd hri-EIN-gerdh
[hrɪˡəɪngɛr] feminine noun
PLURAL rhieingerddi
<hri-ein-GER-dhi> [hrɪəɪnˡgɛrɪ]
1
love poem, poem in praise of a young woman

2 Rhieingerdd
Poem by Syr John Morris-Jones (1864-1929)

Dau lygad disglair fel dwy em / Two bright eyes like two gems
Sydd im hanwylyd i / My love has (are to my darling)
Ond na bu em belydrai rioed / But there was never a gem that shone (radiated)
Mor fwyn i llygaid hi / As lovingly (gently, dearly, lovingly) as her eyes

Am wawr ei gwddf dywedyd wnawn / For the brilliance (brilliance, brightness; dawn, daybreak) of her neck I would say
Mair cann claerwynnaf yw, / That it is the brightest whiteness (claearwyn = brilliant white)
Ond bod rhyw lewych gwell na gwyn, /
But there is a certain splendour better than white
Anwylach yn ei liw. /
[That is] dearer in its colour.

Mae holl dyneraf liwiaur rhos / All the tenderest colours of the rose
Yn hofran ar ei grudd;
/ Hover on her cheeks;
Maei gwefus fel pe cawsaii lliw
Her lip is as if it had got its colour
O waed y grawnwin rhudd. /
From the blood of the red grapes

A chlir felyslais ar ei min /
And a clear sweet voice on her lip
A glywir megis cn, / is heard like a song
Y gloyw ddŵr yn tincial dros /
The sparkling water (shining, bright, sparkling) tinkling over
Y cerrig gwynion mn.
/ the small white stones

A chain y seiniar hen Gymraeg / And splendidly the ancient Welsh language sounds
Yn ei hyfrydlais hi; /
In her pleasant voice
Mae iaith bereiddiar ddaear hon /
The sweetest language on this earth
Ar enau ngharaid i. /
On the mouth of my sweetheart.

A synior wyf mai s
ŵn yr iaith / And Im wondrous that it is the sound of the langauge
Wrth lithro dros ei min, / as it flows over her lips (slips over her lip)
Roes iw gwefusaur lluniaidd dro, /
That gave her lips the comely (shapely, comely) form (turn),
A lliw a blas y gwin. / And the colour and taste of wine

ETYMOLOGY: (rhiein- = penult form of rhiain = maiden) + soft mutation + (cerdd = poem)
NOTE: in the 1800s, a variant rhiangerdd was in use

:_______________________________.

rhieni <hri-EE-ni>
[hrɪˡəɪngɛr]
1
plural form = parents. See rhiant

:_______________________________.

rhif, rhifau <HRIIV, HRII-vai, -e>
[hriːv, ˡhriˑvaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
number

:_______________________________.

rhifair <HRIIV-air> [ˡhriˑvaɪr] (m)
PLURAL rhifeiriau
<hriv-EIR-yai, -e> [hrɪvˡəɪrjaɪ, -ɛ]
1 number = numeral written as a word
ail: rhifair trefnol y rhifol dau ail (second) - the ordinal number of the number dau (two)

ETYMOLOGY: (rhif = number) + soft mutation + (gair = word)

:_______________________________.

rhifo <HRII-vo>
[ˡhriˑvɔ] (verb)
1
to count

:_______________________________.

rhifol <HRII-vol> [ˡhriˑvɔl] adj
1 numerical
data rhifol numerical data
sgiliau rhifol numerical skills

ETYMOLOGY: (rhif = nmero) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

rhifolyn <hri-VOO-lin> [hrɪˡvoˑlɪn] (m)
PLURAL rhifolion
<hri-VOL-yon> [hrɪˡvɔljɔn]

1 numeral = symbol used to represent a number
rhifolyn Rhufeinig Roman number
rhifolyn Arabaidd Arabic numeral
rhifolyn deuaidd binary number

ETYMOLOGY: (rhifol = (adj) numeral) + (-yn suffix to make a noun from an adjective)
:_______________________________.

rhifyn <HRII-vin>
[ˡhriˑvɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL rhifynnau <hri--nai, -e>
[hrɪˡvənaɪ, -ɛ]

1
(periodical) copy, edition

yn rhifyn Medi 11eg (yr unfed ar ddeg) or Faner
in the September 11 edition of the Faner

yn y rhifyn diweddaraf or cylchgrawn
in the latest edition of the magazine

l-rifyn (periodical) back copy, back edition, back issue, back number

2
edition = a TV programme out of a series

yn rhifyn yr wythnos nesaf o Y Pen Draw
in next weeks edition of Y Pen Draw

ETYMOLOGY: (rhif = number) + (-yn diminutive suffix)

:_______________________________.

rhigian <HRIG-yan>
[ˡhrɪgjan] verb
1
(county of Penfro) to tease

ETYMOLOGY: English to rig (= to tease)
NOTE: in the county of Caerfyrddin rigan

:_______________________________.

rhigol, rhigolau <HRII-gol, hri-GOO-lai, -e>
[ˡhriˑgɔl, hrɪˡgoˑlaɪ, -ɛ] feminine noun
1
groove; rut

2 rhigol y bronnau cleavage between a womans breasts (the groove / cleavage (of) the breasts)

:_______________________________.

rhimyn <HRI-min>
[ˡhrɪmɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL rhimynnau <hri--nai, -e>
[hrɪˡmənaɪ, -ɛ]
1
narrow strip
rhimyn main o dir narrow strip of land
rhimyn llwyd y ffordd yn y pellter the grey strip representing the road in the distance
rhimyn o frethyn a strip of cloth

2
roadside verge
Roedd y car wedii barcio ar rimyn o borfa wrth fn y clawdd yn y ln unig
The car was parked on a grass verge by the hedgebank (base of the hedge) in the isolated lane

3
band in the sky
Yr oedd rhimyn main o gochni ar y gorwel
There was a narrow band of red on the horizon

Gwelid rhimyn glas yn yr wybren gymylog
A blue band could be seen (on the horizon) in the cloudy sky

4
rim, edge
rhimyn y pownd the edge of the reservoir

ETYMOLOGY: (rhim = rim, fringe) + (-yn diminutive suffix); rhim is very likely to be from English rim (= edge) < Old English rima

:_______________________________.

rhin HRIIN
[hriːn] (feminine noun)
PLURAL rhinion / rhiniau <HRIN-yon, HRIN-yai, -e>
[ˡhrɪnjɔn, ˡhrɪnjgaɪ, -ɛ]
1
essence

2 (obsolete) secret
rhin deuddyn, cyfrin yw; rhin tridyn, cannyn ai clyw secret de dos s perills secret de tres no val res (secret de dues persones, (it is) secret that-it-is; secret of three people, one hundred people will hear it))

:_______________________________.

rhinician <HRINGK-yan>
[ˡhrɪŋkjan] (verb)
1
(teeth) chatter (from the cold)

:_______________________________.

rhinflas <HRIN-vlas>
[ˡhrɪnvlas] masculine noun
PLURAL rhinflasau <hrin-VLA-sai, -e>
[hrɪnˡvlasaɪ, -ɛ]
1
(food) essence = oily substance to give flavour

ETYMOLOGY: (rhin = essence) + soft mutation + (blas = taste)

:_______________________________.

rhinio <HRIN-yo>
[ˡhrɪnjɔ] verb
1
to secrete

ETYMOLOGY: (rhin = essence) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

rhiniog, rhiniogau <HRIN-yog, hrin-YOO-gai, -e>
[ˡhrɪnjɔg, hrɪnˡjoˑgaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
threshold

:_______________________________.

rhinws <HRII-nus>
[ˡhriˑnʊs] (masculine noun)
1
(north-west Wales) lock-up, small building for temporary detention of law-breakers (usually freestanding, small, often circular, with a single door and a narrow slit window)

(1) In the parish of Llanffinnan (Ynys Mn / Anglesey) , six miles west of Biwmaris / Beaumaris, there is a field called Cae Rhinws (caer rhinws - (the) field (of) the lock-up)
(2) There is also a house called Caerhinws (Cae Rhinws) in Pen-y-bonc, Llanfechell, near Amlwch (Ynys Mn / Anglesey)

Rhinws is the name by which the former police station in Bodedern is known

ETYMOLOGY: Also rheinws. Probably English roundhouse (a synonym of lock-up).
Thus possibly English dialect *reyndhouse [reind + hus] > *reynous [rein + us] > Welsh reinws > rheinws > rhinws

An example of an English dialect where [au] was pronounced [ei] would seem to be that of Cheshire, on the northern border with Wales.

[ Olde Cheshire Dialecte. http://www.cheshirelittlefolk.co.uk/Old_dialect.htm
raind-haise : jail (round house). ]
This seems to represent [reind-heiz]

[ From the same source, other examples of English [au] pronounced as [ei] in Cheshire:
by nai : by now (apparently representing [nei]) ]


Although very distant from Wales, such a feature is also seen in the dialect of Portsmouth (referred to below as Pompey, the nickname for the city of Portsmouth):

Gosport got its nickname...when Turkish prisoners had been incarcerated there... The local pronunciation was more like Turk Teyn, and at this point a note on the Pompey dialect might be in order... The most distinctive feature of Pompey-speak... is its way of turning ow sounds (as in town, round, brown) into something like ay, but less broad, ey, I think, is better. People in Pompey go reynd the corner and deyn the pub.
P.45 / A Cure for Gravity / Joe Jackson / 2000

:_______________________________.

Rhisiart <HRI-shart>
[ˡhrɪʃart] (masculine noun)
1
mans name = Richard

:_______________________________.

rhincian <HRINK yan
(verb)
1
(teeth) chatter (from the cold)

:_______________________________.

rhipyn, rhipynnau <HRI-pin, hri-PI-nai, -ne > [ˡhrɪpɪn, hrɪˡpɪnaɪ, -nɛ] (masculine noun)
1 rise (gentle rise in an road)

Penyrhipyn SN2835 east of Cwm-cych, Sir Benfro / Pembrokeshire

pen y rhipyn (the) top (of) the rise

ETYMOLOGY: Apparently (rhip) + (diminutive suffix yn). ?The same as the Welsh word rhib, rhip which has among other meanings strip of land, a stretch, a distance; this is likely to be a borrowing of English rib (= long curved bone)

:_______________________________.

rhith, rhithau <HRIITH, HRII-thai, -e> [hriːθ, ˡhriˑθaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
form, appearance, guise

2
yn rhith in the guise of, disguised as
Dihangodd yn rhith ficer He escaped disguised as a vicar

Also: dan rith in the guise of, disguised as
dan rith bugail disguised as a shepherd

:_______________________________.

rhithio <HRITH-yo>
[ˡhrɪθjɔ] verb

1 transform (by sorcery, etc)

2 shape, form

3 (Arfon) imagine, suppose, think

4 be transformed

5 (South-east) pretend
rhithio bod yn ffrind pretend to be a friend

6 (Ceredigion) (South-east) (fruit - apple, pear, plum, cherry, etc) take shape, form (from a bud), set

7 (ghost) appear
Also ymrithio

8 ymrithio appear (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (rhithio = shape, form; be shaped, be formed; transfigure; be transfigured)

ETYMOLOGY: (rhith = illusion) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

rhith-weld <HRIITH-weld>
[ˡhriˑθwɛld] verb
1
halllucinate

ETYMOLOGY: to illusion-see (rhith = illusion) + soft mutation + (gweld = see)

:_______________________________.

rhithwelediad <hrith-we-LED-yad>
[hrɪθwɛˡlɛdjad] masculine noun
PLURAL rhithwelediadau <hrith-we-led-YAA-dai, -de>
[hrɪθwɛlɛdˡjɑˑdaɪ, -dɛ]
1
hallucination

ETYMOLOGY: (rhithweled- stem of rhithweld = hallucinate) + (-iad suffix for forming nouns)

The stem is weled- since the verbnoun gweld (= to see) is in fact a reduced form: gweld / gweld < gweled

:_______________________________.

rhithweledigaeth <hrith-we-le-DIG-yaith, -eth>
[hrɪθwɛlɛˡdɪgjaɪθ, -ɛθ] masculine noun
PLURAL rhithweledigaethau <hrith-we-le-di-GEI-thai, -e>
[hrɪθwɛlɛdɪˡgəɪθaɪ, -ɛ]
1
hallucination

ETYMOLOGY: (rhithweledig = hallucinated, rhithwel- + -edig, past participle of rhithweld) + (-aeth suffix per formar substantius)

:_______________________________.

rhithweledol <hrith-we-LEE-dol>
[hrɪθwɛˡleˑdɔl] adjective
1
hallucinatory

ETYMOLOGY: (rhithwelediad = hallucination ) + soft mutation + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

The stem is weled- since the verbnoun gweld (= to see) is in fact a reduced form: gweld / gweld < gweled
:_______________________________.

rhithyn
<HRII-thin>
[ˡhriˑθɪn] masculine noun
1
particle, least bit; atom (= least bit), ounce (= least bit), shred (= least bit), grain (= least bit), etc
cyhuddo rhywun heb rithyn o brawf
accuse somebody without a shred of evidence, with no proof at all

Nid oes iddor rhithyn lleiaf o werth na phwys
It has no value or importance whatsoever

Nid oes rhithyn o nerth yn ei ddadl
Theres not an ounce of strength in his argument

Nid oes rhithyn o wirionedd yn ei ddystiolaeth
Theres not a grain of truth in his testimony

Nid oes rhithyn o olwg gennyf arno (oos dim rithyn o olwg gin i arno)
I cant bear him (there is not a particle of sight with me on him)

Er nad oes gen i rithyn o ddiddordeb yn y byd bocsio...
Although I dont have the slighest interest in boxing...

Does dim rhithyn o amheuaeth taw fe ai gwnaeth
Theres not a ounce of doubt that hes the one who did it / that hes the culprit


ETYMOLOGY: (rhith = illusion) + soft mutation + (-yn diminutive suffix added to nouns)

:_______________________________.

rhiw, rhiwiau <HRIU, HRIU-yai, -ye>
[hrɪʊ, ˡhrɪʊjaɪ, -jɛ] (feminine noun)
1
slope

2 (South) mynd lan rhiw go uphill

3
Place name: Pen-y-rhiw ((the) top (of) the slope)
(Also Pen-rhiw, with the linking definite article omitted)

..a/ Pen-rhiw house name in Bangor (county of Gwynedd) (in the list of members in The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion 1961 / Part 1) (Pen Rhiw)

:_______________________________.

Rhiwabon <hriu-AA-bon>
[hrɪʊˡɑˑbɔn]
1
SJ3043 locality in Wrecsam county. Called by the English Ruabon, which probably represents a local Welsh pronunciation: rhiw [hrɪʊ] (= slope) is often reduced to rhw [rʊ] in place names when it is the first element, and therefore unstressed; the same occurs with rhyw [hrɪʊ] (= some) in words such as rhywbeth [ˡhrɪʊθ] , in the south-east as rwpath [ˡruˑpaθ] , though in this case this syllable bears the stress.

2
a parish at this place

ETYMOLOGY: (the) slope / hill (of) Mabon, Rhiwabon < Rhiwfabon < rhiw Fabon
(rhiw = slope, hill) + soft mutation + (Mabon = mans name)

:_______________________________.

rhiwbob <HRIU-bob>
[ˡhrɪʊbɔb] (masculine noun)
1
rhubarb

:_______________________________.

Rhiwderyn <hriu-DEE-rin>
[hrɪʊˡdeˑrɪn] feminine noun
1
ST2687 locality in the county of Casnewydd

(delwedd 7534)

ETYMOLOGY: Apparently (from its present form) rhiwr deryn hill of the bird > rhiw deryn, with the typical loss of the linking definite article (here as r), as in many other place names

(rhiw = hill, slope) + (r definite article) + (deryn, colloquial form of aderyn = bird)
But earlier forms might show a different origin for the name.

:_______________________________.

Rhiw Fer <hriu-VER>
[hrɪʊ ˡveːr]
1 rhiwr fer ((the) hill / slope / rise (of) the fir trees)

..1/ Rhiw-fer +++rhiw y fer - ((the) hillside (of) the fir trees) street name in Ffosygerddinen (county of Caerffili)
Pen-rhiw-fer
pen +++rhiw y fer - ((the) end (of) the hill / slope / rise (of) the fir trees) - street name in Ffosygerddinen (county of Caerffili)

..2/ Rhiw Fer rhiw y fer - ((the) hillside (of) the fir trees) between the villages of Nant-y-moel and Pontycymer (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

..3/ Heol Pen-rhiw-fer - street name in Tonyrefail (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

ETYMOLOGY: (rhiw = slope) + (yr, r = definite article) + (fer = fir trees)
rhiwr fer > rhiw fer (loss of the linking definite article)

:_______________________________.

rho <HROO>
[hroː] adverb
South-west Wales (county of Penfro and part of Caerfyrddin)
1
Causes soft mutation of a following adjective.
rho fach too small (bach = small)
rho fawr too big (mawr = big)
rho lydan too wide (llydan = wide)
rho dost too painful (tost = painful)

ETYMOLOGY: See rhy, of which it is a variant. South-east Wales has rw

:_______________________________.

Rhobell <HROO-belh> [ˡhroˑbɛɬ]
1 mountain name

..a/ Y Rhobell Fawr ə HROO-belh vaur
[ə ˡhroˑbɛɬ ˡvaʊr] SH7825 mountain in the parish of Llanfachreth, district of Meirionydd (county of Gwynedd) 734m, 2408ft

(great / greater Rhobell)

(Rhobell mountain name) + soft mutation + (mawr = big)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/910 copar mynydd / mountain summit

..b/ Y Rhobell Ganol ə HROO-belh GAA nol
[ə ˡhroˑbɛɬ ˡgɑˑnɔl] SH7827 mountain in the parish of Llanfachreth, district of Meirionydd (county of Gwynedd)

(middle Rhobell)

(Rhobell mountain name) + soft mutation + (canol = middle)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/478801

3 Rhobell y Big HROO-belh ə BIIG
[ˡhroˑbɛɬ ə ˡbg]

SH7827 mountain in the parish of Llanfachreth, district of Meirionydd (county of Gwynedd)

(the) Rhobell (with) the peak

(Rhobell mountain name) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (pig = peak)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/478103

ETYMOLOGY:
y rhobell < y robell < yr obell < (yr definite article) + soft mutation + (gobell = saddle)

gobell is (go- prefix = under) + sot mutation + (*pell unknown element)

The mountain name is explained as follows:

..a/ (y definite article) + soft mutation + (gobell = saddle) > yr obell (= the saddle)

..b/ Later there was confusion about the word division Yr Obell > Y Robell

..c/ and aspiration has occurred r > rh (Y Robell > Y Rhobell) since the aspirate rh is far more usual than r as an initial consonant, and does not soft-mutate after the definite article as in the case of feminine nouns beginning with c,p,t,g,b,d,m.
hence y rhyd (= the ford), y rhos (= the moor), etc

:_______________________________.

Rhobert <HROO-bert>
[ˡhroˑbɛrt] (masculine noun)
1
Robert

In the final-syllable-e-becomes-a-zones (north-west, south-east) Rhobert is Rhobart (before other changes for example, the loss of h in the south-east)

Colloquially with the loss of the r Rhobet, Rhobat

Mi glywais i Rhobat Gruffydd yn deyd laweroedd o weithia, fod honor (sic) Jehofa tu cefn iw addewidion.
I heard Rhobat Gruffudd say many times that Jehovahs honor was behind his promises
Plant y Gorthrwm / 1908 / Gwyneth Vaughan (= Anne Harriet Hughes 1852-1910 t173


Colloquially with the loss of the h and the r - Robet, Robat

Robat is to be seen too used as a name in its own right rather than a dependent form of Rhobert

2 ap Rhobert (patronymic) > Probert (patronymic, coalesced form). This form Probert became a fixed surname.

ap Rhobert > Probert, English Probert (simplified patronymic retains a vestige of ap)

ap Rhobert > Robert, English Roberts (simplified patronymic discards ap)
:_______________________________.

Rhobin <HROO-bin>
[ˡhroˑbɪn] (masculine noun)
1
Robin (diminutive form of Robert)

2 Rhobin Ddu o Eifion
poets name mentioned in The Origin and Progress of the Gwyneddigion Society of London / William Davies Leathart / 1831

(black-haired Robin from Eifionydd (the south-eastern part of the Llŷn peninsula, from Porthmadog to the river Erch / Aber-erch, beyond which is Pwllheli.)

"In 1792 the bardic meeting took place at Denbigh; but, in consequence of the great success of the two bards, Walter Davies and David Thomas, the Society deemed it necessary to suspend both from competition, for two years. Whether this displeased D. Thomas or not, I am unable to say, but he never again tried for an Eisteddfod prize. The successful bard, on this occasion, was Robert Williams, or Rhobin Ddu o Eifion, whose production was printed, though not one is now to be found in the library, the subject Cyflafan y Beirdd drwy orchymmyn Iorwerth y cyntaf, i.e. the Massacre of the Welsh Bards, by order of Edward the First."

:_______________________________.

rhochian <HROKH-yan>
[ˡhrɔxjan] (verb)
1
grunt

:_______________________________.

rhodd, rhoddion <HROODH, HRODH-yon>
[hroː, ˡhrɔjɔn]
(f)
1
gift, present

2 cymynrodd legacy, bequest
cymynrodd < cymunrodd (cymun = communion ) + soft mutation + ( rhodd = gift, donation)

:_______________________________.

rhodd <HROODH>
[hroː]
adjective
1
given

march rhodd gift horse, horse given as a present

Ni wiw edrych dannedd march rhodd it is not fitting to check the teeth of a gift horse Dont look a gift horse in the mouth, Beggars cant be choosers

If you get something for free you should be thankful that you have been so lucky though some people might begin complaining if they find that what they have been given is not a hundred per cent perfect

NOTE: given; stem of the verb rhoddi (= to give) used as a past participle

:_______________________________.

rhoddwr gwaed <HROO-dhur GWAID>
[ˡhroˑʊr ˡgwaɪd]
PLURAL rhoddwyr gwaed <HRODHwir GWAID>
[ˡhrɔwɪr ˡgwaɪd]
1
blood donor

ETYMOLOGY: (rhoddwr = donor) + (gwaed = blood)

:_______________________________.

rhoddwr morgais, rhoddwyr morgeisi <HRO-dhur MOR-gais, HRODH-wir-mor-GEI-si>
[ˡhroˑʊr ˡmɔrgaɪs, ˡhrɔwɪr mɔrˡgəɪsɪ] (masculine noun)
1
mortgage provider

:_______________________________.

rhoden <HROO-den>
[ˡhroˑdɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL rhodenni <hro-DE-ni>
[ˡhrɔdɛnɪ]
1
rod

2
rod (in retina)

3
(vehicle) rhoden brc, plural rhodenni braciau brake rod

4
fuel = fissile material used in a nuclear reactor
rhoden danwydd, plural rhodenni tanwydd fuel rod

5
rhodfacteriwm rod bacterium

6
rhoden droi plural rhodenni troi stirring rod

7
rhoden fellt plural rhodenni mellt lightning conductor

ETYMOLOGY: (rhod) + (-en diminutive suffix); rhod- < English rod < Old English rodd; cf Norwegian rydda = twig

:_______________________________.

rhodfa <HROD-va>
[ˡhrɔdva] feminine noun
PLURAL rhodfydd <hrod-VEIDH>
[hrɔdˡvəɪ]

1
parade, walk, avenue; street for walking in a town, often tree-lined and with shops

Occurs in street names (often to translate Parade in streets built in the 1800s or 1900s and given English names)

Y Rhodfa
[ə ˡhrɔdva] ((the) parade / walk)
A street in Porthtywyn / Burry Port (county of Caerfyrddin)

Rhodfa Mair
[ˡhrɔdva ˡmaɪr] ((the) parade / walk (of) (Saint) Mary)
A street in Bangor (county of Gwynedd) (St. Marys Avenue in English)

Y Rhodfa Newydd
[ə ˡhrɔdva ˡnɛʊɪ] ((the) new parade / walk)
A street in Cwm-bach, Aber-dr (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

Rhodfar De
[ˡhrɔdvar ˡdeː] ((the) parade / walk (of) the south)
..a/ A street in Aberystwyth (county of Ceredigion) (South Marine Terrace in English)
..a/ A street in Pen-sarn, Abergele (county of Conwy) (South Parade in English)
..c/ A street in Dinbych y Pysgod (county of Penfro) (South Parade in English)

Rhodfar Drindod
[ˡhrɔdvar ˡdrɪndɔd] ((the) parade / walk (of) the trinity)
A street in Llandudno (county of Conwy) (Trinity Avenue in English)

Rhodfar Dwyrain
[ˡhrɔdvar ˡdʊɪraɪn] ((the) parade / walk / avenue (of) the east)
..a/ road in Caer-dydd (Eastern Avenue in English)
..b/ A street in Y Rhyl (county of Dinbych) (Eastern Parade)

Rhodfar Eos
[ˡhrɔdvar ˡeˑɔs] ((the) parade / walk (of) the nightingale)
A street in Ynysforgan (county of Abertawe)

Rhodfar Ficerdy
[ˡhrɔdvar vɪˡkɛrdɪ] ((the) parade / walk / avenue (of) the vicarage)
A street in Llandudno (county of Conwy) (Vicarage Avenue in English)

Rhodfar Gogledd
[ˡhrɔdvar ˡgɔglɛ] ((the) parade / walk (of) the north)
A street in Aberystwyth (county of Ceredigion) (North Parade in English)

Rhodfar Gorllewin
[ˡhrɔdvar gɔrˡɬɛʊɪn] ((the) parade / walk / avenue (of) the west)
..a/ road in Caer-dydd (Western Avenue in English)
..b/ A street in Y Rhyl (county of Dinbych) (Western Parade)

Rhodfar Mr
[ˡhrɔdvar ˡmoːr] ((the) parade / walk (leading to / situated by) the sea)
..a/ A street in Aberystwyth (county of Ceredigion) (Marine Terrace)
..b/ A street in Nefyn (Gwynedd)

Rhodfar Wiwer
[ˡhrɔdvar ˡwiˑwɛr] ((the) parade / walk (of) the squirrel)
A street in Fforest, Pontarddulais (county of Abertawe)

2 riverside walkway, riverside path
Bydd yno rodfa ar hyd yr afon, amgueddfa, siopau, tai bwyta a barau
There will be a walkway alongside the river, a museum, and shops, restaurants and bars

3
drive = scenic route for travellers in a vehicle
Rhodfa Coedwigaeth Cwm-carn Cwm-carn Forest Drive

5 beat = policemans round

ETYMOLOGY: (rhod-, stem of rhodio = to stroll, to walk) + (-fa, suffix = place)

:_______________________________.

Rhodfa Bach HROD-va BAAKH
[ˡhrɔdva ˡbaːx]

1 a street name in Niwbwrch (county of Mn)

ETYMOLOGY: y rhodfa bach (the little walk)
(y definite article) + (rhodfa = walk, promenade) + (bach = little)

In North Wales, after a feminine noun bach remains unmutated.
The expected form would be y rhodfa fach

:_______________________________.

rhodres HROD-res
[ˡhrɔdrɛs]
1
ostentation, swank, pomposity


(delwedd 7367)

:_______________________________.

rhodresu hrod RE si
[hrɔdˡrɛsɪ] (verb)
1
put on airs, give oneself airs

:_______________________________.

Rhodri HROD-ri
[ˡhrɔdrɪ] (feminine noun)
1
mans name

:_______________________________.

rhoi HROI (verb)
1
to give

2
used with actions nouns with -iad, -ad formed from verbs

..B
brwshad brush, brushing = act of using a brush
..rhoi brwshad i (rywbeth) give a brush to something

..C
cribiad comb, combing
..rhoi cribiad ich gwallt give your hair a comb


3 rhoir gyfraith mewn grym apply the law, enforce the law

4
rhoich esgidiau
put on your shoes (give your shoes)

5
rhoi sarhd ym mhen anaf add insult to injury (put (an) insult in (the) top (of an) injury)

6
rhoi clap ar eich dwylo clap your hands together (in expectation) (give a clap on your hands)

7
rhoir troed gorau ymlaenaf put your best foot forward = do your best, go your fastest

8
rhoi gwybod (am rywbeth) i intimate (something) to, inform... of (something)

9
rhoi pethau yn eu trefn sort things out, put things in order (put things in their order)

10
rhoi cennad i give leave to (USA: to furlough) (Englandic: to leave)

11
rhoi rhywun ar bdestal place somebody on a pedestal

12
rhoi ci ar dennyn put a dog on a leash

13
rhoich pig i mewn (i rywbeth) stick your nose into something (give / put your nose...)


14 rhoich cleddyf trwy rywun put your sword through someone, wound or kill someone with a sword

15 rhoir gyfraith ar (rywun) take (someone) to court, prosecute (someone)

16 (North) rhoi edau mewn nodwydd thread a needle (put / give (a) thread in (a) needle)

17 rhoi gwthiad i (rywbeth) give (something) a push / a shove

18 rhoir brc put on the brake

19 rhoi ichi flas och ffisig eich hun give you a taste your own medicine

20 ei rhoi hi (i rywun) attack (someone) = hit, beat ; savagely criticise (someone) (give it to someone)

21 rhoi si ar led bod... spread a rumor that

22 rhoi (rhywun) i orwedd lay (somebody) down, place (somebody) in a lying postion

Rhoddodd hi i orwedd ar ei gwely She laid her down on her bed

23 rhoi cynnig ar try, have a go, try ones hand at, have a go at give something a try (give a try on)
rhoi cynnig ar ffordd arall = try it another way


:_______________________________.

rhoi benthyg hroi BEN thig (verb)
1
to lend, literally give loan (of)...
rhoi benthyg (rhywbeth) i (rywun) lend (something) to (someone)

:_______________________________.

rhoi bwch i hroi BUUKH i (verb)
1
to fuck (give a stag / billy goat to)

:_______________________________.

rhoich bywyd ar antur
1
put your life at risk


ETYMOLOGY: (rhoi = put) + (eich bywyd = your life) + (ar antur = at random, at risk)

:_______________________________.

rhoich pen iw dorri hroikh pen iu do-ri verb
1
risk your neck, stick your neck out, do something risky which might result in failure, say something which might result in criticism or ridicule;
sign your own death warrant
(give / put your head for its cutting off)

:_______________________________.

rhoi chwip din hroi khwip DIIN i (verb)
1
rhoi chwip din (i rywun) (American) to whip someones ass; (Englandic) give someone a good hiding

:_______________________________.

rhoi cynnig hro KƏ nig ar (verb)
1
rhoi cynnig (ar rywbeth) to try (something), to attempt (something)
Literally give / put a try on (something); give / put an attempt on (something)

:_______________________________.

rhoi hwthad i hroi HU thad i (verb)
1
(South Wales) to fuck
hwthad < standard chwythiad = blow, act of blowing, blast, act of blasting

:_______________________________.

rhoi i orffwys hroi ii or-fuis
1
rhoi (rhywun) i orffwys lay someone to rest, bury someone


ETYMOLOGY: (put to resting) (rhoi = give, put) + soft mutation + (gorffwys = (verb) rest, resting)

:_______________________________.

rhoi maldod i hroi MAL dod i (verb)
1
to caress

:_______________________________.

rhoi mwythau i hroi MUI the i (verb)
1
to caress

:_______________________________.

rhoi prawf ar hroi prauv ar
1
try out (an idea), put to the test
Ni roddais brawf ar ei awgrymiad I didnt try out his suggestion
rhoi prawf ar allu rhywun put somebody through his paces (put (a) test on (the) ability (of) somebody)

ETYMOLOGY: (rhoi = give) + (prawf = proof, test) + (ar = on)

:_______________________________.

rhoir gorau i hroir go re i (v)
1
give up (some activity)

ymgyrch rhoir gorau i ysmygu
a campaign to give up smoking

ETYMOLOGY: give the best to; rhoi = give + y gorau = the best

:_______________________________.

rhoi rhwystr ar hroi HRUI stir ar (verb)
1
to frustrate, to block
Literally give / put an obstacle on (something)

:_______________________________.

rhoi sarhd ym mhen anaf hroi sar-haad ə mhen aa-nav
1
add insult to injury

ETYMOLOGY: (put (an) insult on (the) top (of an) injury)
(rhoi = give, put) + (sarhd = insult) + (ym mhen = in (the) head (of), on (the) top (of)) + (anaf = injury)

:_______________________________.

Rholant HRO lant (masculine noun)
1
mans name (Roland).

:_______________________________.

rholio HROL yo (verb)
1
to roll

:_______________________________.

rholstoc hrol-stok masculine noun
1
(railway) rolling stock locomotives, carriages, wagons

ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of English rolling stock; (rhol-, stem of rholio = to roll) + (stoc = stock)

:_______________________________.

Rhonabwy hro NA bui (masculine noun)
1
mans name (obsolete)

:_______________________________.

Rhondda HRON-dha (feminine noun)
1
a river in south-east Wales

ETYMOLOGY: (rondda) < rhondda <
*rhondde < *rhoddne < *rhoddnei < *rhawddnei < rhawdd + suffix nei,

or

(rondda) < rhondda < *rhoddna <*rhoddnai < *rhoddnei < *rhawddnei < rhawdd + suffix nei

The changes in this second sequence are as follows, though this may not be the actual sequence of change between the starting point and the end result

..a/ rhawddnei > rhoddnei

The reduction of the diphthong aw > simple vowel o is a common feature in Welsh; usually in an atonic (i.e. unaccented) syllable, but ther are also many instnaces of the change in a tonic (i.e. accented) syllable too

..b/ rhoddnei > rhoddnai Middle Welsh ei in a final syllable became modern Welsh ai

..c/ rhoddnai > rhoddna In the south-east, the diphthing ai in a final consonant was reduced to a

..d/ rhoddna > rhondda Metathesis the sequence dd-n become n-dd

..e/ rhoddna > rondda Locally in the south-east, rh > r (aspiration is generally absent in the traditional Welsh dialect of the south-east)

:_______________________________.

rhos, rhosydd HROOS, HRO sidh (feminine noun)
1
headland

2 highland, mountain land

3
moor

4
In street names:
Is-y-rhos (below the moor) street name in the village of Caer-bont (SN8011), Aber-craf (county of Powys)

5 rhosan (qv) a diminutive form of rhos
:_______________________________.

Rhos HROOS
1
One of the four kntrevs (cantrefi) (Rhos, Tegeingl, Dyffryn Clwyd, Rhufoniog) of the country of Y Berfeddwlad (the middle country).

Today the land forms part of eastern Conwy county and western Dinbych county: Rhos was possibly a lesser kingdom in the post-Roman period.

Y Berfeddwlad became part of the kingdom of Gwynedd.

..
(delwedd 7334)

The kntrev name survives in the distinguishing tag of three villages here

Llandrillo yn Rhos SH8381 (Englished as Rhos on Sea) (to distinguish from the Llandrillo SJ0377 near Y Bala)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH8381 Llandrillo yn Rhos

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/201301 Llandrillo (Dinbych county)

Llaneilian yn Rhos SH8676 (to distinguish it from the Llaneilian SH4792 in north-east Mn).
The English use the incorrect form Llanelian-yn-Rhs.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/154998 Llaneilian yn Rhos

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/79339 Llaneilian (Ynys Mn)

Betws yn Rhos
SH9073 (to distinguish it from other places called Betws, but perhaps especially Betws to the south-west, itself distinguished with the tag y coed Betws-y-coed, the place called Betws which is by the wood. (betws = church)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/29864 Betws yn Rhos

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH7956 Betws-y-coed

2 Rhos one of the seven kntrevs (Rhos, Pebidiog, Cemais, Emlyn, Gwarthaf, Daugleddau, Penfro) the country (gwlad) of Dyfed


(delwedd 7390)

3 There is also a district in Kernow / Cornwall called Ros (= promontory), in English Roseland (Ros, anglicised as Rose, with the addition of the English word land). It includes the parishes of glos-rs (Philleigh), Grens (Gerrans), Lannsek (St. Just in Roseland) a Lannentnin (St. Anthony in Roseland).


(delwedd 4756)
:_______________________________.

rhos, rhosydd

1 rose. See rhosyn
rhosliw rose-coloured
(rhos - rose
(as a first element in a compound form); usually in older Welsh rhos was plural = roses) + soft mutation + (lliw = colour)

:_______________________________.

rhosan
HRO-san (f)
1 headland; moor

ETYMOLOGY: diminutive form of rhos

(rhos = headland, moor, upland) + (-an diminutive suffix)


:_______________________________.

Y Rhosan ar Wy
HROS-an ar UI
1 Ross on Wye

ETYMOLOGY: (the place called) Y Rhosan (which is on the river) Gwy / Wye

Y Rhosan ar Wy is the name which is given for Ross on Wye in The Welsh Academy English-Welsh Dictionary.

(Y Rhosan) + (ar = on) + soft mutation + (Gwy river name, Wye)

(y definite article) + (rhosan = little headland; little moorland)

NOTE: Although Ross is evidently a name of Welsh origin, Y Rhosan ar Wy may be a recent Cymricisation of the name; or possibly it is a name that was current when the old county of Mynwy / Monmouthshire, and adjoining parts of Herefordshire were Welsh-speaking in the 1800s.

:_______________________________.

Y Rhos Ddiarbed
HROOS dhi-AR-bed
1
In the north of the county of Powys, between Caer-sws and Llandinam, there is land originally called Rhos Ddiabred (literally moor which has been held back / withheld, apparently referring to ownership) (di-, negative prefix) + (abred = release)

Nowadays the name is Rhos Ddiarbed (the result of confusion with the word diarbed = ceaseless, relentless, unrelenting) (di-, negative prefix) + (arbed = to save)



(delwedd 7488)

:_______________________________.

Y Rhos-ddu ə hroos dhii
1
a district on the western side of Wrecsam

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ3351

ETYMOLOGY: the black moor (y = definite article) + (rhos = moor, highland) + soft mutation + (du = black)

:_______________________________.

Y Rhos-fawr ə hroos VAUR (feminine noun)
1
village in Gwynedd, north-west Wales

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH3839

ETYMOLOGY: the great moor (y = definite article) + (rhos = moor, highland) + soft mutation + (mawr = big, great)

:_______________________________.

rhosgoed hros-goid (pl)
1
rhododendren bushes

2
In Cyffordd Llandudno (county of Conwy) there is a street named Cae Rhos Goed, which is possibly Caerhosgoed cae rhosgoed < caer rhosgoed (the) field (of) the rhododendren bushes

The linking definite article is often omitted in place names caer > cae

3
rosewood = Dalbergia, tree with wood of a dark red or purplish coloor used in cabinet making. The wood has a scent similar to that of roses

ETYMOLOGY: (rose-trees) (rhos = roses) + soft mutation + (coed = trees)

:_______________________________.

rhosliw
hros-liu adjective
1 rose-coloured
gruddiau rhosliw rosy cheeks

2 drudwen rosliw PLURAL: drudwy rhosliw (Pastor roseus) pastor starling, rose-coloured starling; Asian bird, black with a pink back and abdomen

ETYMOLOGY: (rhos - rose
as a first element in a compound form; usually in older Welsh rhos was plural = roses) + soft mutation + (lliw = colour)

:_______________________________.

Rhosneigr hroos NEI gir (feminine noun)
1
village SH3173 in the island of Mn / Anglesey

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/82709

:_______________________________.

rhostio HROST yo (verb)
1
to roast

:_______________________________.

rhostir, rhostiroedd HRO stir, hro STII roidh, -odh (masculine noun)
1
moorland

ETYMOLOGY: (rhos = upland, moor) + soft mutation + (tir = land) > *rhosdir > rhostir

:_______________________________.

Rhostryfan hroos-trə-van
1
SH4957 village 5km south of Caernarfon ( county of Gwynedd )

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH4957

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) moor (of) (the hill called) Tryfan)
(rhos = upland, moor) + (Tryfan = hill name).

The common noun tryfan means peak, from (try-, an intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (ban = peak)

:_______________________________.

Rhoswen hros-wen
1
female name

ETYMOLOGY: (rose) (rhos = rose) + (-wen suffix for forming female names, < gwen, the feminine form of gwyn = white; pure; holy; fair)

:_______________________________.

Rhos-y-bol hroos ə BOL (feminine noun)
1
village SH4288 in the county of Mn

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH4288

:_______________________________.

rhosyn, PLURAL rhosynnau, rhosod, rhosus; (LITERARY) rhos HRO sin, HRO sis (masculine noun)
1
rose

:_______________________________.

Rhosyr HRO sir (feminine noun)
1
kantrev (medieval division) of Mn. It was divided into Menai and Dindaethwy kmmuds.

Llys Rhosyr An old Welsh settlement which was the administrative centre of the kntrev of Rhosyr before the English occupation following the Welsh defeat in 1282. The English borough of Niwbwrch (Newborough) was built on the site from 1294 onwards.


(delwedd 7346)

ETYMOLOGY: Rhosyr is equivalent to modern Welsh Rhos Fair (the) upland (of the Virgin) Mary
Rhsyr < Rhser < Rhseir < Rhsfeir < Rhos Fir
(rhos = upland) + soft mutation + (Meir, older form of Mair = Mary)

(Although accepted in the past, this derivation is now disputed by some)

:_______________________________.

Rhos-haminiog hros-ha-MIN-yog

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/644554 map

See Rhosyrhafod

:_______________________________.


rhosmari hros-MAA-ri
1
rosemary

ETYMOLOGY: English rosemary

The term folk-etymology is often applied in a mistaken idea of their etymology or origin. The tendency of the uneducated is to distort an unfamiliar or unintelligible word into some form which suggests
a meaning.... there has been a wrong association of ideas, e.g....
the primrose, rosemary, and tuberose have none of them originally
any connection with the rose... rosemary, French romarin, is from Lat[in]. ros marinum, sea-dew.
The Romance of Words / Ernest Weekley, M.A / 1912 / pp.115-6

:_______________________________.

Rhosyrhafod hros-HAA-vod
1
SN5464 village in Ceredigion

English name. Cross Inn

Geiriadur yr Acdemi Gymreig (The Welsh Academy Dictionary) gives two Welsh names for Cross Inn - Rhos Haminiog, Rhos yr Hafod

Rhos-haminiog:
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/644554 map

Yr Hafod SN5463:
http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN5464

ETYMOLOGY: (the) moorland (of) Yr Hafod

(rhos = moorland) + (Yr Hafod)

Yr Hafod the summer place (yr definite article) + (hafod = summer place, summer pasture, summer farm, summer farmhouse)

:_______________________________.

rhownyn hrou-nin
masculine noun
PLURAL rhawn hraun
1
a horsehair

gogr rhawn horsehair sieve, sieve made with horsehair

:_______________________________.

rhuban (masculine noun) rhubannau HRII-ban, hri-BAnai, -ne
1
ribbon

2 mynd fel rhuban go at great speed, whizz along (go like (a) ribbon)

:_______________________________.

rhudd hriidh adjective
PLURAL rhuddion hridh-yon
1
red (today it is a literary word; it is found too in certain compound words, especially old compounds) See
..a/ bronrhuddyn (= robin) (red breast + diminuitive suffix -yn)
..b/ rhuddem (= ruby) (red gem / jewel)
..c/ rhuddell (= rubric) (red + suffix -ell)

and the place names
..d/ Foel Rudd (= red bare-hill)
..e/ Rhuddlan (= red slope)
..f/ Rhuddnant (= red stream / red valley)
..g/ Rhuthun (= red fort)

and the obsolete forename
..h/ Cleddyfrudd (= red sword)

2
red = bloodstained;
llofrudd murderer, assassin < llawf-rudd red hand, that is, hand stained with blood bloodstained hand (llawf, old form of llaw = hand) + soft mutation + (rhudd = red)
(Compare the English expression to catch red-handed = to catch somebody doing wrong, originally to catch in the act of murder)

3
red (the colour of a sunset)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *roud(os) (= red) < Celtic < Indoeuropean reudh- (= red)
From the same British root: Breton ruz (= red), Cornish rudh (= red)
From the same Celtic root: Irish rua (= red) (ruadh before the spelling reform), Scottish ruadh (= red)

Related words in other languages - from the same Indo-European root

(1) Germanic:
German rot, Dutch rood, English red (Old English rad), Scottish (Lowlandic) surname Reid, Old Norse raudhr, (all of these = red)

(2) Latin:
..........(a) rfus (= red),
..........(b) ruber (= red) from which Latin rubrca = red earth, English rubric, originally red ochre, now title, heading
..........(c) rubeus (= reddish) (this is a derivative of ruber). From rubeus comes French rouge, (= red) and also French rubis, from an earlier form of which comes English ruby (= red precious stone)
..........(d) russus (= red)

(3) Greek
erathrs (= red)

:_______________________________.

rhuddell hrii-dhelh masculine noun
PLURAL rhuddellau hri-dhee-lhe
1
rubric = directions in a prayer book, usually printed in red, for procedure in a Christian service

ETYMOLOGY: (rhudd = red) + (-ell = suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

rhuddem hrii-dhem feminine noun
PLURAL rhuddemau hri-dhe-mai, -me
1
ruby = red precious stone

2 cyn goched r rhuddem as red as a ruby (as red as the ruby)

ETYMOLOGY: (rhudd = red) + soft mutation + (gem = gem, gemstone)

:_______________________________.

rhuddin HRII-dhin (masculine noun)
1 heartwood = central wood of a treetrunk

2 mettle
dangos eich rhuddin show your mettle, show what youre made of

:_______________________________.

Rhuddlan HRIDH lan (feminine noun)
1
village in the north-east
Apparently red slope / red bank
(rhudd = red) + soft mutation + (glan = slope)

:_______________________________.

Rhufain HRII-vain, -ven feminine noun
1
Rome

2
there are three equivalent phrases corresponding to the English phrase to fiddle while Rome burns, that is, to attend to unimportant matters during an emergency or a crisis

chwaraer crwth a Rhufain yn llosgi (play the fiddle and / while Rome burning)

canu crwth tra llosgo Rhufain (play a fiddle while Rome may burn)

ffidlan pan yw Rhufain yn llosgi (fiddle when Rome is burning)

2
Pan foch yn Rhufain, gwnewch fel y Rhufeiniaid
When in Rome, do as the Romans do

3
Nid mewn undydd y codwyd Rhufain
Rome was not built in a day
((is) not in a single-day that it was built Rome)

4
Eglwys Rufain the Church of Rome

5
Rome as a centre of pilgrimage
I Rufain yr arwain pob ffordd All roads lead to Rome ((it-is) to Rome that leads every road)

6
Campau Gwŷr Rhufain (the) feats (of) (the) men (of) Rome
Gesta Romanorum =
(deeds of the Romans) a collection of anecdotes and tales written in Latin, dating from the end of the 1200s or the beginning of the 1300s

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh Rhufain < Rhufein < *Rhfein < *Rhfein-i- < British < Latin Rmania-

:_______________________________.

rhufell hri-velh
feminine noun
PLURAL rhufelliaid hri-velh-yed
1
(Rutilius rutilus) roach (freshwater fish with a greenish back)

ETYMOLOGY: first recorded 1707; an invented word, an adaptation of Latin rubellio < ruber (= red)

:_______________________________.

Rhufoniog rhi-VON-yog (feminine noun)
1
Originally a sub-kingdom in the kingdom of Gwynedd.

Tradition has it that the territory was founded in 445 by Rhufon (hence the name Rhufoniog territory of Rhufon), who was the third son of Cunedda, the first King of Gwynedd. This sub-kingdom was ruled by his descendants until 95 years later (540), and it seems that it was thereafter absorbed into Gwynedd.

It was a kantrev (administrative division) in medieval times, with close ties to the kntrev of Rhos.

Rhos a Rhufoniog The two kntrevs of Rhos and Rhufoniog



(delwedd 7539)

ETYMOLOGY: territory of Romanus (Rhufon- < Rhufawn from the Latin name Romanus = citizen of Rome, citizen of the Roman Empire) + (-iog territorial suffix)

:_______________________________.

rhuo HRI o (verb)
1
roar (lion, etc)

:_______________________________.

rhuthrad, rhuthradau HRITH-rad, hrith-RAA-dai, -de (masculine noun)
1
rush
2
gwneud rhuthrad ar storm (a building), take (a building) by a violent assault (make an incursion on)

:_______________________________.

rhuthro HRITH-ro (verb)
1
to rush

2 rhuthro at (rywun) charge at (someone)

:_______________________________.

Rhuthun HRI-thin (feminine noun)
1
town in the north-east

ETYMOLOGY: rhuthun < rhuthin < rhdd-ddin (= red fort)

(rhudd = red) + soft mutation + (din = fort)

The vowel i in the second syllable has become u under the influence of the u in the first syllable

A similar examples is Buddug (Victoria, Boudicca) < *Buddig



(delwedd 7539)

:_______________________________.

rhw hruu adverb
South-east Wales
1
The usual spoken form is rw. The loss of h is typical of the south-east
rw dost = too painful (tost = painful)
rw fch = too small (bach = small, local form bch)
rw fawr= too big (mawr = big)
rw lytan = too ample (llydan = wide, local form llytan)

ETYMOLOGY: See rhy, of which it is a variant

:_______________________________.

rhwbio HRUB yo (verb)
1
to rub
2
rhwbio allan
HRUB yo A lhan to rub out

:_______________________________.

rhwmp hrump
masculine noun
PLURAL rhympau hrəm-pe
1
(obsolete) borer, auger

2
Rhymni name of a river in the south-east. This is probably river which bores through the land like an auger < *rhympni < (rhwmp = auger, tool for boring wood) + (-ni suffix)

ETYMOLOGY: Probably already existed in the British period < Celtic

:_______________________________.

rhwng HRUNG (preposition)
1
between
mynd rhwng eich bysedd slip through your fingers

2
mynd yn... rhwng in expressions denoting conflict

mynd yn ymladd rhwng begin to fight (become fighting between...)
Aeth yn ymladd rhyngddyn nhw They began to fight

mynd yn daro rhwng begin to fight (become hitting between...)
Aeth yn daro rhyngddyn nhw They began to fight

mynd yn ddadl rhwng begin to quarrel (become an argument between...)
Aeth yn dipyn o ddadl rhwng
An argument broke out between them, They started to argue

mynd yn ddrwg rhwng to fall out (become bad between...)
Aeth yn daro rhyngddyn nhw They had a falling out, They fell out with each other

mynd yn ffrwgwd rhwng begin to quarrel, come to blows (become a tussle between...)
Aeth yn ffrwgwd rhwng Sam Fain ar heddgeidwad Sam Fain and the policeman came to blows

mynd yn her rhwng result in a challenge (become a challenge between...)
Aeth hin her rhyngon ni It led us to challenge each other (to a contest)

mynd yn hwdwl-gwdwl rhwng begin to quarrel (become a quarrel between...)

3 (North) gyrru rhwng pobl stir up trouble between people (drive / send between people)
(South) hala rhwng pobl stir up trouble between people (send between people)

4 rhwng y porthmon a'r moch let them sort it out themselves, don't interfere in the dispute ('(leave it') between the pigman and the pigs) (porthmon moch North Wales pig dealer, pigman)

:_______________________________.

rhwng bodd ac anfodd hrung boodh ag an-vodh adverb
1
halfheartedly, reluctantly, grudgingly

ETYMOLOGY: between willingness and unwillingness
(rhwng = between) + (bodd = willingness) + (ac = and) + (anfodd = unwillingness)

:_______________________________.

rhwng deffro a chodi hrung de-fro a khoo-di adverb
1
in the time between waking up and getting up, after waking up and before getting up

Byddai yn cael ei syniadau gorau tran gorweddian yn ei wely rhwng deffro a chodi
He had his best ideas while lying in bed after waking up and before getting up

:_______________________________.

Rhwng Gwy a Hafren hrung GUI a HAV ren (feminine noun)
1
old territory of the North-east (between the rivers Gwy and Hafren)
(Gwy in English is Wye, Hafren in English is Severn)

:_______________________________.

rhwng popeth hrung adverb
1
all in all i.e. when summarising and drawing a conclusion

ETYMOLOGY: (rhwng = between ) + (popeth = everything)

:_______________________________.

rhwng rhywun ai bethau hrung hriu-in ai bee-the
1
literally between someone and his things

2 ei gadael hi rhwng rhywun ai bethau / gadael iddi fod rhwng rhywun ai bethau
let somebody stew in their own juice = leave somebody to deal unaided with the unfortunate consequences of their actions (leave it between somebody and his things)

3
Rhyngddo-ef ai bethau! Let him stew in his own juice, let him deal unaided with the unfortunate consequences of his actions

:_______________________________.

rhwng rhywun ai botes hrung hriu-in ai bo-tes
1
literally between someone and his soup

2
ei gadael-hi rhwng rhywun ai botes (leave it between somebody and his soup)
to let somebody stew in their own juice = to leave somebody to deal unaided with the unfortunate consequences of his / her actions

3 Rhyngddo-ef ai botes!
Let him stew in his own juice, let him deal unaided with the unfortunate consequences of his actions

:_______________________________.

rhwng rhywun ai gawl hrung hriu-in ai gaul
1
literally between someone and his soup

2
ei gadael hi rhwng rhywun ai gawl
let somebody stew in their own juice = leave somebody to deal unaided with the unfortunate consequences of their actions (leave it between somebody and his soup)

3 Rhyngddo ef ai gawl! Let him stew in his own juice = let him deal unaided with the unfortunate consequences of his actions

:_______________________________.

y Rhws ə hruus feminine noun
1
ST0666 locality in the county of Bro Morgannwg (South-east Wales). English name: Rhoose.

According to the author Cadrawd (Timothy Christopher Evans) in A Glossary of the Welsh of Glamorgan / Eisteddfod Abertawe 1907 / (manuscript, National Library of Wales) the local form is Y Rws, that is, ə ruus, which is to be expected since the dialect of the south-east lacked the aspiration h

ETYMOLOGY: ?

:_______________________________.

rhwth hruuth verb
1 gaping

2 Possibly an element in
clorwth (o ddyn) (South Wales),
horwth (o ddyn) (North Wales) big fat slob, great hulk of a fellow

Possibly distended surface (clawr = surface) + soft mutation + (rhwth = open, hollow, distended, loose) > clwr-rwth > clr-rwth > clorwth

3 Possibly an element in llyfrothen dŵr croyw (f), llyfrothod dŵr croyw (Gobio gobio) gudgeon: This is possibly cowardly gaper, cowardly fish which gapes; or cowardly greedy fish (llyfr- tonic or pretonic form of llwfr = coward) + (rhoth, feminine form of rhwth = gaping; greedy) + (-en suffix added to an adjective to make a noun, usually referring to a female) > *llyfr-roth-en > llyfrothen

4 cegrwth
gaping, open-mouthed

(ceg = mouth) + soft mutation + (rhwth = open, gaping)

:_______________________________.

rhwto hru-to verb
South Wales
1
rub
rhwto yn = rub into, rub on, rub against

Paid o rwto dy ddilo brwnt yndo fe
Dont rub your dirty hands on it

2
scrub

3
rub in, work in, mix in by rubbing
rhwtor menyn ir can rub the butter into the flour

4
grind, crush
rhwto yn fn grind it till its fine

5
South-east Wales rwton fudur yn i giddil be very friendly with each other (rub into each other very much)

ETYMOLOGY: ??
NOTE: Normally in the south-east rh- > r-; thus rwto is the colloquial form

6
rhwto maas
hru to MAAS South) to rub out

:_______________________________.

rhwyd, rhwydau / rhwydi HRUID, HRUI de, di (feminine noun)
1
net
2 rhywd fosgitos plural: rhwydau mosgitos / rhwydi mosgitos mosquito net
cysgu o dan rwyd fosgitos sleep under a mosquito net


:_______________________________.

rhwydd HRUIDH (adjective)
1
easy

2 afrwydd difficult
(af- = negative prefix) + soft mutation + ( rhwydd = easy)


:_______________________________.

rhwydog hrui-dog adjective
1
reticulated

2
helygen rwydog (helyg rhwydog)
(Salix reticulata) net-leaved willow, netted willow


ETYMOLOGY: (rhwyd = net) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

rhwydwaith, rhwydweithiau HRUID waith, hruid WEITH ye (masculine noun)
1
network

ETYMOLOGY: A calque on the English word (net + work)

(rhwyd = net) + soft mutation + (gwaith = work)
:_______________________________.

rhwyf, rhwyfau HRUIV, HRUI ve (feminine noun)
1
oar

ETYMOLOGY: rhwyf (f) < *rwyf < British rm- < Latin rmus (m) (= oar)

i) a long in British is typically wy [ui] in modern Welsh

ii) a final m [m] in British is typically f [v] in modern Welsh

iii) an initial r- in British words become rh-

:_______________________________.

rhwyfo HRUI vo (verb)
1
to row

(rhwyf = oar) + (-o verbal suffix)
:_______________________________.

rhwygo HRUI go (verb)
1
to rip, to tear

2 calonrwygol heartrending

3 ymrwygo burst
(ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (rhwygo = rupture)

:_______________________________.

rhwymo HRUI mo (verb)
1
bind (a book, etc)

2 become constipated

:_______________________________.

rhwymyn, rhwymynnau HRUI min, hrui MƏ ne (masculine noun)
1
bandage

:_______________________________.

rhwymynnu hrui MƏ ni (verb)
1
to bandage

:_______________________________.

rhwysg, rhwysgau HRUISK, HRUIS ke (masculine noun)
1
pomp, show

:_______________________________.

rhwysgfawr HRUISK vaur (adjective)
1
pompous

:_______________________________.

rhwysgfawredd hruisk-vau-redh masculine noun
1
ostentation, show

2
pomposity

2
grandeur, magnificence, splendour

Fry esgyn iw aur-orsedd
Wnar haul trwy borth arddunedd -
Teyrnasa mewn rhwysgfawredd
Ar forau Haf

(Mynydau Hamddenol: Ail Lyfr Nathan Wyn. 1905. Tudalen / Page 70)
Up above, the sun ascends to its throne of gold through the gate of splendour it reigns in ostentation on summer mornings

ETYMOLOGY: (rhwysgfawr = ostentatious) + (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

rhwystr, rhwystrau HRUI stir, HRUI stre (masculine noun)
1
obstacle, impediment

2
rhwystr taro crash barrier (obstacle (of) colliding / hitting)

3
rhwystr ffordd PLURAL rhwystrau ffyrdd roadblock (obstacle (of) road)

:_______________________________.

rhwystredig hrui STRE dig (adjective)
1
frustrating

:_______________________________.

rhwystredigaeth hrui stre DI geth (feminine noun)
1
frustrating

:_______________________________.

..1 rhy HRII (adverb)
1
too

2
rhy ychydig
too little
codi rhy ychydig ar (rywun) charge (somebody) too little, undercharge (somebody)
rhoi rhy ychydig o (rywbeth) give too little (of something)

3
Dibarch rhy gyffredin
familiarity breeds content (without respect (a thing) too common) Ni bydd hybarch rhy gyffredin Familiarity breeds contempt (It is not venerable (the thing) too usual)

4
rhy ychydig
hri ə KHƏ dig (phrase) too little

5 Rhy lawn, a gyll Grasp all, lose all (too full + (it is he) that will-lose)

Elliptical for a sentence such as (un) rhy lawn (ei ddwylo) a gyll) (it is) (an individual) too full (his hands) that will-lose

Said of someone trying to carry too much at one time and in danger of losing hold of it

6 llawer rhy... far too..., much too...
llawer rhy bell far too far, much too far

:_______________________________.

..2 rhy HRII (masculine noun)
1
(obsolete) excess

:_______________________________.

rhybudd, rhybuddion HRƏ bidh, hrə BƏDH yon (masculine noun)
1
warning
2
cloch rybudd plural clychau rhybudd alarm bell, warning bell, tocsin

:_______________________________.

rhybuddio hrə BIDH yo (verb)
1
to warn

:_______________________________.

rhych hriikh feminine noun
PLURAL rhychau hrə-khe
1
furrow = long narrow trench made by a plough, for sowing corn, etc
cadw ir rhych keep to the furrow, stay on course
rhegen y rhych Crex crex corncrake (standard name: rhegen yr yd)

2
trench, furrow = ditch dug for planting potatoes, etc

3
groove

4
rut = furrow or groove in a soft surface made by a wheel

5
rut = a monotonous routine difficult to change
dod allan or rhych get out of the rut
mynd i gerdded rhych fall into a rut (go to walk a rut)

6
furrow (on brow)

7
crease of the arse, slit of the arse
Maen credu bod yr haul yn codi yn rhych ei din
He thinks the sun shines out of his arse (he thinks the sun rises in the crease of his arse)

8
grave

9
na rhych na rhawn neither head nor tail (neither wrinkle nor horsehair)
Ni allaf wneud na rhych na rhawn ohono I cant make head or tail of it, its a complete enigma to me


10
in Porth-cawl (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) there is a Rhych Avenue which on the face of it is very likely rhych = furrow.

Translated into Welsh this would be Heol y Rhych or something similar.

The English name might be a semi-translation of an indigenous road or track name.

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic *rok- < *prok- < *prk-

Also from Celtic:
..1/ Irish eitre (= furrow); eitrigh (= to furrow), Old Irish et-rech
..2/ Catalan < rega (= furrow) < Celtic *rk < Indoeuropean *prka
Cf Catalan rec < Pre-Roman *recu (= canal)

From the same Indoeuropean root:
Germanic:
..1/ English furrow < Middle English forwe, furgh < Old English furh
..2/ Lowlandic (Scotland) furr (= furrow);
..3/ German die Furche (= furrow);

Latin:
..1/ Latin porca (= ridge between furrows)
..2/ Catalan prca (= land; flower bed) < Latin porca

NOTE: rhych is also a masculine noun

:_______________________________.

rhyd, rhydau HRIID, HRƏ de (feminine noun)
1
ford

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/406326 Rhyd Trefilan SN5557 / the ford at Trefilan

2 Common in place names See Rhyd-fach, Rhydhalog, Rhydychen, Rhyd yr Indiaid

3
moryd river mouth, estuary; sea inlet (Scotland: firth)
sea-ford (mr = sea ) + soft mutation + ( rhyd = ford)

..1/ (SH4459) bay in the district of Arfon (county of Gwynedd, North Wales). It is an area of marsh and mudflats which leads into Afon Menai opposite the south-west tip of the island of Mn (on maps with a very unlikely half-Welsh half-English name Foryd Bay)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH4459

Also Y Foryd is the name of a farm here, near Llanwnda SH4559

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH4559

Hen Foryd SH4559 A place on the southern side of the river Gwyrfai, west of Y Foryd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/150651

..a) Afon Foryd SH4456 stream which rises by Dinas Dinlle and flows north into Y Foryd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH4456

..2/ Y Foryd SH9980 A place between Abergele (county of Conwy) and Y Rhyl (county of Dinbych) where the river Clwyd flows into the sea

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH9980


4
carreg ryd stepping stone, cerrig rhyd stepping stones; one of a row of stones above water level in a stream or marsh each one step distant from the other for crossing from one side to the other (stone (of) ford) (carreg = stone) + soft mutation + (rhyd = ford)

5 Glan-rhyd (qv) <glan- HRIID> house name, street name; name of a district of Ystradgynlais SN7808 glan y rhyd bank / edge / side of the ford, ford side
(glan = bank, riverbank) + (y definite article) + (rhyd = ford)
NOTE: In place names a linking definite article is often omitted glan y rhyd > glan rhyd

6 rhyd as a final element in compounds:

..a/ Caledryd probably ford with fast-flowing waterrather than hard ford
SJ2936 Y Gledryd, near Rhoswiail
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/130760 Pont y Gledryd (Gledrid Bridge)


..b/ Henryd old ford

..c/ Sychryd
Afon Sychryd
AA-von SƏKH rid [ˡɑˑvɔn ˡsəxrɪd] stream in Pontneddfechan, Powys
(sych- < sych = dry) + soft mutation+ (rhyd = ford)
http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN9207 map, Afon Sychryd

:_______________________________.

1 rhydd HRIIDH (adjective)
1
free

2
menter rydd = free enterprise

3
free = not controlled by the state
Eglwys Rydd Free Church, one independent of the State, one which does not demand compulsory contributions from the states population for its upkeep

4
cyfieithiad rhydd a loose translation, a rough translation

5
clodrydd
KLOD-ridh [ˈklɔdrɪ] (adjective)

(a) renowned, celebrated, famous (b) lavish in ones praise

((of) free praise) (clod = praise) + soft mutation + (rhydd = free, liberal, generous)

Elystan Glodrydd (died c. 1010) said to be the founder of the fifth royal tribe of Wales

ETYMOLOGY:

:_______________________________.

2 rhydd hriidh verb
1
soft mutation of rhydd = will give
Contexts in which this form is commonly found is after the interrogative particle a (dropped in colloquial use), and the negative particles ni (dropped in colloquial use) and na (often retained in colloquial use), and a (relative pronoun dropped in colloquial use)
rydd o ddim he wont give
rydd o moi... he wont give his...

:_______________________________.

rhydd.
1
abbreviation = rhyddiaith prose


:_______________________________.

Rhydderch HRƏ dherkh (masculine noun)
1
mans name

:_______________________________.

rhyddhd grOdh HAAD (masculine noun)
1
release, relief

2
Dyna ryddhd hyfryd! What a blessed relief! Its a real relief! Thats a relief! (theres a pleasant release)

3
ar ryddhd on leave (on liberation)

:_______________________________.

rhyddhu HRƏDH hai (verb)
1
to free

2
rhyddhu rhywun oddi wrth bechod absolve somebody of their sins

3
rhyddhu ci oddi ar dennyn unleash a dog

:_______________________________.

rhyddhwr hrədh-haa-ur m
PLURAL rhyddhawyr
hrədh-haa-wir
1 liberator
Yr oedd ef yn byw yn amser Garibaldi, rhyddfwr tali, ac yr oedd y fath edmygwr ohono fel y galwodd ei dŷ Garibaldi House
He lived in the time of Garibaldi, the liberator of Italy, and he was such an admirer of him that he called his house Garibaldi House

ETYMOLOGY: (rhyddh stem of rhyddhu = to liberate, to free) (-wr suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

rhyddiaith HRƏDH yaith (feminine noun)
1
prose

Abbreviation (e.g. in a dictionary entry) rhydd.


:_______________________________.

rhyddid HRƏ dhid (masculine noun)
1
freedom, liberty

ETYMOLOGY: rhyddid < rhydid < rhdd-did (rhydd = free) + (suffix -tid).
The change rhydid d > rhyddid dh is the result of the influence of the adjective rhydd
Cornish rydhses (= freedom)
NOTE: rhyddid, nowadays a masculine noun, was formerly a feminine noun

:_______________________________.

Rhyd-fach hriid vaakh feminine noun
1
street name in Pentre-bach (county of Merthyrtudful)

ETYMOLOGY: y rhyd fach the little ford (y = the) + (rhyd = ford) + soft mutation + (bach = little, small)

:_______________________________.

Y Rhydlydan hriid-LƏ-dan feminine noun
1
name of various palces


..a/ SN8950 village on Afon Merddwr in Conwy (Rhydlydan)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/52320



..b/ SO0593 Farm near Aberhafesb in Powys (Rhydlydan)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/540379



..c/ SN4352 Farm near Talgarreg, Ceredigion (Rhydlydan)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1028051



..d/ SN6241 Farm near Ffaldybrenin, Caerfyrddin (Rhyd-lydan)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1087215



..e/ SO1645 Farm south of Castell-paen, Powys (Rhyd-lydan)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO1645



ETYMOLOGY: y rhyd lydan the wide ford

(y = the) + (rhyd = ford) + soft mutation l > ll + (llydan = wide)

:_______________________________.

Rhydhalog hriid-ha-log
1
a farm south-east of Llanhari (Rhondda Cynon Taf)
Nant Rhydhalog a stream by the farm

ETYMOLOGY: y rhyd halog the muddy ford

(y = the) + (rhyd = ford) + (halog = muddy)

NOTE: Since the combination (d + h) becomes t in Welsh pronunciation,

Rhydhalog > Rhytalog

Rhydhalog
SJ2354 in the county of Y Fflint > Rhytalog, which has assumed the written form Rhydtalog, as if it were (the) ford (of) Talog

:_______________________________.

Rhyd-sbens hriid-SPENS
1
SO2447 village partly in the Welsh county of Powys and partly in the English county of Hereford

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/91610

Possibly rhyd y sbens (the) ford (of) the spence (rhyd = ford) + (y definite article) + (sbens = spence). English spence meant (i) a buttery or dairy, (ii) (in a great house, an inn or a monastery) a pantry, larder; a storeroom. In Welsh, it was a pantry, and in the North came to mean a room under the stairs.

Bedwyr Lewis Jones (Yn Ei Elfen, 1992) suggests that it may have been used in the sense of the inn as a store of food and drink for drovers and other travellers.

Middle English spense (= pantry, store), a clipped form of despense < Old French despence < Late Latin < Latin dispensus past participle of dispendere (= to weigh out, distribute, dispense) < (dis- = out) + (
pendere = to weigh), Latin pensum (= weight).

:_______________________________.

Rhydwilym hriid-wi-lim
1
(SN1124) locality in the county of Caerfyrddin at Llandysilio

2 Nant Rhydwilym (SJ1335) stream which rises in Y Berwyn 3km north-east of the mountain of Cader Idiris and flows east into the Ceiriog river at a point 4km north-west of Llanarmon Dyffryn Ceiriog

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) ford (of) Gwilym / William)
(rhyd = ford) + soft mutation g > (gh) > zero + (Gwilym = William)

:_______________________________.

Rhydychen hri DƏ khen (feminine noun)
1
Oxford (rhyd = ford, ychen = oxen)

:_______________________________.

Rhyd y Crwyn
be-tus hriid ə kruin
1
In the name Betws Rhyd y Crwyn, nowadays Betws y Crwyn (qv) SO2081, a village in Sir Amwythig / Shropshire, England

ETYMOLOGY:
((the) ford (of) the animal hides)

(rhyd = ford) + (y = the) + soft mutation + (crwyn = animal hides)

:_______________________________.

Rhyd-y-fagl hriid va-gal
1
Rhyd-y-fagl / Rhyd y Fagl (literary Welsh) the town of Stafford, England

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) ford (of) the snare) (rhyd = ford) + (y = the) + soft mutation + (magl = snare, trap)

:_______________________________.

Rhydygolau hriid GOO-lai, -le
1
SJ2365 Farm in the county of Y Fflint (as Rhyd-y-goleu on the Ordnance Survey map, with antiquated goleu instead of golau, and unnecessary hyphenation)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/118895

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) ford (of) the light??) (rhyd = ford) + (y = the) + (golau = light)

Earlier forms however may show a different origin for this name, as its present form seems somewhat unusual and improabable

:_______________________________.

Rhydypennau hriid ə pe-ne
1 (ST1881) locality in Caer-dydd

2 (SN6285) locality in Ceredigion
Local pronunciation: Rhypenne

3
street name in Castell-nedd (
Rhyd y Pennau)

ETYMOLOGY:
ford of the springs / of the stream heads
(rhyd = ford) + (y = the) + (pennau plural of pen = head)

NOTE: as the name of a ford the elements would be written separately
Rhyd y Pennau

:_______________________________.

Rhydypolon hriid ə po-lon
1 Street name in Gorseinon (county of Abertawe) (Rhyd y Polon)

ETYMOLOGY: polon is a southern form of polion (= poles), plural of polyn (= pole)
In the south, often the suffix -ion > -on (the initial y of the first syllable is generally lost in South Wales). Hence polion > polon

Rhydypolon is possibly (not having looked at earlier forms of the name) (the) ford (of) the poles
= (rhyd = ford) + (y = the) + (polion = poles)


:_______________________________.

Rhyd yr Indiaid hriid ər IND yed (feminine noun)
1
the ford of the Indians, village in Patagonia

:_______________________________.

rhyfedd HRƏ vedh (adjective)
1
strange, unusual
rhyfedd yr olwg strange-looking, odd-looking

2
strange = not normal, unexpected, worrying
Mae blas rhyfedd ar y te ma This tea tastes strange, This tea has a funny taste
mynd i deimlon rhyfedd come over all funny, begin to feel strange

3 bod ryfeddaf:
fel y mae hi ryfeddaf curiously enough, strange to say (as it is strangest)

4
ryfedda
(South Wales) ( after an adjective) extremely, very very
Mae hin oer ryfeddaf Its really cold

ryfeddaf is the soft-mutated form of rhyfeddaf (= strangest).
Adjectives used as qualifiers indicating extent generally have soft mutation of the initial consonant.

In colloquial Welsh a final v, which is written f, is dropped in polysyllables
rhyfedda < rhyfeddaf

5
Mae rhyw bethau rhyfedd ynddo Hes got some odd ways (there are some strange things in him)

:_______________________________.

rhyfeddnod hrə-vedh-nod masculine noun
PLURAL rhyfeddnodau hrə-vedh-no-de
1
exclamation mark (also: ebychnod e-bəkh-nod)

ETYMOLOGY: (rhyfedd = wonder) + (nod = mark, sign)

:_______________________________.

rhyfeddol hrə-vee-dhol adjective
1
surprising, wonderful, marvellous, amazing, spectacular, astonishing

amrywiaeth ryfeddol o ddewisiadau
a surprising variety of choice

y twf rhyfeddol mewn addysg Gymraeg ers 1949
the spectacular growth of Welsh-language education since 1949

gyda chyflymdra rhyfeddol
at an astonishing rate

2
odd, strange
hanes rhyfeddol arlunydd o Gymro yn yr Eidal
the strange history of a Welsh painter in Italy

3
exceptional
dawn ryfeddol exceptional talent

4
ryfeddol (soft-mutated form used as an intensifier after an adjective) = extremely, tremendously

lliw swynol a chyfoethog ryfeddol an enchanting and wonderfully rich colour

5
rhyfeddol o (intensifier before an adjective) = extremely

yr oedd yr hen wraig yn rhyfeddol o hardd ac urddasol the old woman was extremely handsome and dignified

6
gwneud yn rhyfeddol = do extremely well

Maen nhw wedi gwneud yn rhyfeddol Theyve done really well

:_______________________________.

rhyfeddu hrə VEE dhi (verb)
1
to wonder

rhyfeddu at (rywbeth) to wonder at (something)

:_______________________________.

rhyfel hrə-vel masculine noun
PLURAL rhyfeloedd hrə-ve-lodh
1
war = armed conflict
adeg rhyfel in time of war, in wartime

ar adeg rhyfel in time of war, in wartime

awyren ryfel warplane

bod ar fin mynd yn rhyfel be close to war (be on (the) edge of going in war)

bod mewn rhyfel be at war (be in war)

bwyell ryfel war axe

carcharor rhyfel prisoner of war, POW

cofgolofn ryfel
war memorial (in the shape of a column)

cyhoeddi rhyfel ar declare war on

difrod rhyfel war damage

erchyllterau rhyfel the horrors of

gohebydd rhyfel war correspondent

llong ryfel warship

mynd r rhyfel at y gelyn
carry the war into the enemys camp (take the war to the enemy)

mynd i ryfel go to war

mynd yn rhyfel rhwng (going in war between, become a war between) war breaking out between...

...Yr oedd ar fin mynd yn rhyfel War was close to breaking out

mynwent ryfel war cemetery

pan fo rhyfel
in time of war, if theres a war on

parod ar gyfer rhyfel on a war footing, prepared for war

rhyfel athreuliol war of attrition

rhyfel cartref civil war

Rhyfel Cartref America the American Civil War

rhyfel diarbed total war, all-out war

rhyfel ffug phoney war

rhyfel gerila guerrilla war

rhyfel oer cold war

rhyfel sanctaidd holy war

rhyfel ymrhyddhd war of liberation (war of freeing oneself)

rhyfel yn torri allan a war breaking out

...Ond oherwydd ir rhyfel dorri allan dri mis yn ddiweddarach... But because the war broke out three months later...

trosedd rhyfel war crime

yn ystod y rhyfel during the war

2 war = a specific armed conflict

..1/ Yr Ail Ryfel Byd The Second World War

..2/ Y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf The First World War

..3/ Rhyfel Caerdroia The Trojan War

..4/ Rhyfel Iberia The Peninsular War (1808-1814) - Portuguese, Castilians and English against the French, resulting in the defeat of the French

..5/ Y Rhyfel Mawr The First World War

..6/ Rhyfel Olyniaeth Awstria The War of the Austrian Succession

..7/ Y Trydydd Rhyfel Byd The Third World War

Roedd rhyfel ddistaw rhwng y ddwy wraig
There was a silent war / smouldering feud between the two women

4
war = campaign to achieve some end, eliminate something undesirable
rhyfel yn erbyn tlodi war on want

3 war = any conflict, dispute, feud

NOTE: also sometimes as a feminine noun

ETYMOLOGY: ??

:_______________________________.

rhyfela hrə VE la (verb)
1
make war
rhyfela gerila guerilla warfare

:_______________________________.

rhyfelgan hrə-vel-gan feminine noun
PLURAL rhyfelganau hrə-vel-gaa-ne
1
song of war, war-song = song sung by warriors before fighting

ETYMOLOGY: (rhyfel = war) + soft mutation + (cn = song)

:_______________________________.

rhyfelgar hrə VEL gar (adjective)
1
bellicose, warlike

:_______________________________.

rhyfelgarwch hrə vel GA rukh (masculine noun)
1
agressive nature, liking for war

:_______________________________.

rhyfelgri, rhyfelgrau hrə VEL gri, hrə vel GRI e (masculine noun)
1
war cry

:_______________________________.

rhyfelgyrch, rhyfelgyrchoedd hrə VEL girkh, hrə vel GƏR khodh (masculine noun)
1
military operation

:_______________________________.

rhyfelwr hrə-vee-lur masculine noun
PLURAL rhyfelwyr hrə-vel-wir
1
warrior
ei gwrol ryfelwyr, gwladgarwyr tra mad (in the Welsh national anthem)
her (Waless) valiant warriors, most excellent patriots

ETYMOLOGY: (rhyfel = war) + (-wr = man)

:_______________________________.

rhyfyg HRƏ vig (masculine noun)
1
daring, presumption

:_______________________________.

rhyg HRIIG (masculine noun)
1
rye

bara rhyg rye bread
cae rhyg rye field

:_______________________________.

rhyglyddu hrəg-LƏ-dhi v
1 (obsolete) to deserve, to merit, to be worthy of

rhyglyddu bodd rhywun (obsolete) to please (to merit (the) satisfaction (of) somebody)

Apocrypha Ecclesiasticus 20:27 Y doeth a'i gesyd ei hun rhagddo trwy ymadrodd: a'r call a ryglydda fodd pendefigion.
Apocrypha Ecclesiasticus 20:27 A wise man shall promote himself to honour with his words: and he that hath understanding will please great men.

ETYMOLOGY: probably rhyglyddu < rhaglyddu (rhag- prefix = fore-, pre-) + soft mutation (+ llydd) + (-u verbal suffix)

Tsis element llydd is to be seen in the (obsolete) verb derllyddu (= deserve) < British < Celtic do-ro-slij, (do) + (ro) + (a root sl).
The corresponding word in Breton is dellezout (= deserve)


:_______________________________.

rhygnu HRƏG ni

1 rhygnu ar (rywbeth), harp on (about), go on (about) = dwell tediously on a subject;

Dyna fen rhygnu ar ei hoff dant Hes off on his hobby horse (there he is scraping his favourite string)

Taw dy rygnu! Stop going on about it all the time!

Mae mamgu wedi bod yn rhygnu ar hyn drwyr dydd Grandmas been going on about it all day

rhygnu ar yr un hen dant, harp on (about), go on (about) = dwell tediously on a subject; be the same old song

:_______________________________.

rhygyng HRƏ ging
[ˡhrəgɪŋ] (masculine noun)
1 amble

ar rygyng at an amble
mynd rygyng to amble

:_______________________________.

rhygyngog hrə GƏ ngog
[hrəˡgəŋɔg] (adj)
1 ambling
Ceffylyn Rhygyngog ((the) ambling nag) A
folk tune in The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine and Celtic Repertory (1830). Translated as Galloping Nag.

ETYMOLOGY: (rhygyng- stem of rhgyngu = to amble) + (-og adjectival suffix)
:_______________________________.

rhygyngu hrə GƏ ngi [hrəˡgəŋɪ] (v)
1 to amble

:_______________________________.

Y Rhyl ə hril [ə ˡhrɪl]

1 town SJ0182 in the county of Dinbych

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/555129 Traeth y Rhyl / the beach

ETYMOLOGY: Thought to be from an earlier form of the English word hill. A mistaken division (camraniad) of Yr Hyl (= the hill) has given Y Rhyl.

This form with initial rh- is found from the beginning of the 1700s. But as there are no visible hills at this point, it could perhaps refer to a sandbank.

Alternative explanation: The word in question may not be hillor any kind of elevated feature at all.

Just over the water, in Penrhyn Cilgwri / The Wirral Peninsula there is a place with a similar topography and a similar name.

The nineteenth-century village of Hoylake (the name is a coalesced form of Hoyle Lake) had its origins in a former fishing village called Hoose.

Hoyle Lake is a body of water between Hilbre Island and Dove Point, with a depth of twenty feet. It was used as an anchorage for ships which were too large to sail up the river Dyfrdwy / Dee to the city of Chester. A wide sandbank called Hoyle Bank protects the lake.

(Information from wikipedia; and The Place Names of Wales / Hywel Wyn Owen / 1998)

Possibly the name Y Rhyl / Yr Hyl has some connection with the word hoyle.

Hoyle is the Lancashire pronunciation of hole, and possibly the place name Hoyle is from Old English holh (= hole, hollow, low-lying place, depression).

On the Welsh side of the approach to the Dyfrdwy estuary is West Hoyle Bank.

But in spite of the similarity of the marine landscape and the two names, holh is unlikely to be the source of the element hyl, in Yr Hyl > Y Rhyl


(delwedd 7437)
:_______________________________.

Rhymni hrəm-ni
[ˡhrəmnɪ]
1
(SO1205) Afon Rhymni river in the county of Caerffili
Form used in English: Rhymney
Cwm Rhymni the valley of this river
Blaenrhymni farm by the source of the river ((the) source (of the river) Rhymni)

2 Glynrhymni

..a/ formerly, one of the two hamlets into which the parish of Llanfabon was divided (the other being Garth), near the town of Caerffili

..b/ a district in Bedwas, county of Caerffili
English name (or rather, the name used by the English, since in fact it is not English at all, but the Welsh name with poor spelling): Glyn Rhymney, which should be Glynrhymni

3 Rhymni (SO1107) town in the county of Caerffili
Originally Y Rhymni, from a company name, The Rhymney Iron Works

4 a parish at this place
(1961) Population: 6,640 (1961); Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 23%

5 Llanrhymni (qv) ST2181 Originally the name of a mansion, now the name of a suburb of Caer-dydd
English name: Llanrumney

(the) church (by the river) Rhymni. But originally it was Lanrymni (the) bank (of the river) Rhymni, with lan (a mutated form of glan = bank, riverside).

More correctly, the name would be Glanrhymni.

6 Aber Rhymni ST2277 the mouth of Afon Rhymni beyond Lamby (on the eastern bank) and Pengam (on the western bank)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/582251 Aber Rhymni

7 Rhymni An erroneous form for Tredelerch (a suburb of Caer-dydd, on the banks of the river Rhymni). The English name is Rumney (an Anglicised form of the river name).

The mistake has arisen from an assumption (probably by non-Welsh speakers) that spelling English name Rumney in correct Welsh spelling resulted in the Welsh name for the village (which in fact is generally the case where the English name of a place is the Welsh name poorly spelt; but not in the case of Rumney)

ETYMOLOGY: Probably *rhympni < (rhwmp = auger, tool for boring wood) + (-ni suffix found in many river names) river which bores throught the land like an auger


(delwedd 7905)

NOTE: Traditionally the h is not pronounced locally - a characteristic of the traditional spoken Welsh of the south-east, which is an h-less dialect..
Rhymni > Rymni
[ˡrəmnɪ]

:_______________________________.

rhyng - hrəng (preposition)
1
basis of conjugated forms of the preposition rhwng = between

:_______________________________.

rhyngddi HRƏNG-dhi (preposition)
1
between her / it (rhwng = between)

:_______________________________.

rhyngddo HRƏNG-dho (preposition)
1
between him / it (rhwng = between)

With the tag pronoun:

rhyngddo ef (literary) between him
rhyngddo fe (more colloquial) between him

2 (colloquial) rhyngddo i between me
Buodd ffrae rhyngddo i ar tafarnwr

There was an argument between me and the tafarnkeeper

The literary form is rhyngof

:_______________________________.

Y Rhyngrwyd ə hrəng-ruid feminine noun
1 Internet

Mae ein tudalennau ar y Rhyngrwyd
Our pages are on the Internet

ETYMOLOGY: A calque on the English word Internet

(rhyng- = inter, prefix < rhwng = between) + soft mutation + (rhwyd = net)


:_______________________________.

rhyngu <HRƏNG-i feminine noun
1
reach; but it occurs only in the expression rhyngu bodd (+ genitivus subjectivus) please, be pleasing to, gratify

Trwy ffydd y bu i Abel, Enoc a Noa ryngu bodd Iawe
Through [their] faith, Abel, Enoch and Noah pleased God

Anodd rhyngu bodd bedlemod (saying) Beggars are hard to please (because they think that a donation given them is never enough and ought to be more)


Also rhyngu bodd i (with the preposition i = to, for)
rhyngu bodd (i rywun) please (someone), be pleasing to (someone), gratify (someone), satisfy (someone)

Colosiaid 3:20 Y plant, ufuddhewch i'ch rhieni ym mhob peth: canys hyn sydd yn rhyngu bodd i'r Arglwydd yn dda. Colossians 3:20 Children, obey your parents in all things: for this is well pleasing unto the Lord.

2 Rhynged bodd eich anrhydedd May it please your honour (formula used in addressing a judge in a court of law)


ETYMOLOGY: *rhanc (= satisfaction) < Celtic *ro-ank- (probably meaning reaching, attaining)
Cf Breton rankout (= be necessary)

..a/ With the addition of the prefix cyf-: cyfranc (= (obsolete) tale, history, story)

(cyf- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (the obsolete element *rhanc = satisfaction < Celtic *ro-ank-)
There is a corresponding word in Irish: comhrac (= battle, encounter)

..b/ The element *ank- occurs in dianc (= to escape)

rhyngu bodd (= reach (the) satsifaction (of)), (rhyngu = reach, bodd = satisfaction)

:_______________________________.

rhyngwladol hrə NGWLAA dol (adjective)
1
international

2 cyflafareddu rhyngwladol international arbitration

:_______________________________.

Rhys HRIIS (masculine noun)
1
mans name

:_______________________________.

Rhys Llwyd y Lleuad hriis luid ə nei-adh
1
the man in the moon (Rhys Llwyd (of) the moon)

:_______________________________.

Rhys or mynydd hriis or -nidh masculine noun
South-east Wales
1 personification of the wind (Rhys from the mountain)

:_______________________________.

rhythu HRƏ-thi (verb)
1
stare

2 llygadrythu (verb sense objecte) stare
(llygad = eye) + soft mutation + (rhythu = to stare )
llygadrythu ar = stare at
llygadrythu ar rywun yn atgas give somebody a nasty stare

:_______________________________.

..1 rhyw HRIU (determiner)
1
some

2 rywbryd RIU brid (adverb) sometime

3 rywsut RIU sit (adverb) somehow

4 yn rhywle ən HRIU le (adverb) somewhere

:_______________________________.

..2 rhyw HRIU (masculine noun)
1
sex = condition of being male or female
y rhyw arall the opposite sex
gwahaniaethu ar sail rhyw sexual discrimination
y rhyw wannaf (= women) the weaker sex (the weakest sex)
y rhyw deg (= women) the fair sex
y rhyw gref (= men) the stronger sex (the strong sex)
y rhyw gadarn (= men) the stronger sex (the strong sex)


2
type, sort

3
dynolryw the human race, mankind (= the human race as a whole)
(dynol = human ) + soft mutation + ( rhyw = type, kind)
Dynolryw is a feminine noun, unlike rhyw


4 sex (= copulation)
rhyw heb ymdreiddiad non-penetrative sex

:_______________________________.

rhywbeth HRIU beth (pronoun)
1
something

2
(referring to a person rhywbeth + adjective)

Rhywbeth cymedrol iawn yw hi, ynte
Shes very unadventurous, isnt she

Rhywbeth hwit-hwat yw e, wyddoch chi ar y ddaear lle i gaal hyd iddo
Hes unpredictable, you never know where to find him

:_______________________________.

rhywbeth-rywbeth hriu beth riu-beth pronoun
1
any old thing, something not of an acceptable standard or quality
Wnaiff rhywbeth-rywbeth mor tro i fi I wont accept just any old thing

:_______________________________.

rhywiog HRIU-yog adj
1 kind, generous, gentle, amiable

Cymres rywiog ei bro
A gentle Welshwoman (typical of) her district

2 tender, soft; not tough, not coarse

y moron a'r rwdins rhywiog wedi'u berwi'n iawn
the tender carrots and the turnips after being properly boiled

gwair mwy rhywiog a meddal
grass (which is) more tender and softer

3 fine, good, excellent, of good quality

Clywid Cymraeg rhywiog Dyffryn Clwyd ar bob llaw
The pleasant Welsh of the Clwyd Valley was to be heard everywhere

aelwydydd lle siaredir Cymraeg rhywiog, naturiol, lliwgar
homes where good, natural and vigorous (colourful) Welsh is spoken

carreg felin graen mwy rhywiog arni at falu ar gyfer blawd gwenith a cheirch
a millstone with a finer grain for grinding into wheat flour and oat flour

5 fine, soft = not thick, not coarse

gwln rywiog
fine wool; tail wool

cael gwln rhywiog ar glun gafr make a silk purse out of a sows ear
(find fine wool on a goats thigh)

ni cheir gwln rhywiog ar glun gafr you cant make a silk purse out of a sows ear

(fine wool on a goats thigh is not found / is not had)

6 (land) easy to cultivate

tir rhywiog land which is easy to cultivate

7 soft = not hard

carreg rywiog freestone, a soft stone which is easily cut and doesnt shatter

ETYMOLOGY: (rhyw = sort, kind, type, class) + (-i-og adjectival suffix)


:_______________________________.

rhywiol hriu-yol adjective
1
sexual = of the sexual act, of copulation

anallu rhywiol impotence, sexual impotence

atgynhyrchiad rhywiol sexual reproduction

cam-drin rhywiol sexual abuse

camdriniaeth rywiol sexual abuse

cyfathrach rywiol sexual intercourse

cynhyrfiad rhywiol sexual excitement

fferdod rhywiol frigidity, sexual frigidity

gweithred rywiol a sexual act

gwyrdroad rhywiol sexual perversion

gwyriad rhywiol sexual deviation

oerni rhywiol frigidity, sexual frigidity

trafferthion rhywiol sexual disfunction

troseddau rhywiol sexual offences

ymosodiad rhywiol sexual assualt

ysfa rywiol sexual urge

2 sexy = arousing sexual desire

merch rywiol sexy girl

ETYMOLOGY: (rhyw = sex) + (-iol, suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

rhywrai HRIU rai (pronoun)
1
some ones

:_______________________________.

rhywun HRIU in (pronoun)
1
someone

:_______________________________.

rhywogaeth, rhywogaethau hriu OO geth, hriu o GEI the (feminine noun)
1
species

:_______________________________.

rideg rii-deg verb
1
a southern form of rhedeg (= to run). In southern Welsh, r replaces rh.

In the south-east riteg / ritag - initial d in a final syllable is devoiced to t. East of the Nedd valley a final e is pronounced a

:_______________________________.

rifolfer, rifolferi ri VOL ver, ri vol VE ri (masculine noun)
1
revolver

:_______________________________.

rif y gwlith riiv ə GWLIITH (adverb)
1
innumerable, masses of, too many to count

Y maer castell yn denu ymwelwyr rif y gwlith bob haf The castle draws masses of visitors to it every summers

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) number (of) the dewdrops) (rhif = number) + (y definite article) + (gwlith = dew; dewdrops). There is soft mutation, here rh > r, of the initial consonant of an adverbial phrase

:_______________________________.

rigan rii-gan verb
1
(county of Caerfyrddin) to tease

Yr oedd Morgan Jones yn hoff iawn o rigan Sali ynghylch Nat
Morgan Jones was very fond of teasing Sali about Nat

ETYMOLOGY: English to rig (= to tease)

NOTE: in the county of Penfro rhigian

:_______________________________.

rigio rig-yo verb
1
rig = provide a ship with sails and masts, etc

2 rig = manipulate for fraudulent purposes
rigio etholiad rig an election

ETYMOLOGY: English rig (= prepare sails, ropes of a ship; manipulate for fraudulent purposes) < Scandinavian; cf Norwegian rigga (= to wrap)

:_______________________________.

ring
ring feminine noun
PLURAL rings
rings
1 ring = stage for a boxing match
ring baffio plural rings paffio boxing ring boxing ring
ring focsio plural rings bocsio

ETYMOLOGY: English ring (= boxing ring; finger ring) < Old English hring. Cf Norwegian ring (= finger ring)

:_______________________________.

ring
ring
(North Wales)
1 Y Ring name of an inn in Llanfrothen (SH6241) (district of Meirionydd, county of Gwynedd)

Bu tafarn y Ring, Llanfrothen (neur Brondanw Arms yn swyddogol) yn gyrchfan bwysig i borthmyn ers amser maith The tavern called Y Ring in Llanfrothen (or the Brondanw Arms officially) was an important port of call for drovers many years ago

Mae tafarn Y Ring yn Llanfrothen yn cynnig prydau bar da a chwrw casgen. The Y Ring pub offers bar food and beer from the cask

ETYMOLOGY: y ring < yr ing (yr definite article) + (ing < in < English inn = coaching inn)

:_______________________________.

riparo ri PAA ro (verb)
1
to repair (colloquial)

:_______________________________.

ritag RII-tag verb
1
a south-eastern form of rideg < rhedeg (= to run). In southern Welsh, r replaces rh.
In the south-east riteg / ritag - initial d in a final syllable is devoiced to t. East of the Nedd valley a final e is pronounced a

:_______________________________.

riteg RII-teg verb
1
a south-eastern form of rideg < rhedeg (= to run). In southern Welsh, r replaces rh.
In the south-east riteg / ritag - initial d in a final syllable is devoiced to t. East of the Nedd valley a final e is pronounced a

:_______________________________.

rzyfoi ri zə-voi masculine noun
1
(Englishism, colloquial form) reservoir. (Standard Welsh: cronfa ddŵr)
Ar bwys rizyfoi Porth-cawl Near the Porth-cawl reservoir

ETYMOLOGY: English reservoir < modern French rservoir < rserver (= to reserve)

:_______________________________.

Y Ro ROO>
1 village in the county of Conwy

A Topographical Dictionary of Wales, Samuel Lewis, 1833, commenting on the parish of Caer-rhun: There are places of worship for Baptists, Independents, and Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists, in the little village of Roe, in this parish.

ETYMOLOGY: the [river] shingle. (y definite article) + soft mutation + (gro = river shingle)
:_______________________________.

robin goch, robinod cochion / robiniaid cochion ROO-bin GOOKH, ro-BIN-od, ro-BIN-yaid, -yed, KOKH-yon
[ˡroˑbɪn ˡgoːx, rɔˡbɪnɔd, rɔˡbɪnjaɪd, -jɛd ˡkɔxjɔn] (masculine noun)
1
robin, redbreast, robin redbreast (bird)

:_______________________________.

roc <ROK>
[rɔk] (masculine noun)
1
rock (music)

cerddoriaeth roc rock music
canwr roc (m) cantorion roc rock singer

cantores roc (f) cantoresau roc rock singer

cyngerdd roc (m) cyngherddau roc rock concert

ETYMOLOGY: English rock (music)

:_______________________________.

roced, rocedi <RO-ked, ro-KEE-di>
[ˡrɔkɛd, rɔˡkeˑdɪ] (feminine noun)
1
rocket

:_______________________________.

roced oleuo, rocedi goleuo <RO-ked o-LEI-o, ro-KEE-di go-LEI-o>
[ˡrɔkɛd ɔˡləɪɔ, rɔˡkeˑdɪ gɔˡləɪɔ] (feminine noun)
1
flare, signal rocket

:_______________________________.

roedd <ROIDH>
[rɔɪ] verb
1
was, were; third person singular imperfect of del verb bod

2
was; were (with a definite noun)
Roedd Sin yn cysgu = Sin was sleeping (Sin was in sleeping)
Roedd Sin a Sin yn cysgu = Sin and Sin were sleeping (Sin and Sin were in sleeping)
Roedd y papur ar y llawr The newspaper was on the floor
Roedd y papurau ar y llawr The newspapers were on the floor

3
was (with the pronouns ef (= he), hi (= she))
roedd hi yn y gwely she was in bed
roedd e yn y gwely he was in bed

4
was (with the pronoun hi = empty subject, as with English it, German es)
Roedd hin bwrw glaw It was raining (it was throwing rain)

5
was (without a pronoun)
Roedd yn dda gen i glywed hynny I was glad to hear that

6
there was (with an indefinite noun)
Roedd dŵr ar y llawr There was water on the ground

also in the form roedd yna, or roedd na + soft mutation
(yna is probably an imitation of English there, although other languages also have the idea of location and indefinition: Catalan hi havia (hi = there), French il y avait (y = there))

Roedd na ddŵr ar y llawr There was water on the ground

7
conjunctive use = that (she-he-it) was. Used when a verb or an adverbial is placed at the beginning of a sentence for emphasis

Yn yr ardd roedd e, nid ar yr heol It was in the garden, not in the street ((it is) in the garden that it was...)

Canu roedd hi, er gwaethaf popeth She was singing ((it was) singing that she was...) in spite of everything

8
roedd... a roedd in such a sequence the second roedd is usually omitted
Roedd wedi troi wyth or gloch ai fam eisoes yn paratoi swper
It had turned eight o clock and his mother was already preparing the supper

ETYMOLOGY: contraction of the literary form yr oedd > yredd > roedd. The loss of an initial pretonic syllable is common in colloquial Welsh

NOTE: colloquially in the south oe <OI>
[ɔɪ] > oo <OO> [oː]. Thus, roedd > roodd / rodd. In the south, also with the loss of the initial r, hence roodd > oodd

:_______________________________.

roeddach chi ROI dha khi (verb)
1
you were (North-west)

:_______________________________.

roeddan nhw ROI dha nu (verb)
1
they were (North-west)

:_______________________________.

roeddan ni ROI dha ni (verb)
1
we were (North-west)

:_______________________________.

roeddat ti ROI dha ti (verb)
1
you were (North-west)

:_______________________________.

roedd e ROI dhe (verb)
1
he was (South)

:_______________________________.

roeddech chi ROI dh (verb)
1
you were (North-east, south-east)

:_______________________________.

roedden nhw ROI dh (verb)
1
they were (North-east, south-east)

:_______________________________.

roedden ni ROI dh (verb)
1
we were (North-east, south-east)

:_______________________________.

roeddet ti ROI dh (verb)
1
you were (North-east, south-east)

:_______________________________.

roedd hi ROI DH hi (verb)
1
she was

:_______________________________.

roedd o ROI dho (verb)
1
he was (North)

:_______________________________.

roeddwn i ROI dh (verb)
1
I was

:_______________________________.

Roeg rooig adjective
1
Soft mutated form (g > ZERO) of Groeg = Greek
yr Eglwys Roeg the Greek Church
yr iaith Roeg the Greek language
(in these expressions there is soft mutation of the first consonant of an adjective which follows a feminine noun)

:_______________________________.

rofft ROFT feminine noun
1
a soft-mutated form of grofft, which in turn is a soft-mutated form of crofft (= croft) (qv)

Used as a radical from in some place names (that is, the soft-mutated form does not occur after a definite article)

Rofft is a case of an unusual double soft mutation: crofft > grofft > rofft.

Both rofft and grofft occur as radical forms, though in fact crofft is the base form.
The definite article before grofft resulted in the form y rofft; and the use of rofft as a radical form resulted in such names as Rofft y Pistyll (see below), where one might expect at least Grofft y Pistyll, and most correct of all Crofft y Pistyll.

This mutation is not however altogether unusual. In common with a host of other (mainly monosyllabic) feminine nouns in place names (gwaun, gwern, glan, etc), the soft-mutated form (especially g < c) has in some places come to be regarded as the radical form (waun, wern, lan, etc), thus rofft instead of grofft.

Hence names such as Rofft y Pistyll, where in such names (main noun + definite article + qualifying noun) the main noun should have the radical form

In some field names in Shropshire, England, in a traditionally Welsh-speaking area on the Welsh border, rofft is to be found:

(The quotes are from Shropshire Field Names, H.D.G. Foxall, Shropshire Archaeologocal Society, 1980):

(p.11) The Welsh Border equivalent of Croft is Roft, a name particularly prevalent in Oswestry.

Mention is made of Rofft y Pistyll in reference to the element pistyll (= waterfall)
(p.21) Pistol Leasow (Ellesmere) and Pystil Croft or Roft y pistill (Oswestry) are fields by waterfalls.

And there is mention of Rofft y Sbyty:

(p.58) Roft y Spytty (Oswestry) has been translated as Croft of the Hospitallers. The name refers, perhaps, to some religious house or place of temporary accommodation or shelter for travellers.

:_______________________________.

Y Rofft ə ROFT feminine noun
1
Name of a primary school in Marford (Wrecsam)

2 Y Rofft A locality in Llandudno SH7782 (where there is Rofft Gate (which would be Git y Rofft in Welsh); and Rofft Place (which would be simply Y Rofft in Welsh, or if literally translated Ller-rofft; or Clos-y-rofft, etc)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/339803


3 Y Rofft (Formerly) A place in Pennal (Gwynedd)

The Esgairweddan estate in Pennal SH6900 was at one time known as Plas yn y Rofft / Plas yn Rofft (the hall at Y Rofft) (there is a tendency for the linking Y in such place names to be dropped, hence plas yn y rofft > plas yn rofft).

This hall which gave its name to the estate was probably located in the present-day hamlet known as Y Cwrt (the court)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/218410
Y Cwrt

ETYMOLOGY: the croft (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (grofft = croft).
The word
grofft is itself a soft-mutated form of crofft (= croft) (qv)

A case of an unusual double soft mutation crofft > grofft > rofft.

:_______________________________.

Y Rofft-wen ə roft WEN feminine noun

1
Mynwent Rofft-wen SH4165 mynwent y Rofft-wen the cemetery (by) Y Rofft-wen name of a cemetery in Niwbwrch (Ynys Mn)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/835470 Mynwent Rofft-wen

ETYMOLOGY: y rofft wen the white croft(y definite article) + soft mutation + (grofft = croft) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white)

:_______________________________.

Rofft y Pistyll ROFT ə PI-stilh feminine noun
1
A
field name by Croesoswallt / Oswestry, Shropshire, England, a traditionally Welsh-speaking area on the English side of the Welsh border:

In Shropshire Field Names, H.D.G. Foxall, Shropshire Archaeologocal Society, 1980, p.21, mention is made of Rofft y Pistyll in reference to the element pistyll (= waterfall):

Pistol Leasow (Ellesmere) and Pystil Croft or Roft y pistill (Oswestry) are fields by waterfalls.


ETYMOLOGY: rofft y pistyll (the) crofft (of) the waterfall)
(rofft = croft) + (y definite article before a consonant) + (pistyll = waterfall).

:_______________________________.

Rofft y Sbyty ROFT ə SBƏ-ti feminine noun

1
A
field name by Croesoswallt / Oswestry, Shropshire, England, a traditionally Welsh-speaking area on the English side of the Welsh border:

In Shropshire Field Names, H.D.G. Foxall, Shropshire Archaeologocal Society, 1980, p.58, mention is made of Rofft y Sbyty:

Roft y Spytty (Oswestry) has been translated as Croft of the Hospitallers. The name refers, perhaps, to some religious house or place of temporary accommodation or shelter for travellers.

ETYMOLOGY: rofft y sbyty (the) croft (of) the spital / pilgrims shelter)

(rofft = croft) + (y sbyty = the spital, colloquial form of yr ysbyty = the spital).

yr ysbyty = (yr definite article before a vowel) + (ysbyty = spital).
y sbyty = (y definite article before a consonant) + (sbyty = spital)

(sbyty is a clipped version of ysbyty, through the loss of the first syllable).

NOTE: Cf the name Spitalfields (hospital fields), a district in the Borough of Tower Hamlets, London. The Spital or Hospital is
the "The New Hospital of St Mary without Bishopgate". founded 1197. A document of 1341 notes that it was founded with the aim of receiving and entertain pilgrims, and housing the infirm until they were healed, and pregnant women until they gave birth, and also to take care until the age of seven of the children of women who died in childbirth in the hospital.

:_______________________________.

Y Ro Lwyd roo-luid feminine noun
1
SH7650 mountain in the county of Conwy (North Wales)

ETYMOLOGY: the grey meadow (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (gro = meadow) + soft mutation + (llwyd = grey)
NOTE: See also Ro Wen

:_______________________________.

Romaneg ro MA neg (feminine noun)
1
Romance (language)

:_______________________________.

Roser ro-ser
1
A south-eastern form of the name Rhosier = Roger. In the south-east the sound h was typically absent, so rh > r
Caeroser name of a farm in Glynogwr
SS9587 (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

2 street names:
(1) on English maps as Rosser Street, which in Welsh would be Heol Roser

..(a) Castell-nedd

..
(b) Glynrhedynnog (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

..(c) Maes-y-coed, Pont-y-pridd (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

(2)
on English maps as Rosser Terrace, which in Welsh would be Rhestr Roser

..(a) Bryn-coch (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

NOTE: Roser would in fact be Rosar locally - in the south-east an e in the final syllable is always a

:_______________________________.

row rou masculine noun
PLURAL rowiau, rows rou ye, rous
1
row = quarrel; reprimand
cael row (gan rywun) be told off (by someone) (have a row from someone)

Fe ddywedodd e wrtho i iddo fe gael row gennych chi y tro diwetha.
He said that you gave him a row / told him off the last time

cicio row kick up a fuss, start arguing

ETYMOLOGY: English row (= quarrel, dispute). First recorded in English in the 1700s. Origin unknown.

:_______________________________.

y Ro Wen roo-wen feminine noun
1
SH7449 mountain in the county of Conwy (North Wales)

:_______________________________.

y Ro-wen roo-wen feminine noun
1
SH7571 a village in the county of Conwy (North Wales), near the mountain of Ro Wen

ETYMOLOGY: the white meadow (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (gro = meadow) + soft mutation + (gwen feminine form of gwyn = white)
NOTE: See also Ro Lwyd

:_______________________________.

rownd, rowndiau (1) ROUND, ROUND-ye (feminine noun)
1
round by a watchman, patrol, policeman
troedioch rownd pound the beat (tread your round)

:_______________________________.

rownd (2) ROUND (preposici)
1
round
mynd rownd y gornel turn the corner, go round the corner

3 yr O rownd (silver tongues) an interpretation of the English plant name horehound through folk etymology

THE TREATMENT OF ENGLISH BORROWED WORDS IN COLLOQUIAL WELSH / THOMAS POWEL / Y Cymmrodor VOL. VI 1883. / p135

The following paper is an attempt to give a general account
of the use and treatment of English words in the colloquial
Welsh of the present day. Most of the statements here made
are applicable to the whole of Welsh-speaking Wales; but
the paper treats more particularly of the dialect spoken, with
slight variations, in the Counties of Brecon, Caermarthen,
and the greater part of Cardigan.

In using many English words, the etymology of which is
unknown to the speakers, fancy often exerts itself to fnd an
origin for them. I can here only notice two or three by way
of example. The popular etymology is sought sometimes in
Enghsh, sometimes in Welsh. Thus, an "hostler" having to
do with horses, the word is very commonly supposed to have
been derived from the name of the animal, and pronounced
accordingly, horsler. Again, among gatherers of "simples" I
have often heard the plant-name "horehound" transformed
into yr O rownd (the round O); and I have known the same
ingenious fancy more poetically resolve the herb "valerian"
into yr efail arian (the silver tongs
).

:_______________________________.

rwndabowt roun-də-bout masculine noun or feminine noun
PLURAL rwndabowts, rowndabowtiau roun-də-bouts, roun-də-but-ye
Englishism
1
(USA: traffic circle) (Englandic: roundabout) (the standard form is cylchfan = circle + place)

2 (USA: merry-go-round) (Englandic: roundabout, merry-go-round), carousel (a more standard form is ceffylau bach = little horses)

3 playground roundabout = a circular platform which spins, part of the equipment of a childrens playground (a more standard form is troell = spinner)

ETYMOLOGY: from English roundabout < (round + about)

:_______________________________.

rownd laeth rowndiau llaeth (feminine noun)
1
milk round

:_______________________________.

rudd riidh adjective
1
Soft mutated form (rh > r) of rhudd (= red)
Y Foel Rudd (place name) the red hill

2
Soft mutated form (g > ZERO) of grudd (= cheek)
rudd wrth rudd cheek by jowl, close together

:_______________________________.

Ruffudd rii-fidh
1
Soft mutated form (rh > r) of Gruffudd (= mans forename)

Bodruffudd / Bod Ruffudd Gruffudds house

(Llanllyfni) Dymar siopau a oedd yno yn yr 1890au:.. Siop Gruffudd Jones y Cigydd (cododd dy ar Ln Coecia yn ddiweddarach ac fei galwodd yn Bod Ruffudd)

(Llanllyfni) These are the shops that were there in 1890s:.. The shop of Gruffudd Jones the Butcher (he built a house on Ln Coecia later and he named it Bod Ruffudd)

(Pantrefi Dyffryn Nantlle /
http://www.nantlle.com/llanllyfni-cymraeg.htm ) (Dyfyniad a godwyd / quote retrieved 2008-10-18)

:_______________________________.

run riin
Coalesced form of yr un
1
(pronoun) Dal i chwilio am anrhegion? Heb brynu run eto?
Still looking for presents? Not bought any yet? (without buying the one yet)

2 (determiner) -Blwyddyn newydd dda ichi! Run fath i chithe! (= Yr un fath i chwithau!)
-Happy New Year! -The same to you!

3 Sin run shwt somebody predictable (Johnnie (of) the same way)

:_______________________________.

R
utilius rutilus
1 rhufell (m) rhufelliaid roach

:_______________________________.

rw ruu adverb
South-east Wales
1
too
Causes soft mutation of a following adjective.
rw fch = too small (bach = small, local form bch)
rw fawr= too big (mawr = big)
rw lytan = too ample (llydan = wide, local form llytan)
rw dost = too painful (tost = painful)

ETYMOLOGY: See rhy, of which it is a variant

:_______________________________.

rwan RU an (adverb)
1
now (North)

:_______________________________.

rwber RU ber (masculine noun)
1
rubber = eraser
2
rubber = material
esgidiau rwber rubber boots

:_______________________________.

rwden, rwdins RU den, RU dins (feminine noun)
1
swede

:_______________________________.

rw i ru i (verb)
1
(South Wales) I am

:_______________________________.

rwm <RUM> [rʊm] (f)

PLURAL rwmydd, rwms
< RUU-midh, RUMZ> [ˡrʊmɪ, rʊmz]

1 room
rwm wely bedroom
yn y rwm wely in the bedroom

rwm ffrynt front room

yn y rwm ffrynt in the front room

rwm bac back room
yn y rwm bac in the back room

NOTE: The word is feminine, as is the more genuine and native word ystafell (= room)

London, 1825. Observations on some of the dialects in the West of England particularly with a glossary of words now in use there ; and poems and other pieces, exemplifying the dialect. By James Jennings, Honorary Secretary of the Metropolitan Library Institution, London.


Rum. s. Room, space.

:_______________________________.

Rwsia RU sha (feminine noun)
1
Russia

:_______________________________.

Rwsiad, Rwsiaid RU shad, RU shed (plural noun)
1
Russian

:_______________________________.

Rwsieg RU sheg (feminine noun)
1
Russian

:_______________________________.

rwtsh rutsh m
(North Wales)
1 slapdash work
rhyw rwtsh o waith oedd o it was a shoddy piece of work, it was a shoddy job (= object of poor quality)

2 rubbish, nonsense = ideas or comments which are not sensible
Paid siarad rwtsh Dont talk rubbish

3 rubbish = poor-quality material
Pam dach chin edrych ar y fath rwtsh?
Why are you watching such rubbish?

4 (exclamation) Rwtsh! Rubbish! Utter twaddle! Nonsense! Tosh! Crap!

ETYMOLOGY: English rush (= obsolete meaning: work done in haste) < Old French ruser (= put to flight, force to retreat) < Latin recsre (= to refuse, to reject).

Cf English ruse (= strategem) < Old French ruse (= trick; avoiding capture) < ruser (= to retreat) < Latin recsre

Modern French has ruser (= to use trickery or cunning), rus (= crafty, cunning; sly person, cunning person, crafty person), ruse (= ruse, trick, piece of cunning).

Other senses of rush in English allude to speed or haste: rush = a sprint at the end of a race; a rush of people = people in a hurry; rushes = unedited prints of a movie scene.


:_______________________________.

rwtshlyd ruch-lid
1 rubbish, rubbishy
Dwin synnu fod neb yn prynur cylchgrawn rwtshlyd hwnnw
Im surprised anybody buys that rubbishy magazine

ETYMOLOGY: (rwtsh = rubbish) + (-lyd adjectival suffix, often suggesting contempt)

:_______________________________.

rwyt ti rui TII (verb)
1
you are

2 Rwyt ti amdani! Youre for it! Youll pay dearly for this!

:_______________________________.

rych chi rii KHII (verb)
1
you are (South)

:_______________________________.

rydach chi (dach chi) rə da KHII (verb)
1
you are (North-west)

:_______________________________.

rydan ni (dan ni) rə da NII (verb)
1
we are (North-west)

:_______________________________.

1 rydd riidh adjective
1
soft-mutated form of rhydd = free

One context in which this form is commonly found is after a feminine singular noun

cic rydd free kick
Cymru Rydd a free Wales
masnach rydd free trade
menter rydd free enterprise

:_______________________________.

2 rydd hriidh verb
1
soft mutation of rhydd = will give

Contexts in which this form is commonly found is after the interrogative particle a (dropped in colloquial use), and the negative particles ni (dropped in colloquial use) and na (often retained in colloquial use), and a (relative pronoun dropped in colloquial use)
rydd o ddim he wont give
rydd o moi... he wont give his...

:_______________________________.

Rydd o ddim cymaint r du o dan ei ewin i chi riidh oo dhim -mint aar dii oo dan ii eu-in ii khii
1
district of Arfon, in the county of Gwynedd (said of a mean person)
Literally: He wont give as much as the dirt under his [finger] nail to you

ETYMOLOGY: (ni rydd ef > colloquially rydd o ddim = hw wont give) + (cymaint = as much as) + (y du = the dirt, the black) +(o dan = under) + (ei ewin = his fingernail) + (i chi = to you)

:_______________________________.

rydech chi (dech chi) rə de KHII (verb)
1
you are (North-east)

:_______________________________.

rydeg -deg verb
1
a southern form of rhedeg (= to run). In southern Welsh, r replaces rh.

In the south-east ryteg / rytag - initial d in a final syllable is devoiced to t. East of the Nedd valley a final e is pronounced a

:_______________________________.

ryden ni (de ni) rə de NII (verb)
1
we are (North-east)

:_______________________________.

rydw i (dw i) rə du I (verb)
1
I am (standard colloquial)

:_______________________________.

rydych chi (di chi) rə di KHII (verb)
1
you are (standard colloquial)

:_______________________________.

rydyn ni (di ni) rə di NII (verb)
1
we are (standard colloquial)

:_______________________________.

ryfedda rə-vee dha adverb
1
(South Wales) (after an adjective) extremely, very very
Mae hin oer ryfeddaf Its really cold

ETYMOLOGY: ryfedda < ryfeddaf, soft-mutated form of rhyfeddaf (= strangest).

Adjectives used as qualifiers indicating extent generally have soft mutation of the initial consonant.

:_______________________________.

rygbi RƏG bi (masculine noun)
1
rugby

clwb rygbi a rugby club
chwaraewr rygbi a rugby player

:_______________________________.

ryn ni riin ni (verb)
1
we are (South)

:_______________________________.

rytag -tag verb
1
This is a a south-eastern form of rydeg < rhedeg (= to run).
..1/ In southern Welsh, r replaces rh rhedeg > redeg
..2/ The tonic vowel e loses its quality and becomes ə, a neutral vowel redeg > rydeg

In the south-east the spoken form is ryteg / rytag
..1/ initial d in a final syllable is devoiced to t rydeg > ryteg
..2/ East of the Nedd valley a final e is pronounced a ryteg > rytag

:_______________________________.

ryteg -teg verb
1
a south-eastern form of rydeg < rhedeg (= to run). In southern Welsh, r replaces rh.
In the south-east ryteg / rytag - initial d in a final syllable is devoiced to t.
East of the Nedd valley a final e is pronounced a

:_______________________________.

rywbryd <RIU-brid>
[ˡrɪʊbrɪd] (adverb)
1
sometime

ETYMOLOGY: rhywbryd > rywbryd (soft mutation occurs in adverbial use)

rhyw bryd (rhyw = some) + soft mutation + (pryd = time)
:_______________________________.

ryw dro
<riu DROO>
[rɪʊ ˡdroː] adverb
1
Ryw dro... Once upon a time (conventional phrase for beginning a fairy tale, etc)
(Also: Unwaith..., Un tro..., Gynt..., Ers talwm..., Ers llawer dydd...)


ETYMOLOGY: (rhyw = some) + soft mutation + (tro = turn; occasion). In adverbial phrases there is soft mutation of the initial consonant of the first word; thus rhyw > ryw

:_______________________________.

rywsut <RIU-sit>
[ˡrɪʊsɪt] (adverb)
1
somehow

ETYMOLOGY: rhywsut > rywsut (soft mutation occurs in adverbial use)

rhyw sut (rhyw = some) + soft mutation + (sut = how)

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