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7000_kimkat1676e.jpgI, J, K









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di- 1 dii prefix

intensifier (+ soft mutation); complete, extreme

..1/ diben (= objective). This is (di-, intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (pen = head)

..2/ dihenydd (= death, execution ) < dien (= death). This is (di-, intensifying prefix) + (*hen = death), probably from a Celtic element *sen (= to end, to kill)

..3/ dinoethi (= bare, denude, expose, strip bare) < noethi (= make bare)

..4/ dioddef (= suffer), This is (di-, intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (goddef = suffer)

..5/ disyml (= unaffected, simple, plain, honest, innocent) < syml (= simple)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh di < British *d < Celtic *d
From the same Indoeuropean root: Latin d (preposition = away from), used also as a prefix (= indicating separation), Catalan / Occitan / French / Castilian, etc de (= from)


di- 2
dii prefix
privative prefix (+ soft mutation), without.

Used in forming adjectives.

Corresponds to English prefixes dis-, un-, in-, etc or the suffix -less

..1/ diarfog (= unarmed) (arfog = armed, arf = arm, weapon)

..2/ diddoli (= separate, segregate, set apart, isolate). This is from (diddawl) + (-i, verb ending); diddawl is (di- privative prefix) + soft mutation + (a now obsolete element dawl = portion)

..3/ digyfalaf without capital (cyfalaf = capital). This is (di- privative prefix) + soft mutation + (cyfalaf = capital)

a/ monosyllables: older forms have the stress on the prefix di
diflas (= boring)

Newer compounds have the stress on the second element
di-flas (= having no taste, insipid)

b/ the prefix di can occur before expressions of more than one word:
di-alw-amdano (= uncalled for)

c/ in some cases with initial g there is no mutation (words which are late borrowings from English)
di-gs (= clueless)

ETYMOLOGY: the same origin as the intensifying prefix di-, with a change of sense > 'without'


clipped form of the preposition wedi which may occur when wedi is used to form a past tense
Wyt ti di gorffen / I ti di gorffen? (= Wyt ti wedi gorffen?) Have you finished?

NOTE: This loss of the accented first syllable in two-syllable word is not unusual in Welsh. Other examples abound; a couple are
(1) yma
ə -ma (= here) > ma
(2) acw
a -ku (= there) > cw


di- a -bred adjective
withheld, held back, refused, denied

2 In the north of the county of Powys, between Caer-sŵs and Llandinam, there is land originally called Rhos Ddiabred (literally moor which has been held back / withheld, apparently referring to ownership).

Nowadays the name is Rhos Ddiarbed (ceaseless moor, the result of confusion with the word diarbed = ceaseless, relentless, unrelenting)


(delw (delwedd 7488)


ETYMOLOGY: (di-, negative prefix) + (abred = release)


diacon, diaconiaid
di-A-kon, di-a-KON-yed (masculine noun)
deacon - lay official of a non-Conformist church


di-a-dhirn adjective
without ornamentation, unadorned, plain, simple, austere, unostentatious
Capel digon diaddurn yw Soar y Mynydd
Soar y Mynydd is quite a simple chapel

Gwnaethant Gwm Rhondda yn anialwch, a bryniau Ffestiniog yn ddiaddurn
They turned the Rhondda valley into a desert and made the hills of Ffestiniog ugly

(language) plain, simple, not ornate

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = privative suffix) + soft mutation + (addurn = decoration)


di-AA-delh feminine noun
PLURAL diadellau, diadelloedd
di-a-DE-lhai, -e, -oidh, -odh
diadell o ddefaid a flock of sheep

Mae llwdn du ym mhob diadell
Theres a black sheep in every flock (= in every good family theres somebody who is unlike the rest, someone who is disreputable)

flock = people under the spiritual care of the pastor of a church

ETYMOLOGY: diadell, possibly from *dyadell, which would be
(dyad-, stem of dyadu, dyadael = to let go / release; to drive animals) + (-ell suffix for forming nouns);

dyadu = (dy- = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (gadu = leave, permit)


di-AD-ver adjective

Nid gwiw wylo am yr hyn sydd ddiadfer
Its no use crying over spilt milk
(It-is-not profitable crying for the thing which-is irrecuperable, it is useless to cry over what cannot be restored)

ETYMOLOGY: (di- privative prefix, without) + (adfer = to recover, to restore)


di- ad -lam adjective
without a rebound

(gun) recoilless, not jumping back on being fired
reiffl ddiadlam recoilless rifle

(wall) that cannot be crossed over again to return to the other side; a river Rubicon

gwal ddiadlam / wal ddiadlam wall which you cannot climb back over (a no leaping back wall, a rebound-less wall)
mur diadlam wall which you cannot climb back over; (loosely) insurmountable
cyrraedd mur diadlam come up against a great obstacle which once overcome allows no turning back; come up against an insurmountable obstacle

Daeth o'r diwedd at Nant Gwrtheyrn, yr hwn gwm sydd wedi ei furiaw o gwmpas wal ddiadlam o greigiau ysgrynyglyd (Cilmin Droettu, Y Brython 1859 tudalen / page 428)
At last he came to Nant Gwrthyrn, which valley is walled around with a wall of sharp rocks which once crossed over there is no return.

Maer wl fawr ddiadlam gylch ogylch Gehenna

Eben Fardd / Yr Adgyfodiad / Y Traethodydd / 1851 tudalen / page 27
The great irremeable (affording no possibily of return) wall around Gehenna

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = private prefix, without, -less) + (adlam = recoil, leap)


di-AA-vol masculine noun
PLURAL diefyl
y diafol yn gweld bai ar bechod Satan rebuking sin, the devil denouncing evil (the devil seeing defect on sin), doing something completely out of character

ETYMOLOGY: Diafol is a literary form. Modern spoken Welsh has diawl which is in fact the more genuine form, and the precursor of diafol

Latin DIABOLUS > British *DIAB'L-OS > Welsh DIAFL > DIAWL
The change
v > w occurs sporadically in Welsh after A / O

standard TAFLU = throw > southern dialect TOWLU,
standard EOFN = bold > southern dialect EWN,
standard YSGAFN = light, weighing little > southern dialect YSGAWN

The plural form is from the Latin plural DIABOLI > British *DIAB'L-I > Welsh DIEFL > DIEFYL

A variant singular foem emerged. The consonant
v , retained in the plural form, then influenced the singular form, and was inserted at the beginning of the final syllable: DIAWL (one syllable) > DIA FWL (two syllables)

This latter form diafwl was altered by the translator of the New Testament (1588) into Welsh, William Salesbury, who replaced the w with an o (diafol) to Latinise the word and bring it closer to the source word diabolus (= devil)

See the entry diawl


DYAIN (mf)
altered form of diawl (= devil) used in mild oaths
myn diain i! blimey!

diain i! blimey!


DII-al (masculine noun)
dwyn dial (ar rywun) (am rywbeth) take revenge (on somebody) (for something), revenge oneself (on somebody) (for something)

2 torrich trwyn i ddial ar eich wyneb
to cut off your nose to spite your face
(cut off your nose to get-revenge on your face)
= to seize an opportunity to do something which will harm your rival / adversary / enemy even though it causes yourself a great deal of harm too


di-AA-ledh (m)
PLURAL diaddelion


1 vengeance, act of revenge, act of retribution

lladd (rhywun) mewn dialedd

kill (somebody) in revenge, kill (somebody) out of revenge


3 (North Wales) enormous amount, immense quantity, huge amount

bod (rhywbeth) yn ddialedd gan... to have an enormous amount of (to be as an enormous amount with)

bod peth ddialedd o (rywbeth) gan... to have an enormous amount of, to have loads of (to be an enormous amount of something with)
cael daledd o receive an enormous quantity of

Mae nhw'n cael dialedd o bethe gan eu rhieni They get a load of things from their parents

4 (Bible) plague, disease

Jeremeia 19:8 A mi a wnaf y ddinas hon yn anghyfannedd, ac yn ffiaidd, pob un a elo heibio iddi a synna ac a chwibana, oherwydd ei holl ddialeddau hi.
Jeremiah 19:8 And I will make this city desolate, and an hissing; every one that passeth thereby shall be astonished and hiss because of all the plagues thereof.


ETYMOLOGY: (dial = revenge, act of revenge) + (-edd noun suffix)

di-a-MƏ-nedh (adjective)

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = without) + (amynedd = patience)

dianaf (diana)
di-AA-nav, di-AA-na adjective
unhurt, uninjured, intact
iach ddianaf safe and sound
difai dianaf safe and sound

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = without) + (anaf = injury)


DI-angk (verb)
to escape
dianc o Glwyd a boddi ar Gonwy
go from the frying pan into the fire
(escape from (drowning in) (the river) Clwyd and drown on (= while crossing) (the river) Conwy)

dianc rhag escape from
dianc rhag popeth get away from it all (escape from everything)

Nid oes dianc rhag y mewnlifiad Saesneg
There's no escaping the English immigration

Treth Cerbyd. Does dim dianc rhagddi
Vehicle tax. Theres no escaping it.


di-a-ngen adjective
codi trethi newydd a diangen ar Gymru gyfan
impose (raise) new and unnecessary taxes on the whole of Wales

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = without) + (angen = necessity, need)


plural of dihangfa (qv) (= escape)


di-a-nghen-raid adjective
unneeded, unnecessary
Yr oedd yr ystafell fel newydd bron, popeth dianghenrhaid wedi cael ei symud
The room was almost like new, everything unnecessary had been removed

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = without) + (anghenraid = necessity, need)


di-an-WAA-dal adjective
steadfast, firm, unshakeable, unwavering, resolute

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = negative prefix) + (anwadal = unstable).


di-an-wa-DAA-lukh masculine noun
steadfastness, resolution

ETYMOLOGY: (dianwadal = resolute) + (-wch = suffix for forming nouns).


DII-ar masculine noun
steadfastness, resolution

ETYMOLOGY: (dianwadal = resolute) + (-wch = suffix for forming nouns).



diar DII-ar
1 used in interjections; replaces the name Duw (= God)


See dier

di- ar -bed adjective
ceaseless, relentless, unrelenting, unstinting
llafurio yn ddiarbed dros (rywbeth) work / toil relentlessly for (something)
rhyfel diarbed total war, all-out war

gwarion ddiarbed spare no expense (spend ceaselessly)

In the north of the county of Powys, between Caer-sŵs and Llandinam, there is land originally called Rhos Ddiabred (literally moor which has been held back, apparently referring to ownership).


(delw (delwedd 7488)


Nowadays the name is Rhos Ddiarbed (the result of confusion with the word diarbed = ceaseless, relentless, unrelenting)

ETYMOLOGY: (di-, negative prefix) + (arbed = to save)


di-ar-khen adjective
obsolete barefoot
obsolete (horses, cattle) unshod

ETYMOLOGY: (di-, negative prefix) + (archen = shoe) < British
From the same British root: Breton diarchen (= barefoot)


di-ar-khweth adjective
without appetite
diarchwaeth at fwyd with no desire for food ("without appetite for food")

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = without) + (archwaeth = appetite)


..1 diarddel
di-ar-dhel verb
repudiate, disown
Yr oedd rhai or farn fod y peth gorau i wneud or geiriau tafodieithol oedd eu diarddel a mabwysiadu iaith safonol yn eu lle
Some were of the opinion that the best thing with dialect words was to disown them, and adopt a standard language in their place

2 expel = terminate the membership of a member of a political party
Cafodd ei ddiarddel or Blaid Lafur
He was expelled from the Labour Party

3 expel = terminate the membership of a member of a non-conformist denomination (Calvanistic Methodists, Wesleyan Methodists, Baptists, Congregationalists)

4 disqualify = make inelegible, to deprive of the right (to do something)
(in advertisements for vacant posts, usually for work with a local authority, such as teaching, the phrase bydd canfasio yn diarddel is sometimes seen - canvassing will lead to disqualification - that is, any applicant who solicits the support of individual members of the selection committee will not be considered for the post)

5 (job) dismiss, expel
Fei diard
yd oi swydd fel prifathro

He was expelled from his job as headmaster

6 (school) diarddel to expel = terminally prohibit from attending school for problems of behaviour, etc

diarddel dros dro suspend = to forbid from attending classes temporarily as a punishment

Mae chwech o ddisgyblion Ysgol Uwchradd Dyffryn Teifi yn Llandysul wedi cael eu diarddel dros dro
Six pupils from the Dyffryn Teifi High School in Llandysul have been suspended

ETYMOLOGY: diarddel < diarddelw (di-, negative prefix) + (arddelw (verb) = to recognise, acknowledge, defend).

See the entry w for many other cases of the loss of the final -w (ofnadw > ofnadw, etc)


..2 diarddel
di-ar-dhel adjective
PLURAL diarddelion
unclaimed, without an owner, claimed by nobody

diarddelion unclaimed property

llwdn diarddel unclaimed stray animal

llythyr diarddel dead letter = uncollected letter, letter undelivered because the addressee cannot be found

sl diarddelion sale of unclaimed property

swyddfa lythyron diarddel dead-letter office

2 tir diarddel escheat
(1) (feudalism) land which reverts to the feudal lord,
(2) land which went to the Crown in the absence of heirs (until a change in English law in 1926)

ETYMOLOGY: diarddel < diarddelw (di-, negative prefix) + (arddelw (noun) = title of ownership)

NOTE: South Wales: diarddelion > diarddelon
di-ar-dhe-lon ; the loss of the consonant i at the beginning of the final syllable is typical of the speech of the south


di-ar-dhel-yad masculine noun
PLURAL diarddeliadau
expulsion (from school, etc)

ETYMOLOGY: (diarddel = expel) + (-iad suffix for forming nouns)


di-ar-gə-hoidh adjective
blameless, irrepproachable

Luc 1:6 Ac yr oeddynt ill dau yn gyfiawn gerbron Duw, yn rhodio yn holl orchmynion a deddfaur Arglwydd yn ddiargyhoedd
Luke 1:6 And they were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless

Corinthiad-1 1:8 Yr hwn hefyd ach cadarnha chwi hyd y diwedd, yn ddiargyhoedd, yn nydd ein Harglwydd Iesu Grist
Corinthians-1 1:8 Who shall also confirm you unto the end, that ye may be blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Thesaloniaid-1 2:10 Tystion ydych chwi, a Duw hefyd, mor sanctaidd, ac mor gyfiawn, a diargyhoedd, yr ymddygasom yn eich mysg chwi y rhai ydych yn credu
Thessalonians-1 2:10 Ye are witnesses, and God also, how holily and justly and unblameably we behaved ourselves among you that believe
(Also Thessalonians-3:13, Thessalonians-5:23)

Philipiaid 2:15 Fel y byddoch ddiargyhoedd a diniwed, yn blant difeius i Dduw, yng nghanol cenhedlaeth ddrygionus a throfaus, ymhlith y rhai yr ydych yn disgleirio megis goleuadau yn y byd
Philippians 2:15 That ye may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst f a crooked and perverse nation, among whom ye shine as lights in the world

Philipiaid 3:6 Yn l sl, yn erlid yr eglwys; yn l y cyfiawnder sydd yn y ddeddf, yn ddiargyhoedd
Philippians 3:6 Concerning zeal, persecuting the church; touching the righteousness which is the law, blameless.

Timotheus-1 3:2 Rhaid gan hynny i esgob fod yn ddiargyhoedd, yn ŵr un wraig, yn wyliadwrus, yn sobr, yn weddaidd, yn lletygar, yn athrawaidd
Timothy-1 3:2 A bishop must then be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach.

Timotheus-1 3:10 A phrofer y rhai hynny hefyd yn gyntaf; yna gwasanaethant swydd diaconiaid, os byddant diargyhoedd
Timothy-1 3:10 And let these also first be proved; then let them use the office of a deacon, being found blameless

Timotheus-1 5:7
A gorchymyn y pethau hyn, fel y byddont ddiargyhoedd
Timothy-1 5:7 And these things give in charge, that they may be blameless

Timotheus-1 6:14 Gadw ohonot y gorchymyn hyn yn ddifeius, yn ddiargyhoedd, hyd ymddangosiad ein Harlwydd Iesu Grist
Timothy-1 6:14 That thou keep this commandment without spot, unrebukeable, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ

Titus 1:6 Os yw neb yn ddiargyhoedd, yn ŵr un wraig, a chanddo blant ffyddlon, heb gael y gair o fod yn afradlon, neu yn anufudd
Titus 1:6 If any be blameless, the husband of one wife, having faithful children not accused of riot or unruly

Titus 1:7 Canys rhaid i esgob fod yn ddiargyhoedd, fel goruchwyliwr Duw; nid yn gyndyn, nid yn ddicllon, nid yn wingar, nid yn drawydd, nid yn budrelwa
Titus 1:7 For a bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not selfwilled, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre

Pedr-2 3:14 Oherwydd paham, anwylyd, gan eich bod yn disgwyl y pethau hyn, gwnewch eich gorau ar eich cael ganddo mewn tangnefedd, yn ddifrycheulyd, ac yn ddiargyhoedd
Peter-2 3:14 Wherefore, beloved, seeing that ye look for such things; be diligent that ye may be found of him in peace, without spot, and blameless.

OGY: (di- privative prefix, without) + (argyhoedd = rebuke, condemnation)


di-ar-HEB-yon (plural noun)
proverbs; plural of dihareb


di-ar- heb -yon
1 Diarhebion or Llyfr y Diarhebion book of the Old Testament with the wisdom of Israelite sages
Abbreviation in GPC (Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / Dictionary of the University of Wales): Diar.


DII-arth (adjective)
strange (North Wales) = dieithr


di-ar-UI-bod (adjective)
without knowing

sleifio at (rywun) yn ddiarwybod iddo sneak up on somebody (slink to (somebody) without him knowing)
Also llithro at (rywun) yn ddiarwybod iddo


diawl, diawliaid
DYAUL, DYAUL-yed (masculine noun)
(South: diawl is colloquially "jawl"; the plural is diawlaid (without the semi consonant i) > "jawled")

ar y diawl very (literally: on the devil)
bod yn falch ar y diawl be as pleased as punch, be as glad as hell

ddiawl (after masculine or feminine singular noun, or plural noun) damned, bloody, goddam
yr ast ddiawl the goddam bitch

(North-west Wales) fel diawl dan garreg said of a constant complainer like a devil under a stone

used as a term of abuse for somebody regarded with contempt - bugger, bastard, etc (USA: son of a bitch, s.o.b.)
Mae en ddiawl celwyddog Hes a lying bastard

6 mynd ir diawl to go to Hell (go to the devil)
Cer ir diawl! Go to Hell! (go to the devil)
Fe gaiff fynd ir diawl! He can go to Hell! (he may go to the devil)
Ir diawl ag e! To Hell with him! (to the devil with him)
Ir diawl thi! Hang you!

o ddiawl! (denial) my foot! not likely!
Ei helpu, o ddiawl! Help him my foot!


8 diain altered form of diawl used in mild oaths
myn diain i! blimey!

diain i! blimey!


DII-barkh adj
disrespectful, lacking in respect
mor ddibarch 'r blaidd as disrespectful as the wolf

dibarch rhy gyffredin familiarity breeds content (without respect (a thing) too common)

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = privative prefix, 'without') + soft mutation + (parch = respect)


di-BEE-khod adjective
sinless, without sin
Ioan 8:7 Yr hwn sydd ddibechod ohonoch, tafled yn gyntaf garreg ati hi
John 8:7 He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = privative prefix, without) + soft mutation + (pechod = sin)


diben, dibenion
DII-ben, di-BEN-yon (masculine noun)
maer diben yn cyfiawnhur modd the end justifies the means


di-BE-ni (verb)
to end

ETYMOLOGY: (dibenn- < diben = end) + (-u verb suffix)

dibriod di-BRII-od (adjective)
single, unmarried

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = privative prefix, without) + soft mutation + (priod = married)

di-bris adjective
(person) rash, reckless, foolhardy


2 (person) disrespectful
yn ddibris adverb contemptuously, showing scant respect


Aeth dau ddyn ieuanc dibris at y gweinidog a gofynodd iddo pa liw oedd gwallt y diawl

Two disrespectful young men went up to the minister and asked him what colour was the devils hair

3 careless
yn ddibris adverb carelessly

Paid thrafod dy ddillad mor ddiprish
Dont treat your clothes so carelessly

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = without) + soft mutation + (pris = respect; value)

NOTE: South-east Wales diprish - with the usual differences from the standard form to be expected in this dialect;

..a/ s > sh after i dibris > dibrish

..b/ b > p at the beginning of the final syllable dibrish > diprish


di-BRI-syo, -sho (verb)
to slander

2 difenwi a dibrisio defame and slander


di- brov -yad adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (di-, negative prefix) + soft mutation + (profiad = experience)


DII-buis adjective
trivial, unimportant, insignificant
Fe ddaeth chwyldro ar ddysgu Cymraeg ac fe ddaethon ni i sylweddoli mor ddibwys mewn gwirionedd yw astudio llenyddiaeth Gymraeg fel pwnc ysgol ou cymharu r nod o ddysgu i blant siarad Cymraeg.
Teaching Welsh was revolutionised and we came to realise how unimportant really was studying Welsh literature as a school subject compared with the goal of teaching children to speak Welsh

pethau dibwys trivialities, things of no importance

Yr ym nin arbennig o dda am gwyno am bethau dibwys yn lle mynd at graidd y broblem
We are extremely good at complaining about trivialities instead of getting to the root ("heart") of the problem

ETYMOLOGY: (di-, negative prefix) + soft mutation + (pwys = weight, importance)


dibyn, dibynnau
DII-bin, di-BƏ-ne (masculine noun)

Perygl. Dibyn Serth. (on a warning sign) Danger. Sheer Drop


di-BƏ-ni (verb)


di-bən-wlad feminine noun
PLURAL dibynwledydd
di-bən- wl -didh
dependency = country dependent on another
y ddibynwlad = the dependency

ETYMOLOGY: (dibyn- < dibynnu = to depend) + soft mutation + (gwlad = country)


di -kakh adjective
Dim dicach! No hard feelings!

ETYMOLOGY: dicach < digach (= angrier)
(influenced by the form dicaf = angriest) (dig = angry) + (-ach termination of comparative adjective).

The superlative form dicaf < dg-haf (dig + haf termination of superlative adjective)


di- khelh -gar adjective
deceptive, wily, treacherous,
gyda bwriad dichellgar with intent to decive

ETYMOLOGY: (dichell = deception) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives)


dikh -lin adjective
choose, select; pick out, sort out, separate out; find the best ones (of), pick out the best ones (from)
In use in the south-west dichlyn tato grade potatoes, sort them e.g. into small, medium-size and large.

ETYMOLOGY: from a Celtic root *glenn- (= to choose?) < *do-eks-glenn


di- khlə -nedh adjective
blameless, of irreproachable character; exemplary

Bu'n aelod dichlynaidd gyda'r Trefnyddion Calfinaidd am hanner can mlynedd
She was an exemplary member of the Calvinist Methodists for fifty years

ETYMOLOGY: (dichlyn-, stem of dichlyn = to select, to choose) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)


DII-khon (verb)
(obsolete) be able

a ddichon...? can he / she / it....? is he / she / it, able to....?

Datguddiad 6:17 Yna darllenodd ei destyn, sef, Canys daeth dydd mawr ei ddicter ef, a phwy a ddichon sefyll?

Revelation 6:17 Then he read his text, namely, For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?

Salmau 78:19 Llefarasant hefyd yn erbyn DUW; dywedasant, A ddichon DUW arlwyo bwrdd yn yr anialwch?
Psalms 78:19 Yea, they spake against God; they said, Can God furnish a table in the wilderness?

2 y dichon can

Salmau 129:1 Caniad y graddau. Llawer gwaith ym cystuddiasant om hieuenctid, y dichon Israel ddywedyd yn awr: (129:2) Llawer gwaith ym cystuddiasant om hieuenctid: eto nim gorfuant
129:1 A Song of degrees. Many a time have they afflicted me from my youth, may Israel now say: (129:2) Many a time have they afflicted me from my youth: yet they have not prevailed against me.

Sant Mathew 3:9 Ac na feddyliwch ddywedyd ynoch eich hunain, Y mae gennym ni Abraham yn dad i ni: canys yr ydwyf yn dywedyd i chwi, y dichon Duw, ie, or meini hyn, gyfodi plant i Abraham.
Saint Matthew 3:9 And think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto you, that God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham.

3 a ddichon which can yr hen gydnabyddion -
Mae rhai mewn beddau'n huno, a'r lleill ar led y byd,
Nad oes un gloch a ddichon eu galw heddiw nghyd.

As for old acquaintances: Some are sleeping in graves, others are in other parts of the world, there is not a single bell that can call then together today

4 ni ddichon cannot

Datguddiad 3:8
Mi a adwaen dy weithredoedd: wele, rhoddais ger dy fron ddrws agored, ac ni ddichon neb ei gau: canys y mae gennyt ychydig nerth, a thi a gedwaist fy ngair, ac ni wedaist fy enw.

Revelations 3:8 I know thy works: behold, I have set before thee an open door, and no man can shut it: for thou hast a little strength, and hast kept my word, and hast not denied my name.

5 maybe
Dichon nad ywn wir Maybe its not true
(Synonyms of dichon are: efallai / hwyrach / gall)

fe ddichon = maybe
-Marged fach, beth sy'n bod arnat ti?
-Dwn i ddim.
Fe ddichon mod i'n mynd yn sofft yn fy hen dyddiau
-Hen, wir. Dym ni ddim mor hen hynny

-Marged dear, whats up with you?

-I dont know. Maybe Im going soft in my old age

-Old, indeed! Were not as old as all that.

(Hen Wlad fy Nhadau; Jack Jones; translation by Kitchner Davies 1938; t59

ETYMOLOGY: dichon < dichawn < British d-ad-kn (prefix d, prefix ad, element kn- found in other Welsh words, for example as con, reduced from an original cawn, > in digon (digawn) (= enough), gogoniant (gogawniant) (= glory))


dichonoldeb di-khon-OL-deb feminine noun
1 feasibility

astudiaeth ddichonoldeb, astudiaethau dichonoldeb feasibility study

ETYMOLOGY: ( dichonol = feasible) + ( -deb noun suffix)


Dic Sin Dafydd
dik shoon DAA-vidh masculine noun
PLURAL Dic Sin Dafyddion
dik shoon da-vədh-yon
person who renounces the Welsh language and culture in the belief that anything English is far superior; Welshman who shows contempt for his language and nation, preferring to be considered as an Englishman

ETYMOLOGY: (Dic / Dick, Richard) + (son of) + (Sin /John) + (son of) + (Dafydd / David); (name of a character in a poem of the same name by Jac Glanygors (John Jones, 1766-1821). Dic moves to London to become a haberdasher, and pretends that he has forgotten his Welsh. On visiting his mother back in Wales he insists on speaking English to her, a language unknown to her)

NOTE: Emrys ap Iwan in Breuddwyd Pabydd Wrth ei Ewyllys (c. 1890) (a papists dream of how he would have things be) uses Cadi Sin Dafydd (qv) as the female equivalent


Dic Sin Dafyddiaeth
dik shoon da-vədh-yeth feminine noun
condition of being a Dic Sin Dafydd; renunciation of the Welsh language and Welsh identity; the Dic Sin Dafydd syndrome; anti-Welshness (on the part of a Welsh person)
Oddiar brofiad a chyda gofid y dywedaf am lawer o weindogion yr Efengyl, mai hwy yw y gelynion creulonaf a welodd ein haith erioed. Llawer o honynt ddywedais, cofier - nid yr oll o honynt. Y mae Dic Shon Dafyddiaeth rhai o honynt yn anesboniadwy ac yn ffiaidd i mi. (Tarian Y Gweithiwr 24 12 1908)
From experience and with sorrow I can say about many ministers of the Gospel, that they are the cruelest enemies that our language has ever seen. Many of them, I said not all of them. The Dic Sin Dafydd syndrome that some of them have is inexplicable and repugnant to me

ETYMOLOGY: (Dic Sin Dafydd) + (-i-aeth suffix for forming abstract nouns)


DIK-ter (masculine noun)

ETYMOLOGY: (dig [diig] = angry) + soft mutation + (-ter suffix for forming abstract nouns) > *digder > dicter (g-d > c-t)

DII-dhan adjective
amusing, pleasant
tafarn lle mae na bob amser griw diddan ac awyrgylch anffurfiol
a tavern where there is always a group of people having fun and an informal atmosphere

2 plural noun diddanion amusements
prynu diddanion difyrrur amser ir plant yn y gwasanaethau
buy amusements to pass the time for the children in the service area (by the motorway)

ETYMOLOGY: diddan, stem of the verb diddanu = to entertain


di-DHAA-ni verb
amuse, entertain

2 South Wales (child) pay attention to, humour, amuse; indulge, spoil

3 comfort, console

Thesaloniaid-1 4:18 Am hynny diddenwch eich gilydd r ymadroddion hyn
Thessalonians-1 4:18 Wherefore comfort one another with these words.

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British

From the same British root: Cornish didhana (= amuse, entertain)


di-DHAA-nukh masculine noun
entertainment = amusements as a pastime

Roedd yn rhaid inni greu ein diddanwch ein hunain pan oedden ni yn blant
We had to create our own amusement when we were children

2 consolation

Corinthiaid-2 1:3 Bendigedig fyddo Duw, a Thad ein Harglwydd ni Iesu Grist, Tad y trugareddau,a Duw pob diddanwch
Corinthians-2 1:3 Blessed
[be] God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies, and the God of all comfort

ETYMOLOGY: (diddan-, stem of diddanu = to entertain) + (-wch, suffix)


di-DHAA-nur masculine noun
PLURAL diddanwyr

ETYMOLOGY: (diddan-, stem of diddanu = to entertain) + (-wr, suffix = man)


di-DHAA-nidh masculine noun
PLURAL diddanwyr, diddanyddion
di-dhan-wir, di-dha-nədh-yon

2 y Diddanydd the Comforter, the Holy Spirit

Ioan 14:15 O cherwch fi, cedwch fy ngorchmynion (14:16) A mi a weddaf ar y Tad, ac efe a rydd i chwi Ddiddanydd arall, fel yr arhoso gyda chwi yn dragwyddol
John 14:15 If ye love me, keep my commandments. (14:16) And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever;

ETYMOLOGY: (diddan-, stem of diddanu = to entertain) + (-ydd, suffix = agent)


di-dhAun adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (di-, negative prefix) + soft mutation + (dawn = talent)


di-DHEE-alh adj
dim-witted, slow on the uptake

ETYMOLOGY: (di- negative prefix) + soft mutation + (deall = understanding)


diddim DII-dhim

destitute, having nothing

2 diddymu to abolish; to deprive

ETYMOLOGY: (di- negative prefix) + soft mutation + (dim = anything)


di-ddim di-dhim

useless, good-for-nothing

Un di-ddim iawn di o hes absolutely useless

ETYMOLOGY: (di- negative prefix) + soft mutation + (dim = anything)

(in fact, the same word as diddim above, with the final syllable stressed)


di-dhi-WƏLH-yant (adjective)


di- dhor deb masculine noun
PLURAL diddordebau
di-dhor- d -be

interest = curiosity about a person or thing
Does gen i rithyn o ddiddordeb yn y byd bocsio I havent got the slightest interest in boxing

Does gen i fawr o ddiddordeb mewn chwaraeon Im not really interested in sport

Dyw hi ddim or diddordeb lleiaf imi It doesnt interest me in the least / in the slightest

colli diddordeb mewn / yn lose interest in

cymryd diddordeb mewn / yn take an interest in

cymryd diddordeb mawr mewn / yn take a great interest in

Er mewn oedran teg dalia Mr Edwards i gymryd diddordeb mawr yn y cysegr a bun hynod ffyddlon ar hyd y daith
Although he has reached a ripe old age Mr. Edwards continues to take a great interest in the chapel and has been very faithful (to it) all his life (along the journey)

o ychydig ddiddordeb of minor interest, of little interest

interest = stimulation of curiosity in a person

interest = a thing which attracts one, which stimulates a persons curiosity

interest = activity to which one dedicates time because it is pleasant and instructive, a hobby
Maa ganddo ddigon o ddiddordebe syn i dynnu fe maas or ty
He has enough interests which get him out of the house

diddordeb yn, diddordeb mewn interest in

diddordeb yn... gan... = be interested in

diddordeb byw mewn / yn = a great interest in

Mae ganddo diddordeb byw mewn pl-droed he has a great interest in football

Mae ganddo ddiddordeb brwd yn y diwylliant Ocsitaneg
Hes really interested in Occitan culture

bod diddordeb mawr yn... gan... = be really interested in

interest = reason for wanting something done
diddordebau hunanfanteisiol selfserving interests

ETYMOLOGY: (diddor-, root of the verb diddorri = to interest) + (-deb abstract-noun suffix)


di-DHOO-rol (adjective)

ETYMOLOGY: (diddor-, root of the verb diddorri = to interest) + (-ol adjectival suffix)

DII-dhun (verb)
(South-east Wales) to wean

See diddwyn


DII-dhuin (verb)
to wean

2 diddwyn weaned This is the verb stem (which in this case is identical with the verbnoun) used as a past participle:

porchell diddwyn (weaned piglet) weaner, piglet in the period after weaning and up to ten weeks old

NOTE: The verb in standard Welsh is diddyfnu (= to wean), and colloquially in the south-east diddwn (= to wean) is used.

John Walters Dictionary of English and Welsh 1828:
To wean a child (take from the breast, or from the teat) diddyfnu (vulgo diddwyn)To wean from [withdraw from any habit or desire] diddyfnu (diddwyn) oddiwrth.

ETYMOLOGY: It seems that diddwyn < diddwn.

..a/ At some time the w in then final syllable was misinterpreted as being a reduction of the dhipthong wy, that is, it was supposed that diddwyn was the original form, and from this came diddwyn.

Often, a w in a final syllable is a reduction in the colloquial language of the diphthong wy (ofnadw = awful < ofnadwy, Ebw (river name) < Ebwy).

There are cases of misunderstandings about the real form of a word or name such as is the case with Maelgwyn for the name Maelgwn. In fact Maelgwn is quite correct, and the supposed more correct form Maelgwyn is spurious.

..b/ This form diddwn is either from diddwfn, with the loss of the consonant [v], or else diddwn is actually the original form. The latter case seems more likely, since dwn is from the (obsolete) verb dynu (= to suck).

There was a variant of dynu, namely dyfnu (with an f) (= to suck), from which the modern standard word diddyfnu (= to wean, to get [an infant] to stop suckling)

The appearance of the f perhaps shows the influence of dwfn (= deep), dyfnach (= deeper).
dynu > dyfnu


di- dhəv -ni verb
1 wean, take (a child, young mammal) off breast feeds

diddyfnu plentyn wean a child
diddyfnu oen wean a lamb

Eseia 11:7 Y fuwch hefyd a'r arth a borant ynghyd; eu llydnod a gydorweddant; y llew, fel yr ych, a bawr wellt. (11:8) A'r plentyn sugno a chwery wrth dwll yr asb; ac ar ffau y wiber yr estyn yr hwn a ddiddyfnwyd ei law

Isaiah 11:7 And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. (11:8) And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice' den.

2 diddyfnu oddiwrth wean off, wean away from = cause to give up certain habits, foods, etc

Ymgais yw'r ymgyrch i diddyfnu pobl oddi wrth bwydydd gormod o halen neu siwgr ynddynt
The campaign is an attempt to wean people off foods with too much salt or sugar in them

anodd diddyfnu hen (it-is) hard (the) weaning (of) (an) old (person) You cant teach on old dog new tricks

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = privative prefix) + soft mutation + (dyfnu. a variant of obsolete dynu = to suck)
Breton: dizona (= wean)


di- dhə-led adjective
1 solvent

ETYMOLOGY: debtless (di- = privative prefix) + soft mutation + (dyled = debt)


destitute, void, empty

ETYMOLOGY: variant of diddim (qv)


di-dhəm-dra (m)
1 nothingness; emptiness, void

syllu i ddiddymdra stare into space
profi rhyw ddiddymdra tu mewn i chi feel a kind of emptness inside yourself

2 oblivion

ETYMOLOGY: (diddym- penult form of diddym) + (-dra noun suffix, soft-mutated form of -tra)


di-dhəm-EE-dig (adj)
1 suppressed, annulled, abolished, voided

ETYMOLOGY: (diddym- penult form of diddym) + (-edig past participle suffix)


di- dhəm -yad masculine noun
1 abolition, dissolution; destruction

Diddymiad Mynachlogydd Dissolution of the Monasteries (1536-1540 by Henry VIII of England)

2 dissolution = ternination of a period of government
diddymiad y Senedd dissolution of Parliament

ETYMOLOGY: (diddym- penult form of diddym) + (-i-ad noun-forming suffix)


di-DHƏ-mol (adj)
nullifying, renderning null and void
(diddym- penult form of diddym) + (-ol adjectival suffix)

di-DHƏ-mi (verb)
cancel, abolish, do away with, quash suppress, eradicate, annihilate, abrogate

diddymu dyled cancel a debt, write off a debt

diddymu treth abolish a tax

diddymu archeb cancel an order (commercial); revoke an order (of procedure)

diddymu archeb sefydlog revoke a standing order

Mae'r clwy hwn bron 'i ddiddymu yn y wlad honno

This disease had almost been eradicated in that country

Gwneir pob ymdrech i osgoi diddymu neu gwtogi cyrsiau

Every effort will be mad e to avoid casncelling or cutting back courses

2 Diddymwyd (stamped on a library book) Withdrawn from stock (and sold as a second-hand book) (literally it has been cancelled)


di-DEIM-lad adjective

1 unfeeling, hardhearted

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = privative prefix) + soft mutation + (teimlad = feeling)


di-DOO-li verb
1 separate, segregate, set apart, isolate

didol y defaid oddi wrth y geifr separate the sheep from the goats

Sant Mathew 13:49 Felly y bydd yn niwedd y byd: yr angylion a nt allan, ac a ddidolant y rhai drwg o blith y rhai cyfiawn,

Saint Matthew 13:49 So shall it be at the end of the world: the angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from among the just

2 didoli llythyrau to sort letters
swyddfa ddidoli, swyddfydd didoli sorting office

ETYMOLOGY: didoli < diddoli < diddawli (diddawl = portion) + (-i verbal suffix)

The sequence -DD-L has become -D-L
diddawl: (di- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (dawl = portion). Cf Irish dil (= distribute)


DII-dolh adj
1 free from toll, toll-free

ETYMOLOGY: (di-, negative prefix) + soft mutation + (toll = toll)

di-DOL-nod m

PLURAL didolnodau
di-dol-NOO-dai -de
1 diaeresis = two dots placed over one of two vowels
showing they should be pronounced separately and not as a diphthong ENG-Z
a) to separate two vowels: crwr (= creator)
b) to separate diphthong and vowel: amgaedig (= enclosed)
c) to distinguish i vowel from i semi-consonant
cwmnau (= companies)

ffansol (= fanciful)

ETYMOLOGY: (didol- stem of didoli = sesparate, isolate) + (nod = mark)

d -dor adjective
1 uninterrupted
2 (electric current) direct
cerrynt union = direct current, DC

ETYMOLOGY: (di-, negative prefix) + soft mutation + (tor = treatment) < torri (= to break)


di- d -reth adjective
poor spelling for didoreth = feckless, shiftless, unreliable

NOTE: In spoken Welsh final ae is reduced to e in most of Wales, and it was supposed that this final e was colloquialism. In fact, it is original, since the words is made up of (di- prefix = without) and (toreth = abundance)


di- d-reth adjective
lazy, unused to hard work, lacking initiative, shirking responsibility; feckless, slipshod, disorganised

2 wasteful, spendthrift

ETYMOLOGY: (not-abundant) (di-, negative prefix) + soft mutation + (toreth = abundance)

NOTE: The word is used in Cambrian English (Western Mail 24 05 1983 shiftless or lazy or not having shape to do things well; I am afraid she is a didoreth one)


di-DRA-ferth (adjective)
without difficulty, without any trouble

ETYMOLOGY: (di-, negative prefix) + soft mutation + (trafferth = trouble)


di draidh adjective

lliw didraidd opaque colour
gwydr didraidd
opaque glass

ETYMOLOGY: (di-, negative prefix) + soft mutation + (traidd, root of treiddio = penetrate)


di-DRAIS (adjective)
gwrthsafiad di-drais passive resistance


di-dr-ad adjective
straight, without bends
milltiroedd o ffyrdd didraffig a didroad
miles of roads with no traffic and no bends

ETYMOLOGY: (di-, negative prefix) + soft mutation + (troad = bend)


di-dri-G-redh (adjective)
cosb ddidrugaredd harsh punishment


di-d-edh adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (di-, negative prefix) + soft mutation + (tuedd = tendency)


di-duilh adjective
sincere, true, without guile, guileless, honest, candid, open, truthful

2 Yn ddidwyll (in ending a letter) Yours Sincerely

ETYMOLOGY: (di-, negative prefix) + soft mutation + (twyll = deceit)


di-dui-lhedh masculine noun
sincerity, candour, honesty

ETYMOLOGY: (didwyll = sincere) + (-edd suffix for forming nouns)


di-e-vlig adjective
devilish, diabolical, satanic, fiendish
creulonderau dieflig diabolical cruelties

2 dieflig o intensifier
Maen ddieflig o dwym Its devilish hot, Its unbearably hot

3 cylch dieflig vicious circle = a situation where a cause produces an effect which itself generates the same original cause

Cylch dieflig ywr sefyllfa - mae anobaith y trigolion yn achosi tlodi, ac mae eu tlodi yn magu anobaith
The situation is a vicious circle - the inhabitants hopelessness leads to poverty, and their poverty breeds hopelessness

4 mwy dieflig na Lẃsiffer ei hun more diabolical / evil than Lucifer himself

5 masculine noun; Bible person possessed by demons, possessed by the devil

Mathew 8:28 Ac wedi ei ddyfod ef ir lan arall, i wlad y Gergesiaid, dau ddieflig a gyfarfuant ag ef, y rhai a ddeuent or beddau, yn dra ffyrnig, fel na allai neb fyned y ffordd honno
Matthew 8:28 And when he was come to the other side into the country of the Gergesenes, there met him two possessed with devils, coming out of the tombs, exceeding fierce, so that no man might pass by that way.

ETYMOLOGY: dieflig (diafl-, old form of diawl = devil) + (-ig, suffix for forming adjectives); the change a > e is due to the influence of i in the final syllable


di-ei-dho adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (di-, negative prefix) + (eiddo = property)


di-ei-thir adjective
strange, odd, unusual, extraordinary, different

2 strange = from another place
gwraig ddieithr / ddierth stranger (woman)

dyn dieithr / dierth stranger (man)

gŵr dieithr / dierth stranger (man)

pobl ddieithr / ddierth strangers (also English people)

Estroniaid yn siarad Saesneg oedd ystyr pobl ddiarth yn ein bro ni
Strangers who spoke English was the meaning of (the expression) pobl ddiarth in our area

3 strange = unfamiliar, not known;
Dieithr iawn imi oedd cyn iddo ddechrau ddod in cyfarfodydd
He was completely unknown to me until he started coming to our meetings

Maen drueni bod yr hen eiriau ac ymadroddion hyn yn gwbl ddiarth ir to ifanc
Its a shame that these old words and expression are quite unfamiliar to the younger generation

4 unknown (of people who have never met each other)

Er byw yn yr un heol ers blynyddoedd, roeddynt yn hollol ddiarth iw gilydd
Although they had lived in the same street for years, they were quite unknown to each other

5 said of one who has not been seen for a while, of one who fails to visit
Dyn mor ddieithr dch chi y dyddiau hyn
Ive not seen you for ages ((it is) such an unknown man (that) you are these days)

Rwyt ti wedi bod yn ddierth iawn yn ddiweddar
Ive not seen you at all lately (you have been very unknown lately)

6 North Wales stray
ci diarth stray dog (in the south, ci strae)

7 unusual = uncommon, not occurring frequently

Nid ywn beth dieithr, hyd yn oed heddiw, pan fo gogleddwr a deheuwr yn dod
wyneb yn wyneb i gilydd, iw clywed yn bwrw ati i siarad Saesneg
o dan yr esgus nad ydynt yn deall tafodieithoedd ei gilydd
(Cymro 19 07 1989)
Its not unusual, even today, when a northerner and a southerner come face to face with each other, to hear them begin speaking English with the excuse that they dont understand each others dialect

8 foreign, from another country

iaith ddieithr foreign language

Y mae pobl y mae Saesneg yn iaith gyntaf iddynt yn cymryd agwedd tra ymosodol at ieithoedd eraill. Maen dn ar eu croen clywed unrhyw iaith ddieithr (Cymro 19 07 1989)
People who speak English as a first language have a very belligerent attitude towards other languages. It really irks them (it is fire on their skin) to hear any foreign language

9 annieithr inalienable (an = negative prefix + dieithr)

10 comparisons: mor ddierth winwns i grychydd
as unknown as onions to a heron

11 bwrw dieithr district of Meirionydd (county of Gwynedd) feign ignorance, pretend not to know (throw + strange)

12 county of Gwynedd holi (rhywun) ar ddiarth (ynghylch rhywbeth) ask someone about something in an indirect way

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *d-ektr-; cf Latin exter, extra
..a/ the colloquial form is dierth
..b/ in a-final zones this is diarth
..c/ dieithr > *dieirth (metathesis) > dierth (simplification of the diphthong
ei > e )


dieithryn, dieithriaid
di-EI-thrin, di-EITHR-yed (masculine noun)

ETYMOLOGY: (dieithr = strange, foreign) + (-yn masculine noun-forming suffix)


i-n di-EEN (adjective)

pysgodyn di-n jawless fish


di-e-nədh-yad masculine noun
PLURAL dienyddiadau
execution = killing of a criminal as a punishment

ETYMOLOGY: (dienydd-i-, stem of the verb dienyddio = to execute) + (-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)


di-e-nədh-yo verb
execute, put to death

Maer plac, ar wal banc yn Llanymddyfri, yn nodi y fan ble cafodd Llywelyn ap Gruffudd ei ddienyddio o flaen Brenin Lloegr, Harri IV, ar Hydref 9 1401
The plaque, on the wall of a bank in Llanymddyfri, indicates the spot where Llywelyn ap Gruffudd was executed in front of the English king, Henry IV, on the fourth of October 1401

ETYMOLOGY: (dienydd-, penult form of dihenydd = 1 obsolete end, fate 2 obsolete execution, death) + (-io = suffix for forming verbs)

See dihenydd below


di-en- ədh -yur masculine noun
PLURAL dienyddwyr
di-en- ədh -wir

ETYMOLOGY: (dienydd-i-, stem of the verb dienyddio = execute) + (-wr suffix = man)


di-e- p -ledh masculine noun
infertility, sterility. barrenness

Esaia 47:8 Am hynny yn awr gwrando hyn, y foethus, yr hon a drigi yn ddiofal, yr hon a ddywedi yn dy galon, Myfi sydd, ac nid neb ond myfi: nid eisteddaf yn weddw, ac ni chaf wynod beth yw diepiledd.
Isiah 47:8 Therefore hear now this, thou that art given to pleasures, that dwellest carelessly, that sayest in thine heart, I am, and none else beside me; I shall not sit as a widow, neither shall I know the loss of children

ETYMOLOGY: (di-, negative prefix) + (epil = offspring, children) + (-edd = suffix for forming abstract nouns)


dier DII-er
1 used in interjections; replaces the name Duw (= God)

Dier annwyl! Dear God!
Dier bach! Dear God!
Neno'r dier! Dear God! (= yn enw Duw in Gods name)

Dier y bo! Dear God! (y bo = may it be)


Also as diar


NOTE: In the English dialect of Llanidloes:
DIARE-Y-BO, an exclamation generally accompanied by a slap of the hand or the fist. It is rathe difficult to express its import, as it sometimes implies surprise, sorrow, and even defiance. Perhaps the nearest English phrase, which, however, is not nearly so expressive, is Hang it all. (Parochial Account of Llanidloes / Edward Hamer / Chapter X / Folk-lore. Page 289 Collections Historical and Archeological Relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders / 1877)



DII-erth (adjective)
strange (colloquial for dieithr)



di-e-ti-VEE_dhi (v)

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = privative prefix) + (etifeddu = inherit)


di-EI-og (adjective)

ETYMOLOGY: unguilty (di- = privative prefix, in-, un-, dis-) + (euog = guilty)


difa DII-va (verb)

2 difach enw da destroy your reputation

3 bod dan fygythiad cael eu difa be under threat of extinction (be under threat (of) receiving its destroying)

bod mewn perygl o gael eu difa be under threat of extinction (be in danger of receiving its destroying)


di -vai adjective
1 blameless

Barnwyr 15:3 A Samson a ddywedodd wrthynt, Difeiach ydwyf y waith hon nar Philistiaid, er i mi wneuthur niwed iddynt
Judges 15:3 And Samson said concerning them, Now I shall be more blameless than the Philistines, though I do them a displeasure

2 faultless, impecable
di-nam a di-fai unblemished and impeccable
Nid di-fai neb a aned No-one's perfect ((it is) not without fault anyone who was born)

3 (North Wales) sufficient, adequate, good enough, all right
-Wna hwn eich tro chi? -Mae o'n ddi-fai am rŵan -Will that do you? Its enough for now

4 good, fine
Maen ddi-fai iddo fo Its good enough for him. Itll do him

Maen lle di-fai i fochyn neu ddau Its a good place for one or two pigs

cael pris di-fai get a good price, sell for a good price

yn ddi-fai fine, OK

cantores llais difai a (woman) singer with a splendid voice

5 complete, perfect
difai dianaf safe and sound

6 (North) di-fai gwaith in phrases expressing to serve somebody right

Di-fai gwaith hi! It serves her right

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = privative prefix) + (bai = fault )

NOTE: also: difai
d-vai, d-ve


D-ve (adj) also di-fai d-VAI


di- ve-dhul druug adjective
1 well-meaning, not meaning harm

ETYMOLOGY: (di- privative prefix = without) + soft mutation + (meddwl drwg = think evil, think ill, intend to do harm)

NOTE: There is a colloquial form difeddwl-ddrwg, with unexpected soft muttion of drwg. This is possibly the influence of the verse in Diarhebion / Proverbs

3:29 Na feddwl ddrwg yn erbyn dy gymydog, ac yntau yn trigo yn ddiofal yn dy ymyl. / 3:29 Devise not evil against thy neighbour, seeing he dwelleth securely by thee.
Here the soft mutation drwg > ddrwg occurs as it is a direct object after an inflected verb

di- ven-wi verb
revile, malign, slander, defame; attack the good reputation of
difenwi rhywun yn gas slander someone terribly

ni ddylid difenwir meirw
you shouldnt speak ill of the dead

3 difenwi a dibrisio defame and slander

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *d-manw- < *men (= diminish; slander).
Cf Latin dminuere (= diminish) < minuere (= reduce). There is possibly the influence of the word enw (= name, reputation)


diferyn, diferion
di-VE-rin, di-VER-yon (masculine noun)
drop (of water, etc)

2 diferion y bargod eavesdrip, drops of water from the eaves


di-V-tha (verb)
destroy; spoil, ruin

difethach archwaeth spoil your appetite
papur pleidleisio a ddifethwyd spoilt ballot paper (which was spoilt)

2 difetha ar hwyl rhywun spoil somebodys fun


di- ve -tha verb
See difetha


di- v -thur masculine noun
PLURAL difethwyr
di- veth -wir

2 difethwr hwyl killjoy, spoilsport (destroyer (of) fun)

ETYMOLOGY: (difeth- stem of difetha = to destroy, spoil) + (-wr suffix = man)


di- fail adjective
sure, certain, unfailing
bod yn ddi-ffael eich ergyd be a sure shot, be a dead shot

2 yn ddi-ffael without fail
Mae cangen Penyrheol y blaid yn cwrdd bob mis yn ddi-ffael The Penyrheol branch of the party meets every month without fail

ETYMOLOGY: (di- privative prefix = without) + (ffael = error)


di-fei-thukh masculine noun
desert, wilderness

Jeremeia 17:6 Canys efe a fydd fel y grug yn y diffeithwch, ac ni wl pan ddl daioni...
Jeremiah 17:6 For he shall be like the heath in the desert, and shall not see when good cometh..

ir y diffeithwch Syrrhaptes paradoxus = Pallass sandpiper ("hen (of) the wilderness")

ETYMOLOGY: (diffeith-, penult form of diffaith = deserted, desolate) + (-wch, suffix for forming nouns)


Y Diffeithwch Mawr Tywodlyd
ə-di-fei-thukh maur tə-wod-lid masculine noun
Great Sandy Desert = a desert in north-west Australia (415,000 sq km, 160 000 sq miles), over twenty times the size of Wales (20 768 sq km, 8017 sq miles)

ETYMOLOGY: (diffeithwch = desert) + (mawr = big, great) + (tywodlyd = sandy)


di-FIN-yo (verb)


DI-fodh (verb) DI-fod
to extinguish


diffyg, diffygion
DI-fig, di-FƏG-yon (masculine noun)

2 yn niffyg dim gwell for want of anything better

3 diffyg amynedd impatience


di- fəg -yo verb
become exhausted, lose strength
ar ddiffygio be on one's last legs, be fit to drop
diffygio dan faich collapse under a burden

OGY: Welsh diffygio < British < Vulgar Latin dficio


diffyg traul
d-fig tril masculine noun
South Wales

ETYMOLOGY: "lack (of) digestion"
NOTE: In North Wales the equivalent expression is camdreuliad


di-vla- n -dig adjective
lost, disappeared, vanished
pentref diflanedig = pentre diflan lost village

2 disappearing
inc diflanedig invisible ink

ETYMOLOGY: (diflann-, stem of the verb diflannu = to disappear) + (-edig). The 'n' is not doubled if it precedes a syllable which is not the final one


di-VLA-ni (verb)
to disappear


DI-vlas (adjective)

2 boring

-Sut noson gefaist ti?
-Un ddiflas iawn

How was your evening? Very boring

(what kind of evening did you get? a very boring one)


difodi di-V-di (verb)
exterminate. annihilate, wipe out
difodi (rhywbeth) i gyd completely wipe out

2 gwersyll difodi extermination camp
gwersylloedd difodir Natsaid the Nazi extermination camps


di-vo- rui -no verb
deflower (a virgin)

ETYMOLOGY: (di- prefix = without) + soft mutation + ( morwyn = virgin, maiden) + (-o suffix for forming verbs)


di- vrau adjective
1 unconcerned, heedless, indifferent, apathetic, negligent; = not paying
the attention or taking the care which one is supposed to

2 unconcerned, indifferent, unperturbed; = not interested in the activities of others

3 fearless

ETYMOLOGY: (di- privative prefix = without) + soft mutation + (braw = fright)
NOTE: also di-fraw


di- vrau-der masculine noun
1 indifference, lack of concern, unconcern, unperturbdness, state of being unperturbed
ymysgwyd oddiwrth eich difradwer shake off ones indifference

2 apathy

ETYMOLOGY: (difraw = fearless; indifferent) (-der suffix for forming abstract nouns)


di-vrein-ti- -dig adjective
(person) deprived = lacking basic needs such as food and shelter

2 deprived = (area) lacking adequate housing, schools, health care, employment opportunities
o un o ardaloedd mwyaf difreintiedig Caer-dydd
one of the most deprived areas of Caer-dydd

ETYMOLOGY: (di- negative prefix) + soft mutation + (breintiedig = privileged, favoured)


di-vr-ad masculine noun
abuse = insulting words; harsh words, mouthful of abuse
cael difriad am eu cadw nhw i aros get a mouthful for keeping them waiting

ETYMOLOGY: (difri- stem of difro to insult) + (-ad suffix for forming nouns)


di-vri masculine noun

2 mewn difrif in all seriousness (in + seriousness)
mewn difrif calon in all seriousness (in + seriousness + (of) + heart)

Sut mewn difri baset tin disgwyl i ni garior busnes ymlaen fel hyn?
How in all seriousness do you expect us to carry on the business like this?

3 o difrif really, honestly (from + seriousness)
Dyw hi ddim yn sl o ddifri Shes not really ill

4 bod o difrif to be serious, to not treat a matter lightly
Rw i o ddifri, Im being serious, I really mean it, (Im of seriousness)
bod yn hollol o ddifrif be in deadly earnest, be completely serious

Na, o ddifri, rhaid i chi aros dros nos gyda ni,
No, really, you must stay with us tonight

rhwng difrif a chwarae half-jokingly, half in jest
gweud rhwng difrif a chwarae bod y diawl yn edrych ar l ei blant
say half in jest that the devil looks after his own

ETYMOLOGY: difrif < difri (= dishonor / dishonour);

(di = without) + soft mutation + (bri = honor / honour); the final f is a later addition, most likely under the influence of words with final
v -f which colloquially is lost, but retained in the written language.

Other words with an inorganic f are hunllef (= nightmare) < hunlle,
hyf (= insolent) < hy.

Equivalents of difrif in the other two British languages: Cornish deffri (= indeed), Breton devri (= seriously)


di-VRI-vol (adjective)


di- vr -o verb
malign, run down, speak badly of
abuse = insult

ETYMOLOGY: (difri = dishonor, dishonour) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)

Difri < (di- privative prefix; = without) + soft mutation + (bri = honor, honour )

NOTE: (South Wales) difyrio, dyfyrio


di-VRI-ol (adjective)


difrwr, difrwyr
di-VRI-ur, di-VRI-wir (masculine noun) p
person who speaks badly of someone else, disparager


di -vrod masculine noun
PLURAL difrodau, difrodydd
di- vr -de, -didh
1 (obsolete) neglect of law, contempt of law

2 havoc, damage, destruction
gwneud difrod ar cause damage to, to damage (make damage on)

1:10 Difrodwyd y maes, y ddaear a alara; canys gwnaethpwyd difrod ar yr ŷd: sychodd y gwin newydd, llesgaodd yr olew.
1:10 The field is wasted, the land mourneth; for the corn is wasted: the new wine is dried up, the oil languisheth.

Roedd difrod y cadno ar wyn yr ardal wedi creu cryn gyffro The depredation of the fox on the lambs of the area caused considerable disquiet

gwneud difrod mawr (ar...) cause great damage (to...), do great damage to, do a great deal of harm to (make great damage on)

maint y difrod the extent of the damage

3 difrotgar destructive
difrotgar < difrt-gar (difrod = damage) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, prone to)

4 difrod ar y daith damage in transit
difrod bwriadol wilful damage
difrod damweiniol accidental damage
difrod maleisus malicious damage
difrod rhyfel war damage

5 spoliation, sacking;
difrod Caerdroea, the sack of Troy

ETYMOLOGY: difrod < difrawd (obsolete) neglect of law, contempt of law

(di- prefix = without) + soft mutation + ( brawd = judgement, verdict)


di- vrot -gar adjective
1 destructive

ETYMOLOGY: difrotgar < difrt-gar < difrd-gar

(difrod = damage) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, often meaning fond of, cf caru = to love)

(d-c) > d-g > t-g


DI-vir (adjective)
funny, amusing


di-VƏR-yo (verb)
(South Wales) Southern form of difro



1 pastimes; plural form of difyrrwch


difyriwr, difyrwyr
di-VƏR-yur, di-VƏR-wir (masculine noun)
(South Wales) Southern form of difrwr


di- və -ri verb
amuse, entertain

difyrrur amser while away the time (shorten the time)

I Ddifyrrur Amser (= to while away the time), title of a book of ysgrifau (anecdotal essays) by Ifor Williams (1881-1965), published in 1959

difyrrur dydd while away the day (shorten the day)

difyrrur ffordd while away a journey (shorten the road)

ETYMOLOGY: (difyrr- = penult form of difyr= short) + (-io = suffix for forming verbs) > difyrr-io > difyrio. Originally difyrru = to shorten; amusing oneself or other people makes time go by quicker, so the sense has developed from to shorten the time to to amuse, entertain
Breton diverra (= shorten; entertain)


di- və -rukh masculine noun

PLURAL difyrion di-VəR-yon

1 fun, amusement, enjoyment
cael llawer iawn o ddifyrrwch (wrth wneud rhywbeth) have lots of fun (doing something)

diversion, amusement, delight (= thing which one enjoys doing), game, sport, pastime, entertainment
difyrrwch pennaf chief delight, favourite game

Difyrrwch pennaf y plant yn famser oedd chwarae dal
The main amusement of the children in my time was playing tag

hoff ddifyrrwch favourite pastime

chwarae rygbi oedd ei hoff ddifyrrwch playing rugby was his favourite pastime


Diarhebion 21:17 Y neb a garo ddifyrrwch, a ddaw i dlodi: a neb a garo win ac olew, ni bydd gyfoethog
Proverbs 21:17 He that loveth pleasure shall be a poor man: he that loveth wine and oil shall not be rich.

mirth, merriment, humorous tales

Difyrrwch Gwyr Morgannwg collection of humorous stories by Mardy Rees ((the) funny tales (of the) people (of the county of) Morgannwg / Glamorgan)

o ran difyrrwch for fun (o ran = from + part) + (difyrrwch = fun, amusment)

annifyrrwch unease, disquiet (an = privative suffix) + nasal mutation + (difyrrwch)

ETYMOLOGY: (difyrr-
di-vər- , penult form of difyr d-vir = amusing) + (-wch, suffix for forming abstract nouns)


DIIG (adjective)

bod yn ddig be angry, be in a huff

dicter anger

dig wrth angry at, angry with

teimlon ddig at ei ffoledd ei hun be angry at ones own stupidity


teimlon ddig feel angry

bod yn ddig enbyd wrth (rywun) be very angry with (someone)


bod yn ddig gyda be angry with (an imitation of the English expression; the correct preposition is wrth)



di-ga-LO-ni (verb)
lose heart, become discouraged


di-gam- sən-yol adjective
unmistakable, unrefutable, convincing, clear

Nid oes gennym dystiolaeth ddigamsyniol o hyn
We have no clear proof of this

ETYMOLOGY: (di- prefix = without) + soft mutation + (camsyniol = mistaken)


PRONUNCIATION: more colloquially digartre
di-GAR-tre (final v not pronounced)
(adjective) homeless.

2 (plural noun) y digartref the homeless
(di- = privative prefix, soft mutation, cartref = home)


di-g-dol adjective
teledu digidol digital television

ETYMOLOGY: (digid = digit) + (-ol = suffix for forming adjectives)


DIG-yo (verb)
get angry


di-goid- w -go verb
to clear forest, to deforest
(noun) forest clearance

ETYMOLOGY: (di- negative prefix = de-, un-) + soft mutation + (coedwigo = afforest, plant trees)


d -gois adjective
derwen ddigoes (Quercus petraea) sessile oak

ETYMOLOGY: (di- privative prefix = without ) + soft mutation + ( coes = leg; stalk)


di-GOO-vaint m
wrath, anger, indignation

ETYMOLOGY: (dig = anger) + (ofaint suffix)


di-go-LHEE-di verb
compensate, make good a loss, indemnify, recompense

ETYMOLOGY: (di- privative suffix) + soft mutation + (colled = loss) + (-u verbal suffix)


DII-gon masculine noun
Mae hynnyn llawn digon Thats quite enough
Wyt ti wedi cael digon? Have you had enough?
Mae un olwg yn ddigon Once seen, never forgotten
cael digon at eich treuliau cover your expenses

2 plenty, abundance
Yr oedd digon o Gymry Cymraeg yn y pentre ma ugain mlynedd yn l
There were plenty of Welsh-speaking Welsh people in this village twenty years ago

mwy na digon more than enough, superfluous

Nid digon heb warged ((it is) not enough without (a) remainder) Sufficiency is only achieved when there is something left over

digon a gwared enough and to spare

3 cyrraedd mewn digon o bryd arrive in good time

4 bod yn ddigon am be the end of (be enough for)
Mi all hyn fod yn ddigon am fy swydd
This could mean the end of my job, I might lose my job because of this (This can be enough for my job)

5 ar ben eich digon (on top of your sufficiency) extremely pleased, as pleased as Punch, walking on air
uwchbn eich digon
wrth ben eich digon

(adverb) enough; fairly, quite (before an adjective, no soft mutation of initial)
Dyw e ddim yn ddigon da Its not good enough
digon twym hot enough
Mae e en ddigon gwael Hes quite ill
digon cryf i strong enough to...

7 (adverb) (with a verb) = enough, sufficiently
Yr ydw i wedi cymysgu digon efo ffermwyr i wybod nad ydyn nhw ddim yn bobl iw chroesi
Ive been in the company of farmers (mixed with farmers) enough to know that they are not people to be crossed

8 (adverb) ddigon (after a noun) = enough

Nid oes athrawon ddigon sydd yn gallu ei siarad ai hysgrifennun gain a chywir
There arent enough teachers who can speak and write it elegantly and correctly

Pregethwr sychlyd ddigon, meddir, ond ysgolhaig rhagorol.

Rather a dry preacher, it is said, but an excellent scholar.

9 prin ddigon scarcely enough

10 digon at eich byw enough to live on
Does ganddo ddigon at ei fyw He doesnt have enough to live on
cyflog prin ddigon i fyw arno a wage scarcely enough to live on, a subsistence wage

11 (county of Caerfyrddin) cooked
Odir falen ddigon? (a ydyr afalau yn ddigon?) Are the apples cooked?

Mae hen ddigon ohoni Theres enough and to spare, Theres more than enough of it (theres old sufficiency of it)

hen ddigon more than enough

cael hen ddigon ar have just about enough of
(get more than enough on) (cael = get) + (hen = old; more than) + soft mutation + (digon = enough) + (ar = on)

13 bod yn ddigon i godi ofn arnoch be quite creepy, be quite scary (be enough to raise fear on you)

14 digon da
DI-gon-DAA good enough

ETYMOLOGY: digon < digawn < Modern Welsh elements (di-) + soft mutation + (*cawn), though in fact the formation of the word would have occurred in British (di-) + (*kn).

This element British *kn > Welsh *cawn > -con- is found in

..1/ dichon (= it is possible),

..2/ gogoniant (= glory),

..3/ Conwy (= name of a river)

NOTE: South-east Wales digon > dicon


di-GOO-nedh (masculine noun)


digon prin fod...
d-gon prin vood
its unlikely that...
Digon prin fod yna ardal arall yng Nghymru syn cynnal cymaint o weithgareddau yn y Gymraeg
Its unlikely that there is any other area in Wales which has so many activities in Welsh


ion = digrif humorous


DI-gri (adjective)

Abbreviation (for example, in dictionary entries): digr.


di- gRoi -ni verb
skin = strip the skin off
digroeni'r pen scalp = remove the skin of the head and the hair as a trophy

2 fleece (someone) = strip somebody of his possessions or wealth

3 (South-east Wales) peel (apple, potato, etc)

4 (land) strip, pare, remove turf, remove grassy surface

haearn digroeni turfing iron (iron (of) paring)

Yr oedd pob modfedd o dir a ellid ei drin wedi ei ddigroeni, ei losgi, a'i weithio allan.
Every inch of land that could be worked had been pared, burnt, and spent

ETYMOLOGY: (di- prefix = without) + soft mutation + (croen = skin) + (-i = verbal suffix)


DII-guidh (verb)
to happen

2 Does dim byth yn digwydd Nothing ever happens


digwyddiad, digwyddiadau
di-GUIDH-yad, di-guidh-YAA-de (masculine noun)
event, occurrence, happening


di-guidh-YAA-dir masculine noun
PLURAL digwyddiaduron
events list

ETYMOLOGY: (digwydd = happen) + (-i-adur noun-forming suffix, indicating a book or list)


di- gəkh -win adjective
(North Wales) lacking in initiative, apathetic, having no go

Un digychwyn di o Hes got no go in him

ETYMOLOGY: (di- prefix = without) + soft mutation + ( cychwyn = to begin )


di-gə-mod adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (di- prefix = without) + soft mutation + (cymod = compromise)


di-gəm-r-dedh adjective
un digymrodedd hard-liner
rhai digymrodedd hard-liners
safbwynt digymrodedd hard line, uncompromising position

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = negative prefix) + soft mutation + (cymrodedd = compromise);
cymrodedd (= compromise) < *cymrawdedd < *cymfrawdedd
(cym- = together) + soft mutation + (brawd = judgement, verdict) + (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)


di-gə-nig adjective
(North Wales) lacking in initiative, apathetic, having no go
Un digynnig di o Hes got no go in him


di- gon -ail adjective
sefyllfa ddigynsail an unprecedented situation

ETYMOLOGY: (di- prefix = without) + soft mutation + (cynsail = rudiment, foundation, precedent


di-gə-skod adjective
exposed, open
llethr digysgod exposed slope

ETYMOLOGY: (di- prefix = without) + soft mutation + (cysgod = shelter, shadow)


di-gə- w -lidh adjective
1 shameless, impudent, insolent
Ond ydi hin ddigywilydd! What a cheek she has! (Isnt she shameless)

ETYMOLOGY: (di- prefix = without) + soft mutation + ( cywilydd = shame)


di-gə-wi- lədh -dra masculine noun
1 impudence, cheek, effrontery
digywilydd-dra noeth sheer impudence, sheer effrontery, sheer cheek

ETYMOLOGY: (digywilydd = insolent) + (-dra suffix for forming abstract nouns)


di-h-log adjective
pure, undefiled, immaculate

Hebreaid 7:26 Canys y cyfryw Archoffeiriad sanctaidd, diddrwg, dihalog, didoledig oddi wrth bechaduriaid, ac wedi ei wneuthur yn uwch nar nefoedd, oedd weddus i ni
Hebrews 7:26 For such an high priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens;

ETYMOLOGY: (di- prefix = without, not) + (halog = impure, defiled)


di-HANG-va f
PLURAL diangfydd

cael dihangfa dros dro (rhag rhywbeth)

find a temporary escape (from something) (e.g. ones companions, ones problems, etc)

2 escape = place through which an escape is possible

dihangfa dn, diangfeydd tn fire escape

ETYMOLOGY: (dihang- stem of dianc = to escape) + (-fa suffix = place)


dihareb, diarhebion
di-HA-reb, di-ar-HEB-yon (feminine noun)

2 bod yn ddihareb am be well-known for
Roedd yn ddihareb am ei anghofrwydd He was well-known for his forgetfulness / for his bad memory


di-h-nidh masculine noun
PLURAL dienyddiau
obsolete end, fate

2 obsolete execution, death

3 obsolete gwneuthur dihenydd ar execute, put to death (make execution / death on)

ddihenydd soft mutated form used as a qualifier, in the expression
hen ddihenydd very old, as old as the hills.
Literally: old (like) death, old (like) fate.

The use of the soft-mutated form to qualify an adjective is seen in examples such as
(1) celain (= corpse), marw gelain as dead as a doornail (dead + corpse = corpse dead)
(2) post (= post), byddar bost as deaf as a post (deaf + post = post deaf )

Mae honnan hen ddihenydd That (joke)s as old as the hills

In the 1588 translation of the Bible (and the subsequent 1620 versoin) the expression appears in noun form - yr Hen ddihenydd the very old (one)- as a name for God in Daniel 7:9. The equivalent in the English Bible (1611) is "the Ancient of Days"

Daniel 7:9 Edrychais hyd oni fwriwyd i lawr y gorseddfydd, ar Hen ddihenydd a eisteddodd: ei wisg oedd cyn wynned r eira, a gwallt ei ben fel gwln pur
Daniel 7:9 I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool

(1) (dihen-, the penult form of dien = death) + (-ydd = suffix for forming abstract nouns)

(2) dien is (di-, intensifying prefix) + (*hen = death) < probably Celtic *sen (= to end, to kill)

The element dien occurs also in the word dienyddio qv (= to execute, put to death)


di- heu -id masculine or feminine noun
burning desire, zeal

2 religious devotion

3 in place names (query) with the meaning pleasant place?
..a/ Dihewyd (SN4855) (county of Ceredigion)

..b/ Dl Dihewyd / Dl Dihewydd Pennal (SH6900) (district of Meirionnydd, county of Gwynedd) (dl = meadow)

Y Ddihewyd, Moel Ddihewyd Llanilltud Faerdref (ST0784) (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (moel = hill)

ETYMOLOGY: (dyheu = yearn) + (-yd suffix for forming verbs)
Proabably the same as dyhead (= yearning) < (dyheu- to yearn) + (suffix -ad)
(dyheu = yearn) + (-yd suffix for forming verbs) > *dyheuyd > diheuyd > dihewyd

The change eu > ew occurs in other words:
brycheuyn (= freckle) > (a dialect form) brychewyn
teneuyn (old form) > tenewyn (modern Welsh form) (= flank)


di hi = ydi hi
di-hi (verb)
(she) is (North Wales)


di-HIU-mor (adjective)


di-HI-no (verb)
to wake up (South Wales)


di-HUIL (adjective)


di- l -ad masculine noun
PLURAL dileadau
di-le- -de

ETYMOLOGY: (dile- stem of dilu = to delete) + (-ad suffix for forming abstract nouns)


di-lei-AA-dui adjective
erasable, removable

ETYMOLOGY: (dile- stem of dilu = to delete) + (-adwy adjectival suffix equivalent to English -able)

di-LEIT masculine noun
delight, interest, great interest

dilit mawr chief delight, great interest


cael dileit mewn (gwneud rhywbeth) to derive satisfaction from (doing something), to find it fun to (do something), to take delight in, to delight in


Cerddoriaeth ska oedd ei dilit yn ei harddegau Ska music was her great interest (when she was) in her teens

Ffermio, eisteddfota a thrwsio hen geir - dyna ei ddilit mawr erioed Farming, taking part in eisteddfods, and doing up old cars these has always been his great interest


Yr oeddwn i fryd ar y weinidogaeth er pan oedd yn fachgen ifanc ond ar l ugain mlynedd cefnodd ar ei ffydd, ac wedyn ysgrifennu oedd ei holl ddilit

He had his mind set on becoming a minister since he was a young boy but after twenty years he abandoned his faith, and after that writing was his consuming interest


Yr ieithoedd Celtaidd oedd ei brif ddilit The Celtic languages we his chief delight


Yr oedd yn enwog yn y fro am ei ddilit mewn casglu hen beiriannau fferm

He was well-known in his area for his delight in collecting old farm machinery


Fyddwn innau ddim yn rhedeg deng milltir cyn brecwast bob bore, ond pawb i ddilit ei hun

I for one wouldnt run ten miles every morning before breakfast, but each to his own



ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < English delight


di- l -idh masculine noun
PLURAL dileyddon
di-le- ə -dhon

ETYMOLOGY: (dile- stem of dilu = to delete) + (-ydd noun suffix for indicating a device or an agent)


di-LEES (adjective)

mor ddi-les mes i eifr (saying) (of something inappropriate)
(as useless as acorns for goats - i.e. acorns are fine for feeding pigs, but less than useless for goats)


di-le- tAnt masculine noun
PLURAL diletantiaid

ETYMOLOGY: English dilettante < Italian dilettante < dilettare (= to delight) < Latin dlectre (= to delight)


di-le- tAn -tedh adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (diletnt = dilettante) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)


di-LEI (verb)
to annul


d -lin
pure, fine, refined; polished; generally in the expression aur dilin fine gold

Job 28:17 Nid aur a grisial ai cystadla hi; na llestr o aur dilin fydd gydwerth iddi
Job 28:17 The gold and the crystal cannot equal it: and the exchange of it shall not be for jewels of fine gold.

2 Aur dilin yw distawrwydd Silence is golden
((it-is) fine gold that-is silence)

ETYMOLOGY: dilin < dilyn < dilyfn (di- = intensifying prefix) soft mutation + (llyfn = llis)


DI-lhad (plural noun)

2 dilledyn garment, piece of clothing

3 dillad isaf
DI-lhad-I-sa (plural noun) underclothes

4 dillad baban baby clothes

5 dillad dyfrglos waterproof clothing, waterproof clothes


dilledyn, dillad
di-LHE-din, DI-lhad (masculine noun)
garment, piece of clothing

Beth yw'r dilledyn gwaethaf a gawsoch chi erioed?
Whats the worst piece of clothing youve ever received?

2 tynnuch dillad oddi amdanoch; tynnuch dillad
TƏ-nikh DI-lhad take your clothes off, undress


di -lhin adjective
(obsolete; used in poetry in the 1800s) beautiful, pretty

(wrth gyfarch blodeuyn) Gwyrdd ac ir ywth goesen ddillyn
(addressing a flower) Your beautiful stem is green and fresh
(Mynydau Hamddenol: Ail Lyfr Nathan Wyn. 1905. Tudalen 9)



di-loiR -gan adjective
moonless, without moonlight, dark
yn y nos ddiloergan on that moonless night

ETYMOLOGY: (an = privative suffix) + soft mutation + (lloergan = moonlight)


DIL-wen (feminine noun)
womans name

ETYMOLOGY: possibly (dil- first syllable of dilys = sincere) + (-wen (qv) suffix for forming female names)


DI-lin (verb)

2 dilyn trywydd ofer (follow a futile trail) go down a blind alley, go up the garden path, bark up the wrong tree, follow a false trail, follow a trail to nowhere, go along a path that leads nowhere

3 dilyn y llwybr hawsaf take the line of least resistance (follow the easiest path)
dilyn llwybr llygad go the shortest way (follow (a) path (of) eye)

dilyn llwybr eich tad follow in your fathers footsteps (follow the path (of) your father)

5 gadael i natur ddilyn ei chwrs let nature take its course
gadael i bethau ddilyn ei hynt let things take their course

6 dilyn eich pregeth eich hun practise what you preach (follow your own sermon)

7 dilyn cwmni drwg follow bad company, hang around with the wrong crowd

ETYMOLOGY: (di- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (glyn, as in glynu = to stick)

In Middle Welsh the verb-noun was dilid > dilyd, of which the conjugated stem was dilyn- (dilynaf, dilyni, etc), and from this stem came a new form (dilyn) of the verb-noun


di-LƏN-ur masculine noun
PLURAL dilynwyr
adherent, disciple

2 fan, admirer

dilynwyr y bl hirgron
rugby fans (followers of the oval ball)

3 imitator

ETYMOLOGY: (dilyn-, stem of dilyn = to follow) + (-wr noun suffix, < gŵr = man)


dilys d -lis adjective

2 genuine, authentic
darn arian dilys a genuine coin

3 valid

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh dilys 'which cannot be rejected'
(di- negative prefix) + soft mutation + (*llys = element with the meaning of reject);
a compound probably already existing in British and Common Celtic, since there is a corresponding form in Irish dlis (= own; genuine)


d -lis feminine noun
woman's name

ETYMOLOGY: (see the preceding entry dilys (adjective))


d -liu masculine noun
PLURAL dilywiau
d- ləu-ye
flood, deluge

the Great Flood (y Dilyw) = the flood in Noah's time which only Noah and his family and representative animals survived (Genesis chapters 7 and 8)

Genesis 7:10 Ac wedi saith niwrnod y dwfr dilyw a ddaeth ar y ddaear
Genesis 7:10 And it came to pass after seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth.

cynddilywaidd antediluvian (cyn- = before) + soft mutation + (dilyw) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin diluuium (= flood) < dluere (= to wash away) < dis-(= apart) + (-luere < lavre = to wash).


DIM (masculine noun)

1 zero, nothing; anything
esgus cystal dim
an excuse as good as any

llawer o helynt ynghylch dim
a lot of fuss over nothing
(a lot of trouble about nothing!)

Does arnoch chi ddim i mi You dont owe me anything, you dont owe me a thing (There is nothing on you to me)

Nawr neu ddim! Now or never! (now or nothing)

pydrun ddim rot away, diminsh and disappear through a rotting process

2 dim byd
dim-BIID (phrase) nothing at all (from dim yn y byd - "nothing in the world")

3 dim clem
dim-KLEM (phrase) no idea - does dim clem da fe - hes got no idea

4 dim ots
dim-OTS (phrase) it doesnt matter - does dim ots da fi = I dont mind

5 dim ysmygu
dim-ə-SMƏ-gi (phrase) no smoking

6 un dim arall anything
Or braidd mod i am un dim arall I hardly think of anything else
Nid oedd un dim arall i'w wneud There was nothing else to be done

7 as an object; = at all, a bit
Dw i yn synnu dim I'm not a bit surprised
Dydi on gwrando dim He just wont listen
Paid gofidio dim am hynna Dont worry about that at all

8 bod yn ddim ond... be nothing but...

Dyw en ddim ond baw hes vermin (He is nothing but dirt)

Dyw en ddim ond dwy lygad a thrwyn (South) hes all skin and bone (He is nothing but two eyes and a nose)

9 ond y dim almost, very nearly (but the least thing)

Yr un peth yw, ond y dim Its the same, or very nearly

ond y dim imi almost, very nearly (+ verb)

Bu ond y dim iddo achub y shilff rhag syrthio He only just managed to stop the shelf from falling

Bu ond y dim imi fynd yno i fyw rai blynyddoedd yn l I almost went to live there years ago

10 sdim there isn't, etc sdim colloquial contraction of does dim < nid oes dim (= there isnt)
Sdim newid arno Hes set in his ways (theres no changing on him)

11 chwarae dwbl neu ddim play double or quits, game in which by tossing a coin, etc, it is decided whether a stake is to be doubled or withdrawn

12 ni + arbed dim (ar wrthwynebydd) not pull your punches (with an opponent)
(not + save anything on an opponent)

13 dim o...
mewn dim o dro in no time at all, at once

14 dim... ar at all
Dw i'n deall dim arnat ti I don't understand you at all, I just don't understand you
Peidiwch newid dim arni Don't change it at all, Leave it just as it is
Dyw hynny'n newid dim ar f'agwedd i That doesn't alter my opinion at all
Dywn cynhyrfu dim arno i It doesnt do anything for me, it leaves me cold

15 neb na dim anybody or anything, nobody or nothing
Dyw on malio am neb na ddim He doesnt care for anybody or anything

16 yn niffyg dim gwell for want of anything better


DI-mai, DI-me [ˡdɪmai / ˡdɪmɛ] feminine noun
PLURAL dimeiau
di-mei-e [dɪˡməiai / dɪˡməiɛ]
halfpenny = an old English coin worth half a penny, withdrawn from circulation in 1971
y ddimai = the halfpenny

2 halfpenny, half-p = English coin introduced on decimalisation in 1971 with the value of half a new penny and 2.4 times the value of the previous halfpenny. It was withdrawn from circulation thirteen years later, in 1984.

3 halfpenny = the value or sum represented by half a penny

4 (modifier) worth a halfpenny
cyllell ddimai = a halfpenny knife, a knife which costs a halfpenny

5 bob dimai (= every halfpenny) not a penny less (in talking of an exhorbitant price)

-Chweugain dalodd hi am y gwningen ny.
-Roddodd hi hynny amdani?
-Bob dime

-She paid ten shillings (= pre 1971 English currency) for that rabbit
-She gave that (much) for it?
-Not a penny less

6 the least amount of money

heb ddimau goch ar eich elw without a penny to your name ("without a red halfpenny on your profit")

bod heb ddimau goch ar eich elw not have a penny to your name

heb dalu dimau goch without paying a penny = not being obliged to pay, avoiding payment ("without paying a red halfpenny")

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh dimai < dimei < dimeidd < British *dis-medi (Celtic *med- = half)
cf Latin dmdius (= half)


dimai bren
di-me-bren [ˡdɪmai / ˡdɪmɛ ˡbrɛn] feminine noun
South Wales
brass farthing = the least amount ("wooden halfpenny")

2 Dyw e ddim yn hidio dimai bren am... He doesnt care a fig for (he doesnt heed a wooden halfpenny for...)


dimai goch
di-me-gookh feminine noun
copper halfpenny ("red halfpenny")

2 the least amount of money
heb ddimau goch ar eich elw without a penny to your name ("without a red halfpenny on your profit")

heb dalu dimau goch without paying a penny = not being obliged to pay, avoiding payment ("without paying a red halfpenny")

3 pob dimai goch, every last penny, every single penny = all the available money

Dylai pob dimai goch or arian hwnnw gael ei wario ar greu gwibffordd fodern rhwng y de ar gogledd
Every single penny of that money should be spent on creating a modern expressway between the north and the south

4 bob dimai goch (after a stated amount)
Maen werth pymtheg punt bob dimai goch Its worth every penny of its price of fifteen pounds ("Its worth fifteen pounds every copper halfpenny")


dimai goch y delyn
copper halfpenny ("(the) red (copper) halfpenny (with) the harp (on the reverse)")
North Wales run ddimai goch y delyn the least amount of money ((not) the one red halfpenny (of) the harp)


dim am ddim
<DIM am DHIM> [ˡdɪm am ˡɪm]
something for nothing

does dim am ddim you cant get something for nothing ("there isnt anything for nothing"); theres no such thing as a free lunch (when people treat you to something, it might be that they expect some favour in return)


dim am ddim, a dim llawer am ddimau
<DIM am DHIM, a dim LHAU-er am DHI-mai, -e> [ˡdɪm am ˡɪm, a dɪm ˡɬaʊɛr am ˡɪmaɪ, -ɛ]
"(you cant get) something for nothing, and not much for a halfpenny"
= you have to pay the proper price for things


dim dicach!
<dim DI-kakh> [dɪm ˡdɪkax]
no hard feelings!

ETYMOLOGY: (dim = not) + (dicach = angrier)


dim o beth
<dim o BEETH> [dɪm ɔ ˡbeːθ]
(in referring to childhood) wee young thing, tiny tot, person knee high to a grasshopper (lit: nothing of a thing)

pan oeddwn i'n ddim o beth when I was tiny, when I was a tiny little thing, when I was very little

ers yn ddim o beth since I was very young

ETYMOLOGY: (dim = nothing) + (o = of) + soft mutation + (peth = thing)


<DIIN> [diːn] (masculine noun)
(place names) fort (usually a British hillfort). See also dinas

Cf the following words with din as a final element

..a/ Caerfyrddin (town name) < Myrddin (from a British place name = fort by the sea)

..b/ creuddyn (place name) (= fort) (
crau = hut) + soft mutation + (din)

..c/ murddun < murddin (= fortification)
(mur = wall) + soft mutation + (din = fort) (examples of
murddun occur 1400+)

..d/ tyddyn (= smallholding) (
= house) + soft mutation + (din)

..e/ treuddyn (= fortified trv) <
trefddyn (tref = trv, farm) + soft mutation + (din)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh > British < Celtic

In Endlichers Glossary: dunum, montem. (The Glossary is a Gaulish-Latin wordlist in a manuscript of the 800s, a copy of an earlier work probably from the 500s or 600s. It was compiled by a native of South Gaul, and lists Gaulish words which would have been still in use at the time it was written. The Glossary is preserved in the Austrian National Library.)


<DII-nam> [ˡdiˑnam] (masculine noun)
a variant of dinan (qv) (= fort) found in some place names


<DII-nan> [ˡdiˑnan] (masculine noun)
(place names) fort

2 dinan > dinam

..1/ Brodinam
street name in Llandrillo (county of Dinbych) (spelt as Bro Dinam)

..2/ Llandinam
(SO0288) (the) monastic cell / church (by the) hillfort
locality in the district of Maldwyn (county of Powys)

..3/ Llysdinam (SO0058) (the) court (by the) hillfort
Locality in the district of Brycheiniog (county of Powys), 5km south-west of Llandrindod, on the west bank of the river Gwy, facing Y Bontnewydd ar Wy on the east bank

..4/ SS6894 There is a Heol Dinam / Dinam Road in Pentre-dŵr, Abertawe


Din Gefron
diin GEV-ron [diːn ˡgɛvrɔn]

1 NT9229 A hillfort which was the tribal centre of the Votadini (Welsh: Gododdin) at Yeavering Bell, a twin-peaked hill 361 metres above sea level by the River Glen in Northumberland.

(delw (delwedd 7372)


<dii-NAM> [diˑˡnam] adjective
1 blameless, faultless; unblemished, pure; honest, true

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = privative prefix) + (nam = imperfection)


dinas, dinasoedd
<DII-nas, di-NA-soidh, -odh> [ˡdiˑnas, dɪˡnasɔɪ, -ɔ] (feminine noun)
y ddinas = the city

2 in place names, hillfort (a masculine noun)
Y Dinas = the Hillfort (see entries below)

3 prifddinas
<priv-DHII-nas> [ prɪvˡiˑnas] (feminine noun) capital city

4 Y Ddinas Sanctaidd The Holy City, Jerusalem

5 (Bible) dinas barhaus a continuing city, a lasting city, an abiding city

Hebreaid 13.14 Canys nid oes i ni yma ddinas barhaus, eithr un i ddyfod yr ym ni yn ei disgwyl.
Hebrews 13:14 For here have we no continuing city, but we seek one to come.
(probably Jerusalem)

Y Dinas (1)
DII-nas> [ə ˡdiˑnas] place name
short form for place names with dinas (= fort, earthwork) as the main element
Example: y Dinas, from Dinas Mawddwy


Y Dinas (2)
DII-nas> [ə ˡdiˑnas] place name
SN0318 locality in the county of Penfro, south-west Wales; near Trefdraeth

2 name of the parish here

3 bwchod y Dinas nickname given to the villagers of this place ("he-goats (of) Dinas"). In standard Welsh this is bwch (singular), bychod (plural), but in the south the w is maintained in the tonic syllable in plural forms in such monosyllables with w in the singular

4 SN2730 locality in the county of Caerfyrddin

5 SS0091 locality in the county of Rhondda Cynon Taf, South Wales

6 SH2736 locality in the county of Gwynedd,
10 km east of Pwllheli

7 SH4758 locality by Llanwnda, in the county of Gwynedd, south of Caernarfon

Often called Dinas Llanwnda (the) Dinas (which is next to) Llanwnda, to differentiate it from nearby Dinas Dinlle (SH4356) on the coast, and also Dinas SH2636 east of Pwllheli

Dinas is below Plas Dinas (= Dinas Mansion), built in the 1600s and extended in the 1800s, and formerly in the possession of the Armstrong-Jones family, which was built on the remains an Iron Age fort (Dinas Dinoethwy)

(delw (delwedd 7048)
ETYMOLOGY: the fort (y = the) + (dinas = fort). In this sense dinas is a masculine noun.
In modern Welsh dinas (= a city) is feminine, hence y ddinas (= the city).


Dinas Dinlle
<DII-nas DIN-lhe> [ˡdiˑnas ˡdɪnɬɛ]
(SH4356) Iron Age hillfort in Gwynedd, on the coast one kilometre west of Llandwrog

2 (SH4356) village by the fort

(delw (delwedd 7377)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) fort (called) Dinlle (dinas = fort).
Dinlle is from Dinlleu (= fort
(of the god called) Lleu)

This is the same name as many old Celtic places called Lugu-dun-on, but with the elements reversed (noun + qualifying noun), showing it to be a name formed in Welsh rather than a name from the British period

NOTE: The local form is Dinas Dinlla (as this is a zone where a in the final syllable occurs, replacing the vowel e, and diphthongs ae, ai, au)

(delw (delwedd 7423)

<di-NAS-gair> [dɪˡnasgaɪr] feminine noun
PLURAL dinasgaerau
<di-nas-GEI-rai, -> [dɪnasˡgəɪraɪ, -ɛ]
y ddinasgaer = the citadel

ETYMOLOGY: city-fort (dinas = city) + soft mutation + (caer = fort)


<di-NAS-lin> [dɪˡnaslɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL dinasluniau
<di-nas-LIN-yai, -e> [dɪnasˡlɪnjaɪ, -ɛ]
art cityscape

ETYMOLOGY: (dinas = city) + soft mutation + (llun = picture)


Din Baer
din BAIR [dɪˑnˡbaɪr]
1 Welsh name of Dn Brra or Dunbar, Scotland. A tribal centre of the Votadini tribe (Welsh: Gododdin)

(delw (delwedd 7372

<DIN-bikh> [ˡdɪnbɪx] (feminine noun)
town in the north-east (little fort)
Sir Ddinbych
the county of Dinbych

town in the south-west. See Dinbych y Pysgod

3 A corresponding name is found in Cornish Dinbygh (English: Denby), near Bosveneghi (English: Bodmin) in eastern Cornwall

(delw (delwedd 7040)

Dinbych y Pysgod
<DIN-bikh ə PƏ-skod> [ˡdɪnbɪx ə ˡpəskɔd] (feminine noun)
town in the south-west. Short form: Dinbych

English name: Tenby
"the Dinbych of the fishes" - so called from the time when it was a fishing port


<din-DEI-thui> [dɪnˡdəɪθʊɪ] (feminine noun)
One of the two kmmuds of the kntrev of Rhosyr

(delw (delwedd 7379)

ETYMOLOGY: fortress (of the) Daethwy (tribe)

(din = fort) + (Daethwy name of a tribe)

Cf Porthaethwy < porth aethwy < porth Ddaethwy (the) ferrying-place (of) (the) Daethwy (people)

DIN-dirn [ˡdɪndɪrn]
village in the south-east

Abaty Dindyrn Tintern Abbey Abaty Dindyrn / Tintern Abbey yr hen orsaf / the old station

The name of the abbey (as Tintern) is very popular in street names in England, possibly from the poem "Lines Written a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey" by William Wordsworth


<di-NISTR-yol> [dɪˡnɪstrjɔl] (adjective)
destroyed, devestated, ruined

Eseciel 36:36 Felly y cenhedloedd y rhai a weddillir och amgylch, a gnt wybod mai myfi yr Arglwydd sydd yn adeiladu y lleoedd dinistriol, ac yn plannu eich mannau anrheithiedig...
Ezekiel 36:36 Then the heathen that are left round about you shall know that I the LORD build the ruined places, and plant that that was desolate: I the LORD have spoken it, and I will do it.


<di-NI-wed> [dɪnɪˡwɛd] (adjective)


<di-ni-WEI-tin> [dɪnɪˡwəɪtɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL diniweitiaid
<di-ni-WEIT-yaid, -yed> [dɪnɪˡwəɪtjaɪd, -ɛd]
1 innocent = nave person, person easily duped

ETYMOLOGY: diniwed (adjective = innocent, nave) + soft mutation + (dyn = man) > diniweid-ddyn > diniweityn (= innocent man, nave man)


Din Llen
<din-LHAIN> [dɪnˡɬaɪn]
Iron Age fort which in Penrhyn Llŷn

Porth Dinllen name of a cove west of Morfanefyn

Trwyn Porth Dinllen name of a point of land west of Porth Dinllen and Morfanefyn, and east of Y Borth Wen


Dinlle Gwrygon 
DIN-lhe GuRƏ-gon> [ˡdɪnɬɛ ˡgwrəgɔn]
1 The Wrekin, Shropshire

Cf Caerwrygon kair GuRƏ-gon> [kaɪrˡgwrəgɔn] Viroconium Cornoviorum, or Uriconium, Wroxeter

(Called Cair Guricon circa 800 AD)

Dinlle Gwrygon, the Iron Age hillfort on the hill; this may have been the tribal capital of the Cornovii; the Romans built the nearby town to which they gave the same name as the former hillfort.

(delw (delwedd 7413)

ETYMOLOGY: Gwyrygon, from a British (personal?) name *vrikon-. 


NOTE: Dinlle Gwrygon is the name given for The Wrekin in The Welsh Academy English-Welsh Dictionary.


<DIN-mel> [ˡdɪnmɛl]
village SJ0044 in Conwy, north-west Wales


Din Paladur
diin pa-LAA-dir [dɪˑn paˡlɑˑdɪr]
1 NT5975 Welsh name of a tribal centre of the Votadini tribe (Welsh: Gododdin) at Traprain Law, Scotland.

(Wikipedia: This hill was only known as Traprain Law from the late 18th century, taking its name from a local hamlet. Before that, it is found on old maps as Dunpendyrlaw. Locally, and particularly amongst fishermen who use it as a landmark, it is still referred to as Dunpelder.)

(delw (delwedd 7374)

Paladore, a traditional name of Shaftesbury, [Dorset], the British Caer Paladr, said to have been founded by Rhun

, 'Rhun of the stout spear.'


<DIN-tir> [ˡdɪntɪr] masculine noun
Variant form of the word deintur = tenter frame for stretching woollen cloth. There is a street in the town of Aberteifi called Cnwcydintir ((the) hill (of) the tenter frame)

NOTE: dintir represents the local pronunciation of
<DEIN-tir> [ˡdəɪntɪr]
(1) In South Wales the u and i have the same pronunciation
<i> [ɪ] (in the North the u retains the historical more central pronunciation).

In dialect writing the u is often replaced by i to show that the North Wales pronunciation is not intended.

In some place names spellings an i might be used instead of a u to show a local pronunciation, though generally it is considered incorrect to localise a name, though examples abound.

(2) In the South, an
<ei> [əɪ] in the penult is often simplified to the vowel <i> [ɪ] for example,

gweithio (= to work) is generally gwitho (there is an additional change in this word: a final io generally becomes o in the south);

gobeithio (= to hope) is gobithio;

gweiddi (= to shout) is gwiddi.

This apparently is what has happened in the case of dein- > din-


di o
<di o> [dɪ ɔ] (verb) (North Wales)
shortened form of ydi o (1) he is, (2) is he?


diod, diodydd
<DII-od,-di-OO-didh> [ˡdiˑɔd, dɪˡoˑdɪ] (feminine noun)
y ddiod = the drink

diod gadarn strong drink, alcohol

2 diotgar fond of drink, given to drink
diotgar < did-gar (diod = drink, alcoholic drink ) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives)


dioddef (diodde)
<di-OO-dhev, di-OO-dhe> [a ɪɔˡeˑv, dɪˡoˑɛ] (verb)
to suffer

2 iawndal i gyn-lowyr syn dioddef o broblemau anadlu
compensation for miners with (suffering from) breathing problems

A ddioddefws a orfu <a di-o-DHEE-vus a OR-vi> [a ɪɔeˑvʊs a ˡɔrvɪ] (verb)
to suffer

Motto of the former county of Morganwg

[it is] | he-who | suffered | who | overcame / conquered, he who suffered conquered


(a subject pronoun = the person who) + soft mutation + (dioddefws = he suffered) + (a relative pronoun = who) + soft mutation + (gorfu = he overcame)


<di-o-DHEV-gar> [dɪɔˡɛvgar] (adjective)
annioddefgar intolerant (an- = negative prefix) + aspirate mutation + (dioddefgar = tolerant)
anioddefgar tuag at intolerant of


<di-o-DHEE-vis> [dɪɔˡeˑvɪs] adjective
mwy dioddefus na beius more sinned against than sinning

ETYMOLOGY: (dioddef = to suffer) + (-us suffix for forming verbs)


<di-OO-val> [dɪˡoˑval] (adjective)
negligent, careless


<di-o-VAA-lukh> [dɪɔˡvɑˑlʊx] (masculine noun)


<di-O-vrid> [dɪˡɔvrɪd] masculine noun
a vow, binding oath

cymryd arnoch ddiofryd tlodi take a vow of poverty

2 a vow (not to do something), binding oath (to renounce something)

Roedd diofryd neu rwystr arno i beidio bwyta cig
He was obliged by a vow or some impediment not to eat meat
(there was a vow or impediment on him to not eat meat)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *d-wo-britu;
cf the element bryd, -fryd in cymryd (= to take), edfryd (= to restore)

The conjugation now is based on the infinitive diofryd (= to vow) > diofrydaf (= I shall vow); previously it was dioferaf (= I shall vow) < British *d-wo-ber, with the element ber (= carry), as in cymeraf (= I take), adferaf (= I restore)

NOTE: A variant of diofryd is diowryd


<DII-og> [ˡdiˑɔg] (adjective)


<di-OO-gel> [dɪˡoˑgɛl] (adjective)

2 diogel rhg stormydd storm-proof

3 ystafell ddiogel strongroom

diogelfa <di-o-GEL-va> [dɪɔˡgɛlva] f

PLURAL diogelfydd <di-o-gel-VEIDH> [dɪɔgɛlˡvəɪ]
place of safety, retreat

2 keep (of a castle)

Diogelfa Mynwy possible translation of Monnow Keep, street name in Trefynwy / Monmouth

NOTE: Daniel Silvan Evans 1894, An English and Welsh Dictionary: The keep of a castle gwarch, diogelfa, cadarnfa, cadarnfan, neu gedwidfa castell; y ddaiargell.

ETYMOLOGY: (diogel = safe) + (-fa suffix = place)


<di-o-GEE-li> [dɪɔˡgeˑlɪ] (verb)
make safe


<di-o-GEE-lukh> [dɪɔˡgeˑlʊx] (masculine noun)


<di-OO-gi> [dɪˡoˑgɪ] (m)

Mae tipyn o ddiogi arno pan fo ishe gweithion galed
Hes a bit lazy (theres a bit of laziness on him) when hard work is needed


<di-OO-gi> [dɪˡoˑgɪ] (verb)
be lazy


<DII-olkh> [ˡdiˑɔlx] (verb) to thank
- Diolch yn fawr
<DII-olkh ən VAUR> [ˡdiˑɔlx ən ˡvaʊr] (phrase) Thank you


<DII-olkh> [ˡdiˑɔlx]

PLURAL: diolchiadau <di-olkh-YA-dai, -e> [dɪɔlxˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]

ETYMOLOGY: diolch < di-olwch < di-wolwch;
great praise (di = intensifying prefix - related to Latin d) + soft mutation + gwolwch (= praise)


diolch byth
<DII-olkh BITH> [ˡdiˑɔlx ˡbɪθ]
thanks be to God / thank the Lord / thank heavens / thank Christ, etc (thanks (for) ever)
VARIANT: with soft mutation of byth - diolch fyth


diolch am
<DII-olkh am> [ˡdiˑɔlx am] (phrase) thanks for
- diolch i
<DII-olkh am> [ˡdiˑɔlx ɪ] (phrase) thanks to


<di-OLKH-gar> [dɪˡɔlxgar] (adjective)


<di-olkh-GA-rukh> [dɪɔlxˡgɑˑrʊx] (masculine noun)
thankfulness, gratitude


<di-olkh-YA-dai, -e> [dɪɔlxˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
thanks = PLURAL of diolch


di--lhung adjective
reluctant to let go, tenacious

ETYMOLOGY: (di- prefix = without) + soft mutation + (gollwng = release, let go)


d -or verb
South-west Wales
prohibit, disallow, forbid, ban, stop

dor rhywun i wneud rhywbeth forbid somebody to do something

dor rhywun rhag wneud rhywbeth forbid somebody to do something

Shwd gallen ni ddor y ci rhag dwyn llaeth y gath?
How can we stop the dog from stealing the cats milk?



di- ot -gar adjective
1 fond of drink, fond of drinking, given to drink

ETYMOLOGY: diotgar < did-gar (diod = drink, alcoholic drink ) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, meaning fond of, cf caru = to love)


di- o -tin masculine noun
Hen ddiotyn ofer yw hwnnw He (= the one you are talking about) is a useless drunk

ETYMOLOGY: diotyn < diod-ddyn (diod = drink) + soft mutation + (dyn = man)


di-plo-midh masculine noun
PLURAL diplomyddion
diplomat = official representing a state in its contacts with another state

ETYMOLOGY: an adaptation of the English word diplomat by means of a native suffix (diplom-) + (-ydd, suffix indicating an agent)

Diplomat < French diplomate (= diplomat) < diplomatique (= diplomatic) < New Latin diplmatic(us) < diplomat-, stem of diplma (= official document) < Greek diplma (= folded letter) < dipl(os) (= double, folded )+ (-ma = suffix)


di-plo-mədh-yeth feminine noun
diplomacy = conduct of relations between states

diplomyddiaeth y pastwn gunboat diplomacy ("diplomacy of the stick")

ETYMOLOGY: (diplomydd = diplomat) + (-i-aeth, suffix for forming abstract nouns)


di-plo-mə-dhol adjective
breinryddid diplomyddol diplomatic immunity

ETYMOLOGY: (diplomydd = diplomat) + (-ol, suffix for forming adjectives)


1 (intensifying prefix) - causes soft mutation of the following consonant

..a/ cl (= hidden), dirgel (= secret)
..b/ crynu (= to quake, to tremble), dirgrynu (= to vibrate)
..c/ mawr (= big), dirfawr (= enormous)

ETYMOLOGY:Welsh dir- (= extreme) < British < Celtic dr-

From the same Celtic root:
Irish dre (noun) (= indemnity; right, due)
Irish dr (obsolete) (adjective) (= due, pertaining to).

The Celtic word is related to Latin drus (= hard)


di -ren adjective
Also: di-raen
in poor condition
of poor quality
stwff di-raen poor stuff (literature, etc)

scowling, cross
Roedd golwg diran arno He looked cross

(clothes) worn, dowdy, shabby

ETYMOLOGY: (di- prefix = without) + soft mutaiton + (graen = good appearance)

NOTE: South-east Wales diran
di-ran , county of Ceredigion: dyran də-ran


di- ra -grith adjective
sincere, without hypocrisy, straight
yn ddiragrith sincerely

Yr oedd yr ymfudwr Cymraeg yn caru gwlad ei dadau yn wresog a diragrith; yr oedd cofio am ei bryniau ai dyffrynoedd yn felus ganddo
The Welsh emigrant loved the land of his forbears passionately and sincerely; remembering its hills and valleys was sweet to him

ETYMOLOGY: (di- prefix, without) + soft mutation + (rhagrith = hypocrisy)


dir-də- n -dig adjective

mewn llais dirdynedig in a tense voice

ETYMOLOGY: (dirdyn- stem of dirdynnu = torment) + (-edig suffix for forming a past participle adjective)


dir- də -ni verb
torture, torment
contort, distort
Roedd ei wyneb wedi ei ddirdynnu gan boen His face was contorted with pain

ETYMOLOGY: (dir- = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (tynnu = pull)


dir-gel-va masculine noun
PLURAL dirgelfaoedd, dirgelfu, dirgelfydd
dir-gel-v-odh, dir-gel-vai, dir-gel-veidh
secret place

ETYMOLOGY:(dirgel = (adjective) secret)+ (-fa suffix, = place)


dir-GEE-lukh (m)
mystery, secret
2 cadw rhywbeth yn ddirgelwch keep something a secret


dir- grə -ni verb
1 (verb without an object)
2 (verb with an object) vibrate

ETYMOLOGY: (dir- = instensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (crynu = quake, tremble)


dir- grə -nur masculine noun
PLURAL dirgrynwyr
1 vibrator, device for stimulation of female genitals

ETYMOLOGY: (dirgryn- stem of dirgrynnu = vibrate) + (-wr, suffix to indicate an device)


dir- gə -melh verb
urge, press, force

Aethant adref, ac yr oedd fy nhad wedi ei ddirgymell erbyn hyn mai wedi breuddwydior cyfan yr oedd Twmi ac yntau.
S Lawer Dydd / W. Llewelyn Williams / 1929 / tudalen 43
They went home, and my father was convinced by now that Twmi and he had dreamt all of it

ETYMOLOGY: (dir- = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (cymell = to urge)


di-RIIF (adjective)
(colloquial: di-ri)
di-RII uncountable


DIR-nad [ˡdɪrnad] (verb)
understand, comprehend

Y mae'r Cymry Cymraeg yn gallu dirnad sut beth yw bod yn Sais ond ni all Sais ddirnad sut beth yw bod yn Gymro Cymraeg.
The Welsh-speaking Welsh can understand what it is like to be an Englishman but an Englishman cannot comprehen what it is like to be a Welsh-speaking Welshman

ETYMOLOGY: (dir- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (*gnăd) < British (*gnă-t-) < Celtic
This element (*gnăd) occurs too in ynad (= magistrate)

A related element (*gnawd) < British (*gnā-t-) < Celtic is to be found in adnabod (= to know) < adnawbod (ad + *gnawd + bod)

Related to *gnawd is Latin ntus (= worthy of attention)


dir-west masculine noun
PLURAL dirwestau
obsolete abstinence, fasting

temperance, teetotalism = abstinence from alcohol, rejection of alcoholic drinks

cymanfa ddirwest hymn-singing festival to promote abstinence from alcohol

tŷ dirwest, gwesty dirwest hotel where alcoholic drinks are not served, hotel for non-drinkers, members of a temperance organisation, supporters of the temperance movement; colloquial name (Englishism) temprans;
yn y gwesty dirwest / yn y temprans = in the temperance hotel

cymryd y llw dirwest take the pledge, promise to abstain from alcoholic drinks ("take the oath (of) temperance")
colloquial form seinio dirwest ("to sign abstemiousness / temperance")

cymdeithas ddirwest temperance association = organisation promoting abstinence from alcohol

torrich dirwest break the pledge, to drink alcohol after pledging not to ("to break your teetotalism")

ETYMOLOGY: dirwest < dyrwest < British < Celtic *do-ro-wes-t;
1 -wes (= to stay); cf gwest (= guest);

2 the syllable dyr- has become dir- from the influence of other words with the more abundant prefix dir-


dir-wes-teth feminine noun
temperance, abstention from alcohol

2 temperance = the movement promoting teetotalism (very active in Wales in the late 1800s and early 1900s)

NOTE: also dirwestiaeth

ETYMOLOGY: (dirwest = temperance, abstention from alcohol) + (-aeth, -i-aeth)


dir-we-stol adjective
relating to temperance; see dirwest

achos dirwestol = temperance cause, ideals of the movement for abstention from alcohol

cyfarfod dirwestol = temperance meeting; meeting, lecture, talk to promote temperance
See page 0967k (via Google 0967k kimkat). An account in Welsh of a Cyfarfod Dirwestol (temperance meeting) in 1842 in Bro Morgannwg / the Vale of Glamorgan

cymdeithas ddirwestol = cymdeithas ddirwest = temperance society

gwesty dirwestol = gwesty dirwest = temperance hotel, hotel for non-drinkers, for members of the temperance movement

mudiad dirwestol = mudiad dirwest = temperance movement, teetotal movement, movement for abstention from alcohol

undeb dirwestol = undeb dirwest = temperance union, temperance society

(drink) alcohol-free

ETYMOLOGY: (dirwest = temperance, abstention from alcohol) + (-ol)


dir-we-stur masculine noun
PLURAL dirwestwyr
teetotaller, abstainer (from alcoholic drinks), non-drinker, temperance supporter

ETYMOLOGY: (dirwest = temperance, abstention from alcohol) + (-wr, suffix to indicate an agent, man)


dir-west-reg feminine noun
PLURAL dirwestwragedd
(woman) teetotaller, abstainer (from alcoholic drinks), non-drinker

ETYMOLOGY: (dirwest = temperance, abstention from alcohol) + (-wraig, suffix to indicate a female agent, woman)


dir-we-sti masculine noun
PLURAL dirwestai
temperance house, temperance hotel; hotel for non-drinkers, for members of the temperance movement

ETYMOLOGY: (dirwest = temperance, abstention from alcohol) + soft mutation + (ty = house) > dirwest-dy > dirwesty


dirwy, dirwyon
DI-rui, di-RUI-on (masculine noun)


di-RUI-stir (adjective)
without obstacles


dii- sail adjective
1 groundless, without any basis in fact, false
honiad di-sail groundless assertion, groundless accusation

2 son di-sail unfounded rumours

ETYMOLOGY: (di- prefix privatiu, sense) + (sail = foundation, basis)


di-SPE-rod (masculine noun)
ar ddisberod = wandered off


di-sbə-dhi verb
empty (of water)

bail out (water from the bottom of a boat)
disbyddu cwch bail out a boat

(pond, pool) drain

spend (a large amount of money)
Mae hi wedi cael ad-daliad treth. Gobeithio na fydd hin sbydur cyfan mewn pnawn yn siopau Caer-dydd neu Gaer
She got a tax rebate. I hope she doesnt spend the lot in an afternoon in the shops in Caer-dydd or Chester

ETYMOLOGY: (di- intensifying prefix) + (sbyddu = to empty);
sbyddu < hysbydd (hysb = dry) + (-yddu, suffixes ?ydd + -u)
NOTE: North Wales sbyddu, sbydu


dscotec, discotecau
<DI-sko-tek, di-sko-TE-kai, -ke> [ˡdɪskɔtɛk, dɪskɔˡtɛkaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)


<di-SEIM-yo> [dɪˡsəɪmjɔ] verb
defat, remove the fat from

ETYMOLOGY: (di- negative prefix) + (saim = grease) + (-io verbal suffix)


<DI-serth> [ˡdɪsɛrθ]

feminine noun
(place names) hermitage, hermit's cell

Y Ddiserth the former name of Llansanffrid Glan Conwy (SH8076), locality in the county of Conwy 6km to the south-west of Baecolwyn map

Diserth (SJ0579) locality in the county of Dinbych, 4k south of Prestatyn
(1961) Population: 1,716; proportion of Welsh-speakers: 40%
Misspelt on English maps as Dyserth

Local form: Disarth (showing the change of e > a in a final syllable. This feature
is regarded as being north-western, though it was also found in the northern fringe of the counties of Dinbych and Y Fflint, along the coast) Diserth, map

Diserth (SO0358) locality in district of Maesyfed, county of Powys, 3k south-west of Llandrindod

Misspelt on English maps as Disserth. Also occurs as Disart

Also called
Y Ddiserth yn Elfael (the Diserth (which is) in (the district called) Elfael)
See page #kimkat2174k (via Google search box) for more about this village. Eglwys Diserth

Diserth (SJ2105) locality 1km south-west of Y Trallwng / Welshpool (SJ2207) (district of Maldwyn, county of Powys)
Misspelt on English maps as Dyserth or Dysserth map

(delw (delwedd 7498)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *disert- < Latin dsertum < dserere (= to cut off from)
(de = from) + (serere = to tie together)

The Welsh word is in fact the same word etymologically as English desert (= arid region) < French < Latin

Irish has dseart (= retreat, hermitage) < Latin

In Scotland, north-east of Kirkcaldy, there is Diseart (NT3093) (this is the name in Scottish Gaelic; it is anglicised as Dysart)

disg, disgiau
<DISK, DISK-yai, -ye> [ˡdɪsk,ˡdɪskjaɪ, -ɛ] (de joc)
disc; counter (in a board game)


<DI-sklair, -er> [ˡdɪsklaɪr, -ɛr] (adjective)


<dis-KLEIR-deb> [dɪsˡkləɪrdɛb] masculine noun
brightness, shine

ETYMOLOGY: (disglair = brilliant) + (-deb suffix for forming nouns)


<di-SKLEIR-yo> [dɪˡskləɪrjɔ] (verb)
(sun) to shine


disgrifio <di-SKRIV-yo> [dɪˡskrɪvjɔ] (verb)
to describe


disgwyl <DI-skuil> [ˡdɪskʊɪl] (verb)
to wait for, expect;

2 in the spoken language of the south it retains its old meaning - to look, pronounced dishgwl

3 (m) expectation
yn groes i bob disgwyl contrary to expectations (contrary to every expectation)
siomir disgwyliadau fall short of expectations (disappoint the expectations)

NOTE: Page 46 /
A Welsh Grammar - Historical and Comparative / John Morris-Jones (1864-1929) /
1913: The following words may be mentioned as those most commonly mispronounced: wy is the falling diphthong in cern vat, disgl, look, expect, Gnedd Venedotia, Gndid, id., morn maiden, tern fervent; it is the rising diphthong in oherdd because of, cychn, rise, start, erchn protector, [bed]-side, deddd happy


<di-SKUIL-va> [dɪˡskʊɪlva] feminine noun
PLURAL disgwylfydd
<di-skuil-VEIDH> [dɪskʊɪlˡvəɪ]
1 (obsolete) look-out place, (USA: overlook)

Disgwylfa (SN8117) mountain in the district of Brycheiniog (county of Powys)

3 Disgwylfa house name (for example, in Llan-rug, county of Gwynedd)

ETYMOLOGY: (disgwyl, stem of disgwyl = to look) + (-fa noun-forming suffix, indicating a place)


<di-SKUIL-yad> [dɪˡskʊɪljad] masculine noun
PLURAL disgwyliadau
<di-skuil-YAA-de> [dɪskʊɪlˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1 expectation

2 siomir disgwyliadau fall short of expectations (disappoint the expectations)

3 disgwyliad oes life expectancy

ETYMOLOGY: (disgwyl, stem of disgwyl = to expect) + (-i-ad noun-forming suffix)

disgybl, disgyblion
<DI-skibl, di-SKƏBL-yon> [ˡdɪskɪbl, dɪˡskəbljɔn] (masculine noun)
school pupil


<DI-skin> [ˡdɪskɪn] (verb)
go down


<di-SHEE-vi> [dɪˡʃeˑvɪ] (verb)
south-eastern form of deisyfu (= beseech, implore, request)

Especially in the oath Dir dishefon ni or Duw dishefon ni (God help us!)

Explained by Cadrawd in Expressions, Proverbial Sayings, Rhymes, &c., collected in Mid-Glamorganshire. 1906: (See our page kumquat 0497e via the internal search tool or Google)

DUW DISHEFON NI, corruption of Duw deisyfwn di, a peculiar kind of oath, which, if properly uttered, would be an appropriate prayer - Lord we beseech Thee.


<DISH-klad> [ˡdɪʃklad]

PLURAL: dishgleida / dishglida <dish-KLEI-da,-dish-KLII-da> [dɪʃˡkləɪda, dɪʃˡkliˑda]

1 (south-east) local form of dysglaid (= a cupful, literally a saucerful)

dishglad o de (south-east) a cup of tea

ETYMOLOGY: See dishgled and dysglaid


<DISH-kled> [ˡdɪʃklɛd]

PLURAL: dishgleide / dishglide <dish-KLEI-de,-dish-KLII-de> [dɪʃˡkləɪdɛ, dɪʃˡkliˑdɛ]

1 (south-west) local form of dysglaid (= a cupful, literally a saucerful)

dishgled o de a cup of tea


1 dysglaid > disglaid In the south, a y
[ə] in the penult may become i [i]

2 In the south, an s before or after an i is generally palatalised s > sh

dishglaid > dishglaid

3 In colloquial Welsh, the diphthong ai in the final syllable is reduced to e

dishglaid > dishgled

In the south-east, this e becomes a

dishgled > dishglad

NOTE: See dysglaid

<DI-stau> [ˡdɪstaʊ] (adjective)
cyn ddistawed r bedd as silent as the grave
mor ddistaw 'r bedd as silent as the grave

2 yn ddistaw bach
<ən DHI-stau BAAKH> [ən ˡɪstaʊ ˡbɑːx] (adverb) on the quiet


<di-STAU-ruidh> [dɪˡstaʊrʊɪ] masculine noun
silence, absence of noise
torri ar y distawrwydd break the silence, disturb the silence
distawrwydd dwys profound silence

silence = state of not speaking or saying anything, pause in a conversation, failure to speak
torrir distawrwydd break the silence

Fe edrychson nhw yn dwp ar ei gilydd, nes i Jac dorrir distawrwydd a dweud "Wel, ych chin dal ar dir y byw wedir cwbl!"
They looked at each other stupidly until Jac broke the silence and said, "Well, youre still in the land of the living after all!"

distawrwydd huawdl an eloquent silence

silence = refusal to answer

(imperative) silence! quiet! (= let there be silence!)
Distawrwydd, os gwelwch yn dda! Quiet, please!

Aur dilin yw distawrwydd Silence is golden ((it-is) fine gold that-is silence)

ETYMOLOGY: (distaw = silent, quiet) + (-rwydd suffix for froming nouns)
NOTE: in the south, colloquially, also dishtawrwydd


<DIS-triu> [ˡdɪstrɪʊ] (masculine noun)

hunanddistryw self destruction, (figuratively) suicide
(hunan = self-, auto-) + soft mutation + (distryw = destruction )
cyflawni hunanddistryw gwleidyddol commit politicial suicide


<di-STRIU-gar> [dɪˡstrɪʊgar] (adjective)


<di-striu-GAA-rukh> [dɪstrɪʊˡgɑˑrʊx] (adjective)


<di-STRIU-yo> [dɪˡstrɪʊjɔ] (verb)
to destroy


distrywiol <di-STRIU-yol> [dɪˡstrɪʊjɔl] (adjective)


<DI-stilh> [ˡdɪstɪɬ] masculine noun
PLURAL distyllion
<di-STƏLH-yon> [dɪˡstəɬjɔn]
ebb of the tide, low tide, low water

2 distyll y don (the) ebb (of) the wave / the sea) (South-east Wales) low tide
Distyll y A folk tune mentioned in The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine and Celtic Repertory (1830). The English name is given as The Fall of the Wave.

<di-STƏLH-va> [dɪˡstəɬva] (feminine noun)

PLURAL: distyllfydd
<di-təlh-VEIDH> [dɪstəɬˡvəɪ]
y ddistyllfa = the distillery


diswyddiad, diswyddiadau
<di-SUIDH-yad,-di-suidh-YAA-dai, -de> [dɪˡsʊɪjad, dɪsʊɪˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)

2 diswyddiad dros dro
<di-SUIDH-yad dros DROO> [dɪˡsʊɪjad drɔs ˡdroː] temporary redundancy


<di-SUI-dho> [dɪˡsʊɪɔ] (verb)
to dismiss (from a job), (USA) to fire (someone); Englandic: to sack (someone)


<di-SƏ-vid> [dɪˡsəvɪd] adjective)


<di-SƏL-vain> [dɪˡsəlvaɪn] adjective
1 groundless, without any basis in fact, false

ETYMOLOGY: (di- privative prefix, without) + (sylfaen = foundation, basis)

<DI-siml> [ˡdɪsɪml] adjective
unaffected, simple, plain, honest, innocent

Genesis 25:27 Ar llanciau a gynyddasant: ac Esau oedd ŵr yn medru hela, a gŵr or maes, a Jacob oedd ŵr disyml, yn cyfanheddu mewn pebyll.
And the boys grew: and Esau was a cunning hunter, a man of the field; and Jacob was a plain man, dwelling in tents.

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = intensifying prefix) + (syml = simple)

NOTE: AN old variant was disym
<DI-sim> [ˡdɪsɪm] (loss of the final l)

<di-SƏ-muth> [dɪˡsəmʊθ] adjective
Colloquially disymwyth <di-SƏ-muith> [dɪˡsəmʊɪθ]
immediate, sudden

daeth arnynt fraw disymwyth a sudden fright took them (it-came on them a-fright sudden).


<DII-thai, the> [ˡdiˑθaɪ, -ɛ]
(tag pronoun, follows a noun or verbnoun qualified by dy = your)
belonging to you too

2 fun i a dun dithe mine and yours


<di-WAITH> [dɪˡwaɪθ]

jobless, unemployed


<DI-walh> [ˡdɪˡwaɬ] adjective
(obsolete) sufficient, not lacking

Salmau 66:12 Peraist i ddynion farchogaeth ar ein pennau; aethom trwy y tn ar dwfr: a thi an dygaist allan i le diwall.
Psalms 66:12 Thou hast caused men to ride over our heads; we went through fire and through water: but thou broughtest us out into a wealthy place.

ETYMOLOGY: (di- prefix = without) + soft mutaiton + (gwall = lack)


diwedd, diweddion
DI-wedh (masculine noun)

hyd y diwedd to the end
hyd y diwedd un to the bitter end
o'r dechrau hyd y diwedd from beginning to end
dal ati hyd y ddiwedd stick it out, stick at it until the very end

3 diwedd ar yr ymladd cessation of hostilites

dyna ddiwedd ar hynny
thats the end of that

Ddaw e ddim i ddiwedd da (said of someone whose behaviour is bad)
Hell come to a bad end (he wont come to a good end)

6 hyd y diwedd to the end
dal ati hyd y diwedd to stick it out, (keep at it until the end)

7 gwneud diwedd arnoch eich hun put an end to one's life, commit suicide kill oneself
make (an) end on yourself) (gwneud = do, make) + (diwedd = end) + (arnoch = on you) + (eich hun of yourself)

gwneud eich diwedd chi put an end to one's life, commit suicide kill oneself
make your end of you (gwneud = do, make) + (eich = your) + (diwedd = end) + (vos = of you)


di-WE-dhar (adjective)
late = not on time (South Wales)

2 late = recently died

3 ddeng mlynedd yn diweddarach ten years later, ten years after


di-we-DHA-ra (adjective) (= diweddaraf)

2 y diweddara un the very latest


di-w-dhi masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL diweddau, diweddon
di-wedh--e, di-wedh--on
(feminine noun) fiance
y ddiweddi the fiance

A dyma Sin Evans, ei ddiweddi And this is Sin Evans, his fiance

(masculine noun) fianc

y diweddi the fianc

ETYMOLOGY: (di- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (gweddo = begging, entreating)


di-wedh--ad masculine noun
PLURAL diweddadau
engagement (to be married)

ETYMOLOGY: (diwedd-, stem of diweddo = to get engaged) + (-iad = suffix for forming nouns)


di-wedh--o verb
get engaged; (as a noun) engagement
modrwy ddiweddo engagement ring (plural: modrwyon diweddo)

ETYMOLOGY: (di- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (gweddo = beg, entreat; pray)


di-wedh-nod masculine noun
PLURAL diweddnodau
full stop (usually: atalnod llawn full stop-mark)

ETYMOLOGY: (diwedd = end) + (nod = mark)


di-we-dhi verb
end, finish, put an end to

pan ganodd y gloch i ddiweddur rownd
when the bell rang to end the round

diwedduch oes mewn tlodi end your life in poverty, spend the last years of your life in poverty

ETYMOLOGY: (diwedd = end) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)


DI-werth (adjective)
useless, valueless

(person) worthless, good for nothing, ineffective
Mae hwnnwn gwbl ddiwerth Hes completely useless (the one mentioned is completely useless)

ETYMOLOGY: (di- privative prefix, without) + soft mutation + (gwerth = worth, value)


di-WEE-thav, di-WEE-tha> (adjective)

ETYMOLOGY: (diwedd = end) + (-haf superlative-degree suffix < British -sam).

diweddhaf > diwethaf (ddh > th; the addition of h to the voiced consonant dd results in a devoiced consonant th)


NOTE: Addition of a superlative-degree ending to a noun to form an adjective


diwrnod, diwrnodau
DIUR-nod, diur-NOO-dai, -de (masculine noun)
diwrnod agored
DIUR-nod a-GOO-red open day in a school
diwrnod cau yn gynnar
DIUR-nod kau ən GƏ-nar early-closing day, the day of the week when shops open only in the morning (early closing was formerly - until the 1970s a common practice in a village or town)

bod yn ddiwrnod ar l y ffair
be too late, arrive too late (be a day after the fair)

diwrnod naid leap day, February 29

4 diwrnod is used for day when referring to the weather

Nid yn y bore mae canmol diwrnod teg (it-is-not in the morning that-there-is (the) praising (of) a fair day), that is, the weather in the morning may be fine and sunny, but the afternoon may bring rain.

A favourable situation may suddenly change, wait and see what happens in the long run.

di-wəd-YA-nol (adjective)

ystd ddiwydiannol industrial estate

ETYMOLOGY: (diwydiant = industrial) + (-ol adjectival ending); diwydintol < diwydiannol



di-WƏD-yant (masculine noun)


DI-uid (adjective)


di- ui -druidh masculine noun
ymdrechu phob diwydrwydd i strive hard to (do something)

ETYMOLOGY: (diwyd = diligent) + (-rwydd suffix for forming abstract nouns)


diwylliant, diwylliannau
di-WƏLH-yant, di-wəlh-YA-ne (masculine noun)


di-ə- mad -verth adjective
1 helpless
teimlo'n gwbl ddiymadferth feel completely helpless

ETYMOLOGY: (di- privative prefix, without) + (ymadferth = effort)


di-ə-mad- veR -thedh masculine noun

ETYMOLOGY: (diymadferth = helpless) + (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)


di-ə-mad- ver -thi
1 render helpless, leave helpless

ETYMOLOGY: (diymadferth = helpless) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)

di-əm- g -ledh adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = negative prefix) + (ymgeledd = care, help)


di-əm-HON-gar (adjective)


di- əm -wad adjective
undeniable, irrefutable, indisputable, incontrovertible, conclusive
Mae'n ffaith gwbl ddiymwad Its an undeniable fact (Its a completely undeniable fact)

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = negative prefix) + (ymwad- stem of ymwadu = deny, refute )


di- ə-skog adjective
firm, steadfast, sound, immovable, rocksteady, unshakable, unshaken


gyda'r penderfyniad mwyaf diysgog with the firmest possible determination
ffydd diysgog steady faith
credu yn ddiysgog firmly believe

2 unflinching

ETYMOLOGY: (di- = negative prefix) + (ysgog-, stem of the verb ysgogi = move


1 (obsolete) preposition and prefix in British.
It no longer exists as such independently in the modern language.


It is the basis of the modern preposition i, and the prefix dy-, and it is incorporated into other words from earlier periods which are in use in the current language

..1/ preposition i (= to)
Celtic do > British do > Old Welsh ddy > y > i

..2/ dy intensifying prefix

dychwelyd (= to come back, to return

dyfynnu (= to cite, to quote)

..3/ dam- (prefix) is do-ambi- (damsang = trepitjar)
(ambi- is the basis of modern Welsh am (= around))

Also dym-, a variant of dam- (dymchwel = to demolish, dymuno = to wish)

ETYMOLOGY: Cf Irish do, Breton da, Cornish dhe (all are prepositions with the meaning to)


DOO (verb)
(reply to a verb in the past tense) yes

(The negative reply is naddo NAA-dho)


Aethost ti ir banc ddoe? Do, yn y bore.
Did you go to the bank yesterday? Yes, in the morning


(obsolete) preposition and prefix in British.
It no longer exists as such independently in the modern language, but it is incorporated into many words from earlier periods in use in the current language

..1/ preposition i (= to)
(Celtic do > British do > Old Welsh ddy > y > i)

..2/ dy intensifying prefix (dychwelyd = to come back, to return , dyfynnu = to cite, to quote)

..3/ dam- (prefix) is do-ambi-

damsang = trample

Ther is also the variant dym-

dymchwel = to demolish,

dymuno = to wish

..4/ British *do-ad-kom-mik (prefix do) + (prefix ad) + (prefix kom) + (mik-) > dychymyg (= imagination)

ETYMOLOGY: Cf Irish do, Breton da, Cornish dhe (all prepositions meaning to)

dobio DOB-yo (verb)
to fuck


doc DOK (masculine noun)
See also: docfa, docio


do-ked masculine noun
PLURAL docedau
docket = a card attached to a container indicating its contents

ETYMOLOGY: English docket; possibly from dock (noun) (= docked tail, part of a tail left after clipping); (verb) (= cut short a tail; shorten);

Dock from Old Norse dokkr (= short tail, stump of a tail)


dok-va feminine noun
PLURAL docfu
berth - space for a ship to moor in a dock

ETYMOLOGY: (doc = dock) + (-fa = place)


doch-chi ddim
doo-khi-dhim verb
South-west Wales
nid oeddech chi = you werent


dok-yai, -yee
Plural form of doc = dock


docio 1
verb without an object
to dock = enter a dock

to dock = enter a port

to berth = moor in a dock

to dock = (spacecraft) join in space

ETYMOLOGY: English to dock (= to enter a dock, to berth)


docio 2
dok-yo verb
verb with an object
dock (a horses tail) = cut short
shorten; in this sense, the form of the verb is usually tocio (qv)

ETYMOLOGY: English to dock (= cut short a tail; shorten); from Old Norse dokkr (= short tail, stump of a tail)


dok-yur masculine noun
PLURAL docwyr
(USA: longshoreman) (Englandic: docker, dockworker)

ETYMOLOGY: (doc = dock) + (-i-wr, suffix = man)


do-ko adverb
South Wales
See: dacw = over there you can see


dok- pen -vro
(SM9603) locality in South-west Wales

ETYMOLOGY: (the) dock (by the town of) Pembroke

A translation of the English name Pembroke Dock
The offical Welsh spelling is Doc Penfro, though strictly speaking in a name indicating a settlement the elements are run together wherever possible to form a single word.

doc sych
dok-siikh masculine noun
PLURAL dociau sych
dry dock = a dock from which water can be pumped in order to repair the underside of a ship


dok-tor masculine noun
PLURAL doctoriaid
colloquial doctor (the standard form is meddyg

colloquial form of address to a doctor

doctor = the services of a doctor
Pam mae doctor a deintydd ac ysbyty mor ddrud?
Why do we have to pay so much for the doctor, the dentist and the hospital?

colloquial doctor = person with a Ph.D. (the standard form is doethur
doi-thir )

llyfr doctor moch pig doctors book, book explaining how to treat sick pigs
llyfr doctor at wartheg a lloi book explaining how to treat sick cows and calves

ETYMOLOGY: English doctor < Latin doctor (= teacher) < docre (= to teach)


verb without an object
work as a doctor

verb with an object
treat people in ones capacity as a doctor

look after, see through an illness, see through a crisis or a bad time

doctor = castrate, geld
doctora ci = castrate a dog

facetious patch up, repair

ETYMOLOGY: (doctor = doctor) + (-a suffix for forming verbs)


dok-to-redh adjective
doctoral, pertaining to a doctor
doctoral = resembling a doctor
pompously wise

ETYMOLOGY: (doctor = doctor) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)


doctor cwac
dok-tor-kwak masculine noun
PLURAL doctoriaid cwac
dok-tor-yed kwak
quack doctor, person who acts as a doctor without medical knowledge

ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of English quack doctor; the descriptive element quack is a shortening of the now obsolete quacksalver < Dutch kwakzalver (= salve-peddler, seller of medicines).

The first element apparently means to quack like a duck and the second meaning medicine, with an agent suffix -er added.

Cf modern Dutch kwaken (= to quack), zalven (= to anoint, to rub with ointment).

The idea was of a seller who boasted about the properties of his salves, with this repetitive praise likened to the quacking of a duck


dok-tor-yeth feminine noun
working as a doctor
Dechreuodd gael blas yn gynnar ar ddoctoriaeth
Early on in his life he began to take an interest in work as a doctor

ETYMOLOGY: (doctor = doctor) + (-i-aeth suffix for forming nouns)


DOOD (verb)
to come
DOOD-aa (verb) to bring
dod o hyd i
DOOD-o-HIID-i (verb) to find
dod yn
DOOD-ən (verb) to become

dod och cragen come out of ones shell

3 dod i olwg rhywbeth come within sight of
Yn y man, daethant i olwg y groesffordd arweinai at y felin Presently they came within sight of the crossroad which led to the mill

dod rhywbeth bring (come with)

dod rhywbeth yn l i bring something back to

der ag e nl i fi bring it back to me (South)

dod (rhywbeth) i fwcl
resolve (a matter) (bring something to a buckle)
Oni bai am y ddamwain a gefais buaswn wedi dod 'r broses i fwcl ers talwm
If it hadnt been for the accident that I had I would have resolved this matter a long time ago

dod yn un haid come in a large group

dod o dan wg (rhywun) incur the disapproval of (someone)

dod atoch eich hun come round, regain conscousness

8 Ddaw e byth i sgidiau ei dad Hell never be anything like his father, Hell never be of the same stature as his father (hell never come into his fathers shoes)

dod yn l come back, return
Ni ddaw i neb ddoe yn l You cant undo the past, Whats done is done (yesterday wont come back to anybody)

dod i drefn settle down, get back to normal, (come to order)
Mae pethau wedi dod i drefn Things are back to normal, Things have settled down (after a mishap, disruption, war, etc)
Yr oedd pethau heb ddyfod i drefn eto ar l y rhyfel
Things hadnt got back to normal yet after the war

(South Wales) dod ich cymal get into ones stride (in some task)

12 dod i ben y dalar, dod i ben talar draw to an end, be nearly completed (come to the end of (the) headland of a ploughed field )

13 dod + ar In expressions denoting the onset of a sensation, corresponds to the existence of a sensation expressed by bod + ar, or the causing of a sentaion with hala + ar (South, gyrru + ar (North)

bod chwant bwyd ar be hungry

chwant bwyd yn dod ar begin to feel hungry
Daeth arnaf chwant bwyd I began to feel hungry

Daeth ofn a braw arno He became fearful and frightened (fear and fright came on him)

gyrru ofn ar frighten
gyrru braw ar frighten
gyrru dychryn ar


DO-di (verb) (South Wales)
to put
2 dodi edau mewn nodwydd thread a needle (put (a) thread in (a) needle)

In South-east Wales.
doti (with typical calediad, the devoicing of a voiced consonant at the head of a final syllable)


dod allan
dood A-lhan (verb)
to come out

2 dod allan ohoni get out of a difficulty (get out of it)
dod allan ohonin wael come out of it badly


dodich bys ar y dolur
d-dich biis ar ə d-lir
put your finger on it (on the cause of the trouble)

ETYMOLOGY: (put your finger on the wound)


dod i dlodi
dood ii dl -di
1 be reduced to poverty
Diarhebion 21:17 Y neb a garo ddifyrrwch, a ddaw i dlodi: a neb a garo win ac olew, ni bydd gyfoethog
Proverbs 21:17 He that loveth pleasure shall be a poor man: he that loveth wine and oil shall not be rich.

ETYMOLOGY: come to poverty (dod = to come) + (i = to) + soft mutation + (tlodi = poverty)


dod i drefn
dood ii dre-ven
settle down, get back to normal
Mae pethau wedi dod i drefn Things are back to normal, Things have settled down (after a mishap, disruption, war, etc)

ETYMOLOGY: come to order (dod = to come) + (i = to) + soft mutation + (trefn = ordre)


dod ir golwg
dood ir g-lug -
come into view
Daeth y gyfrinach ir golwg The secret slipped out, The secret came out


DOO-do -

1 auntie

ETMOLOGY: an infants pronunciation of modryb (= aunt)

Probably from
bodo, another form used for auntie

1 bod- < mod-, first syllable of modryb, with confusion of m and b.

2 -do repetition of the first syllable, with o, a diminutive suffix generally in forenames

Compare the diminutive form Bedo of the name Maredudd

3 The form dodo is probably a re-formation of bodo, with the second syllable do replacing bo-


do drev -nin masculine noun
PLURAL dodrefn
(North Wales) piece of furniture

2 dodrefn = furniture
fan ddodrefn removal van (North)
saer dodrefn joiner, cabinet maker

3 dodrefn ystafell wely bedroom furniture

ETYMOLOGY: dodrefn (= furniture; anciently = room) < dy-o-drefn (do prefix = to) + soft mutation + (gwo prefix = under) + soft mutation + (trefn = order)

NOTE: also: dodreinyn

(delw (delwedd 7367)


DO-dui (verb)
to lay (eggs)


dod yn...
dood ən verb
to amount to, add up to give the result of
Maen dod yn ganpunt It amounts to a hundred pounds


DOI (masculine noun)
Ni ddaw i neb ddoe yn l You cant undo the past, Whats done is done (yesterday wont come back to anybody)


doed a ddelo
did a dh-lo -
come what may

ETYMOLOGY: (doed = let it come) + (a = the thing which) + soft mutation + (delo = might come)


roidh verb
was, were; third person singular imperfect of del verb bod; usually with the negator ddim (literally nothing, anything) not, or others such as eried never, not ever

with a definite noun = was not; were not
Doedd Sin ddim yn cysgu = Sin was not sleeping (Sin was not in sleeping)
Doedd Sin a Sin ddim yn cysgu = Sin and Sin were not sleeping (Sin and Sin were not in sleeping)
Doedd y papur ddim ar y llawr The newspaper was not on the floor
Doedd y papurau ddim ar y llawr The newspapers were not on the floor

with the pronouns: ef = ell, hi = ella
Doedd hi ddim yn y gwely She was not in bed
Doedd e ddim yn y gwely He was not in bed

with the pronoun hi = empty subject, as with English it, German es
Doedd hi ddim yn bwrw glaw It was not raining (it was not throwing rain)

doedd dim.. with an indefinite noun = there was
Doedd dim dŵr ar y llawr
There was no water on the ground
also in the form doedd yna ddim, or doedd na ddim
(yna is probably an imitation of English there, although other languages also have the idea of location and indefinition: Catalan hi havia (hi = there), French il y avait (y = there)
Doedd na ddim dŵr ar y llawr There was no water on the ground

ETYMOLOGY: nid oedd > nidedd > doedd. The loss of an initial pretonic syllable is common in colloquial Welsh
NOTE: colloquially in the south oe
oi > oo oo . Thus, doedd > doodd (usually spelt dodd)


doeddach chi ddim
doi-dha-khi-DHIM (verb)
you werent (North-west Wales)


doeddan nhw ddim
doi-dha-nhu (verb)
they werent (North-west Wales)


doeddan ni ddim
doi-dha-ni-DHIM (verb)
we werent (North-west Wales)


doeddat ti ddim
doi-dha-ti-DHIM (verb)
you werent (North-west Wales)


doeddech chi ddim
doi-dhe-khi-DHIM (verb)
(standardised colloquial Welsh) you werent (North-east Wales)


doedd e ddim
doi-dhe-DHIM (verb)
(ell) (South Wales) he wasnt (North Wales has doedd o ddim)


doedden nhw ddim
doi-dhe-nhu-DHIM (verb)
(standardised colloquial Welsh) they werent (North and South Wales)


doedden ni
DOI-dhe-ni (verb)
doedden ni + dim (standardised colloquial Welsh)

we werent at all

(North and South Wales) (North-west - doeddan ni)


doedden ni ddim
doi-dhe-ni-DHIM (verb)
(standardised colloquial Welsh) we werent (North and South Wales)


doeddet ti
DOI-dhe-ti (verb)
doeddet ti + dim (standardised colloquial Welsh)

you werent at all

(North and South Wales) (North-west - doeddat ti, toeddat ti)

Doeddet tin achwyn dim y pryd hwnnw You werent complaining at all then, You didnt complain at all at that time


doeddet ti ddim
doi-dhe-ti-DHIM (verb)
(standardised colloquial Welsh)

you werent (North and South Wales) (North-west - doeddat ti ddim, toeddat ti ddim)

Doeddet ti ddim yn achwyn dim

doedd ganddi ddim...
doidd gan dhi dhim verb
she had no....
Colloquial form of nid oedd ganddi (no + there was + with +her)
Doedd ganddi ddim Saesneg She couldnt speak English


doedd hi ddim
doidh-hi-DHIM (verb)
(she) she wasnt (North and South Wales)


doedd o ddim
doi-dho-DHIM (verb)
(ell) (North Wales) he wasnt (South Wales has doedd e ddim, doedd a ddim)


doeddwn i
DOI-dhun-i (verb)
doeddwn i + dim (standardised colloquial Welsh)

I wasnt at all

(North and South Wales) (North-west doeddwn i, toeddwn i)


doeddwn i ddim
doi-dhu-ni-DHIM (verb)

(standardised colloquial Welsh) I wasnt (North and South Wales)


dois (verb) there isnt
does ond gobeithio
dois-ond-go-BEITH-yo (phrase) hopefully
Does yma.. There isnt here...
Does yma fawr o lun arni Were not making a very good job of it, Weve not managed to make a very good job of it (there-is-not here much of (a) picture on-her)


Does dim...
dois dim
There isnt...
Does dim plesio arno He just cant be pleased, Theres no pleasing him (hes dissatisfied whatever you do for him, hell complain mo matter what you fo for him) (theres no pleasing on him)

ETYMOLOGY: (nid = no) + (oes = three is) + (dim = nothing)


Does dim byth yn digwydd
dis dim bith ən gi-guidh
Nothing ever happens

ETYMOLOGY: (does dim = there isn't anything) + (byth = ever) + (yn = preverbal linking particle) + (digwydd = happen)


Does dim dau heb dri
dis dim di heeb drii -
It never rains but it pours

ETYMOLOGY: "there isnt a two without a three" (does dim = there isnt) + (dau = two) + (heb = without) + soft mutation + (tri = three)


Does dim dau yr un fath
dis dim di ər iin vaath
No two men are alike

ETYMOLOGY: there isn't a two the same sort" (does dim = there isn't) + (dau = two) + (yr = the) + (un = one, same) + soft mutation + (math = type)


Does fawr o...
doos vaur
There isnt a lot of...
Does fawr o Gymreg rhyngddynt Theyre not on speaking terms (there isnt much Welsh between them)

ETYMOLOGY: does fawr < nid oes fawr (nid = negative particle) + (oes there is) + soft mutation + (mawr = big)


does gan...
dos GAN (verb)
doesnt have (there isnt with...)
Does ganddo fawr i fyw
He hasnt got long to live
Does ganddo fawr o amser eto He hasnt got long to live


Does ganddi hi
doos gAn -dhi
she has no....
Colloquial form of nid oes ganddi (no + there is + with +her)
For examples, see does gen i...


Does ganddi mo...
dois gan-dhi moo
she has not got... Vegeu does gennych mo...


Does ganddi mo...
dois gan-dhi moo
she has not got... Vegeu does gennych mo...


Does ganddo fe
doos gAn -dho
He has no....
Colloquial form of nid oes ganddo (no + there is + with + him)
For examples, see does gen i...


Does ganddo mo...
dois gan-dho moo
He has not got... Vegeu does gennych mo...


Does ganddyn nhw
doos gAn -dhin
They have no....
Colloquial form of nid oes ganddynt (no + there is + with + them)
For examples, see does gen i...


Does ganddyn nhw mo...
dois gan dhin nuu moo
they have not got... Vegeu does gennych mo...


Does gen i
doos gen ii
I have no....
Also: sgen i (with the loss of the pretonic syllable, a common characterisitic of spoken Welsh)
Colloquial form of nid oes gennyf fi (no + there is + with + me)


Does gen i ddim
doos gen ii dhim
I have no....
Colloquial form of nid oes gennyf fi (no + there is + with + me) + ddim (= any, anything of)
Does gen i ddim amheuaeth nad hon yw'r dre orau yng Nghymru
Theres no doubt in my mind that this is the best town in Wales
Does gen i ddim mynadd (= amynedd) nac egni iw wneud I dont have the patience or energy to do it
Does gen i ddim arian, nag oes yn wir I havent got any money, nothing at all
Does gen i ddim asgwrn arbennig i'w grafu gyda nhw Ive no real bone to pick with them (= theres nothing abouth them that I disagree strongly with)

Does gen i ddim blas ar fwyd I have no appetite, I cant eat anything, I dont feel like eating anything
Does gen i ddim bwriad eu cyhoeddi I have no intention of publishing it

Does gen i ddim car ond mae gen i feic modur I have no car but I have a motorbike
Does gen i ddim chwant bwyd I've got no appetite
Does gen i ddim cof imi erioed dy weld di phib yn dy ben I dont remember ever having seen you with a pipe in your mouth / smoking a pipe
Does gen i ddim llawer o gynnig iddo
Im not really keen on him / it, Im not really that fond of him / it

Does gen i ddim dirnad ble mae o Ive no idea where he is, I havent the slightest idea where he is


Does gen i ddim golwg arno I've got no respect for him
Yn bersonol, does gen i ddim gwrthwynebiad i hela cadnoaid Personally, I have no objection to hunting foxes

Does gen i ddim help = I can't help it


Does gen i ddim llais yn y peth I have no say in the matter, anything I say will not alter things


Does gen i ddim stumog i orffen y swper 'ma I cant eat any more supper (I have no stomach to finish this supper)
Does gen i ddim syniad faint gostiff Ive no idea how much it will cost

Cofiwch, does gen i ddim tystiolaeth fod un yn waeth nar llall Mind you, Ive no evidence that one is worse than the other


-Pa fath o lyfr sy orau gennych? -Does gen i ddim ymlyniad at unrhyw fath arbennig What kind of book do you like best? I have no leaning towards any type in particular


Does gen i fawr o...
doos gen ii vAuR oo... verb
I dont have much...
Does gen i fawr o feddwl ohono (I dont have much mind of it)
Does gen i fawr o olwg arno I dont think much of it (I dont have much sight on it)


Does gen i mo...
dois gen ii moo
I have not got... Vegeu Does gennych mo...


Does gennych chi
doos ge -nikh
you have no....
Also: does gynnoch...
Colloquial form of nid oes gennych (no + there is + with + you)
For examples, see Does gen i...


Does gennych mo...
dois ge nikh moo
Does gennyf (gen i) / gennyt (gen ti) / ganddo / ganddi / gennym (gynno ni) / gennych (gynno chi) ganddynt (ganddy nw)
Does gennych mor gobaith lleiaf You havent got a hope in hell (of getting it, etc)
Does gen i mor amser I cant spare the time, I havent got the time


Does gennyf fi
doos ge niv
See: Does gen i...


Does gennyn ni
doos ge -nin
we have no....
For examples, see does gen i...


Does gennyt ti
doos ge nit
See: Does gen ti...


Does gen ti
doos ge nit
you have no....
Colloquial form of Nid oes gennyt ti (no + there is + with + you)
For examples, see Does gen i...


Does gynnoch chi
doos gə -nokh
= does gennych... you have no....


Does gynnon ni
doos gə -non
= does gennyn (ni)... we have no....


Does odid ddim...
dois -did dhim
does odid ddim amser ar l theres not much time left

ETYMOLOGY: does odid ddim < nd oes odid ddim there is hardly any (nd = no) + (oes = there is) + (odid = hardly) + (ddim = any, none)


Does ond...
dois ond
there's nothing but
Does ond ei lun Hes all skin and bone (theres nothing but his image / shadow)


Does raid...
dois raid
there's no need
Does raid i chi ond gofyn You need only ask

ETYMOLOGY: does raid < nd oes raid there is no necessity (nd = no) + (oes = there is) + soft mutatio + (rhaid = necessity)


Does yr un...
dois ər iin
there's nobody...
Does yr un ato Theres no-body who can measure up to him, theres no one equal to him (there is nobody to him)

ETYMOLOGY: (does < nid oes = there isnt) + (yr un the individual, the person, un = one)


DOITH (adjective)

2 sensible, wise = advisable

Meddyliasant mai doeth iddynt fyddai symud i dy newydd
They thought it would be wise for them to move to a new house

3 doeth drannoeth y drin wise after the event (wise the day after the tribulation)

4 ddoeth soft-mutated form :
Siarl Ddoeth Charles the Wise

5 bod yn ddoeth drannoeth be wise after the event = knowing something too late (be wise the following day)

6 annoeth unwise (an negative prefix) + nasal mutation d > n + (doeth = wise)


doi-THII-neb (masculine noun)
2 annoethineb indiscretion, frailty, fault from human weakness, folly
(an- = negative prefix) + nasal mutation + (doethineb = prudence, wisdom)


doith -yon plural noun
wise men
y Doethion or Dwyrain the Three Wise Men (the wise-ones from the east)

Daniel 2:12 O achos hyn y digiodd y brenin ac y creulonodd yn ddirfawr, ac a orchmynnodd ddifetha holl ddoethion Babilon.
Daniel 2:12 For this cause the king was angry and very furious, and commanded to destroy all the wise men of Babylon.

ETYMOLOGY: plural form of the adjective doeth = wise


doethur, doethuriaid
DOI-thir, doi-THIR-yed (masculine noun)
doctor (person with a PhD)


DOOV (adjective)
2 dofedn (literary) domestic fowl
dodefnod poultry
(dof = tame) + (edn = bird).


dov -edn (m)
PLURAL dofednod
dov- ed -nod
1 (literary) domestic fowl
dodefnod poultry

ETYMOLOGY: (dof = tame) + (edn = bird).
First example of the word in the year 1828.


do -vər feminine noun
Culfor Dofr the Straits of Dover, between Dover in England and Calais in the French state

ETYMOLOGY: from the English name Dover. In fact this is a name of British origin meaning streams (in modern Welsh this is dyfroedd, < dŵr, formerly dwfr, = water, stream)


dogfen, dogfennau
DOG-ven, dog-VE-ne (feminine noun)


dol, doliau
DOL, DOL-ye (feminine noun)


..1 dl, dolau
DOOL, DO-le (feminine noun)
river meadow
Dlhelyg (river meadow of the willows)
street name, Tal-y-bont, by Bangor (Gwyndd)


..2 dl
dool masculine noun
dole (Ireland, Scotland: broo, buroo) (= unemployment pay)
bod ar y dl be on the dole
mynd ar y dl go on the dole
nl y dl to pick up ones dole money

ETYMOLOGY: English dole (= unemployment pay) < Old English dl (= share), related to modern German der Teil (= part)


mansion in the zone of Arfon in the county of Gwynedd Map Reference: SH5859

Ysgol Dolbadarn name of a primary school near here, at Llanberis

ETYMOLOGY: "meadow (by) (Llyn) Padarn"

(dl = meadow) + soft mutation + (Llyn Padarn "lake (of) Padarn", name of a nearby lake)

Padarn was the name of a saint of the Celtic Church)


do-LEE-vain, -ven verb
1 wail, cry out loud

2 (seagull) shriek

3 (m) , wail, doleful cry


..a/ dolefain < *dwolefain < *dywolefain (dy- intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (gwolefain)

..b/ gwolefain (gwo- prefix) + soft mutation + (llefain = to cry)

In modern Welsh golefain (gwo- > go-)

..c/ llefain < (llef= shout) + (-ain verbal suffix)

The compound, here analysed as if formed with modern Welsh elements, possibly already existed in British


do-LEE-vis adj
1 wailing, plaintive

Roedd tin ddolefus yn ei llais. Gwyn, wnei di mo f'ateb i?
There was a plaintive edge to her voice. Gwyn, wont you answer me?
t164 Melin-y-ddl William a Myfanwy Eames 1948


d -len feminine noun
PLURAL dolennau, dolenni, dolennydd
do- le -ne, -ni, -nidh
loop = circle or ellipse which is formed by folding over of a piece of string etc on itself

2 (sewing) loop

26.4 A gwna ddolennau o sidan glas ar ymyl un llen, ar y cwr, yn y cydiad...
Exodus 26.4 And though shalt make loops of blue upon the edge of the one curtain from the selvedge in the coupling

3 North Wales (cup) handle

4 North Wales (bag) handle
Dyma un o ddolenaur bag plastic yn dechrau ymddatod
One of the handles of the plastic bag began to break

5 bach a dolen hook and eye

6 loop (in a rope, cord, string)
dolen redeg (North Wales) noose (running knot, rhedeg = to run)

7 (chain) link
dolen gyswllt link (in a chain) (cyswllt = connection)
dolen gydiol link (in a chain) (cydiol = connecting)
dolen ddiffyg = missing link
dolen goll = missing link

8 dolen lastig elastic band

9 loop = contraceptive device

10 bod ddolen yn nolen be linked together

11 (writing) loop = a curve that crosses itself, as in the letters e, g

12 gwneud dolen (make (a) loop) loop the loop = make a vertical circle with an aeroplane so that at the highest point the aircraft is upside down

13 dolen gyswllt (person) link, intermediary

Chi ywr unig ddolen gyswllt sy rhyngof fi hi nawr

Youre my only link between me and her now

14 dolen lawes cuff link (llawes = sleeve)

bow (in a ribbon in the hair, round a parcel, etc)

16 bend, meander in a river; meadow in a river bend
Dolennydd ([small] river bends; small meadows)

Place name, county of Ceredigion (Cyfrifiad Llangynfelyn / Census of Llangynfelyn 1851)

ETYMOLOGY: (dl = bend, turning) + (-en diminutive suffix)


d -ler feminine noun
PLURAL doleri
dollar = monetary unit of the USA, Canada, Australia, etc
arwydd doler dollar sign, the symbol used to represent a dollar ($)
pobl yn aros i newid eu pres yn ddoleri people waiting to change their money into dollars
rhanbarth y ddoler dollar area

2 taler, dollar = a former coin used in the German provinces

3 dollar = the amount of a hundred cents
Rhoddodd ddoler i mi mewn darnau deg He gave me a dollar in dime coins

4 dollar = a bill of the value of one dollar; formerly also a coin issued in the USA for 141 years (silver dollar) (1794-1935)
papur doler
, plural papurau doleri (American: dollar bill) (Englandic: dollar note)

$1 un ddoler one dollar
$2 dwy ddoler two dollars
$3 tair doler three dollars
$4 pedair doler four dollars
$5 pum doler five dollars
$6 chwe doler six dollars
$7 saith doler seven dollars
$8 wyth doler eight dollars
$9 naw doler nine dollars
$10 deg doler ten dollars
$11 un ddoler ar ddeg eleven dollars
$12 deuddeg doler twelve dollars
$13 tair doler ar ddeg thirteen dollars
$14 pedair doler ar ddeg fourteen dollars
$15 pymtheg doler fifteen dollars
$16 un ddoler ar bymtheg sixteen dollars
$17 dwy ddoler ar bymtheg seventeen dollars
$18 deunaw doler eighteen dollars
$19 pedair doler ar bymtheg nineteen dollars
$20 ugain doler twenty dollars
$21 un ddoler ar hugain twenty-one dollars
$40 deugain doler forty dollars / $40 pedwar deg o ddoleri forty dollars
$50 hanner cant o ddoleri fifty dollars / $50 pum deg o ddoleri fifty dollars
$100 can doler a hundred dollars / $100 cant o ddoleri a hundred dollars

$20.50 ugain doler a hanner can sent twenty dollars fifty cents

ETYMOLOGY: 1795; English dollar < Dutch daler < German Taler < Joachimstaler (= coin from Joachimstal, valley of Joachim), place in Bohemia (in present day Czechia)


1 house name

ETYMOLOGY: meadow place, place of meadows (doleu < dolau = meadows) + soft mutation + (-fan suffix = place; the soft-mutated form of man = place)


dol -goid masculine noun
1 wood by a meadow

y dolgoed

Also Y Ddolgoed, with soft mutation d > dd (see below)

place in Aberllefenni

....SH7913 Mynydd Dolgoed Aberllefenni

ABERTAWE / Swansea
Dolgoed farm ar Pengelli (Abertawe)

Dolgoed farm in Bethlehem (Sir Gaerfyrddin)

Dolgoed name of a street in Cyffordd Llandudno (Conwy) (Dol Goed)

Dolgoed place in Cyffylliog (Dinbych)

Dolgoed house in Pantyglasier, Eglwys-wen
....Melin Wln y Dolgoed, Pantyglasier Dolgoed woollen mill, Pantyglasier

Dolgoed place in Henllan (Dinbych)

Caedolgoed place in Llanberis (Conwy) (Cae Dolgoed)

Dolgoed place in Llanelwy

Dolgoed (1881 Census, Llanfachreth)

Llanfair Caereinion (Powys) (Dolgoed Hall)

Dolgoed house in Machen

Dolgoed house in Nantgaredig

Dolgoed house in Pontarfynach (Ceredigion)

Dolgoed house name, Porthaethwy

Dolgoed house in Maesdolwen, Rhuthun

Dolgoed house in Ffordd Rhosesmor, Treffynnon

Ffordd Dolgoed street in Yr Wyddgrug

Y Ddolgoed:

Ddolgoed = y ddolgoed. Soft mutation after the definite article confusion with Y Ddl? (the meadow). As the qualified noun here is coed (a masculine noun, or at least a collective noun behaving as a plural noun or a masculine singular noun after the article) the compound form dolgoed would have to be a masculine noun.

Methodistiaeth Corris a'r Amgylchoedd gan Griffith Ellis M.A. Bootle (1885):
Merch Mr. a Mrs. Owen, y Ddolgoed, oedd gwraig y clerigwr
the wife of the cleric was the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Owen, Y Ddolgoed


Name of a street in Dre-fach, Llanelli (county of Caerfyrddin),

Ddolgoed name of a house in Eglwyswrw (Penfro)

ETYMOLOGY: wood by a meadow (dl = meadow) + soft mutation + (coed = wood)


street name, Tal-y-bont, by Bangor (Gwyndd)
(river meadow of the willows)


DOL-ye (plural noun)
dolls; plural of dol


Dolig (Nadolig)
DO-lig (masculine noun)
Christmas - a colloquial form of Nadolig


dolur, doluriau
DO-lir, do-LIR-ye (masculine noun)

dodich bys ar y dolur put your finger on it (on the cause of the trouble) (put your finger on the wound)
Also rhoich bys...


do- liR -yo
verb with an object
hurt, cause hurt to
dolurio rhywun hurt somebody, hurt somebodys feelings
dolurioch teimladau hurt somebodys feelings

verb without an object
2 wound = cause injury by inflicting violence
Bu pob math o ddolurio a rhegi yn ystod gm o fando
There would be all kinds of violence and swearing (every type of of wounding and swearing) in a game of bando

ETYMOLOGY: (dolour = pain) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)


do-LII-ris (masculine noun)

2 Y Ffordd Ddolurus Via Dolorosa = in Jerusalem, a route about a mile long which was taken by Jesus from Pilates Hall of Judgement to the place of crucifixion at Golgotha or Calvary

(y = definite article) + (ffordd = road) + soft mutation + (dolurus = sorrowful, painful)


dol-ui-DHEE-lan [dɔlʊɪˡeˑlan]
SH7352 A village in the county of Conwy


A colloquial form is Dolddelan dol-DHEE-lan [dɔlˡeˑlan]


Y noson yma 'roedd o wedi cael peint ne ddau, ac yn cychwyn yn o hwyr o Dol'ddelan

That night he had had a pint or two, and was setting off quite late from Dolwyddelan

t89 / 'R wy'n Cofio / Yr Hen Was / 1963


Yng ngwaelod plwyf Dolddelan

At the bottom of the parish of Dolwyddelan

c1880, first wrods of a poem by Brysiog Machno




ETYMOLOGY: dl Wyddelan (the) meadow (of) Gwyddelan

(dl = meadow) + soft mutation + (Gwyddelan)

The personal name Gwyddelan is little Gael, little Irishman (Gwyddel = Irishman) + (-an diminutive suffix)


See Dolydd Elen below


NOTE: Maingc ir Dylai Clyw = bench for the hardest of hearing (old inscription on a bench in the church of Dolwyddelan, in the county of Conwy). See dwl


Dolydd Elen
d-lidh -len
Erroneous form, through folk etymology, for Dolwyddelan SH7352 (county of Conwy), as if it were Elen's meadows (dolydd = meadows) + (Elen = Elen).

In the Welsh of north-west Wales, a final e in the standard language becomes a, and so it was supposed that Elan was a dialect form of Elen.


(delw (delwedd 7423)


To derive this sense, the supposed element dolwydd has been restored as (though in reality transformed into) dolydd, though it is hardly likely that a form such as dolydd could have become dolwydd.

The name is in fact Dl Wyddelan, (the) meadow (of) Gwyddelan.
(dl = meadow) + soft mutation + (Gwyddelan)

This name Gwyddelan is found as a saints name in the place name Llanwyddelan SJ0801 (northern Powys), 6km south-west of Llanfair Caereinion, and some 10km north of Y Drenewydd Llanwyddelan. Map

Gwyddelan is formed from Gwyddel (= Irishman) and the diminutive suffix -an



(delw (delwedd 7430)

This supposed Elen, remembered in popular lore over the centuries, is Elen Luyddog (Elen of the Hosts, llu = host, army), from a noble family in Segontium (Caernarfon). She married Macsen Wledig (Magnus Maximus), born in the Iberian peninsula, who became commander of the Roman army in Britain and who in AD 383 went to Rome where he deposed Gratian and made himself Emperor, and became a Christian. It is said that Elen returned to Wales after Macsens death five years later, in AD 388.

The tale is preserved in Breuddwyd Macsen Wledig (the dream of Magnus (the) leader) , written down around 1400 and forming part of the collection of twelve medieval Welsh tales known as the Mabinogion.

There are other examples of place names with the name Elen / Helen. Sarn Helen, (Helens way, Helens pavement) is the name given to several sections of Roman road between Caernarfon and Caerfyrddin.

In the town of Caernarfon there is Coed Helen, literally Helens wood, but originally Coed Alun, the wood (of) Alun (?a stream name). This more fanciful name is now the official one, but the older more correct form was current until recent times (and possibly still is).

The Coed Helen Estate at Caernarfon was originally Coed Alun and is still so called in popular speech; the name was changed to bring in the Helen legend (A Short Introduction to the Study of Comparative Grammar (Indo-European) T. Hudson Williams 1935 t.9).

Elens name is also perpetutated in Caernarfon in the street called Ffordd Santes Helen (road of Saint Helen).

Crych Elen (curly-hair (from Dolydd) Elen) was the pseudonym of poet Thomas Lloyd (1841-1909). Born in Liverpool, his father was English and his mother was from Dolwyddelan, and on the death of his father he went to live with his grandmother at Tyn-y-fron, Dolwyddelan. He was the author of a song popular in the late 1800s, Y Bwthyn Bach To Gwellt (the little thatched cottage). He later emigrated to the USA, and is buried in Fair View Cemetery, Slatington, Pennsylvania.

See the Welsh-language article Cerddor o Gymro yn Cael ei Gofio ar y We (A Welsh musician commemorated on the Web) / Iwan Hughes / Y Faner Newydd 15 / Blwyddyn 2000 / tt32-33


dool-ə-PLII (feminine noun)
place name in Patagonia field / meadow of the feathers


In Latin names or scientific names of species

Passer domesticus llwydyn y to (little grey [bird] [of] the [thatched] roof) (House sparrow)


dm- IE root (= house):

Latin domos,

German das Zimmer (= room; originally timber), English timber;

Welsh tŷ, Irish teach, Scottish Gaelic taigh, Cornish chi, Breton ti


dmino, dminos DO-mi-no, DO-mi-nos (masculine noun)


Dn DOON (f)
A Celtic goddess, in Welsh mythology the sister of Math mab Mathonwy.


In Pedair Cainc y Mabinogi four of her children are mentioned: Arianrhod, Gilfaethwy, Gofannon, Gwydion.


In the tale Culhwch ac Olwen, Amaethon is mentioned as another of her children.


There are many river names of Celtic origin with Don / Don- in western Europe, and it is likely that they refer to this Celtic goddess.


River Don in Yorkshire (in Welsh, Afon Don, though this is afon + the current English name Don, and not a survival of an Old Welsh name)

The River Don in Scotland however is not the same name. The Welsh name again is Afon Don, though this is, as the name in Yorkshire, afon + the current English name Don, and not a survival of an Old Welsh name. This Don was known in to the Romans as Devona.

The original settlement of Aberdeen was sited on the south bank of the river at its confluence with the sea. Aberdeen is in fact Aber Don. The name occurs as Aberdoen (1178), and Aberden (1214).

The Scottish Gaelic name for Aberdeen is Obar Dheathain [ɔbərˡjehɪn] , (a variant is Obaireadhain [ɔbərˡen] ) where the original proto-Welsh form aber (= confluence), corresponding to modern Welsh aber, has been Gaelicised.

aber + Don (the) mouth (of) (the river) Don,


A Tour Through the Whole Island of Great Britain (1724). Daniel Defoe.

Aberdeen is divided into two towns or cities, and stands in the mouth of two rivers; one on the River Don, the other on the River Dee. The market-place, which is very beautiful and spacious; and the streets adjoining are very handsome and well built, the houses lofty and high.


The two rivers, the Don and the Dee flow into the North Sea about two miles apart. In between is central Aberdeen. (In 1750 the Dons final stretch was channelled, and its confluence with the sea was moved further to the north).


The original settlement, referred to historically as Aberdon, lay at the northern end of today's city, on the south bank of the River Don. This was later the burgh of Old Aberdeen. Old Baerdeen is now a part of the City of Aberdeen. The name Aberdon is used locally in Aberdeen in a couple of names for buildings (Aberdon House, Aberdon Court).


Aberdon is also the Manx Gaelic name for the city.


The River Don was known by the Romans as Devona


On the north bank of the River Don is the district of Bridge of Don (Scots: Brig O Don) (Gaelic Drochaid Dheadhain) SY9582


The original Brig o Don is now Brig o Balgownie Brig o Balgownie


An bridge half a mile downstream, built in 1830, is now called Brig o Don.


In 1136 King David I founded "New Aberdeen" on the north bank of the River Dee (Geilic: Uisge D). Properly it should have been called Aber Dee / Aberdee. NJ9304 River Dee in Aberdeen


doniau DON-ye (plural noun)
plural of dawn = talent


DON-yol (adjective)


DOOS (verb)
(North Wales) come!


dosbarth, dosbarthiadau
DO-sparth, do-sparth-YA-de (masculine noun)
class = grade in types of transport, accomodation, etc
teithio yn y dosbarth cyntaf travel first class

= group of students
dosbarth nos
do-sparth-NOOS (masculine noun) night class
dosbarth Cymraeg a Welsh class
ystafell ddosbarth (f), ystafelloedd dosbarth classroom

3 class = period of time in which instruction is given
ar ddechraur dosbarth
at the beginning of the class
ar ganol y dosbarth in the middle of the class
ar ddiwedd y dosbarth at the end of the class

4 social stratum
y dosbarth canol the middle class
y dosbarth gweithiol the working class
y dosbarth uchaf the upper class
y gyfundrefn ddosbarth (f) the class system, cyfundrefnau dosbarth

5 grade in a degree
Rhaid cael dosbarth cyntaf neu ail ddosbarth uwch yn eich gradd gyntaf
You need to get a first or a 2.1 (higher second class) in your first degree

6 district

dosbarth gwledig rural district

Dosbarth Gwledig Uwchaled Uwchaled Rural District


do-SPAR-thi (verb)
to distribute
canolfan ddosbarthu (f), canolfannau dosbarthu distribution centre
ffordd ddosbarthu (f), ffyrdd dosbarthu distributor road

to deliver
fan ddosbarthu (f), faniau dosbarthu delivery van
rhestr ddosbarthu (f), rhestrau dosbarthu mailing list

3 allot
dosbarthu tocynnau allot tickets


doi (masculine noun)
two (Southern form of dau)

dou gi (dau gi) two dogs
y ddou gaa (y ddau gae) the two fields


dou sha bump
doi-sha-BIMP (masculine noun)
(South Wales) leap frog ("two towards five")


Some nouns in Welsh have developed double plurals

(1) addition of two plural suffixes instead of one. Examples:
...(a) cn (feminine noun) (= song) > caneuon (-au + -on)

...(b) celain (masculine noun) (corpse, dead body) > celaneddau (-edd + -au)

...(c) neges (feminine noun) (= message) > negeseuon (-au + -on)

(2) addition of a plural suffix to a non-suffix plural form
...(a) cloch (feminine noun) (= bell) > clychau (obsolete plural clych + -au)

...(b) plentyn (masculine noun) (= child) > plantos (irregular plural plant + -os) little children (though technically speaking in this instance the radical is plant from which the singular plentyn is derived)

...(c) South-west: trade (= traedau), a double plural of troed (= foot) (the usual plural is traed)

...(d) ty (masculine noun) (= house) > teiau (irregular plural tai + -au) (in use in South Wales)

...(e) ty (masculine noun) (= house) > teios (irregular plural tai + -os) little houses (in use in South Wales)



dowc DOUK (m)
(North Wales) dip in a river, dip in the sea
Rydw i am ddowc yn yr afon I want to go for a dip in the river



NOTE: In the English dialect of Llanidloes:
DOUK, or DOWK, to dip or duck. Give him another douk. Douking for apples, a nos glan gaia game. (Parochial Account of Llanidloes / Edward Hamer / Chapter X / Folk-lore. Page 289 Collections Historical and Archeological Relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders / 1877)