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2012-08-09 09-08-2012

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The Wales-Catalonia Website

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An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English



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Archwiliwch y wefan hon
Adeiladwaith y wefan
Beth sydd yn newydd?


(delwedd 6668)



























7000_kimkat1676e.jpgI, J, K









7000_kimkat1073e.jpgPL, Q







7000_kimkat1025e.jpgU, V

7000_kimkat1731e.jpgW, X

7000_kimkat1586e.jpgY, Z





..1 ar <AR> [ar] (preposition)


(emotion) bod hwyl ddrwg ar be in a nasty mood (be a bad emotion on)

(view) mynd i gael golwg ar y dre go and have a look round town

(ache, pain, illness) Mae annwyd arna i <mai A-nuid ar-nai> [maɪ ˡanʊɪd ˡarnaɪ] Ive got a cold

(South Wales) Mae pen da arno fe Hes clever (theres a head on him)

(debts) In expressions meaning to owe

Does arnoch chi ddim i mi You dont owe me anything, you dont owe me a thing (There is nothing on you to me)

Mae arnaf fi lawer o arian iddo I owe him a lot of money

Mae arna i ichi am y bwyd I owe you for the food, I should pay you for the food

Does arna ir un geiniog iddo I dont owe him a penny

(Ceredigion) celc ar = something wrong with (but not apparent)

Mae rhyw hen gelc arno Hes a bit odd, theres something not quite right about him (there is some old defect on him)

Mae rhyw goll arno Hes a bit odd, Hes not all there, Theres something not quite right about him (there is some sort of loss / defect on him)

8 laziness

Mae tipyn o ddiogi arno pan fo ishe gweithion galed
Hes a bit lazy (theres a bit of laziness on him) when hard work is needed

9 (taste) Mae blas rhyfedd ar y te ma This tea tastes strange, This tea has a funny taste

10 (smell)
(South Wales) gwynt smell (= unpleasant smell)

gwynt drwg olor desagradable
Mae gwynt drwg ar ei anadl Hes got bad breath, his breath smells (theres a bad smell on his breath)

gwynt cas nasty smell, bad smell
Mae gwynt cas ar ei anadl (theres a nasty smell on his breath)

after verbs or verb phrases:

amneidio ar rywun i wneud rhywbeth signal to somebody (with a nod of the head) to do something (to nod on somebody to do something)

arbed ar save on = consume a smaller amount of
arbed ar fwyd save on food

arthio ar (rywun) bark at (someone); go on at (somebody) (see also below: verbs of warning, reprimanding, nagging)

bod gormod o floneg ar be too flabby (be too-much of fat on)

brygowthan ar (rywun)
go on at (somebody) (see also below: verbs of warning, reprimanding, nagging)

bwrw amheuaeth ar (rywbeth) cast doubts on something, throw something into doubt

cael hen ddigon ar have just about enough of
(get more than enough on) (
cael = get) + (hen = old; more than) + soft mutation + (digon = enough) + (ar = on)

cega ar (rywun) go on at (somebody) (see also below: verbs of warning, reprimanding, nagging)

codi ar (rywbeth) (auction) bid for something

codi ar (rywun) am (rywbeth) charge somebody for

codi arian ar to mortgage (something) (raise money on)

codi (rhywbeth) ar (rywun) charge somebody for something

colli golwg ar (rywbeth) lose sight of (something)

colli golwg ar (rywun) lose sight of (somebody); lose touch with somebody

dal eich golygon ar stare at (hold your sights on)
dwyn cyrch ar make a sortie against (carry a raid on)

dwyn dial (ar rywun) (am rywbeth)
take revenge (on somebody) (for something), revenge oneself (on somebody) (for something)

gwaeddu ar (rywun) shout at (somebody) (see also below: verbs of warning, reprimanding, nagging)

gwneud arwydd ar rywun i wneud rhywbeth signal to somebody (with a gesture of the hand) to do something (make a sign on somebody to do something)

gwneud rhuthrad ar storm (a building), take (a building) by a violent assault (make an incursion on)

hewian ar (rywun) go on at (somebody) (see also below: verbs of warning, reprimanding, nagging)

rhefru ar (rywun) go on at (somebody) (see also below: verbs of warning, reprimanding, nagging)

rhoi gormod o bwyslais ar (rywbeth) attach too much importance to (something)

rhoi prawf ar allu rhywun put somebody through his paces (put a test on (the) ability (of) someone)

taflu amheuon ar cast doubts on something, throw something into doubt

taroch troed ar (rywbeth) stumble over, trip over (something) (hit your foot on)

12 ar ryddhd on leave (on liberation)

(need) Faint sydd ei angen arnoch? How much do you need? ((it-is) how-much its necessity onyou)

gyda golwg ar with reference to, as regards

Sdim newid arno Hes set in his ways (theres no changing on him)

there isnt..., it isnt possible to...
Does dim plesio arno He just cant be pleased, Theres no pleasing him (hes dissatisfied whatever you do for him, hell complain mo matter what you fo for him) (theres no pleasing on him)

gwir angen real necessity
Mae arnaf fi ei wir angen I really need it (there-is on me its true need)
Byddwn yn gwario arian ar bethau nad oedd eu gwir angen arnaf
I used to spend money on things I didnt really need (I spent money on things that-not there-was their true need on-me)

Does yma fawr o lun arni Were not making a very good job of it, Weve not managed to make a very good job of it (there-is-not here much of (a) picture on-her)

19 Maen dda arno fe Hes doing well for himself (its good on him)

20 ar lawer cyfrif in many respects
ar sawl cyfrif in many respects

on the point of
Maer llygod yn gadael llong ar suddo Rats desert a sinking ship

22 ar dennyn on a leash

heb ddefnydd arno disused
lorri heb ddefnydd arni disused lorry

pall ar stopping + on
Does dim pall arno He never stops (theres no stopping on him)

ar yr union eiliad at that precise moment, at that very moment

troich trwyn ar turn up your nose at (turn your nose on)

barnu (rhywun) ar ei olwg judge (somebody) by his appearance (judge (somebody) on his appearance)
barnu (rhywun) ar yr olwg allanol judge (somebody) by his appearance (judge (somebody) on the external appearance)

ar ei golwg hi gellwch weld
you can tell by the way she looks, from the look of her, from her look

does dim terfyn ar (rywbeth) (Something) knows no bounds, is limitless
does dim terfyn ar ei haelioni His generosity knows no bounds

ar gais at the request of
ar gais taer rhywun at the urgent request of

30 verbs of warning, reprimanding, nagging, crying to, shouting to

gwaeddu ar (rywun)
shout at (somebody)

galw ar (rywun) call to (somebody)
brygowthan ar (rywun) go on at (somebody)
hewian ar (rywun) go on at (somebody)
rhefru ar (rywun) go on at (somebody)
cega ar (rywun) go on at (somebody)
arthio ar (rywun) bark at (someone); go on at (somebody)

y bugail yn chwibanu ar ei gi the shepherd whistling to his dog

31 debt
Mae arno ddyledion i bawb He owes everybody money (there is on him debts to everybody)

sip (= form, shape)
Pa fath o sip sy arno? How is he, What shape is he in (what kind of shape is on him)

on a subject mynegi barn ar (rywbeth) voice an opinion about (something)
traethu barn ar (rywbeth) voice an opinion about (something)
datgan barn ar (rywbeth) voice an opinion about (something)

ni + fawr ar not much

Ni hoffais fawr ar y swydd honno I didnt much like that job
NI + fawr ddim ar

Dw in deall fawr ddim ar y pwnc hwnnw I dont understand that subject much

ni + dim ond ychydig ar only a little, just a little bit
NI + dim ond ychydig ar only a little, just a little bit
Dwn deall dim ond ychydig ar y pwnc hwnnw I understand that subject just a bit

35 gwneud diwedd arnoch eich hun put an end to one's life, commit suicide kill oneself
make (an) end on yourself) (
gwneud = do, make) + (diwedd = end) + (arnoch = on you) + (eich hun of yourself)

36 bod arnoch gywilydd o be ashamed of / about, feel ashamed of / about
(less idiomatic)
bod gennych gywilydd o be ashamed of / about, feel ashamed of / about

37 codi cywilydd ar make (somebody) feel ashamed (raise shame on)

38 dwyn cywilydd ar make (somebody) feel ashamed (bring shame on)

39 gwneud cywilydd ar (rywun) CLASSICAL WELSH shame (someone)

gyrru cywilydd ar (rywun) shame (someone)

41 rhoir gyfraith ar (rywun) take (someone) to court, prosecute (someone)

43 on the occasion of
ar ei priodas on his marriage
Symudodd i Lan-non ar ei priodas he moved to Llan-non on his marriage

44 on the occasion of = when there is

..a/ ar daranau on [the occaion of] claps of thunder


fel gafr ar daranau (adverb) agitatedly
(like (a) goat on thunderclaps = like a goat when theres thunder about)

(fel = like) + (gafr = goat) + (ar = on; on the occasion of) + soft mutation + (taranau = claps of thunder, < taran = clap of thunder, thunderclap)

..b/ ar dn on [the occaion of] fire

fel cath ar dn (adverb) like streaked lightning
(like (a) cat on fire = like a cat escaping from a fire)
(fel = like) + (cath = cat) + (ar = on; on the occasion of) + soft mutation + (tn = fire)


ar dywydd gwael in bad weather
ar dywydd drwg in bad weather
ar dywydd oer in cold weather
ar dywydd mawr in stormy weather

ar dywydd garw in stormy weather

ar dywydd drycinog in stormy weather
ar dywydd gwlyb in wet weather
ar dywydd braf in fine weather
ar dywydd teg in fine weather
ar dywydd sych in dry weather
ar dywydd heulog in sunny weather

ar dywydd poeth in hot weather
ar dywydd mwyn in mild weather
ar dywydd ffafriol in favourable weather
ar dywydd pur galed in very bad weather

ar dywydd glawog in rainy weather

45 ei fryd yn rhedeg ar be inclined towards
Ond ar y weinidogaeth y rhedodd ei fryd yn bennaf but he was mostly inclined towards the ministry, he had his heart set on being a minister of religion

46 marw yn gynnar ar ei fywyd die young, die early in life

47 indicating a point in time

ar brynhwn y trydydd dydd on the afternoon of the third day

ar fore y pedwerydd dydd on the morning of the fourth day

47 with the root form of certain verbs

..1/ ar agor open

(ar = on) + (agor- stem of verb agor = to open [something], to open [by itself])

..2/ ar dorr cut, having been cut into
(ar = on) + soft mutation + (tor- stem of verb torri = to cut, to break, to get broken)
cosyn ar dor a cheese which one has started to cut up

..3/ ar gau closed
Strictly speaking it would be spelt ar gae (same pronunciation). Perhaps it is not used because it also suggests on a field, whereas the spelling cau is unambiguously closing; closed
(ar = on) + soft mutation + (cae- stem of verb cau = to close, to be closed)

NOTE: cau cannot be the spelling of the root form, strictly speaking, because it is cae-u, where the u represents the verbnoun ending. The root or stem of the verb is obtained by removing any verbnoun suffix.

..4/ ar glo locked
(ar = on) + soft mutation + (clo- = stem of verb cloi = to lock, to get locked)

..5/ ar goll lost
(ar = on) + soft mutation + (coll- = stem of verb colli = to lose, to get lost)

..6/ ar grwydr wandering
(ar = on) + soft mutation + (crwydr- = stem of verb crwydro = to wander)

..7/ ar wasgar dispersed, scattered
(ar = on) + soft mutation + (gwasgar- stem of verb gwasgaru = to scatter, disperse)

..8/ ar wrych 1 (person) in a bad mood 2 (hair) dishevelled

(ar = on) + soft mutation + (gwrych stem of the verb gwrychu (= to bristle), used as a past particple)

48 (place names) in river-name tags, similar to English on, upon (Stratford on Avon, Stratford upon Avon; Newcastle on Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne)

..a/ ar Ogwr

Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr (the) Pen-y-bont (which is) on (the river) Ogwr / Ogmore
pen y bont = (place) at the bridge head, at the entrance to the bridge

..b/ ar Wy
Clas ar Wy (the place called) Clas (which is) on (the river) Gwy / Wye
clas is from Latin [monastica] classis (= monastic community)

Y Bontnewydd ar Wy (the place called) Y Bontnewydd (which is) on (the river) Gwy / Wye
y bontnewydd (= the new bridge)

..c/ ar Wysg
Casnewydd ar Wysg (the) Casnewydd (which is) on (the river) Wysg / Usk
cas newydd is from castell newydd (= new castle)

and various bridge names, where Pont has no preceding definite article, as if the qualifying phrase with ar is a proper name as in

Pontrobert (Roberts bridge), Pontwilym (Gwilyms bridge).

The short form of the name though is generally Y Bont (the bridge)

Pontardawe (= pont ar Dawe) the bridge on the river Tawe

Pont ar Daf SN9819 name of a bridge now submerged under the waters of Llwyn-on
reservoir, above Cefn-coed y Cymer.

More examples at the entry pont

49 with an element meaning hill in house names


Arallt <AAR-alht> ɑˑraɬt]
house name Y Sarn, Pwllheli (Gwynedd); south-east of Meyllteyrn (Gwynedd); Amlwch (Ynys Mn) hillside

(ar = on) + (allt = hill)

Arfron <AR-vrON> arvrɔn] hillside
(ar = on) + soft mutation + (bron = (round) hill, womans breast)

Arfryn <AR-vrin arvrɪn] hillside
(ar = on) + soft mutation + (bryn = hill)

Argraig <AR-graig> argraɪg] house name; in Aber-soch (Gwynedd); house name in Pwllheli (Gwynedd); on (the) crag / rocky ridge (ar = on) + soft mutation + (craig = crag)

Arfoel <AR-voil> arvɔɪl] hillside house name in Diserth / Dyserth (county of Dinbych / Denbigh) (ar = on) + soft mutation + (moel = (bare) hill)

Ardwyn <AR-duIN> ardʊɪn] hillside street name in Porthtywyn / Burry Port (county of Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen) (ar = on) + soft mutation + (twyn = mound, hill)

40 bod ar drugaredd rhywun be at somebodys mercy




ar agor (qv) open

ar agor (qv) open

ar air neu ar weithred (qv)in word or deed, by word or by deed

ar antur (qv) at random, randomly

ar amserau at times

ar ben (qv) on top of; over, finished, at an end

ar bwys (qv) near

ar dn (qv) 1 on fire 2 on the breakout of a fire, at the time of a fire (fel cath ar dn (like (a) cat on [the occasion of] fire = like a cat escaping from a fire, like streaked lightning)
(fel = like) + (cath = cat) + (ar = on; on the occasion of) + soft mutation + (tn = fire)
ar drugaredd (rhywun) (qv) at the mercy of. (someone)

ar ddelw (qv) in the image of

ar ddu a gwyn (qv) in black and white

ar ddwy (qv) (= ar ddwywaith) at the second attempt (on two (times))

ar dennyn (qv) on a leash

ar dorr (qv) cut, having been cut into

ar draws (qv) across

ar ei ben (qv) directly; see ar eich pen

ar eich baw (qv) (on your dirt / shit) gadael (rhywun) ar ei faw to leave (somebody) in the lurch, leave somebody to sort out his own problems, leave somebody to get out of the predicament he has got himself into (leave somebody on his shit)

ar eich cythlwng (qv) hungry, starving

ar eich deudroed (qv) on foot

ar eich drwg (qv) up to no good

ar eich eistedd seated, sitting down

ar eich elw to ones name, in ones possession

ar eich ffordd (qv) on ones way

ar eich golwg chi (qv) from the look of you, from your look

ar eich gorwedd lying down

ar eich gwaethaf (qv) in spite of yourself

ar eich hyd (qv) on your length, in every part of your body, from your head to your feet

ar eich llawn dwf (qv) fully grown (on your full growth)

ar eich pen (qv) outright

ar eich pen eich hun (qv) on your own

ar eich tyfiant (qv) growing

ar ffo (qv) fleeing

ar fin (qv) on the point of; on the edge of; (penis) erect

ar fin y bedd (qv) between life and death, on the point of death, with one foot in the grave, at deaths door

ar flaen (qv) at the head of, at the front of, leading

ar frys (qv) in a hurry

Ar fy llw! (qv) I swear (its true, etc) (on my oath)

Ar fy ngwir! (qv) I swear (its true, etc) (on my truth)

ar gais (qv) at the request of

ar gais (qv) at the request of

ar gam (qv) unjustly

ar gamamser (qv) a at the wrong time; at an inopportune moment

ar gn (qv) in verse, as a poem; rough song, singing

ar gau (qv) closed

ar gennad (qv) (USA: on furlough) (Englandic: on leave)

ar glawr (qv) in existence, existing

ar glo (qv) locked

ar goll (qv) lost

ar goll (qv) lost

ar golled (qv) at a loss

ar gost (qv) at the expense of, at the cost of

ar groesffordd (qv) at a crossroads (= at a crucial point where a decision must be made)

ar grwydr (qv) wandering

ar gyrn a phibau (qv) (on horns and pipes)

ar gyfartaledd (qv) on average

ar gyfer (qv) for = in preparation for

ar gynydd (qv) on the increase = gaining size

ar hast wyllt (qv) in a mad hurry

ar her (qv) for a dare

ar herw (qv) outlawed, on the run

ar hyd (qv) along

ar hyd ac ar draws (qv) in all directions, any old how, at random

ar hyd ac ar led (qv) all over, everywhere

ar hyd y flwyddyn (qv) during the year

ar hyn o bryd (qv) at the present time

ar lafar gwlad (qv) in spoken Welsh

ar lawer cyfrif (qv) in many respects

ar led (qv) extended

ar letraws (qv) diagonally

ar lun a delw (qv) in the image of (in the shape and image of)

ar lw (qv) oath, sworn

ar ddeudro (qv) the second time, with the second try (on two turns)

ar ddrwg (qv) up to no good

ar ddwywaith (qv) at the second attempt

ar ddydd Gwener (qv) on a Friday, on Fridays; = every Friday

ar derfyn dydd (qv) at close of day, at the end of the day

ar draul (qv) at the expense of, at the cost of

ar droed (qv) (rumour, piece of news) circulating, going round

ar fechnaeth (qv) on bail

ar l (qv) after

ar oleddf (qv) slanting, sloping

ar raddfa fechan (qv) a small scale, in miniature

ar ran (qv) on behalf of

ar ryddhd (qv) on leave (on liberation)

ar sail (qv) on the basis of

ar sawl cyfrif (qv) in many respects

ar un ochr i (qv) on one side of

ar un wedd (qv) in one way. in one sense, from one aspect

ar unwaith (qv) at once, instantly, immediately (American: also: in short order);

ar waelod (qv) at the bottom of; at the end of

ar wahn i (qv) apart from

ar wasgar (qv) dispersed, scattered

ar werth (qv) on sale

ar wrych (qv) dishevelled; surly

ar y blaen (qv) ahead, at the front

ar y clwt (qv) destitute

ar y cyntaf (qv) at the beginning

ar y daith (qv) en route, in transit, on the journey

ar y diawl (qv) very (literally: on the devil)

ar y dydd ar dydd (qv) on such and such a day, on a certain day, some day in the week

ar y gweill (qv) being prepared, in preparation

ar y Sadwrn ar Sul (qv) on Saturdays and Sundays

ar yr ochr faes i (qv) on the outside of

ar yr union eiliad (qv) at that precise moment, at that very moment



..2 ar <AR> [ɑr] preposition
(obsolete) in front of, facing, adjoining. Followed by soft mutation.

Occurs as a prefix in a number of words:

(1) araul (= sunny, pleasant); (ar) + (haul = sun)

(2) arddwrn (= wrist), (ar) + soft mutation + dwrn (= fist)
(that which is) adjoining the hand / fist

(3) Arfon ((territory) facing (the island of) Mn)

(4) arfor (= coast; adjective = coastal), (ar) + soft mutation + (mr = sea)
(In Brittany, the coast is known as Arvor)

(5) argoed (= wood; edge of a wood), (ar) + soft mutation + (coed = wood)
(In Brittany, the inland area as Argoad)

(6) Arllechwedd kantrev of the territory of Gwynedd Uwch Conwy
(ar) + soft mutation + (llechwedd = mountain slope) > *Arlechwedd > Arllechwedd

(7) *Arnemeton place facing the sacred grove > name of a goddess Arnemetia of Arnemeton, found in the name of the Roman settlement Aquae Arnemetiae (waters (of) Arnemetia), Buxton in Derbyshire, England.

(The place name in modern Welsh would be *Ernyfed, though there is no place with such a name in modern times)

ETYMOLOGY: British are-, as a prefix in many compounds

(1) The prepostion ar in modern Welsh comes from two distinct prepositions
firstly, ar (= in front of)
and secondly, gwar (= on). This latter is related to English over, Latin super, Greek hiper.

(2) Most senses of modern Welsh ar derive from gwar (= on, over) rather than ar (= in front of)

(3) In Welsh, in common with other prepositions, gwar became soft-mutated initially
gwar > ghwar

(4) Initial gh in Welsh has disappeared in every case. Hence ghwar > war

(5) Later war (= on) became ar, through confusion with ar (= in front of).

The form war (= on) is stll the regular form in Cornish and in Breton


r <AAR> [aːr] masculine noun
tilth, ploughed land
tir r ploughland

cyfar joint ploughing, co-tillage
(cyf- prefix = co-, together) + (r = tillage)
cyfardir (obsolete) joint ploughland

talar headland in a field, cross ridge at the end of a ploughed field; edge of a field where the plough turns, and which is ploughed in turn when the whole field has been ploughed (Scotland: headrig = headland in ploughed field)
(tl = top, furthest part, highest part) + (r = ploughed land)

In the other British languages: Cornish talar (= headland in a field), Breton talar (= headland in a field)

ETYMOLOGY: The element ar appears in the Welsh words aredig (= to plough), and aradr (= plough, < Celtic aratron)

Cf. Irish (literary word) r (= ploughed land)
Cf. Latin artrum (= plough), arre (= to plough)


A false etymology where this element is wrongly supposed is seen here:

Hanes Tredegar o Ddechreuad y Gwaith Haiarn hyd yr Amser Presennol. David Morris (Eiddil Gwent, B.B.D.) Tredegar. 1868. Tudalennau 10-11


Rhoddir llawer iawn o ystyrion ir gair Tredegar. Y mysg eraill geilw rhai ef Tri-deg-erw, a mynant, er bodd ac anfodd, mai dyna ywr iawn ystyr o'r enw. Ond pan ystyriom mai yr hn air Gymraeg am Ddaear neu Daear, yw Ar, ac os digymalwn y gair Tredegar fel hyn, Tre Deg Ar, gwelwn yn amlwg mai iawn ystyr yr enw yw Tre-daear-deg. Mae llawer iawn o balasai yr hn foneddigion Cymreig, y'Nghymru, yn myned dan yr enw Tre fel Trenewydd, palas yr anrhydeddus Arglwydd Dinevor - hefyd Tregoib, palas ardderchog Mr. Hughes, ger Llandeilo Fawr, - a llawer o balasau ereill yr hn foneddigion a allesid eu henwi.


A great amount of meanings are given to the word Tredegar. Among those some calls it Tri-deg-erw (Note: three-fair-acres, though the soft mutation would be wrong; a spirant mutation is required: tri-theg-erw. If tre were maintained, the soft mutation is correct tre-deg-erw, the trv / farm of the fair acre; though both forms would be unusual combinations for a place name ) the other fair-Tri-acre, and they please, for love and reluctantly, that is the very meaning of the name. But when we consider that Ar is the old Welsh word for Earth or Earth, and if we take apart the word Tredegar like this Tre Deg Ar (trv + fair + ar) we see clearly that the proper meaning of the name is Tre-daear-deg (= trv of the fair earth). A great many mansions of the old Welsh gentry in Wales have the name Tre such as Trenewydd (new trv). the mansion of the honourable Mr. Lord Dinevor (= Dinefwr), also Tregoib, the excellent mansion of Mr Hughes, near Llandeilo Fawr, - and many other mansions of the old gentry that could be mentioned (named).


Note: Tredegar is in fact from Tredeger < Tredegyr, the trv of Tegyr


ar ar
preposition + definite article
and the
y ci ar gath the dog and the cat

used in phrases of specifying whilst being unable to state an exact time / name
y diwrnod ar diwrnod such and such a day

gadael eich l ar (rywbeth) leave your mark on something

bod cryn le i wella ar (rywbeth) leave a lot to be desired (to be a considerable place to improve on something)

Ble roedden ni arni? (in resuming a discussion, conversation) Now where were we? (where were we on it)



1 with the


2 as the
bod mor fwynaidd r oen be as gentle as a lamb
bod mor sefydlog r graig be as steady as a rock


Arabic words in Welsh

ayatollah = Shiite leader, member of the religious hierarchy who has an expert knowledge of Islamic law

ETYMOLOGY: Persian < Arabic (= sign of Allah / God) (yat = sign) + (Allah = God)

1 safari = hunting expedition

ETYMOLOGY: < English safari < Swahili safari (= journey) < Arabic safariiya < safara (= to travel)


abbreviation (in a dictionary entry) = Arabeg Arabic


Arabeg <a-RAA-beg> [aˡrɑˑbɛg] feminine noun
Abbreviation: (in a dictionary entry) Arab.


aradr (arad), PLURAL: erydr (eryd) <AA-radr, AA-rad; EE-ridr, EE-rid> ɑˑradr, ˡɑˑrad, ˡeˑrɪdr, ˡeˑrɪd] masculine noun


aradr eira <AA-radr / AA-rad EI-ra> ɑˑradr / ˡɑˑrad ˡəɪra] (masculine or feminine noun)


aradwr <a-RAA-dur> [aˡrɑˑdʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL aradwyr <a-RAD-wir> [aˡradwɪr]

ETYMOLOGY: (aradr = plough) + (-wr = agent suffix)


araf <AA-rav, AA-ra> ɑˑrav, ˡɑˑra] adjective
slow = taking a long time to move, to go
streic araf go-slow (slow strike)

Ara deg piau hi Dont get het up! Keep calm! (very slow has it)


Arafa Don a-RAA-va DON [aˡrɑˑva ˡdɔn]
Name of a hymn composed by R. S. Hughes, who was the choirmaster of Bethesda Chapel (Congregationalists) in Bethesda (Gwynedd). He died at the early age of 38 in 1893.

2 Name of a building in Bethesda

The town of Bethesda, at a place known originally as Glanogwan, took its new name from a Congregational chapel in Y Stryd Fawr (High Street) built in 1823. It was replaced by a building with a somewhat over-ornate front in 1840. This chapel has now been converted into flats, and is now known as Arafa Don, from R. S. Hughes well-known hymn.

(Information from the caption to this photo by Eric Jones )

ETYMOLOGY: The title is generally translated into English as abate ye waves (with ye, the archaic plural form of you in English, which placed before a noun was used to express a plural imperative)

Literally the title is abate!, sea!

(arafa = abate! second person singular imperative of arafu = slow down; ease, ease off; abate) + (don = sea!, < ton = wave; sea)

arafa is (araf- stem of the verb arafu) + (-a second person singular imperative ending)

The vocative form of a noun is indicated if it begins with a soft-mutable consonant (c p t / g b d / m ll rh) by the soft mutation. Thus don, which is from ton (= wave; sea)


arafol <ar-AA-vol> [arˡɑˑvɔl] adjective
dilatory, delaying, working slowly, deliberately being slow
tacteg arafol delaying tactic
Also: ystryw oedi

ETYMOLOGY: (araf = slow) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


arafu <a-RAA-vi> [aˡrɑˑvɪ] verb

Clipped form: rafu

(transitive verb)
1 to slow (something) down = to make (something) go slower

(intransitive verb)
2 to slow down = go slower

Barnwyr 5:28 Mam Sisera a edrychodd trwy ffenestr, ac a waeddodd trwy'r dellt, Paham yr oeda ei gerbyd ddyfod? paham yr arafodd olwynion ei gerbydau?
Judges 5:28 The mother of Sisera looked out at a window, and cried through the lattice, Why is his chariot so long in coming? why tarry the wheels of his chariots?

3 to slow, to delay

tacteg arafu delaying tactic

4 (pain) ease off

Ydir boen yn arafu? Is the pain easing off?

5 (rain) ease off, slacken off

6 (heavy sea) abate
Arafa Don (qv) title of a hymn (free translation: abate ye waves) (qv)

7 (wind) abate, drop

arafodd y gwynt the wind dropped


ar agor <ar AA-gor> [ar ˡɑˑgɔr] (adverb)

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + (agor- stem of verb agor = to open [something], to open [by itself])


ar air neu ar weithred <ar AIR nei ar WEITH-red> [ar ˡaɪr nəɪ ar ˡwəɪθrɛd] adverb
in word or deed, by word or by deed

Colosiaid 3:17 A pha beth bynnag a wneloch, ar air neu ar weithred, gwnewch bob peth yn enw'r Arglwydd Iesu, gan ddiolch i Dduw a'r Tad trwyddo ef.
Colossians 3:17 And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him.

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (gair = word) + (neu = or) + (ar = on) + soft mutation + (gweithred = deed, action)


araith <A-raith, -reth> araɪθ, -ɛθ] feminine noun
PLURAL areithiau <a-REITH-yai, -ye> [aˡrəɪθjaɪ, -ɛ]
1 speech, (USA: also spiel)
araith denau poor speech, threadbare speech, insubstantial speech
araith gyntaf (parliament) maiden speech
areithio be giving a speech; make a speech, deliver a speech

2 language
araith ddrwg bad language

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic *arekt-
Cornish areth, Breton (Gwened) areih (= dispute)

Irish aireacht (= assembly)

NOTE: written colloquial form: areth / arath


arall <AA-ralh> ɑˑraɬ] adjective
The plural form is eraill [EE-rilh]

2 y rhyw arall the opposite sex (the other sex)

3 y tu arall i on the other side of (the other side to)
y tu arall i'r afon on the other side of the river

bod mewn cae arall (be in another field) be missing the point, be parking up the wrong tree


Arallt <AAR-alht> ɑˑraɬt]
house name

..a/ Y Sarn, Pwllheli (Gwynedd)

..b/ south-east of Meyllteyrn (Gwynedd)

..c/ Amlwch (Ynys Mn)

ETYMOLOGY: hillside (ar = on) + (allt = hill)


aran <AA-ran> ɑˑran]
soft mutation of garan = crane (bird)
yr aran = the crane
pig yr aran cranes bill (flower)


ar antur <ar AN-tir> [ar ˡantɪr] adverb
at random, randomly

cynnig ar antur shot in the dark, wild guess (attempt at random)
dyfaliad ar antur shot in the dark, wild guess (guess at random)

3 rhoich bywyd ar antur put your life at risk


araul <AA-rail> ɑˑraɪl] adjective

Dewch brydyddion... I ganu clod i Glyn [sic] Sirhowy, Man tawel arail yw;

(Can o Glod i Glyn [sic] Sirhowy). Hanes Tredegar, David Morris, (Eiddil Gwent), 1868

Come poets... to sing the praise of the Syrhywi Valley, it is a quiet place, sunny.. (arail = poor spelling for araul, formerly in use)

(Song of praise Syrhywi Valley). From Hanes Tredegar (the history of Tredegar), by David Morris, (Eiddil Gwent), 1868

especially in place names in south-east Wales
Maesaraul (qv) sunny field
Gelliaraul (y gelli araul = the sunny wood) farm in Llan-gan (county of Bro Morgannwg)

Y Cyfnod Araul the Golden Age

ETYMOLOGY: araul < r-haul (ar = before, in front of) + (haul = sun)
NOTE: in the south-east the colloquial form is aril <AA-ril> ɑˑrɪl]

In place names. often incorrectly spelt as arael.

Also, the south-eastern spoken form aral (< arel < arael) is to be found.


Pendeulwyn (Pendoylan) Parish Baptisms mention the birth of Henry Basset (26 Oct 1849) at Maesarael, Pendoylan to father Robert Basset (farmer) and mother Ann


Merthyr Times, and Dowlais Times, and Aberdare Echo 25 Apr 1895

ABERDARE TRADESMEN'S BALL: Mr. A. A. Davies, Lloyds Bank; Miss May Davies, Maesaral(,) Cross Inn; Mr. W. S. Davies, 27, Canon-street...


There is a house named Brynaraul in Mydroilyn, Sir Gaerfyrddin, and also in Bryncoedifor, Rhydymain, Dolgellau  (= Brynaraul, sunny hill)


Sometimes spelt as arel, a more westerly spoken form in Morgannwg / Glamorgan


1841 Census, Tai-bach
(surname, name, address, age, occupation)



However, it is found in the street name Heol Gelliarel / Gelliarel Road in Y Gilfach-goch.


arbed <AR-bed> [ˡarbɛd] verb
1 save = bring away from danger or death
arbed rhg angau save from death

2 arbed ar save on = consume a smaller amount of
arbed ar fwyd save on food

heb arbed unrhyw gost with no expense spared

4 arbed i rywun wneud rhywbeth save somebody the trouble of doing something (save to somebody doing something)
arbed i rywun y drafferth o wneud rhywbeth save somebody the trouble of doing something (save to somebody the trouble of doing something)

deddf arbed trafferth the law of least effort ((the) law (of) saving trouble)

6 ni + arbed dim (ar wrthwynebydd) not pull your punches (with an opponent)
(not + save anything on an opponent)

diarbed ceaseless, relentless, unrelenting
llafurio yn ddiarbed dros (rywbeth) work / toil relentlessly for (something)
rhyfel diarbed total war, all-out war

(di-, negative prefix) + (arbed = to save)


ar ben <ar BEN> [ar ˡbɛn] preposition
on top of
Carreg ar ben carreg stone upon stone

eistedd ar ben llidiart sit on the fence, not commit oneself to one side or another in a dispute (sit on top of a gate)

rhegir maer ar ben Alltwalis criticise from a safe distance (swear at the mayor on top of (the hill called) Alltwalis)
Alltwalis SN 4431 is a hamlet 12km north of the town of Caerfyrddin (county of Caerfyrddin)

(with time)
Mae hi ar ben tri or gloch Its just turned three
(it is on top of three o clock)

at the end of
bod ar ben eich tennyn be at the end of your tether

ar ben
<ar BEN> [ar ˡbɛn] adv
1 over, finished, at an end
Mae ngwaith i ar ben My work is finished

hi + bod ar ben ar (rywun)
have had one's chips, be finished, be all over (for somebody)

Mae hi ar ben arno fe, His number is up, He's doomed, Hes done for; His days are numbered,
He's not got long to live

Mae hi ar ben arno i The games up for me

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (pen = head)


arbennig <ar-BE-nig> [arˡbɛnɪg] adjective


arbrawf, PLURAL: arbrofion <AR-brauv, ar-BROV-yon> [ˡarbraʊv, arˡbrɔvjɔn] feminine noun


ar bwys <ar BUIS> [ar ˡbʊɪs] (preposition)


arch, PLURAL: eirch <ARKH, EIRKH> [ˡarx, ˡəɪrx] feminine noun
casket (Englandic: coffin)

ărch brĕn a wooden coffin
ărch fămbŵ a bamboo coffin

arch bwmpiadwy inflatable arch

Welsh < British < Latin arca (= chest, coffer)

arch <ARKH> [arx] verb
order...!; second person singular imperative form of erchi = to command, order

Sant Mathew 4: 3 Os mab Duw wyt, arch ir cerrig hyn fod yn fara
Saint Matthew 3: 4 If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be bread


ărch- (prefix)

1 arch-, main, principal
ărchdderwydd archdruid, principal druid
ărchfărchnăd supermarket

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh arch < British *ark- < Latin *arc < arch < Greek arkhi < arkhein (= to rule)


abbreviation Archaeoleg A
rchaeology (as a field label in a dictionary)


archadeiladydd <arkh-a-dei-LAA-didh> [arxadəɪˡlɑˑdɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL archadeiladwyr <arkh-a-dei-LAD-wir> [arxadəɪˡladwɪr]
master builder = self-employed builder who employs assistants
(In the list of subscribers to a memorial volume with the poetry of the Rhymni poet Twynog (published in 1912), one of the subscribers in Pontlotyn is Mr. William Davies, Archadeiladydd.)

ETYMOLOGY: (arch-, prefix = arch-, principal) + (adeiladydd = builder)

NOTE: (The Welsh Dictionary of Yr Acdemi Gymreig uses prifadeiladydd, with the prefix prif (= main, principal) instead of arch)


archaeoleg <ar-khei-OO-leg> [arxəɪˡoˑlɛg] feminine noun
Abbreviation: (as a field label in a dictionary) Arch.

Ădrăn Ărchăẹoleg Amguĕddfă Gĕnĕdlăẹthŏl Cymru el Archaeology Department of the national Museum of Wales

● ARCHAEO- < English ARCHAEOLOGY, + Welsh suffix -EG (forms names of sciences, disciplines, languages); Late Late Latin ARCHAEOLOGIA, < Late Greek ARKHAIOLOGIA (= study of ancient objects)

ARKHAIO- < ARKHAIOS old < ARKH beginning; Latin -LOGIA < Greek -LOGIA < LOGOS word < LEGEIN to speak


archangel, PLURAL: archangylion <ar-KH-angel, arkh-ang-ƏL-yon> [arˡxaŋɛl, arxaŋˡəljɔn] masculine noun

yr Ărchăngel Găbriel the archangel Gabriel
● Late Latin

Greek (ARKH- = arch-, principal) + (ANGELOS = angel)


archdderwydd, PLURAL: archdderwyddon arkh DHE ruidh, arkh dhe RUI dhon masculine noun

Greek (ARKH- = arch-, principal) + soft mutation + (DERWYDD = drud)


archeb, PLURAL: archebion AR kheb, ar KHEB yon feminine noun


archebu ar-khee-bi verb
order = instruct (somebody) to supply (something)

Rhaid ei archebu wythnos ymlaen llaw
It has to be ordered a week beforehand

ffurflen archebu order form

order = ask to bring food

ROOT: ărchēb- (1)

CLASSICAL WELSH ărchēbă orders / will order
COLLOQUIAL WELSH ărchēbĭff will order

ărchēbă order!

CLASSICAL WELSH ărchēbwch order!
COLLOQUIAL WELSH ărchēbwch order!

ETYMOLOGY: 1885 (archeb = order) + (-u, suffix to form verbs)


archesgob, PLURAL: archesgobion ar KHE skob, ar khe SKOB yon masculine noun


archfarchnad, PLURAL: archfarchnadoedd arkh VARKH nad, arkh varkh NA dodh feminine noun

ETYMOLOGY: (arch- prefix = chief, main, principal) + soft mutation + (marchnad = market)


archwaeth AR khweth masculine noun

difethach archwaeth spoil your appetite
ailfagu archwaeth regain ones appetite

3 codi archwaeth ar rywun to whet somebodys appetite


archwiliad, PLURAL: archwiliadau ar KHWIL yad, ar khwil YA de masculine noun


arctig ark -tig adjective
arctic = of the North Pole

yr Arctig, the Arctic = the region north of the Arctic Circle
Cefnfor yr Arctig the Arctic Ocean
helygen yr Arctig (Salix polaris)

arctic = coming from the North Pole or arctic region
(Meteorology) awyr arctig arctic air

arctic = characteristic of the weather of the North Pole, very cold

ETYMOLOGY: English Arctic (= meaning originally situated under the constellation of the Great Bear) < Latin arcticus < Greek artikos (= of a bear, of bears)
Cf the Welsh word of Celtic origin arth (= bear)


ardal ar-dal feminine noun
PLURAL ardaloedd ar- da -lodh

district, locality, zone
Mae ambell ddisgynnydd i Almaenwr o adeg y rhyfel yn byw yn yr ardal hon
There are a few descendants of Germans from the war living in this area

district, locality, area where a certain language is spoken by a majority
Rhaid gweithredu ar unwaith am fod yr ardaloedd Cymraeg eu hiaith mewn perygl
We have to act at once because the Welsh-speaking areas are in danger

district = an area of land with set boundaries for the purposes of administration
ardal warchod conservation area, area in which certain building regulations are in force to preserve the its character

district distinguished by a distinctive geographical feature
Ardal y Llynnoedd translation of the English name The Lake District, a name from the 1880s for an area of north-west England with many lakes; historically part of the Welsh territory of Cumbria (until the year 1000 approximately)

district = sub-division of a town or city with or without recognised boundaries
yr ardal Iddewig
the Jewish quarter
yr Ardal Ladinaidd
the Latin Quarter, southern side of the river Seine in Paris where traditionally artists and students live

district = sub-division of a county with or without recognised boundaries
yn ardal Tregaron
in the Tregaron area (of the county of Ceredigion)

mewn llawer ardal in many districts, in many areas, in many places
Mewn llawer ardal yn awr y mae Cymraeg yn iaith y rhieni, a Saesneg yn iaith y plant.
In many places now Welsh is the language of the parents and English the language of the children

area, district = the people who live in an area or district
yr holl ardal the whole area, all the area = everybody in the area

Yn y pentre preswyliai gwr or enw Harri Harri - Harri Ddwywaith y gelwid ef gan yr holl ardal
In the village there lived a man called Harri Harri - he was called Harri Ddwywaith (= twice over) by everybody in the area

ardal gweithiau alcam stannery (district (of) tinworks)

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on, in front of, facing) + soft mutation + (tl = forehead, place at the end)


Ardal y Coed ar-dal ə kooid feminine noun
place in Iowa County, Wisconsin (place name now lost?) (Number 8 on the map below, in the south-easter corner of the state)

Merch hoff Mr Richard a Mrs Jane Morgan, Garrison Grove, diweddar o Ardal-y-Coed, ger Dodgeville, Wis. gynt o Rhywlas (= Rhiw-las), plwyf Cilcenin (= Cilcennin), Swydd Aberteifi. (page 234 Cyfaill or Hen Wlad, 1873)
(she was) the dear daughter of Mr Richard and Mrs Jane Morgan, Garrison Grove, late of Ardal-y-Coed, near Dodgeville, Wis(consin), formerly of Rhiw-las, parish of Cilcennin, county of Aberteifi (= Cardiganshire)


(delwedd 7876)


ETYMOLOGY: area (of) the woods (ardal = area) + (y = the) + (coed = wood, woods)


+ardd Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gardd =



Abbreviation (in a dictionary entry): = arddodiad, -iaid


ar ddangos <ar-DHANG-gos> [arˡaŋgɔs] adverb
on show, on display = placed (goods for sale, works of art etc) in a place to show them to the public

ETYMOLOGY: (ar preposition = on) + soft mutation + (dangos, root of the verb dangos = to show)


arddangos <ar-DHANG-gos> [arˡaŋgɔs] (v)
show, display

ETYMOLOGY: (ar intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (dangos = to show)

arddangosfa, PLURAL: arddangosfydd <ar-dhang-GOS-va,-ar-dhang-gos-VEIDH> [araŋˡgɔsva, araŋgɔsˡvəɪ] feminine noun


arddegol <ar-DHEE-gol> [arˡgɔl] adjective

ETYMOLOGY: semi-calque on English teenage, from ar ddeg which appears in the age numbers 13 (tair ar ddeg oed three on ten (of) age ) and 14 (pedair ar ddeg oed four on ten (of) age ), but refers, as in English teen, to ages between 13-19; + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


arddel <AR-dhel> [ˡarɛl] verb
claim as ones own

2 diarddel (rhywun / rhywbeth) disown, repudiate (somebody, something)
gwrthod arddel (rhywun / rhywbeth) disown, repudiate (somebody, something)


ar ddelw <ar DHEE-lu> [ar ˡeˑlʊ] preposition
in the image of

Genesis 9:6
A dywallto waed dyn, trwy ddyn y tywelltir ei waed yntau, oherwydd ar ddelw DUW y gwnaeth efe ddyn.
Genesis 9:6 Whoso sheddeth mans blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man.

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (delwedd = image)


ardderchog ar-DHER-khog [arˡɛrxɔg] adjective
excellent, splendid, tiptop
cael hwyl ardderchog have a fantastic time, have a really good time, have a great time

(exclamation) ardderchog! great! fantastic! champion! excellent!

ardderchog o (+ adjective) really
Mae'n bryd ardderchog o flasus, Its a really tasty meal

(adverb) yn ardderchog excellently
Gei di weld y gweithith y plan yn ardderchog Youll see that the paln will work excellently

ETYMOLOGY: (ar- intensifying suffix) + soft mutation + (derch) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives).
The element
derch (from Celtic < Indoeuropean *derk) (= to see) is the same as drych in drych (= mirror), edrych (= to look).

Irish has
dearc (= look)


ar ddeudro <ar DHEI-dro> [ar ˡəɪdrɔ] adverb
the second time, with the second try (on two turns)
Fe wnaeth e hi ar ddeudro Hi managed it the second time

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = two ) + soft mutation + (deudro = twice).


+arddio Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See garddio =


+arddlunio Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See garddlunio =


+arddluniwr Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See garddluniwr =


ar ddrwg <ar DHRUUG> [ar ˡruːg]
up to no good
bod ar ddrwg be up to no good, be bent on mischief
mynd ar ddrwg go to do some mischief

Exodus 32:22 A dywedodd Aaron, Nac enynned digofaint fy arglwydd: ti a adwaenost y bobl, mai ar ddrwg y maent.
Exodus 32:22 And Aaron said, Let not the anger of my lord wax hot: thou knowest the people, that they are set on mischief.

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (drwg = evil)
NOTE: also: ar eich drwg


ar ddu a gwyn <ar DHII a GWIN> [ar ˡiː a ˡgwɪn] prepositional phrase
in black and white


arddun <AR-dhin> arɪn] adjective
(obsolete) fair, beautiful; magnificent, grand

ETYMOLOGY: According to Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / University of Wales Dictionary, it is from British *ar-in-

(1) -in- is related to the obsolete verb uno (= to wish, to desire), originally iuno.

This loss of the initial i is to be seen in another obsolete word udd (= lord), originally iudd, which is to be seen in names from the early period such as udd as a final syllable Gruffudd, Maredudd; and id- as an initial syllable Idwal, Idnerth, etc

(2) A related word with the element in- is eidduno (= to wish, desire).

Also Eiddun (a womans name), from British *ad-in-, or with the elements as they would appear in Welsh (add- + iun-), maybe with the sense desirable, desired, wished-for.

There is a written instance of the British name it is found in an inscription as Adiune on a stone built into the modern parish church at Ystradgynlais. Presumably it represents the form Adiunae = ((the stone) of Adiuna). It is said to date from the 400s or early 500s

(3) The meaning of arddun seems to have been influenced by other words similar in form or sound suggesting beauty or grandeur, such as ardd (= high), hardd (= beautiful), addurn (= adornment).


arddunedd ar-dhii-nedh masculine noun
grandeur, magnificence, splendour

Tynnwyd llygaid Tomos a Gwen drachefn at arddunedd y mynyddoed mawr,
lle teyrnasair Wyddfa
Tomos and Gwens eyes were drawn again to the magnificence of the great mountains, where Yr Wyddfa (Mount Snowdon) reigned. (Melin-y-ddl / William a Myfanwy Eames / 1948 / tudalen 241)

Fry esgyn iw aur-orsedd
Wnar haul trwy borth arddunedd -
Teyrnasa mewn rhwysgfawredd
Ar forau Haf
(Mynydau Hamddenol: Ail Lyfr Nathan Wyn. 1905. Tudalen 70)
Up yonder the sun rises to its throne of gold through the gate of splendour. It reigns in ostentation on summer mornings

ETYMOLOGY: (arddun = beautiful; magnificent) + (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns). First example according to Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / University of Wales Dictionary in 1850


arddwrn AR dhurn masculine noun
band arddwrn pl. bandiau arddyrnau wristband (eg for identifying hospital patients)

nes penelin nag arddwrn nes pe NE lin nag AR dhurn blood is thicker than water (the elbow is nearer (to the heart) than the wrist)

In some districts arddwrn has been mistaken for a soft-mutated form, and a radical form garddwrn is used


ar ddwy ar dhui adverb
(= ar ddwywaith) at the second attempt (on two (times))

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = two ) + soft mutation + (dwy = two (times)).


+arddwr Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See garddwr =


+arddwriaeth Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See garddwriaeth =


+arddwriaethol Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See garddwriaethol =


ar ddwywaith ar dhui -weth adverb
at the second attempt
Fe gododd y sach ar ddwywaith He lifted the sack the second time he tried

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = two ) + soft mutation + (dwywaith = twice).


ar ddydd Gwener
ar dhiidh GWEE ner
on a Friday, on Fridays; = every Friday



ar dennyn ar de-nin

1 on a leash


ar derfyn dydd ar der-vin diidh adverb
at close of day, at the end of the day

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (terfyn = end) + (dydd = day)


ar dorr ar DOR adverb

1 cut, having been cut into

cosyn ar dor a cheese which one has been cut into

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + (torr- stem of verb torri = to cut, to break, to get broken)


ar draul ar DRAIL preposition
at the expense of, at the cost of

2 ar draul ei einioes at the cost of his life
ar draul ei fywyd at the cost of his life


ar draws ar DRAUS (preposition)
2 siarad ar draws pen a chlustiau talk the hind legs off a donkey (talk across head and ears)


ardreth ar-dreth feminine noun
PLURAL ardrethi ar-dree-thi
(obsolete) rent

(obsolete) income, revenue

ETYMOLOGY: (ar- = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (treth = tax)


ar droed ar droid adverbi
1 (rumour, piece of news) circulating, going round
mae rhyw si ar droed bod... theres a rumour going round that..., its rumoured that...
ma' rhyw newydd ar droed bod... theres news going round that...


Ardudwy ar DI dui feminine noun
region in the north-west a kntrev divided into two kmmuds - Uwch Arto district above the river Artro, and Is Artro district below the river Artro

(delwedd 7377)


Ardwyn AR-duin
street name in Porthtywyn / Burry Port (county of Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen)

ETYMOLOGY: hillside

(ar = on) + soft mutation + (twyn = mound, hill)


ardyfiant ar- dəv -yant m
PLURAL ardyfiannau ar-dəv- ya -ne
1 excrescence = protruberance; outgrowth on a part of the body or an organ of the body

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (tyfiant = growth)


ardystio ar-dəsr-yo verb
take the pledge = promise to abstain from alcohol
ardystio i fod yn llwyr-ymatalwr take the pledge to be a teetotaller

Af adref gydam priod, ardystiaf nos yfory, a chadwaf ef hyd fy medd
(Gwenith Gwyn / ap Tobit / 1913 tudalen 117)
Ill go home with my wife, Ill take the pledge tomorrow night, and Ill keep it until my grave

Dychwelasom yn ol i Granville, lle nodedig am gyfleusterau crefyddol. Tranoeth, am 2, mewn Ysgoldŷ Cerrig ar Fryniau y Cymry, cynhaliwyd cyfarfod Dirwestol. Cawd yno gyfarfod hynod o hwylus. Yr oedd y rhan fwyaf or gynulleidfa wedi ardystio cyn hyny. Ardystiodd amrai y pryd hwnw hefyd. Mewn Cyfarfod yn Granville, ychydig ddiwrnodiau cyn hyny, ardystiodd 194 i fod yn Llwyr-ymattalwyr, a 23 yn Gymedrolwyr. (Y Cyfaill or Hen Wlad yn America, Cyfrol 3, 1840, tudalen 140)
We returned to Granville, a notable place for religious facilities. The following day, a temperance meeting was held at two in a stome schoolhouse on the Welsh Hills. It was a remarkably lively meeting. The majority of the audience had taken the pledge beforehand. Some also took the pledge then too. In a meeting in Granville, some days before that, 194 took the pledge to be teetotal, and 23 to be moderate drinkers.

ETYMOLOGY: (ar- = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (tystio = to witness)


aredig a RE dig verb
to plough


ar ei ben ar ii ben adverb
directly; see ar eich pen


ar eich baw ar əkh bau
(on your dirt / shit)
gadael (rhywun) ar ei faw to leave (somebody) in the lurch, leave somebody to sort out his own problems, leave somebody to get out of the predicament he has got himself into (leave somebody on his shit)


ar eich cythlwng ar əkh kəth -lung
hungry, starving
yr wyf (i) ar fy nghythlwng Im hungry
yr wyt (ti) ar dy gythlwng youre hungry
y mae (ef) ar ei gythlwng hes hungry
y mae (hi) ar ei chythlwng shes hungry
yr ydym (ni) ar ein cythlwng were hungry
yr ydych (chi) ar eich cythlwng youre hungry
y maent (hwy) ar eu cythlwng theyre hungry

Ni byddai un ohonynt yn cael mynd ymith ar ei gythlwng
Not one of them would be allowed to leave without having a bite to eat

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + (eich = your) + (cythlwng = hunger)


ar eich deudroed ar əkh dei-droid adverb
mynd ar eich deudroed walk it, go by Shankss pony, walk because there is no other way of going no bike, car, horse, etc

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = your) + (deudroed = two feet).


ar eich drwg ar əkh druug
up to no good
Maer brain ar u drwg heddiw eto The crows are up to no good again today

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = your) + (eich = your) + (drwg = badness).


ar eich eistedd ar əkh ei -stedh adv
seated, sitting down
aros ar eich eistedd remain seated

said of something considered easy to do
gallu gwneud rhywbeth ar eich eistedd do something with your hands tied behind your back, do it blindfold (be able to do something sitting down)

Gallaf wneud hyn ar feistedd," meddai gan wenu
I can do this as easy as anything, he said with a smile

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + (eich = your) + (eistedd = sit, sitting)


ar eich elw
bod gennych (rywbeth) ar eich elw be to ones name, have in ones possession
ni + bod gennych ond (rywbeth) ar eich elw have only (something) to ones name

Nid oedd ganddo ond pumpunt ar ei elw
He had no more than five pounds to his name

2 bod ar eich elw be better off

Wedyn clywasom farn werthwr tai a thir am y Mewnlifiad ir Broydd Cymraeg. Mynnodd hwnnw ein bod nir Cymry ar ein helw yn sylweddol oi herwydd
After we heard the viewpoint of an estate agent to the Influx (of rich English settlers) to the Welsh areas. He maintained that we the Welsh were far better off because of it

bod ar eich elw o be better off to the tune of, richer by (a specified amount)
Roeddwn i ar yn elw o fil o bunnau I was one thousand pounds better off

ETYMOLOGY: on your gain (ar = on) + (eich = your) + (elw = profit, gain)



ar eich golwg chi ar əkh GOO-lug khi
from the look of you, from your look


ar eich gorwedd ar əkh GOR-wedh

(gravestone) lying flat, not standing
Yno bu maen ar ei orwedd ryw ddeng llath o ddrws yr eglwys
There was a flat gravestone there about ten yards from the church door

syrthio ar eich gorwedd fall flat on your back

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + (eich = your) + (gorwedd = lie, lying)


ar eich gwaethaf ar əkh gwei -tha
in spite of yourself
bod wedi eich denu at rywbeth ar eich gwaethaf be irresistibly attracted to something (be after your attracting towards something on your worst)

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + (eich = your) + (gwaethaf = the worst)


ar eich hyd ar əkh hiid
on your length
bod ofn arnoch ar eich hyd be very afraid (be fear on you on your length - from top to bottom, all your length)


ar eich pen ar əkh pen adverb
heb ddweud rhywbeth ar ei ben in not so many words, without saying it outright, without spelling it out without saying something directly / on its head

gwrthodiad ar ei ben flat refusal

gwadu rhywbeth ar ei ben completely deny something


ar eich pen eich hun ar əkh PEN əkh HIIN adverb
on your own
2 by yourself, all by yourself
Maen diffodd ar ei ben ei hun (piece of electrical equipment) It switches itself off, It goes off by itself


ar eich ffordd ar əkh fordh adverb
on ones way

Lawer bore roeddwn ar fy ffordd am wyth or gloch
Many mornings I was on my way at eight o clock

ar eich llawn dwf ar əkh lhaun duuv
fully grown (on your full growth)


ar eich tyfiant ar i DƏV yant prepositional phrase


areithio a- reith -yo v
1 speak = make a speech, make speeches; speechify

ETYMOLOGY: (areith- stem of araith = speech) (-fa noun-forming suffix, indicating a place)


areithiau a- reith -ye plural, feminine noun
1 speeches; plural form of araith

ETYMOLOGY: (areith- stem of araith = speech) + (-i-au plural suffix)


areithiwr a- reith -yur nm
PLURAL areithwyr a- reith -wir
1 orator )

ETYMOLOGY: (areith- stem of araith = speech) + (-i-wr suffix = man)


areithydd a- rei -thidh nm
PLURAL areithyddion a-rei- thədh -yon
1 (= areithiwr) orator

ETYMOLOGY: (areith- stem of araith = speech) + (-ydd noun suffix for indicating a device or an agent)


areithyddiaeth a-rei- thədh -yeth nf
1 oratory

ETYMOLOGY: (areith- stem of araith = speech) + (-i-aeth suffix for forming nouns)

aren, PLURAL: arennau A ren, a RE ne feminine noun


arestio a REST yo verb
to arrest


arf, PLURAL: arfau ARV, AR ve feminine noun

gorau arf gwirionedd honesty is the best policy (best weapon truth)

trwy rym arfau by force of arms, using weapons


arfaeth ar-veth feminine noun
PLURAL arfaethau ar-vei-the
purpose, plan, intention

yr Arfaeth Gods plan, Gods will

Rhufeiniaid 8:28 Ac ni a wyddom fod pob peth yn cydweithio er daioni ir rhai sydd yn caru Duw; sef ir rhai sydd wedi eu galw yn l ei arfaeth ef;
Romans 8:28 And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to the purpose

Effesiaid 3:11 Yn l yr arfaeth dragwyddol yr hon a wnaeth efe yng Nghrist Iesu ein Harglwydd ni
Ephesians 3:11 According to the eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus our Lord

ETYMOLOGY (arf) + (-aeth, suffix for forming abstract nouns) . The element arf- is possibly the stem of the verb arfu (= to arm)
From the same British root: Cornish arveth (= salary)


arfaethedig ar-vei-the-dig adjective
Cyfarfu yr is-bwyllgor i lunio darpar gyfansoddiad ar gyfer y Gymdeithas Hanes Sirol arfaethedig
A subcommitee met to draw up a draft constitution for the proposed County History Society

(theology) predestined

ETYMOLOGY: (arfaeth = plan, intention) + (-edig)


arfaethu ar-vei-thi verb

propose = put forward as a plan

Anelwig iawn yw eu diffiniad or math o hunanlywodraeth a arfaethir
Their definition of the type of selfgovernment which is proposed is very vague

ETYMOLOGY: (arfaeth = proposal) + (-u = verb al suffix)


arfarniad <ar-VARN-yad> [arˡvarnjad] masculine noun
PLURAL arfarniadau <ar-varn-YAA-dai, -de> [arvarnˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
evaluation, appraisal

ETYMOLOGY: (arfarn-, stem of arfarnu = evaluate) + (-iad suffix)


arfbais <ARV-bais> arvbaɪs] feminine noun
PLURAL arfbeisiau <arv-BEIS-yai, -ye> [arvˡbəɪsjaɪ, -ɛ]
1 coat of arms = a heraldic device representing a family,
corporation or state

2 llyfr arbeisiau armorial = book of heraldry

3 coat of arms = surcoat with armorial bearings to identify the wearer; a garment of silk or linen placed over a suit of armour to keep it clean, or prevent it getting hot in the sun
surcoat (originally of silk or linen to cover a suit of armour to protect it from dirt,
or prevent it from heating in the sun) embroidered
with a heraldic device to identify the wearer

ETYMOLOGY: (arf = arm ) + soft mutation + (pais = overgarment)

arfbeislyfr <arv-beis-LII-vir> [arvbəɪsˡliˑvɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL arfbeislyfrau <arv-beis-LI-vrai, -vre> [arvbəɪsˡvraɪ, -ɛ]
1 armorial = book of heraldry

ETYMOLOGY: (arfbeis- < arfbais = coat of arms ) + (llyfr = book)

arfbeisol <arv-BEIS-yol> [arvˡbəɪsjɔl] adj
1 armorial, realting to coats of arms / to heraldry

ETYMOLOGY: (arfbeis- < arfbais = coat of arms ) + (-i-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

arfdy <ARV-di> arvdɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL arfdai <ARV-dai> arvdaɪ]
1 armoury, arsenal; the place where armour or arms are kept

ETYMOLOGY: (arf = arm ) + soft mutation + ( = house)


ar fechnaeth <ar vekh-NII-aith, -eth> [ar vɛxˡniˑaɪθ, -ɛθ] prepositional phrase
on bail

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (mechnaeth = bail)


arfer <AR-ver> arvɛr] verb

get used to

be in the habit of

oedd yn arfer, byddai yn arfer, arferai (she, he, it) used to; (in forming a habitual past tense)

Pan oedden ni yn blant mi fyddem yn arfer mynd i hel llus ar lethraur mynydd
When we were children we used to go and gather bilberries on the slopes of the mountain

Arferai fod yn ddefod bwysig yr adeg hon or flwyddyn i godir tatw cyn ir rhew ddod au difetha
It used to be an important practice at this time of the year to pick the potatoes before the frost came and ruined them

arferid it used to be the practice to
Arferid ceisio trin teiffoid trwy gael cleifion i yfed eu dŵr eu hunain
it used to be the practice to try to treat typhoid by getting patients to drink their own urine

do, practise
er arfer pob gofal
in spite of taking every precaution

ymarfer (qv) = to practise

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (*ber = to carry).
In fact the word was formed before the Welsh period, in British: (*are-ber-) < Celtic < Indo-European *bher (= to carry)

This Indo-European root is found in various words in Welsh and other languages
(1) Welsh
..1/ aber = confluence, estuary
..2/ adfer = restore
..3/ arfer = practise
..4/ cymer = confluence
..5/ diabred = withheld, held back, refused
..6/ diferu = to drip
..7/ gofer = ditch, stream
..8/ llifeiriant = a flow

(2) Irish
beir = bring, win

(3) English
bear (= to carry, < Germanic) cf German gebren (= give birth to a child);

(4) in words in English from Latin fero (= I carry)
..1/ circumference
..2/ confer
..3/ defer
..4/ differ
..5/ fertile
..6/ fortune
..7/ infer
..8/ offer
..9/ prefer
..10/ refer
..11/ suffer
..12/ transfer

(5) in words in English from Greek pherein (= to carry)
..1/ euphoria
..2/ metaphor
..3/ paraphernalia
..4/ periphery
..5/ phosphorus
..6/ semaphore


arfer <AR-ver> arvɛr] feminine noun
PLURAL arferion <ar-VER-yon> [arˡvɛrjɔn]
habit, custom, practice, usual behaviour

arferion bwyta gwael bad eating habits

yn l arfer y cyfnod as was the practice in those days, in those times

Rhoes anerchiad barddonol yn Eisteddfod Biwmaris, a hynny yn Saesneg,
yn l arfer y cyfnod

He gave a speech about poetry in the Eisteddfod of Biwmaris; this he did in English, as was the practice in those days.

Dynar arfer Thats the usual practice, Thats the way its usually done

Gwell nag athro yw arfer Practice makes perfect
((it-is) better than a-teacher that-is practice)
(gwell = better) + (nag = than) + (athro = teacher) + (yw = that-is) + (arfer = practice)

habit = something which has been done so many times by somebody that it has become a characteristic action of that person

mynd ir arfer o wneud rhywbeth get into the habit (of doing something)

magur arfer o wneud rhywbeth get into the habit (of doing something)

collir arfer o wneud rhywbeth get out of the habit (of doing something)

o ran arfer from force of habit, out of habit, out of sheer habit

yn l ei arfer as is his wont, as he usually does

yn unol i arfer as is his wont, as he usually does

arferion habits = settled practices, behaviour

Rhaid cyfadde fod rhai oi harferion yn wirioneddol d
You have to admit that some of her habits are really odd

arferion anonest dishonest practices

hen arfer old-established practice = usual procedure, a usual course of action

Mae yn hen arfer gosod tanciaid o bysgod mewn ystafell aros deintyddion i dawelur sawl syn disgwyl am driniaeth
Its a old practice to put a tank of fish in dentists waiting rooms to soothe people waiting for treatment

drwgarfer or drwgarferiad bad habit

arfer gan (be) a habit of, (be) a practice of

Maen arfer gennyf... I make it a rule to (do something)

Nid yw hin arfer gennym ddefnyddior gair yn y modd yma yn Gymreg
We dont usually use the word in this way in Welsh

nar arfer than usual
mewn gwesty fymryn bach yn grandiach nar arfer
In a hotel somewhat more grand than usual

ag arfer as usual
ar yr un awr ag arfer at the same time as usual

nag arfer than usual
mwy nag arfer more than usual

yn l fy arfer as is my wont, as is my custom, as I am wont to do

habit = addiction, behaviour habit resulting from addiction to a substance
Y mae tuedd i smygwyr ac yfwyr fod mwy o gariadon nar rhai syn ymwrthod r arferion
Smokers and drinkers tend to have more girlfriends or boyfriends than those who do not indulge in these habits

o ran arfer out of sheer habit (o ran = from + part) + (arfer= habit)

ETYMOLOGY: see the preceding entry


arferol <ar-VEE-rol> [arˡveˑrɔl] adjective
normal, usual


ar ffo <ar FOO> [ar ˡfoː] adverb
carcharor ar ffo an escaped prisoner
hogyn ar ffo or fyddin a lad who has deserted from the army
diflannu fel cath ar ffo scarper (disappear like a fleeing cat)

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + (ffo = fleeing, flight)


..1 ar fin <ar VIIN> [ar ˡviːn] (preposition)
on the point of; on the edge of

2 bod ar fin mynd yn rhyfel be close to war
Yr oedd ar fin mynd yn rhyfel War was close to breaking out

3 bod ar fin trengi have on foot in the grave (be on the point of dying)


ar fin <ar VIIN> [ar ˡviːn] adverb
(penis) erect
bod ar fin = (penis) be erect

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = sobre) + soft mutation + (min = sharpness / erection)


ar fin y bedd <ar viin ə BEEDH> [ar viːn ə ˡbeː] prepositional phrase
between life and death, on the point of death, with one foot in the grave, at deaths door

ETYMOLOGY: (ar fin = on the edge of) + (y bedd = the tomb)


ar flaen <ar VLAIN> [ar ˡvlaɪn] preposition
at the head of, at the front of, leading
ar flaen yr orymdaith at the head of the procession
ar flaen y golofn leading the column

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = sobre) + soft mutation + (blaen = front part)


Arfoel AR-voil
house name in Ochr-y-foel, Diserth / Dyserth (county of Dinbych / Denbigh)

ETYMOLOGY: hillside (ar = on) + soft mutation + (moel = (bare) hill)


arfog AR vog adjective


Arfon ar -von feminine noun
(History) division (cantref, kantrev) of Gwynedd Uwch Conwy
Caernarfon town name, from Caer yn Arfon = the place called Caer in the kantrev of Arfon. Caer is Roman camp, Roman fort, which in this case was Segontium. Caer is also the usual name in Welsh for Chester, just over the Welsh border in England

Bangor Fawr yn Arfon the original name of the monastery established here in the 500s and destroyed in 1071 by the Norman occupiers

2 Until 1996, an administrative unit (district) in Gwynedd.

Administrative centre: Bangor.
Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 77% (1981).

colloquial name for Sir Gaernarfon Carnarvonshire (county until 1974)

Ganwyd ef yn Arfon
He was born in the county of Caernarfon

(masculine noun) mans name

ETYMOLOGY: (the district) facing (the island of) Mn Welsh (ar = opposite) + soft mutation + (Mn = island name)


Arfoneg ar- vo -neg feminine noun
the Welsh of Arfon, the type of Welsh spoken by the inhabitants of the district of Arfon

ETYMOLOGY: (Arfon = district name) + (-eg = suffix to indicate a language or dialect)


arfor ar -vor masculine noun
(obsolete) coast

Arfor house name = coast, seaside

(adjective) (obsolete) coastal
Found in certain plant names

Taglys Arfor Calystegia soldanella = sea bindweed
Pinwydden Arfor Pinus pinaster = maritime pine

ETYMOLOGY: (the land) facing (the) sea

Welsh (ar = opposite) + soft mutation + (mr = sea)
From the same British root: Breton Arvor (= coastal Brittany; the interior is Argoad = forest)


arfordir ar-VOR-dir [arˡvɔrdir] masculine noun

PLURAL arfordiroedd <ar-VER-yon> [arˡvɔrdiˑrɔɪ, -ɔ]

ETYMOLOGY: coast land (arfor = coast) + soft mutation + (tir = land)


arfordirol ar-vor-DII-rol [arvɔrˡdiˑrɔl] (adj)

Llwybr Arfordirol Ynys Mn SH6718 Anglesey Coastal Path map

ETYMOLOGY: (arfordir = coast) + (-ol adjectival suffix)


Arfron AR-vron
house name

..a/ Llanymddyfri / Llandovery

..b/ Llanybydder (Ceredigion)

..c/ Rhosaman, Rhydaman (Caerfyrddin)

..d/ Y Dre-fach, Llanelli (Caerfyrddin)

..e/ Nefyn (Gwynedd)

..f/ Llan-rwst

..g/ Y Dinas (Penfro / Pembroke)

..h/ cottages by Capelgarmon

..i/ house north-east of Trefilan (Ceredigion) SN5558

ETYMOLOGY: hillside (ar = on) + soft mutation + (bron = (round) hill; womans breast)


arfryn ar -vrin masculine noun
house name (on (the) hill) or (facing (the) hill)

Bod Arfryn ((the) house on (the) hill)
house name in Tywyn (county of Gwynedd)
(as Bod Arfryn in the list of members in The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion 1961 / Part 1)

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on, that is, the old preposition war < gwar) + soft mutation + (bryn = hill);
or else (ar = opposite, facing) + soft mutation + ( bryn = hill). The preposition ar subsumed war at an early date.


ar frys ar VRIIS prepositional phrase
in a hurry


ar fy llw! ar ən LHUU prepositional phrase
I swear (its true, etc) (on my oath)

NOTE: Also ar yn llw! (yn < fyn; variant form of fy)


ar fy ngwir! ar ə NGWIIR prepositional phrase
I swear (its true, etc) (on my truth)
NOTE: Also ar yn ngwir! (yn < fyn; variant form of fy)


Arfynydd ar--nidh
area in Welsh Strathclyde (Ystrad Clud) mentioned by the poet Taliesin in Argoed Llwyfain

Dygrysowys Fflamddwyn yn bedwarllu
Goddeu a Reged i ymddullu
Dyfwy o Argoed hyd Arfynydd

Flamddwyn hastened quickly with four bodies
To encompass Goddeu and Reged :
He spread from Argoed to Arfynydd.

The History of the Anglo-Saxons, Comprising the History of England from the Earliest Period to the Norman Conquest. In Three Volumes. Volume III. Fourth edition. 1823. By Sharon Turner (1768-1847),

ETYMOLOGY: facing the upland (ar = facing) + soft mutation + (mynydd = upland, mountain)

Cf the name Arllechwedd below


abbreviation (in a dictionary entry) = argraffiad edition


abbreviation (as a field label in a dictionary) = Argraffyddiaeth Typography


argae ar -gai masculine noun
PLURAL argaeau ar- gei -e

Diarhebion 17:14 Pen y gynnen sydd megis ped agorid argae: am hynny gad ymaith ymryson cyn ymyrryd arni.
Proverbs 17:14 The beginning of strife is as when one letteth out water: therefore leave off contention, before it be meddled with.

mill dam = dam built across a stream to raise the water level in order to turn a mill wheel


NOTE: In the English dialect of Llanidloes:
ARGA, a term applied to the artificial wooden dams erected to pound up water for the use of the various mills and factories. The word is Welsh, and is thus explained in the latest edition of Dr. Owen Pughes Dictionary. ARGAE, au s.f. (AR-CAE), an enclosure; a fence, a dam; a lock in a river, a restriction. In some parts of teh country the term is applied to an embankment of earth. (Parochial Account of Llanidloes / Edward Hamer / Chapter X / Folk-lore. Page 278 Collections Historical and Archeological Relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders / 1877).


Also Page 310: WARE, more properly WEIR, a wooden embankment across a stream. The weir at the town mill is generally known as the Arga, while the one known as the Ware is that upon the Clywedog, opposite the Dyfnant. The fact of the former retaining its Welsh name is perhaps a proof of its existence previous to the importation of the English term.

3 riverside embankment, earthwork to raise the height of a riverbank to prevent flooding

Yr Argae This little river-side township (Rhydesgyn) forms a fork of land between the Severn and its tributary, the Bel, and is almost surrounded by the Argae, or embankment, which protects its inhabitants from the constant menace of the flood-waters. A History of the Parish of Guilsfield (Cegidfa), T. Simpson Jones and Robert Owen, ?1900.

argae mr breakwater (usually morglawdd)

In the district of Glanafon / Riverside in Caer-dydd there is a street called Taff Embankment. The Welsh translation would be Argae-taf

codi argae ar draws cwm to dam a valley
codi argae ar draws dyffryn to dam a valley

ETYMOLOGY: (ar- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (cae = enclosure)


ar gais ar gais adverb
at the request of
Dechreuodd Thomas bregethu ar gais eglwys Siloa, y Maerdy
Thomas began preaching at the request of Siloa chapel, in Maerdy

by request, on request
arhosfan ar gais
request stop

ar gais taer rhywun at the urgent request of

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (cais = request)


ar gam ar gam adverb
beio ar gam falsely blame
bod yn y carchar ar gam be wrongly imprisoned
cael bai ar gam be falsely accused
cyhuddo ar gam wrongly accuse, falsely accuse

incorrectly, by mistake

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (cam = injustice, wrong)


ar gamamser ar gam-am-ser adverb
at the wrong time; at an inopportune moment

ETYMOLOGY: on a wrong time (ar = on) + soft mutation + (camamser = wrong time)


ar gn ar gaan adverb
in verse, by means of poetry

Yr oedd yn caru gwragedd dynion eraill - ond ar gn
He showed his love for the wives of other men - but through his poems

through song, singing
gosod penillion ar gn set verses to music

ETYMOLOGY: on song (ar = on) + soft mutation + (cn = song)


ar gau ar GAI prepositional phrase

2 (sign) desg ar gau position closed (desk closed)
(sign) ffordd ar gau road closed

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (cae- stem of verb cau = to close, to be closed)

NOTE: Strictly speaking it would be spelt ar gae (same pronunciation). Perhaps it is not used because it also suggests on a field, whereas the spelling cau is unambiguously closing; closed

Cau cannot be the spelling of the root form, strictly speaking, because it is cae-u, where the u represents the verbnoun ending. The root or stem of the verb is obtained by removing any verbnoun suffix.


argu ar gai verb
to dam
argu dyffryn to dam a valley
argu cwm to dam a valley

ETYMOLOGY: (argae = dam) + (-u suffix for forming verbs) > *arge-u > argu


argel AR-gel adjective
gwely argel

gwely argel (secluded bed / resting-place) grave

Gofidus gennyf feddwl ei fod wedi ei symud oi gadair fawr yn y Gilfach Glyd iw wely argel ym mynydd-dir Gwynno
Llanwynno (1888) Glanffrwd (William Thomas 1843-1890)
It is painful for me to think he has moved from his armchair in (the farmhouse of) Gilfach-glyd to his grave on the upland of Gwynno (i.e. Llanwynno)

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (cl = hidden).
Cornish argel = retreat, secluded place; Argel place name


ar gennad ar GE -nad adverb
(USA: on furlough) (Englandic: on leave)
mynd ar gennad go on leave
bod ar gennad be on leave

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (cennad = permission)


arglawdd ar -glaudh masculine noun
PLURAL argloddiau ar- glodh -ye

arglawdd railway embankment or canal embankment
arglawdd y rheilffordd the railway embankment
arglawdd y gamlas the canal embankment

ETYMOLOGY: (ar- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (clawdd = bank)


ar glawr ar GLAuR
in existence, existing

dod ar glawr be revealed, become public knowledge

Daeth y cyfrinach ar glawr The secret slipped out, the secret was revealed

Dawr gwir ar glawr The truth will reveal itself (sooner or later the truth about some mystery will be known)

bod ar glawr be in existence, still survive

cadw ar glawr preserve

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (clawr = surface)


ar glo ar GLOO prepositional phrase

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (clo- = stem of verb cloi = to lock, to get locked)


arglwydd AR gluidh masculine noun

(in addressing a lord)
fArglwydd My Lord, Your Lordship

fy arglwydd frenin my lord the king

Daniel 4:24 Dyma y dehongliad, O frenin, a dyma ordinhad y Goruchaf, yr hwn sydd yn dyfod ar fy arglwydd frenin.
Daniel 4:24 This is the interpretation, O king, and this is the decree of the most High, which is come upon my lord the king:

dydd yr Arglwydd the Sabbath, the Lords Day,
cadw dydd yr Arglwydd keep the Lords Day, keep the Sabbath, observe the Lords Day


arglwyddes ar- glui -dhes feminine noun
PLURAL arglwyddesau ar-glui- dhe -se
lady = woman who is a member of the peerage, whether with a title in her own right, or as the wife of a lord

(in translations of English titles)

(a) Arglwyddes + place name - less formal title in place of ardalyddes (marchioness), iarlles (countess), isiarlles (viscountess), barwnes (baroness)
Arglwyddes Llanofer Lady Llanofer (Augusta Waddington Hall, 1802-96, who lived in Llys Llanofer, county of Mynwy; collector of Welsh manuscripts)

(b) yr Arglwyddes + Christian name + family name - formula used for daughter of a man with the title of dug (duke), ardalydd (marquis), iarll (earl)

(c) yr Arglwyddes + husbands Christian name (lady = wife of a lord)

(d) yr Arglwyddes + husbands surname - wife of a barwnig (baronet) or marchog (knight)

Ein Harglwyddes Our Lady, a title of the Virgin Mary

Ysgol Ein Harglwyddes (the) school (of) our lady name of a school in Bangor
harglwyddes = form of arglwyddes with the prefix h. This prefix is found after
(1) ei = (her);
(2) ein (= our), (n - an = an our, etc)
(3) eu (= their), (u - au = and their, etc)
(4) (m (= my) (am = and my, etc)

ETYMOLOGY: (arglwydd = lord) + (-es suffix, female person)


argoed, PLURAL: argoedydd AR goid, ar GOID idh masculine noun (properly a collective noun) (obsolete, but familiar from place names)

wood, woodland, forest

edge of a wood

ETYMOLOGY: woodland (ar = in front of) + soft mutation + (coed = wood; trees)

Cf arfor (obsolete) = ([place] in front of the sea, edge of the sea, coast, coastland)

Two corresponding words are used in Breton: Arvor is the coast of Brittany, and the interior of the peninsula is Argoad


Argoed AR goid
1 place name = woodland

1 place south-west of Llanharri (Bro Morgannwg)

2 SO1700 locality east of Aberbargod, Caerffili

3 Cilgant Argoed (Argoed Crescent), Trimsaran (Caerfyrddin)

4 farm east of Llangwyryfon (Ceredigion)

5 Farm south of Tregaron, Ceredigion

6 farm south of Cenarth (Caerfyrddin)

7 street name in Baecinmael (Conwy)

8 farm south of Pontcysylltau (Dinbych)

9 Locality between Trefesgob / Bishops Castle and Colunwy / Clun, Shropshire (England)

10 SJ3220 Locality south-west of Kinnerley, Shropshire (England) map

11 locality south of Pen-twyn (Mynwy) (The Argoed)

12 farm north-west of Bryn-gwyn, Mynwy

13 ST4694 Drenewydd Gelli-farch / Shirenewton

Argoed Uchaf (Upper Argoed)
Argoed Isaf (Lower Argoed)

14 farm south-west of Felindre Farchog (Sir Benfro)


Argoed was apparently a district in the kingdom of Powys, and probably wooded terrain including Clun Forest in modern Shropshire extending westwards into the modern county of Powys (the district of the old cwmwd of Ceri). Around the Clun Forest and in this area of Powys there are many places called Argoed. In one of the poems of Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr (fl. ca. 1155-1200) Argoedwys (men of Argoed) is used as as a synonym of men of Powys

15 Farm south-east of Bacheldre, Powys

16 farm east of Llanwrthwl (Powys)

17 farm east of Trefeglwys (Powys)

18 farm south-east of Adfa (Powys)

19 farm SO0945 north-west of Llandeilo Graban SO0944

(1814) William Williams of Argoed, p. Llandilo Graban (= parish of Llandeilo Graban), gent. (= gentleman)...

tmt (= tenament) and lands called Tuy Mawr (= Tŷ-mawr) in place called Yr Argoed, p. Llandilo Graban (= parish of Llandeilo Graban) map

20 farm north of Beulah, Powys

21 street name in Brymbo (Wrecsam)

22 farm north of Owrtyn (Wrecsam)

23 SJ2565 Place name in Bryn-y-bl, Sir y Fflint. Argoed was the name of a medieval township in this area. The name is extant in the name of a local farm SJ2564, a mansion Plas Argoed (Argoed Hall) SJ2564, in the name of the secondary school SJ2564 in Bryn-y-bl, and in the name of a community council here.

Argoed is the Welsh name of New Brighton SJ2564, according to Geiriadur yr Acdemi Gymreig map path to Argoed Farm map

ETYMOLOGY: (see previous entry)

argoel, PLURAL: argoelion AR goil, ar GOIL yon feminine noun
sign, indication
Mae pob argoel y daw Theres every indication that hell come


argoeli ar GOI li verb
argoelin dda (prospects) look good

Dyw pethau ddim yn argoelin dda Things dont look too good, The prospects dont seem very bright, The prospects dont seem very favorable

argoelin ddrwg (prospects) look bad

Mae pethen argoelin ddigon drwg, mae arnai ofn Thinks are looking pretty bad, Im afraid; It looks as though things will get pretty rough, Im afraid


ar goll ar golh prepositional phrase
ar goll yn ln completely lost
Mae golwg ar goll arni she looks lost (theres (a) look (of being) lost onher)

2 lost = unable to understand
Er gwaethaf ei esboniad hirfaith yr oeddwn in hollol ar goll
In spite of his long explanation I was completely lost

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (coll, stem of colli = lose, get lost)


ar golled ar GO-lhed adverb
at a loss
gwerthu rhywbeth ar golled sell something at a loss


ar gost ar GOST preposition
North Wales: ar gst
(with a long o)
at the expense of, at the cost of

ar gost ei einioes at the cost of his life
ar gost ei fywyd at the cost of his life


argraffiaeth ar- graf -yeth feminine noun
1 typography, printing
Abbreviation: (as a field label in a dictionary) Arg.

ETYMOLOGY: (argraff- stem of argraffu = to print) + (-i-aeth suffix for forming nouns)


argraffnod ar- graf -nod masculine noun
PLURAL argraffnodau ar-graf-noo -de
imprint = name of a publisher with date and place of publication, usually on the title-page

ETYMOLOGY: (argraff stem of argraffu = to print) + (nod = mark)


Argraig AR-graig
house name in Aber-soch (Gwynedd)

2 house name in Pwllheli (Gwynedd)

ETYMOLOGY: on (the) crag / rocky ridge (ar = on) + soft mutation + (craig = crag)


argroen ar -groin adj
1 epicarp

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (croen = skin)


ar groesffordd (bod ar groesffordd) ar GROIS fordh prepositional phrase
at a crossroads (= at a crucial point where a decision must be made)


ar grwydr ar GRUI dir adv
1 wandering

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (crwydr- = stem of verb crwydro = to wander)


ar gyfartaledd ar gə var TA ledh prepositional phrase
on average


ar gyfer ar GƏ ver (preposition)
for = in preparation for
gosod ychydig or neilltu ar gyfer tymor glawog
save a little for a rainy day (put a bit aside for a rainy season)

Bydd y cranc yn llenwi ei hun efo bwyd ar gyfer yr amser y bydd on diosg ei gragen, a byw ar ei floneg am bythefnos
The crab fills itself up with food for the time when it sheds its shell, and lives on its fat for a fortnight

cynilo ar gyfer eich henaint save for your old age
stwffioch pen ar gyfer arholiad cram (cram your head) for an examination

in front of , opposite
Symudasant i'r Diosg, tyddyn bychan y tu arall i'r afon ar gyfer yr Hen Gapel
They moved to the Diosg, a small cottage over the river opposite the Old Chapel


argyfwng ar GƏ vung masculine noun
emergency, crisis

bod ar gyfyng gyngor
ar GƏ ving GƏ ngor prepositional phrase be in a tight spot

3 radio argyfwng emergency radio

larwm argyfwng emergency alarm


argyhoeddi ar gə HOI dhi verb
to convince


argyhoeddiad, PLURAL: argyhoeddiadau ar gə HOIDH yad, ar gə hoidh YAA de masculine noun


argyhoeddiadol ar gə hoidh YAA dol adjective


argyhoeddiedig ar gə hoidh YEE dig adjective


argymell ar GƏ melh verb
to recommend


argymhelliad, PLURAL: argymelliadau ar gə MHELH yad, ar gə melh YA de masculine noun


ar gynydd ar gəə-nidh adv
1 on the increase = gaining size

2 on the increase = gaining in popularity

3 ar gynydd which is growing

tref ar gynydd yw Abergele Abergele is an expanding town

bod ar gynnydd be on the increase

mae ymosodiadau ar bobl oedrannus ar gynnydd yn y cefn gwlad attacks on elderly people in the countryside are on the increase

dal ar gynnydd to be still on the increase

ar gynydd mawr growing fast, rapidly expanding

Y mae Newark yn dref ar gynydd mawr, ar lan y gamlas sy 'n arwain o Lyn Erie i Afon Ohio.
Newark is a town which is growing fast, on the side of the canal from Lake Erie to the river Ohio.

Quote from:
Chidlaw, Benjamin Williams, 1811-1892. Yr American: yr hwn sydd yn cynnwys nodau ar daith o Ddyffryn Ohio i Gymru, golwg ar dalaeth Ohio, hanes sefydliadau Cymreig yn America, cyfarwyddiadau i ymofynwyr cyn y daith, ar y daith, ac yn y wlad. (Llanrwst: Argraffwyd gan John Jones, 1840)

ar gyrn a phibau ar girn a fii-be
(on horns and pipes)
datgan newyddion da ar gyrn a phibau to trumpet forth good news
(declare good news on horns and pipes)


ar hast wyllt ar hast WILHT (adverb)
in a mad hurry


ar her ar her adverb
gwneud rhywbeth ar her do something for a dare

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + (her = challenge)


ar herw ar he-ru adverb
outlawed, on the run

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + (herw = state of being an outlaw, outlawry)


arholi ar- hoo -li verb

ETYMOLOGY: (ar- = intensifying prefix) + (holi = to ask)


arholiad ar- hol -yad masculine noun
PLURAL arholiadau ar-hol-yaa-de

arholiad pen tymor end-of-term examination

arholiad pen blwyddyn final examination, year-end examination

sefyll arholiad sit / do / take an exam (stand an exam)

llwyddo mewn arholiad pass an examination, be successful in an examination

y rhai a lwyddodd yn yr arholiadau those who passed the exams

stwffioch pen ar gyfer arholiad cram (cram your head) for an examination

ETYMOLOGY: (arhol-i-, stem of the verb arholi = to examine) + (suffix -i-ad)


arholwr ar- ho -lur masculine noun
PLURAL arholwyr ar- hol -wir

ETYMOLOGY: (arhol-, stem of the verb arholi = to examine) + (-wr)


arhosed ar- ho -sed verb
may he wait;
Arhosed e imi gael fy nwylo arno fe...
Just wait until I get my hands on him...! (i.e. to punish him)

ETYMOLOGY: (arhos-, stem of aros = to wait) + (-ed)


arhosfa a-hros-va feminine noun
PLURAL arosfydd a-hros- veidh
stopping place



South Wales sheepwalk = a tract of grazing land for sheep; the colloquial form is rosfa; and also rhosfa, rhysfa, hysfa, ysfa. In the town of Maes-teg (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr, South-east Wales) there is a street called Yr Ysfa (= the sheepwalk)

very common house name; usually seen without an h; Arhosfa, Arosfa; the extended meaning is home, since the sheep know instinctively the boundaries of their pasture ground, and when they go up to the mountain for grazing in summer they always return to the same spot

ETYMOLOGY: (arhos-, stem of aros = to stay) + (-fa, suffix = place)

NOTE: arosfa is a common erroneous standard form in the South, where h at colloquial level (especially in the south-east) isnt pronounced, and so this was assumed to be the literary form, people perhaps being unfamiliar with the literary form with h


ar hyd ar HIID (preposition)


ar hyd ac ar draws ar HIID aag ar DRAuS adverb
in all directions, any old how, at random
siarad ar hyd ac ar draws talk in a muddled fashion, in a confused way, incoherently

ETYMOLOGY: (ar hyd = along) + (ac = and) + (ar draws = across)


ar hyd ac ar led ar hiid ag ar leed adverb
all over, everywhere

Chwiliais ar hyd ac ar led ond welais i ddim byd
I looked all over but I saw nothing

siarad ar hyd ac ar led
indulge in small talk

ETYMOLOGY: (ar hyd = along the length, on length) + (ac = and, form of a = and, before a vowel) + (ar led = along the width, on width)


ar hyd y flwyddyn ar HIID ə VLUI dhin
during the year


ar hyn o bryd ar HIN o BRIID (adverb)
at the present time


arial ar -yal masculine noun
passion, vigour, spirit
courage, mettle

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = in front of) + soft mutation + (gl = strength)
The corresponding word in Irish (by now only a literary word) is iorghal (= fighting, battle line)


arian AR yan masculine noun
money; silver
arian ffug forged money
pasio arian ffug pass forged money

arian papur (American: folding money) (Englandic: paper money) (money (of) paper)

taflu arian da i ganlyn arian drwg throw good money after bad (throw good money to follow bad money)

arian taw hush money, a bribe to buy somebodys silence (money (of) silence)

5 gwneud arian mawr make a fortune (make big money)

gwneud pentwr o arian (o...) make a fortune (out of...) (make a pile of money)

codi arian ar to mortgage (something) (raise money on)

arian hawdd easy money, money for old rope, money for jam

arian tramor foreign currency

gwerth arian o a fortune (in...)

prynu gwerth arian o bethach spend a fortune on things (buy a fortune of things)
(gwerth = value) + (arian = money)

arian parod (ready money)
talu ag arian parod pay cash

arian lladrad stolen money

gwneud arian sydyn get rich quick


arianblatiog <ar-yan-BLAT-yog> [arjanˡblatjɔg] adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (arian = silver ) + soft mutation + ( platiog = plated)


arianfryn <ar-YAN-vrin> [arˡjanvrɪn] masculine noun
1 silver hill, silvery hill
Arianfryn House name, Y Bermo (county of Gwynedd)

ETYMOLOGY: (arian = silver ) + soft mutation + ( bryn = hill)


ariannach <ar-YA-nakh> [arˡjanax] plural
(USA: float) (Englandic: petty cash) small fund set aside for buying minor items which need not be itemised individually in an account - for example, office supplies, newspapers, etc

ETYMOLOGY: (ariann- < arian = money) + (-ach plural diminutive suffix)


ariannaidd <ar-YA-naidh, -nedh> [arˡjanaɪ, -ɛ] adjective
silvered, silvery, silver in colour
helygen ariannaidd (Salix argentea)
silky sand willow

OLOGY: (arian = silver) + (-aidd suffix for forming nouns indicating the content or capacity of a container )


Ariannell <ar-YA-nelh> [arˡjanɛɬ]
stream name

(SN6537) Afon Annell / / Afon Ariannell = river in the county of Caerfyrddin, at Caeo

Trerannell Locality in Pen-y-bont at Ogwr by the river Llynfi between Pen-y-fai and Pen-y-cae.
English name: Angelton

Trerannell < Trerannell < Trearannell < Treariannell (the) trv (by the) Ariannell (stream) (tre + Ariannell).

ETYMOLOGY: (ariann- < arian = silver) + (-ell suffix found in certain stream or river names)


ariannin <ar-YA-nin> [arˡjanɪn] adj

1 made of silver; silvery

2 The Welsh name for Argentina is this same word Yr Ariannin a nineteenth-century coining

ETYMOLOGY: (ariann- a penultimate-syllable form of arian = silver) + (-in)


ariannog <ar-YA-nog> [arˡjanɔg] adjective


ariannol <ar-YA-nol> [arˡjanɔl] adjective


arianwaith <ar-YAN-waith> [arˡjanwaɪθ] masculine noun
PLURAL arianweithiau <ar-yan-WEITH-yai, -ye> [arjanˡwəɪθjaɪ, -ɛ]
silverwork = jewellery, etc made from silver

ETYMOLOGY: (arian = silver ) + soft mutation + ( gwaith = work )


Arianwen <ar-YAN-wen> [arˡjanwɛn] feminine noun
womans name; (arian = silver) + (suffix wen = beautiful)


ar lafar gwlad <ar laa-var GWLAAD> [ar lɑˑvar ˡgWlɑd] adv
in spoken Welsh

y ffurf a glywais i ar lafar gwlad yn nwyrain Morgannwg oedd iownda
(Y Treigladau au Cystrawen, T. J. Morgan, 1952, t. 27)
the form I heard in spoken Welsh in esat Glamorgan was iownda

ar lafar gwlad y De

in the spoken Welsh of the South, in southern spoken Welsh

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (llafar gwlad = colloquial speech)

llafar gwlad (the) speech (of) (the) people (llafar = speech, speaking) + (gwlad = country, land; the people of a country)


arlais <AR-lais> arlaɪs]

feminine noun
PLURAL arleisiau <ar-LEIS-yai, -ye> [arˡləɪsjaɪ, -ɛ]
temple = the flat area on either side of the forehead

..1/ possibly (ar = on) + soft mutation + (glais = stream),

..2/ if not (*ar = temple) (which would be the equivalent of Irish ara
= temple) + soft mutation + (glais = stream)


ar lawer cyfrif <ar LAU-er KƏ-vriv, KƏ-vri> [ar ˡlaʊwɛr ˡkəvrɪv, ˡkəvrɪ] adverb

1 in many respects



ar led <ar LEED> [ar ˡleːd] adverb

hwylio ar led sail to foreign parts, sail abroad

3 (rumour, gossip, impression) abroad, going the rounds
maer si ar led bod... theres a rumour going round that..., its rumoured that...
rhoi si ar led bod... spread a rumor that


ar letraws <ar LE-traus> [ar ˡtraʊs] adverb
torri brethyn ar letraws cut cloth on the cross

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (lletraws = diagonal)


Arllechwedd <ar-LHEKH-wedh> [arˡɬɛxwɛ] feminine noun
Kntrev in the north-west. It formed part of the kingdom of Gwynedd. Under the terms of the Statue of Rhuddlan in 1284, when the English defeated the Welsh and began the occupation of the territory of this kingdom, English-type counties were intoduced in the occupied zone, and the county of Caernarfon was created by joining together the kntrevs of Llŷn, Arfon and Arllechwedd.

2 a present-day ecclesiastical unit of the Church in Wales

ETYMOLOGY: facing the mountainside (ar = facing) + soft mutation + (llechwedd = hillside, mountainside, slope)

Cf the name Arfynydd above


+arlleg Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See garlleg =


arlliw <AR-lhiu> [ˡarɬɪʊ] masculine noun
tint, shade

In North Wales affliw (= the least bit) is possibly an alteration of arlliw, maybe due to the influence of the word affaith (= effect). The r then has taken the place of ff

affliw o ddim nothing at all


arllwys <AR-lhuis> [ˡarɬʊɪs] verb
to pour

ymarllwys pour out (eg people leaving a crowded room)
ymarllwys yn y mr (river) flow into the sea

3 (South) arllwys eich cwd o flaen unbosom / unburden yourself to (pour out your bag in front of...)


arloesi <ar-LOI-si> [arˡlɔɪsɪ] verb
to pioneer

2 innovation

y Gweinidog dros Fenter, Arloesi a Rhwydweithiau the Minister for Enterprise, Innovation and Networks


arloesol <ar-LOI-sol> [arˡlɔɪsɔl] adjective

2 innovative


arloeswr, PLURAL: arloeswyr <ar-LOI-sur, ar-LOIS-wir> [arˡlɔɪsʊr,arˡlɔɪswɪr] masculine noun

2 innovator


ar lun a delw <ar LIIN a DHE-lu> [ar ˡliːn ɑ ˡɛlʊ] prepositional phrase
in the image of (in the shape and image of)

Genesis 5:3
Ac Adda a fu fyw ddeng mlynedd ar hugain a chant, ac a genhedlodd fab ar ei lun ai ddelw ei hun, ac a alwodd ei enw ef Seth.
Genesis 5:3 And Adam lived an hundred and thirty years, and begat a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth:

(be) the spitting image of
Bachgen tawel, cadarn o gorff, ydoedd ef, ar lun a delw ei dad (Y Pentre Gwyn, gan Anthropos (Robert David Rowland 1853?-1944), Tyn-y-cefn, Corwen; 1923)
He was a quiet boy, strong in body, the very image of his father

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (llun) + soft mutation + (delwedd = image)


arlunio <ar-LIN-yo> [arˡlɪnjɔ] verb
to paint


arlunydd, PLURAL: arlunwyr <ar-LII-nidh, ar-LIN-wir> [arˡliˑnɪ, arˡlɪnwɪr] masculine noun
artist, painter


ar lw <ar LUU> [ar ˡluː]
on oath, sworn
datganiad ar lw sworn statement

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (llw = oath)


Armeneg ar ME neg feminine noun
Armenian (language)


armerth 1 ar -merth masculine noun
obsolete preparation

South-east Wales bord armerth = table on which dough is kneaded

South-east Wales crochan armerth = a pot for preparing porridge (uwd)

ETYMOLOGY: British < Celtic ari-ambi-ber-t;
this would be equivalent to modern standard Welsh aramferth (though this word does not occur in the modern language)

(ar = on) + (am = around) + soft mutation + (*berth = to prepare, to organize)
Presumably *aramfrth > *armfrth > armrth (loss of the v) > rmerth (change of accent to the penult in Old Welsh)
From the same British root: Breton armerzh (= saving);
From the same Hibernian root: Irish beart (= action)


armerth 2 ar -merth verb
South-east Wales

ETYMOLOGY: from the noun armerth
NOTE: also: armerthu


armerthu ar-mer-thi verb
South-east Wales
knead: see armerth 2


armes ar -mes feminine noun
obsolete prophecy



Armes Prydain ar-mes prə -den feminine noun
the Prophecy of Britain

A poem from around the year 930 and included in the book of Taliesin (Llyfr Taliesin). The poem prophesies that the British people will regain control of the island of Britain south of the Highlands from the Germanic invaders (who had taken and settled British lands some five hundred years previously), through the concerted action of the British peoples of what is now Wales, Cornwall, Brittany, and the south of Scotland, with the aid of the Scandinavians of Dublin

ETYMOLOGY: (armes = prophecy) + (Prydain = island of Great Britain)


armi ar-mi feminine noun
PLURAL: armis ar-mis
Englishism army (the standard word is byddin)
yn yr armi in the army (colloquially often as yn y rarmi)

ETYMOLOGY: English army < French arme, feminine form of arm (= armed), past participle of armer (= to arm) < Latin armre, armt(um) (= to arm)


arnat ar -nat
1 on you
arnat ti on you

2 bsantsho = pa beth sydd arnat ti ei eisiau what do you need / require / want?
Let them see how in their COLLOQUIAL WELSH the accent turns a sentence of many words into a single word of one or two syllables... e.g. pa beth sydd arnat ti ei eisieu? has become bsantsho
T Hudson Williams (1873-1961), University College, Bangor / Vox Populi - A Plea for the Vulgar Tongue


arni ar-ni preposition
on her, on it
(weather) Mae golwg glaw arni It looks like rain (there is appearance (of) rain on it)


arnodd ar -nodh masculine or feminine noun
(plough) beam

NOTE: in the counties of Ceredigion and Penfro arnod, harnod, arnol


arobryn a- ro -brin masculine noun
prize, premium

adjective (of a creative work, usually literary or musical) prizewinning, worthy of a prize;

awdl arobryn prize-winning poem, winning poem (alliterative, in different metres)

cn arobryn prize-winning song, winning song

cerdd arobryn prize-winning poem, winning poem,

englyn arobryn eng-lin prize-winning verse, winning verse (four-lined alliterative verse)

model arobryn prize-winning model, winning model (= for example, an architectural project)

traethawd arobryn prize-winning essay, winning essay

ETYMOLOGY: A word invented by William Owen-Pughe (It is found in his 1793 dictionary). The word occurs as a verb in Llyfr Taliesin (The Book of Taliesin) written in the first half of the 1300s - Gwyn y vyt yr eneit ae harobryn (Gwyn ei fyd yr enaid ai harobryn = blessed is the soul who wins it). William Owen-Pughe took this verb and give it an additional use as a noun meaning prize, and later it came to be used as an adjective meaning worthy of a prize, prizewinning).

The origin of the verb arobryn or arobrynu is (ar- intensifying prefix) + (gobryn, gobrynu = to deserve, to merit, to be worthy);

in turn gobryn / gobrynu < (gwo- = sub, under) + soft mutation + (prynu = to buy).
The original form of gobryn / gobrynu was in fact gobrid, and the form with n- came from the inflected forms such as gobrynaf (= I deserve, I gain);

the modern verb erlyn (= to prosecute in a court of law) is also restyled on the inflected forms - the original verb noun was erlid, which survives in its original sense of to pursue.


arnoch ar -nokh
1 on you (= ar + chi)

2 (North) Besnachi isho? = pa beth sydd arnoch chi ei eisiau?
This becomes Bedachi isho?
pa beth sydd arnoch chi ei eisiau? ((it-is) what thing which-is on you its need?)
Analogy in syntax. bedachi isho for besnachi isho (what do you want?)
T Hudson Williams (1873-1961), University College, Bangor / Vox Populi - A Plea for the Vulgar Tongue


arogl A-rogəl masculine noun
smell; see aroglau


aroglau, PLURAL: arogleuon a RO gle, a ro GLEI on masculine noun


arogldarth a- rogl -darth nm
PLURAL :arogldarthau a-rogəl-dar-thi
1 incense

Croniclau-2 30:14 A hwy a gyfodasant, ac a fwriasant ymaith yr allorau oedd yn Jerwsalem; bwriasant ymaith allorau yr arogl-darth, a thaflasant hwynt i afon Cidron
Chronicles-2 30:14...
And they arose and took away the altars that were in Jerusalem, and all the altar for incense took they away, and cast them into the brook Kidron

ETYMOLOGY: (arogl- stem of aroglu = to give off a smell or scent) + soft mutation + (tarth = mist, vapour)


ar l a ROOL (preposition)
codi pais ar l piso ("lift a skirt after pissing") do something too late; try to undo what has been done

in the absence of, after the loss of, after the death of, out of longing for, because of the absence of
bod tristwch ar l be sadness after the departure of

Symudodd o Langurig i Gilfynydd i fyw, a bu tristwch ar ei l yn ei hen ardal
He moved from Llangurig to Cilfynydd to live, and there was sadness in his home district after he left


ar oleddf ar O ledhv (adverb)
slanting, sloping
cornel ar oleddf banked corner


aroleuo ar-o- lei -o adjective
1 highlight = make part of the hair lighter than the rest
highlight = make part of a text more visible than the rest by marking it with a coloured pen or by underlining it

ETYMOLOGY: (ar- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (goleuo = illuminate)


aros A ros verb
without an object:

to wait, to stay
aros ar eich eistedd
remain seated

with an object:
2 await, wait for
Mae en ei haros hi! Hes in for it now! (hes awaiting it)

bear, stand, tolerate, endure
Fedra i moi aros o (North) I cant stand him


ar raddfa fechan ar radh-va vee-khan adv
on a small scale, in miniature

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = sobre) + soft mutation + (graddfa = escala) + soft mutation + (bechan, forma femenina de bychan = petit)


ar ran ar RAN (preposition)
on behalf of


ar ryddhd ar rədh HAAD (prep phrase)
on leave (on liberation)


ar sail ar SAIL (preposition)
on the basis of

gwahaniaethu ar sail rhyw sexual discrimination

ar sawl cyfrif ar SAUL KO vri

1 in many respects


arsefydlu ar-se- vəd -li verb
1 install = put a computer program onto a computer

ETYMOLOGY: (ar- intensifying prefix ) + (sefydlu = establish)


arswyd AR suid masculine noun


arswyd y byd AR suid ə BIID phrase
Good God! (the horror of the world)


artaith PLURAL: arteithiau AR taith, -teth, ar TEITH yai, -ye feminine noun; but less generally also masculine
torture = act of inflicting severe pain
mewn artaith in torment

dan yr artaith under the torture, suffering torture

Bun hollol dawel dan yr artaith He was completely silent under the torture
artaeth feddyliol mental torture

rhyddid rhag artaith freedom from torture

siambr artaith torture chamber

dioddef artaith suffer torture

Dywedir ir artaith hwn gael ei gyflawni yn aml ar ferthyron (Y Gwyliedydd 1826)

It is said that this torture was perpetrated often on martyrs

2 torture = torment, anguish

Bu ei phrofiad hithau yn debyg i alar ac artaith pob mam arall yn yr un sefyllfa

Her experience was the same as the pain and anguish of every mother in such circumstances

Artaith araf fu gweld perfformiad yr hen ddigrifiwr It was slow torture to see the perfoemance of the old comedian



arth, PLURAL: eirth ARTH, EIRTH feminine noun

arth sbectolog spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus)
arth fraith grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis)

arth frown brown bear (Ursus arctos)

arth ddu black bear (Ursus americanus)

arth ddu Asia Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus)

arth wen polar bear (Ursus maritimus)

arth Kodiak Kodiak bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi)

arth yr haul sun bear (Helarctos malayanus)

arth weflog sloth bear (Melursus ursinus)

Elen Benfelen a'r Tair Arth Goldilocks and the Three Bears

arth fach, PLURAL: eirth bach arth VAAKH, eirth BAAKH feminine noun bear cub

Arth Fawr arth VAUR feminine noun Great Bear

Arth Fechan arth VE khan feminine noun Little Bear

arth tedi arth TE di feminine noun teddy bear

arth wryw, PLURAL: eirth gwryw arth U riu, eirth GU riu feminine noun male bear


Arth ARTH feminine noun
river in South-west Wales

Aber-arth estuary of the Arth river


arthaidd AR thedh adjective
ursine, bear-like


arthes, PLURAL: arthesau AR thes, ar THE sau feminine noun


arthio ARTH yo verb
arthio ar (rywun) bark at (someone); go on at (somebody)


arthrosis arth- ro -sis m
1 arthrosis = degenerative disease of a joint.
arthrosis y glun hip arthrosis

ETYMOLOGY: Greek arthrsis (= joining together) < arthron (= joint)


Arthur AR thir masculine noun
Arthur; leader of British resistance to Germanic conquerors, sixth century

Telyn Arthur ((the) harp (of) Arthur, Arthurs harp) Lyra = small constellation in the northern hemisphere with the star Vega; near Cygnus (Yr Alarch) and Draco (Y Ddraig)

3 Cist Arthur Ysgyrryd Fawr, Llandeilo Bertholau (SO 3218)(county of Mynwy)
(the) coffer (of) Arthur, Arthur's Coffer (cist = coffer) + (Arthur = Arthur)
Edward Lhuyd (1670-1709) noted 'There is upon Skerid Vawr a great stone shaped like a house called Cist Arthur'


artist, PLURAL: artistiaid AR tist, ar TIST yed masculine noun


arucheledd ar-i- khee -ledh masculine noun

(title) excellence
Eich Arucheledd Your Excellence, Your Excellences
Ei Harucheledd Her Excellence
Ei Arucheledd His Excellence

ETYMOLOGY: (aruchel = elevated, high, sublime) + (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)


Arum maculatum

pidyn y gog lords and ladies, cuckoo pint ((the) penis (of) the cuckoo)
coc y neidr (South Wales) lords and ladies, cuckoo pint. Literally snakes penis, (the) penis (of) the snake)


arunig ar- ii -nig adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (ar- intensifying prefix) + (unig = alone)


arunigedd ar-i- nii -gedh masculine noun
isolation = feeling of being alone

ETYMOLOGY: (arunig = isolated) + (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)


arunigwr ar-i- nii -gur masculine noun
PLURAL :arunigwyr ar-i- ni -gwir

ETYMOLOGY: (arunig = isolated) + (-wr suffix = man)


ar un ochr i ar iin oo-khor ii preposition
on one side of

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + (un = one) + (ochr = side) + (i = to)


ar unwaith ar in weth adverb
at once, instantly, immediately (American: also: in short order);
Cafodd wasanaeth ar unwaith He was served at once

all of a sudden, suddenly, quickly;
Maer gweinidog wedi mynd yn hen ar unwaith The minister has aged suddenly

at the same time;
Yr oedd ef yn bwyta ac yn darllen ar unwaith He was eating and reading at the same time

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + (unwaith = one time, once)


ar un wedd ar iin weedh adverb
1 ..a/ in one way. in one sense, from one aspect
..b/ (South) on any account, on no account, whatever may happen, under no circumstances, under any circumstances
Na i mo ny ar un wedd (nid wnaf fi hynny ar un wedd) I wont do that under any circumstances

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + (un = any) + soft mutation + (gwedd = aspect)


aruthrol a-rith-rol adjective
huge, great, tremendous
derbyn cam aruthrol (gan...) be terribly wronged (by...)

Mae parch aruthrol iddo He enjoys enormous respect

Rw in gweld newidiadau aruthrol yn y dre ar l ugain mlynedd yn Amrica
I see tremendous changes in the town after twenty years in America

yn aruthrol tremendously, greatly

Maer iaith Gymraeg wedi cryfhu yn aruthrol dros y 30 mlynedd diwethaf o ran ei statws
The Welsh language has become a lot stronger (strengthened enormously) over the last 30 years as regards its status

(intensifier) aruthrol o = hugely, extremely, tremendously

Maen broblem aruthrol o gymhleth
Its an extremely complicated problem

ETYMOLOGY: (aruthr = terror; terrible) + (-ol = suffix for forming adjectives)


+arw a-ru adjective
Soft mutated form (g > ZERO) of garw (= rough)

Glanfa Arw nom de carrer, Tal-y-cafn, Baecolwyn (county of Conwy)
(rough landing place)

Graig Arw, (the) rough crag;

porfa arw rough grazing, pasture in wild land
(in these names there is soft mutation of the first consonant of an adjective which follows a feminine noun)


ar waelod ar wei -lod preposition
at the bottom of; at the end of
ar waelod y rhestr at the bottom of the list
ar waelod yr ardd at the bottom of the garden


ar wahn i ar wa HAAN (preposition)
apart from


arwahaniad ar-wa-han-yad masculine noun
isolation (of an infectious patient)

ETYMOLOGY: (arwahan- stem of arwahanu = to separate) + (-iad suffix for forming nouns)


arwain AR wen verb

third person singular present tense form in literary Welsh

(The equivalent form in colloquial Welsh arweiniff, arweinith is used as a future tense)

I Rufain yr arwain pob ffordd All roads lead to Rome ((it-is) to Rome that leads every road)


Yr Arwallt ər AR-walht [ ər ˡarwaɬt] f

1 SO3318, south of Llanfihangel Crucornau (Mynwy)

(on the Ordnance Survey map as The Arwallt)

ETYMOLOGY: (yr = definite article) + soft mutation + (garwallt = rough hill)

Thre is soft mutation of the initial consonant of a feminine noun

garwallt (garw = rough) + (allt = hill)


ar wasgar ar WA-skar adv
dispersed, scattered

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (gwasgar- stem of verb gwasgaru = to scatter, disperse)


arweinydd, PLURAL: arweinwyr ar WEI nidh, ar WEIN wir masculine noun


arweddiad ar- wedh -yad m
1 (obsolete) bearing, behaviour, attitude
2 CLASSICAL WELSH ymarweddiad bearing, behaviour, attitude, inclination, disposition

ETYMOLOGY: (arwedd- stem of arweddu = bear, carry, convey) + (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)


arweddu ar- wee -dhi verb
1 (obsolete) bear. carry

ETYMOLOGY: British are-wed- < wedh- carry, accompany

NOTE: Another form of the verbnoun was arwain. This has retained the sense of to guide, to lead, but a new conjugation based on the arwain form of verbnoun is used in modern Welsh - arweiniaf, etc, instead of arweddaf.


ar werth ar WERTH prepositional phrase
on sale, for sale, to be sold

ETYMOLOGY: Although it seems to be an adverb with the same pattern as ar gau, ar agor, ar glo, etc, referring to a past action, this is not sold (ar = on) + soft mutation + (gwerth- stem of verb gwerthu = to sell), which is expressed as wedi ei werthu, wedi ei gwerthu, etc; a werthwyd.

It is (ar = on) + soft mutation + (gwerth = payment, a fee, a price) (available) (for (a) fee) (first example of its use is from the 1200s), and is equivalent to the phrase er gwerth (= for a price) (also first noted in the 1200s).

But its modern meaning may be the result of the influence of the English phrase on sale.

cynnig ar werth (= offer up for sale) occurs in the Welsh Bible (Apocrypha) (1620)

Apocrypha / Maccabeaid-2 8:11
Am hynny efe a anfonodd yn y man i'r dinasoedd ar lan y mor, gan gynnig ar werth yr Iddewon a ddelid yn garcharorion, i fod yn weision iddynt, gan addo y gwerthai iddynt ddeg a phedwar ugain er un dalent: ond nid ydoedd efe yn ystyrio dial Duw, yr hwn a ddisgynnai arno ef.

pocrypha Maccabees-2 8:11 Wherefore immediately he sent to the cities upon the sea coast, proclaiming a sale of the captive Jews, and promising that they should have fourscore and ten bodies for one talent, not expecting the vengeance that was to follow upon him from the Almighty God.


arwerthiant ar- werth -yant masculine noun
PLURAL: arwerthiannau ar-werth- ya -ne
auction, sale by auction (colloquially ocsiwn)

sale = offering goods at reduced prices
arwerthiant cau closing-down sale
arwerthiant clirio clearance sale
arwerthiant wedi tn fire sale, sale of goods salvaged after a fire (sale after (a) fire)
pris arwerthiant sale price

ETYMOLOGY: (arwerth- stem of arwerthu = sell by auction, sell) + (i-ant suffix for forming nouns)


arwerthu ar WER thi v
to auction

ETYMOLOGY: (ar- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (gwerthu = to sell)


arwerthwr, PLURAL: arwerthwyr ar WER thur, ar WERTH wir masculine noun

ETYMOLOGY: (arwerth- stem of arwerthu = sell by auction, sell) + (-wr agent suffix, < gŵr = man)


arwr aa -rur masculine noun
PLURAL arwyr ar -wir
1 hero = person of courage

2 hero = person admired and idealised for courage, brave deeds, or noble character, and considered worthy of imitation

Mae o'n dipyn o arwr i mi He's something of a hero to me

3 hero = person who has committed a brave act

4 hero, someone who is admired, person who has been skilful in some activity

5 hero = main character in a story, drama, film

6 gwrtharwr anti-hero
(gwrth- prefix = contra, anti) + (arwr = hero)

ETYMOLOGY: (ar- intensive suffix) + soft mutation + (gŵr = man)


arwraidd a- ru -redh adjective
1 heroic

ETYMOLOGY: (arwr = hero) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)

arwrol a -ruu -rol adjective
1 heroic
safiad arwrol a heroic stand, heroic resistance

2 anarwrol unheroic
(an- = negative prefix) + (arwrol = heroic)

3 gwrtharwrol antiheroic
(gwrth- prefix = contra, anti) + (arwrol = heroic)

ETYMOLOGY: (arwr = hero) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


ar wrych ar WRIIKH adv
1 (person) in a bad mood


2 (hair) dishevelled


ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (gwrych stem of the verb gwrychu (= to bristle), used as a past particple)



Arwy a -rui feminine noun
(SO2350) Afon Arwy = river in the district of Maesyfed (county of Powys)
English name: Arrow Afon Arwy SO2551

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

Llanfihangel Dyffryn Arwy (SO2450) locality in the district of Maesyfed (county of Powys) the Llanfihangel in the valley of the river Arwy

(Llanfihangel = church of Michael) + (dyffryn = valley) + (Arwy = river name)
English name: Michaelchurch on Arrow yr eglwys / the church

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)


NOTE: The colloquial form would be Arw a-ru (in colloquial Welsh the final diphthong wy > w) which explains the English form Arrow.
Compare the south-eastern river names
..1/ Mynwy > Mynw > English Monnow, and
..2/ Ebwy > Ebw


arwydd, PLURAL: arwyddion A ruidh, a RUIDH yon feminine noun
sign, signal

arwydd cychwyn starting signal
rhoir arwydd cychwyn to give the starting signal

2 arwydd cyfeirio direction sign

3 gwneud arwydd ar rywun i wneud rhywbeth signal to somebody to do something (make a sign on somebody to do something)

gwneud arwydd stopio ar (rywun)
signal to someone to stop (make (a) sign (of) stopping on (somebody)

gwneud arwydd i rywun stopio signal somebody to stop (make (a) sign for somebody (to) stopping)


arwyddair, PLURAL: arwyddeiriau a RUI dhair, a rui DHEIR ye masculine noun

ETYMOLOGY: (arwydd = sign) + soft mutation + (gair = word)

arwyddbost ar-uidh-bost masculine noun
PLURAL: arwyddbyst ar-uidh-bist
signpost, direction sign, direction indicator

ETYMOLOGY: (arwydd = sign) + soft mutation + (post = post)


arwyddnod, PLURAL: arwyddnodau a RUIDH nod, a ruidh NO de masculine noun
time signal (on the radio, marking the hour)

ETYMOLOGY: indicating mark (arwydd-, stem of the verb arwyddo = indicate ) + soft mutation + (nod = mark)


arwyl ar -uil feminine noun
PLURAL: arwylion ar-uil-yon
Yr wythnos diwethaf, yn Abergele, bu arwyl un o feibion disgleiriaf ei genhedlaeth
Last week in Abergele the funeral was held of one of the most prominent individuals of his generation

2 mourning

Genesis 50: 4 Pan aeth dyddiau ei arwyl heibio, yna y llefarodd Joseff wrth deulu Pharo, gan ddywedyd, Os cefais yr awr hon ffafr yn eich golwg, lleferwch wrth Pharo, atolwg...
Genesis 50: 4 And when the days of his mourning were past, Joseph spake unto the house of Pharaoh, saying, If now I have found grace in your eyes, speak, I pray you, in the ears of Pharaoh...

ETYMOLOGY: (ar- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (gwyl = feastday)


arwylo ar-ui-lo verb
obsolete hold a funeral
obsolete mourn

Genesis 50: 3 Pan gyflawnwyd iddo ddeugain niwrnod (canys felly y cyflawnir dyddiau y rhai a beraroglir) yna yr Eifftiaid ai harwylasant ef ddeng niwrnod a thrigain
Genesis 50: 3 And forty days were fulfilled for him; for so are fulfilled the days of those which are embalmed: and the Egyptians mourned for him threescore and ten days.

ETYMOLOGY: (arwyl = funeral) + (-o suffix for forming verbs)


arwyn ar -win adjective
obsolete fine, fair, splendid

ETYMOLOGY: splendid, literally very white (ar- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (gwyn = white, fine, splendid)


Arwyn ar -win masculine noun
mans name, twentieth century

ETYMOLOGY: fair, good-looking (see arwyn adjective)

NOTE: The name Erwyn is the same, though with vowel affection

(ar intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (gwyn = white, holy, fine, fair, splendid)

There is vowel affection, with a > e caused by the y in the final syllable


Arwystl A ruis təl masculine noun
mans name (obsolete) = pledge


Arwystli a RUIST li feminine noun
medieval territory in north-west Wales (territory of Arwystl)


ar y blaen ar ə BLAIN (adverb)
ahead, at the front

bod yn bell ar y blaen i be way ahead of
Maer Gwyddelod yn bell ar y blaen i ni yn hyn o beth The Irish are way ahead of us in this respect, The Irish have a head start on us in this matter


Ar-y-bryn ar-ə- brin
street name in Porthtywyn / Burry Port (county of Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen)

(spelt as Ar y Bryn).

ETYMOLOGY: ar y bryn (the place) on the hill

(ar = on) + (y definite article) + (bryn = hill)


ar y clwt ar ə klut adverb
gadael (rhywun) ar y clwt to leave (somebody) in the lurch

jobless, out of work
rhoi (rhywun) ar y clwt to give someone the sack
bod ar y clwt to be out of work

ETYMOLOGY: on the patch (ar = on) + (y = the) + (clwt = patch)


ar y cyntaf ar ə KƏN ta (adverb)
at the beginning

2 Afrwydd pob gorchwyl ar y cyntaf every task is difficult at the outset (difficult every task on the first)


ar y daith ar ə daith adverb
en route, in transit, on the journey

difrod ar y daith damage in transit

ETYMOLOGY: (ar = on) + soft mutation + (taith = journey, trip)


ar y diawl ar ə dyaul adverbial phrase
very (literally: on the devil)
bod yn falch ar y diawl be as pleased as punch, be as glad as hell


ar y dydd ar dydd ar ə diidh aar diidh adv
on such and such a day, on a certain day, some day in the week

Fe i e ir dre ar y dydd ar dydd i godi ei bensiwn
He used to go into town some day in the week to collect his pension

ETYMOLOGY: on the day and day (ar = on) + (y dydd = the day) + (ar = and the) + (dydd = day)


ar y gweill ar ə GWEILH prepositional phrase
being prepared, in preparation


ar yr ochr faes i ar ər OO khor VAIS i (preposition)
(South Wales) on the outside of

(generally as ar yr ochor fas i) ar ər OO khor VAAS i



ar yr union eiliad ar ər IN-yon EIL-yad (prepositional phrase)
at that precise moment, at that very moment


ar y Sadwrn ar Sul
ar ə SA durn ar SIIL (adverb)
on Saturdays and Sundays


*as as
(obsolete) rib
This is the root of the words
..1/ asen = rib,
..2/ aseth = pole, rod,
..3/ asgwrn = bone


AS aa- es abbreviation
abbreviation of aelod seneddol = MP, Member of Parliament


As aa- es
rsenig = arsenic (33):


as aas feminine noun
the least amount, smallest particle;
South-east Wales Welas-i as ohono-fa I havent seen him at all (I havent seen an ace of him)

ETYMOLOGY: English ace (= as) < French as (= as) < Latin as (= unitat) < Greek as variant of heis (= un)


-as as
in older Welsh, verb-ending (third-person simple past) equivalent to modern -odd (northern and standard) or -ws (southern); survives in southern Welsh cas (< cafas) = cafodd he/she got


-as as
noun-forming suffix; no longer productive; examples are:
..1/ bardd = poet
= art of poetry BARDH, BAR-dhas

..2/ cymydaith (obsolete) = companion
(cymydeithas >) cymdeithas = association, society; kə-MƏ-deth, kəm-DEI-thas

..3/ cymwyn (obsolete) = gentle, amiable
cymwynas = favor / favour; KƏ-muin, kə-MUI-nas

..4/ perthyn = to be related
= relationship, PER-thin, per-THƏ-nas

..5/ teyrn = king
teyrnas = kingdom TEIRN, TEIR-nas

..6/ urdd = order
= dignity IRDH, IR-dhas

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh -as < British *ass; cf Irish -as


-as as
verb -forming suffix
e.g. lluddias (= prevent), from (lludd = obstacle) + (-i-as)


asado a-sa-do masculine noun
PLURAL asados a-sa-dos
(Patagonia) asado = meal in which beef is roasted over a fire

ETYMOLOGY: Argentinian Castilian asado (= barbecue; steak), past participle of asar (= to roast)


asb asp feminine noun
PLURAL asbiaid asp-yed
asp, a poisonous snake that was the symbol of the power of Egyptian pharoahs, probably the horned viper Cerastes cornutus

Biblical asp, a poisonous serpent, probably Naja haje

Eseia 11: 7 Y fuwch hefyd ar arth a borant ynghyd; eu llydnod a gydorweddant; y llew, fel yr ych, a bawr wellt (11:8) Ar plentyn sugno a chwery wrth dwll yr asb; ac ar ffau y wiber yr estyn yr hwn a ddiddyfnwyd ei law
Isaiah 11: 7 And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. (11:8) And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice den.

ETYMOLOGY: English asp < Latin < Greek aspis


asbestos a- sbe-stos masculine noun

ETYMOLOGY: English asbestos < Latin asbestos < Greek asbestos that cannot be extinguished (referring to a supposed stone that gave off constant heat)
(a- negative suffix) + (sbestos = extinguished) < (sbennunai = extinguish)


asbestosis a-spe-sto-sis masculine noun
asbestosis, lung disease caused by the inhalation of asbestos dust

ETYMOLOGY: English asbestosis < Greek (asbest(os)) + (-osis suffix indicating a disease)


asbri a -spri masculine noun
animation, vivacity, energy, verve, joie de vivre
Erbyn hyn nid oedd yr un asbri yn y canu
By now the singing was not as animated (there was not the same animation in the singing)

Daeth y 60au ag asbri gwrthryfel i blith ieuenctid Cymru
The 60s brought the spirit of revolt to the youth of Wales

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh asbri < (possibly) French esprit {espr} (= spirit) < esperit < Latin spritus (= breath), as in sprre (= to breathe)


asbrin a -sprin masculine noun
PLURAL asbrins a -sprins
aspirin = acetyl-salicylic acid
an aspirin tablet

ETYMOLOGY: English aspirin < German a + spir + in
(a = first letter of acetyl) + (spir from Spirsure = spiraeic acid, nowadays known as salicylic acid) + (-in suffix to indicate a pharmaceutical substance)


ASE aa-es-ee
Aelod Seneddol Ewropeaidd MPE = European Member of Parliament


ased a -sed masculine noun
PLURAL asedau a- se -de
asset = capital of a company

asset = useful quality, quality which can be developed or made profitable
Maer agwedd gymunedol yn ein pentrefi yn ased y dylid ei ddatblygu
The community-minded ethos in our villages is an asset which should be developed

ETYMOLOGY: English asset, singular form from supposing that assets was a plural noun, though in fact it was from Old French asez (modern French assez) (= enough).
Assets was enough (money to be able to pay ones debts), ultimately from Latin ad (= to, up to) + (satis = sufficient)


asen, PLURAL: asennau A sen, a SE ne feminine noun


asen a -sen feminine noun
PLURAL asennod a- se -nod

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh asen < British < Latin asina
from the same British root: Cornish asen (= ass), Breton asen (= ass)


asffaltio as-falt-yo verb
to asphalt

ETYMOLOGY: (asffalt = asphalt) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)


asgell, PLURAL: esgyll A skelh, E skilh feminine noun


asgell-gomander a- skell -go-man-der (m)
PLURAL asgell-gomanderiaid a- skelh go-man-der-yed
1 asgell-gomander wing commander

ETYMOLOGY: (asgell = wing) + soft mutation + (comander = commander)


asgellaid as- ge -lhed feminine noun
PLURAL asgelleidiau as-ge-lheid-ye
(obsolete) (Welsh Laws) swarm of bees on the wing

ETYMOLOGY: asgellaid < asgll-haid (asgell = wing) + (haid = swarm)
NOTE: for examples of h lost in compounds, see h


asgellog a- ske lhog adjective

y cr asgellog the woodland choir, choir of birds (the winged choir)

y teulu asgellog the winged family, the feathered creatures, the birds
Mae yr eryr, brenin y teulu asgellog, yno yn dra lluosog
The eagle, king of the feathered creatures, is there in great abundance
Hanes Mordaith o Amgylch Y Ddaear, 1852

creaduriaid asgellog winged creatures, feathered creatures, birds

2 cadair asgellog wing chair

3 nyten asgellog wingnut

ETYMOLOGY: (asgell = wing) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives)


asgwrn, PLURAL: esgyrn A skurn, E skirn masculine noun

asgwrn yn ei wddf A bone lodged in his throat

2 gweithioch bysedd at yr asgwrn work your fingers to the bone

3 sych fel asgwrn dry as a bone

Ni thorrir asgwrn gan air caled harsh (hard) words break no bones (a bone is not broken by a hard word)

(dog) snarl; bare its teeth in anger
< esgyrnu < (esgyrn = bones, plural of asgwrn = bone) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)

6 asgwrn clun, plural esgyrn cluniau hipbone

7 fel ci wrth yr asgwrn vel kii urth ər a-skurn (like a dog attached to the bone) not giving something up easily, not allowing something to be taken away; hanging onto something for dear life


asgwrn boch, PLURAL: esgyrn bochau a skurn BOOKH, e skirn BO khe masculine noun
jaw bone


asgwrn cefn A skurn KE ven masculine noun
backbone, spine


asgwrn clun, PLURAL: esgyrn cluniau a skurn KLIIN, e skirn KLIN ye masculine noun
hip bone


asgwrn morddwyd, PLURAL: esgyrn morddwydydd a skurn MOR dhuid, e skirn mor DHUI didh masculine noun
thigh bone


asgwrn y gynnen a-kurn ə -nen masculine noun
bone of contention, root of a problem, cause of a problem; matter in dispute (the image is from two dogs fighting over a bone)

Maer cymdogion yn ffraeo i gilydd ers blwyddyn. Arian yw asgwrn y gynnen
The neighbours have been arguing with each other for a year. Money is the root of the problem

2 claddu asgwrn y gynnen bury the hatchet, make ones peace (bury the bone of contention / (the) bone (of) the dispute)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) bone (of) the dispute)
(asgwrn = bone) + (y = the) + soft mutation + (cynnen = dispute)


asgwrn yn eich cefn a- skurn ən əch ke-ven
(said of a lazy person) - Mae asgwrn yn ei gefn = Hes bone idle (theres a bone in his back). Compare the equivalent phrase in Catalan t un os molt gros a lesquena he has a very big bone in his back


Asia AS ya feminine noun


asiantwr teithio a SHAN tur TEITH yo masculine noun
travel agent


asidedd a- sii-dedh masculine noun
1 acidity

ETYMOLOGY: (asid = acid) + (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)


asidrwydd a- sid-ruidh masculine noun
1 acidity

ETYMOLOGY: (asid = acid) + (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)


+ast Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See gast =


astell, PLURAL: estyll / astellod A stelh, E stilh/a STE lhod feminine noun


astrus A stris adjective


astud A stid adjective

yn astud attentively = listening carefully;

gwrando yn astud listen carefully

Erbyn hyn ro'dd holl gwsmeried y dafarn yn gwrando'n astud ar Twm Sami'n canu (Hiwmor y Glwr / Edgar ap Lewys / 1977 / t34)
By now all the drinkers in the pub were listening carefully to Twm Sami singing

gwrandon astud am achlust keep your ear close to the ground, listen out for any rumours


astudio a STID yo verb
to study


aswy a -sui adjective

(feminine noun) left

ar yr aswy on the left, on the left-hand side
ar yr aswy (i rywbeth) on the left of something

Gadawn Gynon i lawr ar ein haswy, fel sarff wedi ei halogi ei hun yn llwch y glo y Dyffryn
Llanwynno / (1888 / 1949) / Glanffrwd (William Thomas 1843-1890) tudalen 19
We leave the river Cynon down on our left, like a serpent which has dirtied itself in the coal dust of the valley

ETYMOLOGY: British < Celtic ad-sowio-, related to Sanskrit savy (= left)

NOTE: This was in general use in south-east Wales until the 1900s. The colloquial form was eisia


asyn, PLURAL: asynnod A sin, a SƏ nod masculine noun


at AT (preposition)

compared to, in comparison with
Does yr un ato Theres nobody who can measure up to him, theres no one equal to him (there is nobody to(wards) him)

3 cael eich cefn atoch recover after an illness (get your back to you)

4 bod ch cefn at (house) back onto
Maer ty i gefn at y parc The house backs onto the park

5 to (referring to people; not i (also = to), but implies into)
mynd at y meddyg to go to the doctors, to visit the doctor
anfon llythyr at rywun send somebody a letter

dod atoch eich hun come round, regain conscousness

7 cofio (rhywun) at (rywun)
greet somebody on behalf of somebody, say hello to somebody for somebody
Cofiwch fi yn garedig ato Give him my kind regards

taflu at throw at
taflu pob cyhuddiad at throw the book at (throw every accusation at)

denu at attract to, draw to
bod wedi eich denu at rywbeth ar eich gwaetha be irresistibly attracted to something / drawn to soemthing (be after your attracting towards something on your worst)

10 cael digon at eich treuliau cover your expenses

11 as far as, up to
bod at eich clustiau mewn gwaith be up to ones eyes in work (be to your ears in work)

at eich galwad at your service
at eich gwasanaeth at your service

taflu at throw at
taflu pob cyhuddiad at throw the book at (throw every accusation at)

parch at... respect for
Does ganddo ddim parch at neb He has no respect for anybody

rhuthro at (rywun) charge at (someone)

mynd at
go go to = go as far as (an object); go to visit (a person); go and live with

mynd at y drws go to the door

mynd at y cownter go up to the counter

mynd at y ffenest go up to the window

mynd at y bedd go to the grave

at lan y bedd to the graveside

mynd at gwmni join a company, go to work for a company

aeth at y Methodistiaid i Ben-llys she joined the Methodists, became a member of the Methodist church, in Pen-llys

wedyn aeth at gwmni Puw ai Fab
after he went to work for the company of Puw and Son

mynd at y meddyg go to the doctors

mynd at y deintydd go to the dentist

mynd at yr heddlu go to the police

mynd at ei daid go over to his grandfather; go to live with his grandfather

mynd at ei waredwr (Christianity) die (go to his saviour)

mynd yn l at ei wraig ai blant go back to his wife and his children

anfon llythyr at send a letter to

arwain rhywun yn l at lead sombeody back to

anfon (rhywun) at send someone to

dod at
come to

cyfeirio at
refer to

ychwanegu at
add to

anelu at
aim at

ymestyn at
extend to

cyrchu at
make for, head for

ysgrifennu at
write to

dychwelyd at
return to

dod yn l at
return to

rhyfeddu at
marvel at, wonder at

agosu at
approach, draw near to

dynesu at
approach, draw near to

cofio rhywun at
gives someones regards / send someones regards, best wishes, to

synnu at
be surprised at

edrych ymlen at
look gorward to

taflu (rhywbeth) at
throw (something) at

rhuthro at
rush towards

mynd at grefydd begin to take part in religious activities

Ganwyd ef yn y flwyddyn 1800 ac aeth at grefydd yn 1825

He was born in the year 1800 and he began to be involved in religious activities in 1825


1 abbreviation (as a field label in a dictionary) = Atodiad appendix


atal A tal verb
to prevent
y Gymdeithas er Atal... the Society / Association for the Prevention of...

Y Gymdeithas er Atal Arteithio The Association for the Prevention of Torture

Y Gymdeithas er Atal Creulondeb i Blant The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children

Y Gymdeithas er Atal Damweiniau The Society for the Prevention of Accidents

Y Gymdeithas er Atal Camddefnyddio Toddyddion The Society for the Prevention of Misuse of Solvents

Y Gymdeithas er Atal Creulondeb i Anifeiliaid The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

Cymdeithas er Atal Troseddu Cwm Cynon Cynon Valley Crime Prevention Association.

atal y cyflenwad dŵr cut off the water supply

strimyn atal tn firebreak (strip (of) stopping fire)


abbreviation (in a dictionary entry) = atblygol reflexive
(berf atblygol = reflexive verb)


atblygol at- blə -gol adjective
reflexive, reflex = automatic
berf atblygol reflexive verb

2 Abbreviation (in a dictionary entry): atbl.

ETYMOLOGY: (atblyg- stem of atblygu = fold back) + (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)


ateb A teb verb
to answer

ateb cwestiwn to answer a question
ateb na plaen
answer with a clear no

ateb yn fyrfyfyr answer off hand, off the top of your head

2 ateb y ffn to answer the phone

ateb yn l to answer back
ateb (rhywun) yn l to answer (somebody) back

4 answer = write a response, reply, answer
ateb llythyr to answer a letter


ateb, PLURAL: atebion A teb, a TEB yon masculine noun
Chymer hi ddim na yn ateb She wont take no for an answer

reply, answer (to a question)

Beth sydd gennych yn ateb? Whats your answer? (what is with you / what have you got as an answer)
ateb parod reply made in a flash, instant reply, instant rejoinder
parod ei ateb quick to answer back; too ready to answer back


atebol a- tee -bol adjective
(North Wales tebol. with the loss of the pretonic syllable)
responsible, answerable

able, capable

tebol (m), debol (f) capable of hard work, able-bodied, up to the task
Mae hi'n hogan debol iawn She's a girl capable of hard work

(health) in good shape, well
-Sut mae o? -Maen tebol How is he? Hes all right

Dydi o ddim yn tebol iawn Hes in a bad way

ETYMOLOGY: (ateb = to answer ) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


ategu a TEE gi verb
to prop up


atgas AT gas adjective
llygadrythu ar rywun yn atgas give somebody a nasty stare (stare on somebody nastily)


atgeisio at- gei -sho verb
1 to seek again

Corinthiaid-1 7:18 A alwyd neb wedi ei enwaedu? nac adgeisied ddienwaediad. A alwyd neb mewn dienweidiad? nac enwaeder arno. (let not him seek again uncircumcision)
Corinthians-1 7:18 Is any man called being circumcised? let him not become uncircumcised. Is any called in uncircumcision? let him not be circumcised

2 (information) retrieve = to bring (something) out of storage
Nid chodir tl am wybodaeth, onibai fod y costau atgeisio ac ymchwil yn sylweddol
There is no charge for information, unless the retrieval and research costs are significant

ETYMOLOGY: atgenhedlu < ad-genhedlu (ad- = re-, again) + soft mutation + (ceisio = search, try)


atgenhedlu at-ge- nhed -li verb
1 regenerate

ETYMOLOGY: atgenhedlu < ad-genhedlu (ad- = re-, again) + soft mutation + (cenhedlu = procreate, generate)


atgoffa at GOO fa verb
to remind
atgoffa (rhywun) am (rywbeth) remind somebody about something

atgofion at GOV yon plural noun
memories, reminiscences


atgyfnerthol at gəv NER thol adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (atgyfnerth-, stem of the verb atgyfnerthu = strengthen) + (-ol adjectival suffix)

atgyfodiad at-gə- vod -yad masculine noun
PLURAL atgyfodiadau at-gə-vod-YAA--de
Christianity resurrection;
Atgyfodiad Iesu Grist = the Resurrection of Jesus Christ

Christianity Yr Atgyfodiad The Resurrection, the return to life of all dead people on the day of the Final Judgement

resurrection = reappearance of something which had come to an end (magazine, TV programmes, etc)

ETYMOLOGY: (atgyfod-, stem of the verb atgyfodi = resuscitate) + (-i-ad suffix)


atgynhyrchiad, PLURAL: atgynhyrchiadau at gən HƏRKH yad, at gən hərkh YAA de masculine noun
atgynhyrchiad rhywiol sexual reproduction

ETYMOLOGY: (atgynhyrch-i, stem of the verb atgynhyrchu = reproduce) + (-ad suffix for forming nouns)

atgynhyrchu at gə NHƏR khi verb
to reproduce


atgyweiriad at gə-weir-yad masculine noun
PLURAL atgyweiriadau at-gə-weir-yaa-de
repair, restoration

ETYMOLOGY: (atgyweir-i, stem of the verb atgyweirio = repair, restore) + (-ad suffix for forming nouns)


atgyweirio at gə-weir-yo verb
restore, repair, recondition, do up

trwsio offer gwaith ac atgyweirio troliau
to repair work tools and to repair carts

atgyweirio tŷ do up a house (USA: fix up a house); restore a house

Atgyweirio Pont (road sign) Bridge Repairs (repairing (of a) bridge)

ETYMOLOGY: (ad- = re-) + soft mutation + (cyweirio = to repair); ad-gyweirio > atgyweirio


ath aath
1 southern form of aeth (= he / she / it went)
Usually spelt (less correctly) th
See aa / aath


abbreviation (as a field label in a dictionary) Athroniaeth philosophy


athrawes, PLURAL: athrawesau a THRAU es, a thrau E se feminine noun
teacher (female)


a- THREIL -yol adjective
which wears away by friction

which weakens or exhausts
rhyfel athreuliol war of attrition

ETYMOLOGY: (athreuli- stem of athreulio = reduce by attrition ) + (-ol, suffix for forming adjectives)


athro, PLURAL: athrawon A thro, a THRAU on masculine noun
teacher (male)

Gwell nag athro yw arfer Practice makes perfect ((it-is) better than a-teacher that-is practice)
(gwell = better) + (nag = than) + (athro = teacher) + (yw = that-is) + (arfer = practice)

cymdeithas rieni ac athrawon PLURAL cymdeithasau rhieni ac athrawon parent-teacher association


athrod a -throd masculine noun
slander, libel, defamation
achos athrod rhwng dau feddyg a case of slander between two doctors

2 athrotgar slanderous
athrotgar < athrd-gar (athrod = slander, libel, defamation) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, meaning fond of, cf caru = to love)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh athrod < *athrawd < *athrawdd (athr- = prefix) + soft mutation + (rhawdd- speaking)


athrodi a-throo-di verb
defame, slander, libel, backbite
athrodi dyn yn ei gefn talk badly of someone behind his back

ETYMOLOGY: (athrod = slander) + (-i suffix for forming verbs)


athrodwr a-throo-dur masculine noun
PLURAL athrodwyr a-throd-wir
slanderer, libeller


Diarhebion 11:13 Yr hwn a rodia yn athrodwr, a ddatguddia gyfrinach: ond y ffyddlon ei galon a gela y peth.
Proverbs 11:13 A talebearer revealeth secrets: but he that is of a faithful spirit concealeth the matter.

ETYMOLOGY: (athrod = slander) + (-wr suffix = man)


athrofa a- throo -va feminine noun
PLURAL athrofydd a-thro-veidh
college, academy
Athrofa Trefeca the Methodist college at Trefeca (county of Powys)

ETYMOLOGY: (athro = teacher, tutor) + (-fa, suffix = place)


athrofaol a-thro- va -ol adjective
belonging to a college
ysbyty athrofaol teaching hospital
Ysbyty Athrofaol Cymru University Teaching Hospital of Wales

ETYMOLOGY: (athrofa = college, institute) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


athroniaeth a THRON yeth (feminine noun)
Abbreviation (as a field label in a dictionary): Athr.

2 (Christianity) Athrawiaeth yr Iawn The Doctrine of Atonement, reconciliation of man with God through sacrificial death of Christ, who has taken on the sins of man and has died our death for us


athrotgar a- throt -gar adj
1 slanderous

ETYMOLOGY: athrotgar < athrd-gar (athrod = slander, libel, defamation) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, meaning fond of, cf caru = to love)


athrylith, PLURAL: athrylithoedd a THRƏ lith, a thrə LII thodh (masculine or feminine noun)


athrywyn a- thrə -win masculine noun
(obsolete) intervention

ETYMOLOGY: from the verb athrywyn (= to intervene)


athrywyn a-THRƏ-win verb
(obsolete) intervene

Diarhebion 18:18 Y coelbren a wna i gynhennau beidio, ac a athrywyn rhwng cedyrn.
Proverbs 18:18 The lot causeth contentions to cease, and parteth between the mighty.

..a/ Possibly Welsh < British < Latin *intrevenire < intervenire (= to intervene);
..b/ otherwise, if not from Latin, but rather Celtic > British origin, it corresponds to modern Welsh ythr (obsolete word = between; a cognate of Latin inter) + (unknown element)


athyn A-thin
tenacious; cohesive; pulling.

See the place name Bryn Athyn in section BR (via Google: kimkat1735e)

ETYMOLOGY: (a- intensifying suffix) + aspirate mutation + (tyn- / tynn- [tin] root of the verbnoun tynnu = pulling)

A spurious word which appeared in William Owen Pughes Dictionary of the Welsh Language - one of the most comprehensive dictionaries in any language for its date (c 1800, and reprinted in 1832). But many words in this dictionary, supposedly gleaned from the works of medieval poets and the spoken language, were invented forms.



(delwedd 7562)



ati a -ti
towards her third person feminine singular of the preposition at

mynd ati set to it
hwylio ati
set to it, start a task
mynd ati fel lladd nadroedd set to it with a vengeance (go to it like killing snakes)

dal ati stick at it, continue to do (something)

ac ati et cetera, and so on


atig, PLURAL: atigau A tig, a TII ge masculine noun attic

Paid chadw eich casgliad stampiau mewn seler, neu mewn atig heb eu inswleiddio
Dont keep your stamp collection in a cellar, or in an uninsulated attic


at i lawr at i LAUR prep phrase
facing downwards

Mewn rhai rhannau o'r byd gosodid y bedol 'i breichiau at i lawr. Credid fod hynny'n lwcus oherwydd fod y ffurf wedyn yn cynrhychioli'r nefoedd, y to sy'n gwarchod y Ddaear t14 Llafar Gwlad, Gwanwyn 1990, Rhif 27

In sojme parts of the world the horseshoe was placed with its arms facing downwards. It was believed that this was lucky because the shape then represented the heavens, the roof which protects the Earth


atodedig a-to-dee-dig adjective
(document) attached

ETYMOLOGY: (atod- stem of atodi = to attach) + (-edig suffix for forming a past participle adjective)


atodiad, PLURAL: atodiadau a TOD yad, a tod YAA de masculine noun
(book ) appendix
Abbreviation (in a dictionary entry): At.


atom, PLURAL: atomau A tom, a TO me masculine noun
to us


atomfa a-TOM-va masculine noun
PLURAL atomfydd a-tom-VEIDH
nuclear power station

Atomfar Wylfa the nuclear power station at Yr Wylfa (Ynys Mn)

ETYMOLOGY: atom place (atom = atom) + (-fa suffix = place)


atsain, PLURAL: atseiniau AT sain, at SEIN ye feminine noun


atseinio at SEIN yo verb
to echo, to reverberate


atsofl AT-sovl masculine noun
1 fallow; land with stubble

ETYMOLOGY: (ad- prefix) + (sofl = stubble)

NOTE: Common in field names in Ceredigion in the form asol

atsofl > atsol > asol


Ffostrasol (= Ffos Tir Atsofl)

Llannarth: Pantrasol (pant yr asol = hollow of the stubble field)


Through false division: yr asol > y rasol

Y Rasol (= Yr Asol) (the stubble)

Car Rasol (= Caer Asol) (the stubble field)



atyniad, PLURAL: atyniadau a TƏN yad, a tən YAA de masculine noun
atyniadau tref the sights in a town, a towns tourist attractions




(delwedd 7423)


-au AI plural suffix

1 An example of its use is: peth (= a thing), pethau (= things)


Colloquially over most of Wales (See map above) it is e (pethe)

In the north-west and the south-east it is a (petha)


The local pronunciation of Tafarnau-bach in Blaenau Gwent is Tafarna-bch.

Bach means little; but an unrelated word bach means hook.


Hence this entry in the 1912 edition The Place-names of Wales by Thomas Morgan (Skewen) (First edition 1887, revised and second edition 1912) (our comments in orange):


Tafarnau Bach. The ancient name of this place was Twyn-aber-dwynant, a hillock where two brooks embrace each other. Some derive the present name from tafarn a bach (= tarfan bach), a public house with a hook attached to the outer wall, whereto the rider, having dismounted his steed, could fasten it. Others derive it from the great number of small taverns in the place. (The second suggestion is the nore likely)

2 In certain place names on English maps, misspelt as ey

Trefnannau trev-NA-nai, -e village SJ2015 in Powys (as Trefnanney on the Ordnance Survey map). This is tref y nannau (the) trv (of) (the) streams
(tref = trv, farmstead) + (y definite article) + (nannau a plural form of nant = stream)
The usual plural of nant nowadays in nentydd


-u AI
plural suffix in nouns with a final a, to which au has been added as a pluraliser

copa (= head, top, peak), copu (= heads, tops, peaks)


aur AIR masculine noun

2 Nid aur popeth melyn All that glitters is not gold ((it is) not gold everything yellow)

3 helygen aur (Salix alba var. vitellina) golden willow

4 aur dilin fine gold
Aur dilin yw distawrwydd Silence is golden ((it-is) fine gold that-is silence)
Job 28:17 Nid aur a grisial ai cystadla hi; na llestr o aur dilin fydd gydwerth iddi
Job 28:17 The gold and the crystal cannot equal it: and the exchange of it shall not be for jewels of fine gold.

(Carrasius auratus) pysgodyn aur (m), pysgod aur goldfish
( pysgodyn = fish) + (aur = gold)

NOTE: South Wales retains our OIR, an older form of aur


Aurfron EIR vron feminine noun
womans name (more correctly Eurfron; from aur = gold, bron = breast)


aw > o -

This is a common reduction in Welsh

1 rarely in monosyllables
..1/ mawr (= big) > mor (= very, so); mor drwm (= so heavy)
pawb (pronoun: everybody) > pob (determiner: each, every)

2 sometimes in a penult syllable
..1/ awr (= hour), oriau (= hours)


..2/ cymrodedd (= compromise, agreement) < *cymrawdedd < *cymfrawdedd
(cym- = together) + soft mutation + (brawd = judgement, verdict) + (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)

..3/ llofrudd (= murderer)
llawf rudd
(llawf = hand) + soft mutation + (rhudd = red)
Originally llaw was llawf, but in modern Welsh this final f has disappeared
> *llawfrudd > llofrudd

..4/ llorio to floor somebody, to knock somebody to the floor or to the ground
*llawrio > llorio
(llawr = floor, ground) + (-i-o suffix per forming verbs)

..5/ pawr (= it browses), pori (= to browse)

..6/ tlawd (= poor), tlodi (= poverty), tlodion (= poor people)


3 in a final syllable - modern o in the final syllable is a reduction of the Middle Welsh diphthong -aw

..1/ Abrffraw > Y Berffro (name of a village in Mn)

..2/ Abrmaw > Y Bermo (name of a village in Gwynedd)

..3/ allawr > allor (= altar)

..4/ *athraw > athro (= male teacher) (cf. athrawes = woman teacher )

..5/ croesawu (= to welcome), *croesaw > croeso (= a welcome)

..6/ difrod (= danys) < difrawd; brawd (= judici)

difrod (modern Welsh) damage, destruction; (obsolete meaning) neglect of law, contempt of law; < difrawd (di- prefix = without) + soft mutation + (brawd = judgement, verdict) ETYMOLOGY: difrod

..7/ deffraw! > deffro! (wake up!)

..8/ gwrandaw! > gwrando! (listen!)

..9/ llawn (= full); suffix *-lawn > -lon (fyddlon = faithful)

..10/ pechawd > pechod (= sin)

..11/ Pen-y-clwdd > (shift of accent) Penclawdd > (loss of final dd) Penclaw > (reduction of aw) Penclo

Name of a village in Powys ((place) by the boundary ditch / frontier dyke)

But there are many words which retain aw
..1/ canllaw (= handrail, guide)
..2/ catrawd (= regiment)
..3/ yn ddirfawr (= severely)
..4/ distaw (= silent)
..5/ enfawr (= enormous)
..6/ pennawd (= heading)

4 in tonic syllable of derivative forms
sawdl (= heel) (m) > plural sodlau (= heels)
(= full), llonaid > llond (= fullness)
mawl (= praise) (m), moliant (= praise)


-awd aud suffix
In modern Welsh -awd > -od
Used in words referring to a stroke or blow.
.....(a) the suffix indicates the thing which delivers the blow (instrument, weapon, etc)
dyrnod < dyrnawd = blow with the fist, punch (dwrn = fist)
ffonnod < ffonnawd = blow with a stick (ffon = stick)
palfod < palfawd = slap with an open hand (palf = palm of the hand)

.....(b) the suffix indicates the site of the impact, the part of the body which receives the stroke or blow of a weapon
< anafawd = sore, ulcer (anaf = wound)
cernod < cernawd = blow to the side of the head, box on the ears (cern = cheekbone)
gwarrod < gwarrawd = blow or beating on the neck (gwar = back of the neck, back between the shoulders)

ETYMOLOGY: Celtic ty


awdl <AUDL> [aʊdl] feminine noun
PLURAL odlau <OD-lai, -le> ɔdlaɪ, -ɛ]
Welsh poetic form - alliterative, combining different metres
awdl arobryn prize-winning poem, winning poem (alliterative, in different metres)

A reduced form of the word awdl is odl = rhyme.
Derived forms: (1) odli = to rhyme, (2) unodl (poem) with all lines having the same rhyme

ETYMOLOGY: (awd) + (extraneous -l) possibly in imitation of the word sawdl (= sole of the foot).
Awd < British *d < Latin da < Greek id < aoid (= song).

NOTE: Another word with a non-etymological l is corwgl (= coracle) < corwg


awdur, PLURAL: awduron <AU-dir, au-DII-ron> [ˡaʊdɪr, aʊˡdiˑrɔn] masculine noun


awdurdod, PLURAL: awdurdodau <au-DIR-dod, au-dir-DOO-dai, -de> [aʊˡdɪrdɔd, aʊdɪrˡdoˑdaɪ, -ɛ] masculine noun


awdurdod addysg lleol <au-DIR-dod AA-dhisk LHEE-ol> [aʊˡdɪrdɔd ˡɑˑɪsk ˡɬeˑɔl] masculine noun
local education authority, school board


awel <AU-el> ɛl] femenine noun
PLURAL awelon <au-EE-lon> [aʊˡlɔn]
awel o wynt gust of wind

awel groes an ill wind

Maer awel yn fain y mis ma. Mawrth a ladd, Ebrill a fling.
The wind is keen this month. March kills, April flays.

awel gyntaf y Gwanwyn
the first breath of Spring

breeze = light wind
awelyn (county of Ceredigion) slight breeze
awelig slight breeze
awel win pleasant breeze (breeze (of) wine)
yn awel yr hwyr in the cool of the evening

common in house names:
Awel-deg <AU-el DEEG> ɛl ˡdeːg] (fair wind),

Awelfa (windy place) <au-EL-va> [aʊˡelva]

Awelfor (sea breeze) <au-EL-vor> [aʊˡelvɔr]

Awelfryn (windy hill) <au-EL-vrin> [aʊˡelvrɪn]

Awelmenai / Awel Menai (Menai breeze, breeze off the Menai Strait) <AU-el ME-nai> ɛl ˡmeˑnaɪ]

Awelon (breezes) <au-EE-lon> [aʊˡlɔn]

Aweltywi (Tywi breeze, breeze off the river Tywi) <AU-el TƏ-wi> ɛl ˡtəwɪ]

Awel-y-fan (breeze from the hill / peak) <AU-el ə VAN> ɛl ə ˡvan]

Awelymynydd (mountain breeze) <AU-el ə MƏ-nidh> ɛl ə ˡmənɪ]

Awel-y-don (sea breeze) <AU-el ə DON> ɛl ə ˡdɔn]

Brynawelon (windy hill) <brin au-EE-lon> [brɪn aʊˡlɔn]

Brynyrawel (hill of the breeze / wind) <BRIN ər AU-el> [ˡbrɪn ər ˡɛl]

Crud yr Awel / Crudyrawel <KRIID ər AU-el> [ˡkriːd ər ˡɛl]

((the) sound / voice (of) the wind) house name and street name
((the) cradle (of) the breeze)
(crud = cradle) + (yr = the) + (awel = breeze)

Llais yr Awel / Llaisyrawel ((the) sound / voice (of) the wind) house name <HLAIS ər AU-el> ɬaɪs ər ˡɛl]

(county of Ceredigion) erysipelas, Saint Anthonys Fire infection of the skin, with purplish lesions on the face

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *awel-
From the same British root: Cornish awel (= wind, gale, weather), Breton avel (= wind)
From a PIE root *h2euh1

Cf Greek Aeolos (= god of the winds), Greek aella (= storm)
Cf English wind, German der Wind [vint] (= wind)

< Proto-Indo-Eueopean *h2ueh1-nto-


Awel <AU-el> ɛl] femenine noun
womans name

ETYMOLOGY: breeze - see preceding entry


awen, PLURAL: awenau