Free counter and web stats A Welsh to English Dictionary in page format

http://www.kimkat.org/amryw/1_vortaroy/geiriadur_cymraeg_saesneg_BAEDD_y_1586e.htm 05-09-2012

Yr Hafan / Home Page

..........2659e Y Porth Saesneg / English Gateway to this Website

.....................
0010e Y Gwegynllun / Siteplan

..............................0417e Geiriaduron / Dictionaries

........................................1813e Geiriaduron yn Saesneg / Dictionaries in English

....................................................1818e Y mynegai i'r geiriadur arlein hwn / Index to this online dictionary

.................................................................Y Tudalen Hwn / This Page

 

 


(delw 0003)

 

 

 

 

 

Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Gal
les i Catalunya
The Wales-Catalonia Website


Y Gwe-eiriadur
An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English

 

Y-Z

1853e Ein llyfr ymwelwyr / OUR GUESTBOOK

Archwiliwch y wefan hon
SEARCH THIS WEBSITE
---
Adeiladwaith y wefan
SITE STRUCTURE
---
Beth sydd yn newydd?
WHATS NEW?

(delw 6668)




 ...

 

7000_kimkat1580e.jpgA

 

7000_kimkat2709e.jpgAR

7000_kimkat1039e.jpgBA

7000_kimkat1735e.jpgBR

7000_kimkat1018e.jpgCA

7000_kimkat1071e.jpgCE

7000_kimkat1675e.jpgCI

 

7000_kimkat1040e.jpgCR

 

7000_kimkat1075e.jpgCY

7000_kimkat1020e.jpgDA

7000_kimkat1674e.jpgDI

7000_kimkat1072e.jpgE

7000_kimkat1077e.jpgF

7000_kimkat1021e.jpgGA

 

7000_kimkat1042e.jpgGWA

 

7000_kimkat2902e.jpgGWI

7000_kimkat1038e.jpgH

7000_kimkat1676e.jpgI, J, K

7000_kimkat1865e.jpgL

7000_kimkat1022e.jpgMA

7000_kimkat1677e.jpgMI

 

7000_kimkat1047e.jpgN

 

7000_kimkat1600e.jpgO

7000_kimkat1023e.jpgPA

7000_kimkat1073e.jpgPL, Q

7000_kimkat1026e.jpgR

7000_kimkat1070e.jpgS

7000_kimkat1024e.jpgTA

 

7000_kimkat1076e.jpgTR

 

7000_kimkat1025e.jpgU, V

7000_kimkat1731e.jpgW, X

Y, Z

 

 

 

 




:_______________________________.

Y, y
ə feminine noun
1) twenty-fifth letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e, 6 f, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z

2) twenty-third letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e, 8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y

:_______________________________.

y
ə
1 In English respellings of Welsh place-names this is often spelt u (since in English u can have a centred pronunciation which resembles the obscure vowel, as in hunter, Sunday, runner, etc).

Although y is the obscure vowel (mid central unrounded vowel), which also exists in English of course, there is no special symbol for it in English.

Since the letter u in English can represent the half-open unrounded vowel between back and front (phonetic symbol - an inverted v) (as in run, sun, hunt, etc) and has almost the same sound as Welsh y, in Anglicising spellings of Welsh place names it is often seen.

Examples from Wales are Crymlyn > Crumlyn (curved valley), Dyffryn > Duffryn (= valley).

Hence the following forms in English spelling:

..1/ Crymlyn > Crumlin (curved valley, village in the county of Caerffili)

..2/ Cymru = Wales > Cumru kmru Name of a township in Berks County, Pennsylvania.

Hugh Jones bought 1,000 acres in the Cumru Township in Lancaster County in 1732. (Berks County was created from a portion of Lancaster County in 1752)

The final u of Cymru / Cumru, pronounced as i in South Wales (and a variant i sound in the north) has been reinterpreted as English u. If the place name had been spelt Cumri in English it would have retained more of the original Welsh pronunciation.

The final u of Cymru / Cumru, pronounced as i in South Wales (and a variant i sound in the north) has been reinterpreted as English u. If the place name had been spelt Cumri in English it would have retained more of the original Welsh pronunciation.

..3/ Dyffryn > Duffryn (valley, common place name)

..4/ Dynfant > Dunvant ( = dyfn-nant deep valley, village in the county of Abertawe)

..5/ Llangynllo (SO2171) locality in the district of Maesyfed (county of Powys)
> Llangunllo

..6/ Llangynog > Llangunnock (though this English spelling is no longer in use) (village 6 miles s.s.w. of Caerfyrddin)

..7/ Llangynog > Llangunnock locality in Herefordshire, in a former Welsh-speaking area

..8/ Llangynnwr > Llangunnor locality 1 mile east of Caerfyrddin

..9/ Nant Helygi / Nant Lygi Luggy Brook SJ1803, near Berriw (Powys)

..10/ Rhymni > Rumney is the English name for Tredelerch in Caer-dydd, taken from the name of the river (Afon Rhymni) here

:_______________________________.

The y before consonantal w can become o in some cases

..a/ bywyd > bowyd [ˡbəwɪd, ˡboˑwɪd] (= life)

..b/ Hywel > Howel [ˡhəwɛl, ˡhoˑwɛl] (= mans name), Pywel > Powel [ˡpəwɛl, ˡpoˑwɛl] (= patronymic, surname)

:_______________________________.

y > e

In the pretonic syllable:

5 Preseli (an upland in the county of Penfro).
Prys Selyf (woodland of Selyf, the Welsh form of Solomon)

 

:_______________________________.

y > w

In the sequence y-w, the w in the finala syllable affects the y in the tonic syllable to produce w-w

cwmwd (= medieval administrative division) < cymwd

cwrdd (= to meet) < cẃ -wrdd < cẃ -hwrdd < c-hwrdd

:_______________________________.

y

Long y [ii] as [ai] in Anglicised forms

In English in the 1400s [ii] became diphthongised, resulting in modern [ai]

Some Welsh names taken into English show this change

Prys [priis] > English Price (originally representing [priis], now [prais])
Rhys [hriis] > English Rice (originally representing [riis], now [rais])

Llan-llŷr (in Powys) > Llan-ŷr > English Llanyre

:_______________________________.

y i
1 echo vowel
Many monosyllables have become disyllabic colloquially (epecially in South Wales) with the insertion into a consonant cluster of an echo vowel, one which duplicates the vowel of the first syllable (or final vowel of a diphthong)

Examples with y:
gwydr (= glass) > gwydyr gui-dir (South Wales)
llwybr (= path) > llwybyr (South Wales)
llyfyr (= book) > llyfyr (South Wales)
rhwystr (= impediment) > rhwystyr (South Wales)
syml (= simple) > symyl (South Wales)

:_______________________________.

y ə
1
represents the obscure vowel; in monosyllables in previous centuries it was not possible phonologically in this position (only y i was possible for example llyn = lake) but nowadays there are a handful of loans from English with y ə which replaces the centralised u of English, pronounced almost the same as the English obscure vowel (or exactly the same by some English speakers)

In borrowings from English, to replace the central u of standard English
..1/ blỳff = bluff
..2/ bỳns = buns, bynsen = bun
..3/ bỳs = bus

c`yt = cut (a wound; a channel cut into the earth)
..4/ Hỳn = Hun
..5/ nỳrs = nurse
..6/ rỳm = rum
..7/ sỳr = sir

At an earlier period, (pre 1700) English had not yet developed the centralised u and used the back u as in modern English bull, bush, and such words were taken into Welsh as u
Below we use the symbol Λ, the inverted v of the International Phonetic Alphabet used to represent the centralised u

English cut, now pronounced kΛt but formerly kut, is modern Welsh cwt kut
Some words are spelt in modern Welsh with w though in fact they are pronounced ə
Example: bws bəs = bus

Also əə (long vowel) in English is replaced by ə in Welsh
fflyrt flirt
ffyrm firm

:_______________________________.

y

y-y often in plural forms of nouns may corresponds to w-w in the singular form

mwnwgl (obsolete) (= neck), mynyglau (= necks)

(The older singular form was mynwgl)

 

cwmwl (= cloud), cymylau (= clouds)

(The older singular form was cymwl)

 

See w-w
:_______________________________.

y
A vowel (or
even a diphthong) in the tonic syllable may be reduced to the obscure vowel [ə]. This seems to be particularly the case in the south-east.

BARGOD
The local form of Y Bargod [ə ˡbargɔd] (a village in the county of Caerffili) is Y Byrgod [ə ˡbərgɔd] shows the usual reduction in South Wales of the final 'oe' to 'o', and the unusual reduction of 'a' in the tonic syllable to the obscure vowel 'y' (though in south-east Wales a number of words do show this feature).

CURNOS
Y Gurnos (in place names, = small mounds) (qv) [ə ˡgɪrnɔs] also as Y Wyrfa [ə ˡwərva]; place name in Aber-dr (Rhondda Cynon Taf)

CALAN GAEAF
Calan Gaeaf / Calan Gaea
[ˌkɑˑlan ˡgəɪa] (= All Saints Day, first day of November, the calend of winter) > *Clangeua > Clyngeua [klənˡgəɪa]

DARNLADD
darladd <DAR-ladh> [ˡdarla], (= beat to within an ich of ones life, half murder) > dyrladd <DƏR-ladh> [ˡdərla]


CEFFYLAU
(= horses), plural of ceffyl (= horse). Colloquially cyffyle (and also with the loss of the pretonic syllable, ffyle / ffyle )


CYFFYLOG
Scolopax rusticola, woodcock. This was originally ceffylog (noun) < ceffylog (adj, horse-like, resembling a horse) (ceffyl = horse) + (-og adjectival suffix)


GWASANAETHU
gwasanaethu <gwa-sa-NEI-thi> [gwəsaˡnəɪθɪ] (= to serve)


gwysneithu / gwysneithu
<gwas-NEI-thi> [gwəsˡnəɪθɪ] loss of pretonic syllable, reduction of vowel a > ə in new pretonic syllable


gwysnithu / gwysnithu <gwas-NEI-thi> [gwəsˡnθɪ] loss of pretonic syllable, reduction of vowel a > ə in new pretonic syllable, reduction of diphthong in the tonic syllable to a simple half-long vowel ei > i

GWEIRGLODD
gweirglodd [ˡgwəɪrglɔ] (hay meadow) > gwyrglodd [ˡgwərglɔ], gwyrlod [ˡgwərlɔd],
gwyrlad [ˡgwərlad] (and other forms which do not show this reduction to y [ə])

GWERFA
Y Werfa (qv) [ə ˡwɛrva] also as Y Wyrfa [ə ˡwərva]; place name in Aber-dr (Rhondda Cynon Taf)

IEUENCTID
ieuenctid
[jəɪˡɛŋktɪd] > ienctid (youth = younger generation) > iynctid [ˡjəŋktɪd]

NODWYDD

nodwydd
[ˡnɔdʊɪ] (= needle) > nydwydd [ˡnɔdʊɪ]

:_______________________________.

y is used to represent Greek y, and thus causes complications because it has the sound of y [i] in a stressed syllable, which directly contradicts traditional spelling rules, where y can only represent y in unstressed syllables

sycamorwydden
sycamore tree

:_______________________________.

SOUND CHANGE: y < a
1
y < tonic a
Clyngaea kləng-gei-a < Clangaea / Clangaea < Calan Gaeaf (= All Saints, (the) calend (of) winter)

(For more examples see above: A vowel (or even a diphthong) in the tonic syllable may be reduced to the obscure vowel [ə]. )

2 y < pretonic a
(see false definite article below) Y Berch
, Y Berffro, Y Bermo, Y Mrica, Y Mwythig, Y Radur, Y Lai, Y Wenni, Y Werddon

:_______________________________.

y
1
In monosyllables with the diphthong wy an epenthetic vowel i yis inserted into the clusters br, dr in colloquial pronunciations.

brwydr (= battle, fight) > brwydyr
crwydr
(= wandering) > crwydyr
gwydr (= glass) > gwydyr
llwybr (= path) > llwybyr

2
In monosyllables with the vowel y an epenthetic vowel i y is inserted into the cluster fr in colloquial pronunciations.


(South Wales) llyfr (= books) > llyfyr. In some areas it has become llyfyr (with the obscure vowel in the penult), possibly conditioned by the word llythyr (= letter), and maybe also myfyr ( a literary word = meditation, consideration, thought)

:_______________________________.

ORTHOGRAPHY:

y incorrectly replacing u in Welsh

At one time these were distinct vowel sounds, but
u lost its rounded quality and came to be pronounced the same as y.

In the North, y is still distinct from i ( = y, and i is separate from these two vowels), but in the south u = y = i

In some words,
y is used although historically the sound was u. Although u no longer represents a vowel distinct from y, and is in this sense a redundant letter, in standard Welsh spelling it is maintained.

curn (place names) heap, mound, stack, found as cyrn
Afon Cuch
(south-west Wales) sometimes written Afon Cych

:_______________________________.

y ə
1
(definite article) See yr
y groes = the cross

y cae = the field;

yr before a vowel
yr afon = the river

r after a vowel
Caer Nant Field of the brook

2 absence in place names linking definite article

Pen-y-coed (the) end / edge (of) the wood > Pen-coed

3 absence in place names

Carreg-fach ka-reg vaakh house name
small stone, little rock (carreg = stone) + soft mutation + (bach = small, little)

One might have expected Y Garreg-fach, with the definite article, but some place names and house names are in this indefinite form

In the north-west there is Dwygyfylchi [dui gə vəl khi] Village (SH7377) in Conwy, between Penmaen-mawr and Penmaen-bach
There is mention of the place in the 1500s as y ddwy gyfylchi the two forts

(y definite article) + soft mutation + (dwy = two) + soft mutation + (cyfylchi = fort)

Treflan street name in
..a/ Aberdyfi (county of Gwynedd)
..b/ Bangor (county of Gwynedd)
..c/ Llansantffrid ym Mechain (district of Maldwyn, county of Powys)
..d/ Y Ffr (county of Gwynedd)

One might have expected Y Dreflan

:_______________________________.

(2) y ə
particle used with the verb 'bod' = to be
Y maen dda = Its good

:_______________________________.

(3) y ə
relative = that, who, which
Dyna'r ferch y bm yn siarad hi That's the girl I was talking to

:_______________________________.

(4) y ə
1
false definite article; from the weakening of an initial vowel which is then detached and treated as the definite article

...(a) place names:

Aber-erch (SH3936) (county of Gwynedd) > Y Berch
Probably Aber-rch > Abrrch
> Abrch > Ybrch > Y Berch

Abrffro (village of the county of Ynys Mn) > Y Berffro
Aber-ffrw > Abrffraw > Abrffro > Y Brffro


Abrmo (village of the county of Gwynedd) > Y Bermo
Aber-mw
> Abrmaw > Abrmo > Y Brmo

Amrica (America) > Y Mrica (ir Mrica = to America)

Amwythig (Welsh name of Shrewsbury, England) > Y Mwythig

Aradur (village of the county of Caer-dydd) > Y Radur

Eli (name of a river in the south-east) > Y Lai

Ewenni (name of a river in the south-east) > Y Wenni

Iwerddon (Ireland) > Y Werddon

The standardisation of the spelling of Welsh place names was supposed to eliminate doubt about the pronunciation of names such as Abermaw and Aberffraw (i.e. Abrmaw, Abrffraw) if the older pronunciation had survived, we should expect to see Aber-maw, Aber-ffraw (i.e. Aber-mw, Aber-ffrw - the final syllable bears the stress).

But with the number of exceptions permitted according to the recommended spellings, supposedly because they are such familiar names that they need not conform to the general pattern (Caerdydd, instead of the more correct Caer-dydd; Llanrwst instead of Llan-rwst, Maesteg instead of Maes-teg) there is still great scope for confusion, especially with lesser-known names.

________________________

Also in some place names which have ynys (= meadow) as a first element

Ynysawdre (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) > Y Snawdra

Ynysgiwen (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) > Y Sgiwan
________________________

...(b) pronouns
ef = (he) > y fo
________________________

...
(c) common nouns
eboles (filly) > y boles, which in the North-west has been understood as
(definite article + soft mutation + poles), and so this form with initial p is usual colloquially

:_______________________________.

(5) y ə
1
(definite article) sometimes found preceding an English surname in place names
Llwyn-y-grant former farm in Caer-dydd, name preserved in street names (llwyn = wood)
Twynyrharris farm name in Ystradmynach (county of Caerffili) (twyn = hill)

(QUERY) Craig y Merchant by Rhisga seems to be a name of this type. Is Merchant a surname here?

2
(definite article) (irregular use) found preceding river names in colloquial Welsh and in some recent place names. In literary Welsh this use of the definite article with river names is considered incorrect (note place names Aberystwyth = mouth of the Ystwyth river; not Aber yr Ystwyth)

Dyfrdwy: Bum lawer gwaith yn tosturio wrth yr afon Alun yn y pwynt lle y mae yn colli ei hunan yn y Dyfrdwy. (Rhys Lewis / Daniel Owen / 1885 / tudalen 19)
Many times I felt sorry for the river Alun at the place where it loses itself in the Dyfrdwy (River Dee)

Also in some place names:

..1/ Parcyrirfon (parc yr Irfon, field by the Irfon river) housing estate in Llanfair yn Muallt

..2/ Twyn Crug yr Afan (the hill of the tumulus of the river Afan), and Bwlch yr Afan (The pass of the river Afan) near the source of the river Afan on the road between Cwm-parc (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) and Blaengwynfi (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan).

..3/ Tremyteifi / Trem y Teifi street name in Llandysul, county of Ceredigion

..4/ Sŵnyllethi / Sŵn y Llethi

street name in Llanarth, county of Ceredigion (Swn-y-Llethi)

:_______________________________.

Y absent in place names (1)

In some place names, the main element is not preceded by the definite article y, though form the form of the name it might be expected to be present

Pont-faen
SN9934 village in the Brycheiniog district of Powys
Y Bont-faen would perhaps be expected.

Tre-boeth tre-boith

..1/ SS6596 locality in the county of Abertawe (Gorllewin Morgannwg) Local form: Tre-both

..2/ Welsh name of Handbridge SJ4165; locality in the county of Cheshire, England; by Chester, south of the River Dyfrdwy

Y Dre-boeth would perhaps be expected

:_______________________________.

Y absent in place names (2)

The linking definite article is very often dropped in place names. Sometimes the official name includes the article, but the local form omits it; at other times, the name without the article is the official form, even though in general place names are spelt using the standard literary form of the name

Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr. (the) Pen-y-bont (on (the river) Ogwr. Pen-y-bont is (the) (house) (at) (the) end (of) / entrance (to) the bridge. A local form is Pem-bont

Pen-coed (village in the county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr). This is the offical form, though the full form would be Pen-y-coed (the) end / edge (of) the wood

:_______________________________.

y ə
1
(definite article) See also yr

:_______________________________.

ych iikh [iːx] masculine noun
PLURAL ychen ə -khen [əxɛn]
1
ox = adult castratred male of bos genus, used as a draught animal and slaughtered for its meat

2
yfed fel ych drink like a fish (drink like an ox)
yfed cwrw fel ych drink beer like theres no tomorrow (drink beer like an ox)

3
trol ychen ox cart (cart of oxen)

4 Rhydychen Oxford (ford (of) oxen)

5 John Walters, An English and Welsh Dictionary, Year 1828:

ych gwedd working ox (ox (of) yoke)

ych bn the hindmost ox, any one of the two hindmost oxen in a plough or team (ox (of) back end)

ych tywarch the ox next the furrow, the right-hand ox [in ploughing] (ox (of) turf)

ych gwellt the ox that goes on the unploughed land, or the the left-hand ox [in ploughing] (ox (of) grass)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *uks
From the same British root: Breton ochen (= ox)
From the same Celtic root: Irish os (= deer)
From the same Indoeuropean root: English oxs, Greek ochs (= ox)

:_______________________________.

ych IIKH [iːx] (verb)
1
(South) you are

2 rych chi, ych chi / i chi you are (affirmative)

3 dych chi ddim, ych chi ddim / i chi ddim / chi ddim you are not

4 that you are

ych ych chi you are an ox (it-is) (an) ox that-you-are you

:_______________________________.

ych chi ii khi [iːx xiː, iˑˡxiː] (verb)
1
(South) you are

:_______________________________.

ychwaneg ə-KHWAA-neg [əˡxwɑˑnɛg] (masculine noun)
1
more

gwneud meddwl ychwaneg am reflect on


:_______________________________.

ychwanegu əkh wa NEE gi [əxwaˡneˑgɪ] (verb)
1
to add

:_______________________________.

ychwanegyn bwyd, ychwanegion bwyd əkh wa NEE gin BUID, əkh wa NEG yon BUID &[əxwaˡneˑgɪn buid, əxwaˡnɛgjɔn buid] (masculine noun)
1
food additive

:_______________________________.

ychydig ə KHƏƏ dig &[əˡxəˑdɪg] (masculine noun)
1
a bit

2
rhy ychydig too little
rhy ychydig (o rywbeth) too little (of something)
codi rhy ychydig ar (rywun) charge (somebody) too little, undercharge (somebody)
rhoi rhy ychydig (o rywbeth) (i rywun) give too little (of something) (to somebody)

3
o ychydig ddiddordeb of minor interest, of little interest

4
a few
y mae ychydig ohonom som uns quants there are a few of us
ychydig sydd ohonom there are only a few of us


5 (distance) o fewn ychydig i very near (a bit from)

6 ychydig ar a bit (in phrases equivalent to English verb + direct object + a bit)
rw i'n mynd i dacluso ychydig ar yr iard I'm going to tidy up the yard a bit
mae hyn yn helpu ychydig ar y broses this helps the process a little
gweld ychydig iawn ar rywun see very little of somebody
ychydig yr wyf i'n gweld arno I dont see him much ([it-is] little that-I-am-seeing on him)


ETYMOLOGY: ychydig < *fychydig < *bychydig < *bychodig

(bychod an obsolete noun meaning little, few) + (-ig diminutive suffix)

 

Bychod is (bych = (adj) small) + (-od suffix). It corresponds to Cornish boghes (= a little)


:_______________________________.

yd IID (plural noun)
1
(plural form) See: yden Ə-den ear of corn

 

:_______________________________.

-yd ID (suffix)
1
Occurs as a verbal suffix in a few verbnouns in standard Welsh

cymryd (< cymeryd) to take

 

But its use is much more widespread in colloquial Welsh

cyrheuddyd (i.e. cyrhaeddyd) to arrive, to reach; standard cyrraedd


:_______________________________.

ydach chi? ə da khi (verb)
1
are you? (North-west)

:_______________________________.

ydan ni? ə da ni (verb)
1
are we? (North-west)

:_______________________________.

-ydd idh noun-forming suffix
1 (person - man)
ysgrifenydd = secretary
melinydd = miller

The addition of -es indicates a female
ysgrifenyddes (female) secretary

The suffix ydd is used increasingly in modern Welsh as a gender-neutral suffix.
Strictly speaking arlunydd = artist (male); but it is used also to indicate: artist (male or female).

The problem is the plural form, since -ydd was considered to be equivalent to the suffix -wr (man), and the plural form for both is often -wyr (men) (arlunydd, arlunwyr). The plural of -ydd is -yddion which with certain words is unusual outside a formal context

2
at one time popular in forming bardic names:

---

 

Aeronydd Middle name of the Rev. J. Aeronydd Enoch, from Ciliau Aeron, Ceredigion
(roughly man from next to the Aeron river)

 

---

 

Ceulanydd John Williams (1847?-1899)

 

---

 

Clwydydd Pseudonym of Thomas Rhys Jones (1858-1950), minister.
(roughly man from next to the Clwyd river)

 

 

---

 

Hafrenydd Pseudonym of Thomas William (1807-1894), a musician born in Llanidloes (in present-day Powys). a town on the banks of Afon Hafren / the River Severn

 

(Hafren = river name) + (-ydd)

(roughly man from next to the Hafren river)

 

---


Ogwenydd pseudonym of John R. Jones, born in 1860 in Bethesda. His name appears as the author of a verse on a gravestone in Pentir, Bethesda (county of Gwynedd)

 

(roughly man from next to the Ogwen river)

(Ogwen the current literary form of Ogwan, the name of the river here, though Ogwan is in fact the correct form. It was assumed that the final -a- was the typical north-western spoken form taking the place of an original -e- : bedwan (= a birch tree) < bedwen.

Ogwenydd though could be (Ogwan) + (ydd) with vowel affection the a becoming e having been conditioned by the final y

 

---


3
denoting a device:
..a/ gwasgydd squeezer, press
..b/ llathrydd polisher
In such words with an initial a there is usually vowel affection the a becoming e being conditioned by the final y, but in recent coinings the rule seems not to function

4
denoting a substance:
..a/ melysydd = sweetener

ETYMOLOGY: British *ij-;
plural suffix -yddion < *yddon < British ijon-es

NOTE: Though there is usually no vowel affection in modern compounds, sometimes double forms occur gwasgydd ((no affection), gwesgydd (with affection)

 

:_______________________________.

-ydd idh suffix

1 used in Old Welsh to indicate a territory; added to a forename

 

Eifionydd (Eifion + -ydd)

 

Gwynionydd <gwə-ni-OO-nidh> [gwənɪˡoˑnɪ]
(medieval Wales) division of the kantrev of Is Aeron, south-west Wales

(Gwynion + -ydd)

 

Gwynionydd was the pseudonym of Benjamin Williams (1821-91), born in Pen-bryn, Cerdigion. Curate of Troed-yr-aur, Tiryrabad and Llanofer.

 

Meirionydd (Meirion + -ydd)


:_______________________________.

ydech chi? ə de khi (verb)
1
are you? (North-east)

:_______________________________.

yden, yd
ə den, iid feminine noun
1
grain of corn, ear of corn
yd corn
cae ŷd cornfield

2
(North Wales) seedcorn, cereal grains for planting (wheat, barley, oats)
(had = seeds) + (yd = cereal)

3
hen yd y wlad country people, country folk (old corn (of) the countryside)

4
gwannyd (South Wales) inferior grain
weak corn (gwann-, tonic syllable form of gwan = weak) + (yd = corn)

In Godre Ceredigion (the southern part of the county of Ceredigion) gwennyd
(with vowel affection a > e on account of the y in the final syllable)

ETYMOLOGY: < British < Cetlic
Cornish ysenn / ys (= corn), Breton edenn / ed (= corn)

:_______________________________.

yden ni? ə de ni
1
(North-east) are we?

:_______________________________.

ydfran əd vran (f)
PLURAL FORM ydfrain əd vrain
1
rook



ETYMOLOGY: 'cereal crow, corn crow'

(yd = cereals) + soft mutation + (brn = crow)

:_______________________________.

ydi ə DI
1
is (standardised colloquial Welsh - properly a Northern form)

The 3rd [person] singular ydiw was so written up to the 16th century; and rhymes with words in -iw, as friw, diw D. G. (= Dafydd ap Gwilym (North Cardiganshire), floruit 1350-80, reference [is] to Barddoniaeth Dafydd ap Gwilym Llundain, 1789) 35 cf. 119, 144, 193, etc. and G. (= Gwalchmai, Anglesey. Floruit 1150-90) 186, 193, 203, 206, 235, 247, also with yw (= iw); see paragraph 77 v. The Late Modern ydyw is an etymological spelling, and is read diw, except by a few affected persons. The North Wales dialect form is di (and, in answering questions only, ndi, a curious attempt to sound y with the tongue in the d position). South Wales dialect, in questions and answers, di.



(delwedd 7261)

:_______________________________.

ydi e? Ə di e (verb)
1
is he (standardised colloquial Welsh - properly a Northern form)

:_______________________________.

ydi hi? Ə di hi (verb)
1
is she? (North)

:_______________________________.

ydin wir ə-din wiir verb
1
isnt it / isnt she? / isnt he?
indeed it is / indeed she is / indeed he is

Tag element after an affirmative statement, as an exclamation

Mae hin dda, ydin wir
Shes good, isnt she? Shes good, she really is good

ETYMOLOGY: = ydi yn wir (ydi = is) + (yn wir = truly); (yn = predicative linker) + soft mutation + (gwir = true)

:_______________________________.

ydi o? Ə di o (verb)
1
is he? (North)

:_______________________________.

ydlan əd lan FEMININE NOUN
PLURAL FORM ydlannau əd la ne, ydlannoedd əd la noidh, -nodh
1
rickyard, cornyard

ETYMOLOGY: 'cereal enclosure' : (yd = cereals) + soft mutation + (llan = enclosure)

:_______________________________.

ydoedd ef ə DOIDH ev (verb)
1
he was

:_______________________________.

ydoedd hi ə DOIDH hi (verb)
1
she was

:_______________________________.

ydw ə DU
1
I am
2
am I?
3
(answer) yes, I am

South Wales: in the south-west odw, south-east otw
:_______________________________.

ydw i? ə DU (verb)
1
am I?

South Wales: in the south-west odw i?, south-east otw i?
:_______________________________.

ydwyt ə DUIT (verb)
1
(literary) 1 you are ('thou art') 2 (question) are you? 3 (answer) yes, you are

:_______________________________.

ydy ə DI (verb)
1
he is

2 (question) is he?

3 (answer) yes, he is

South Wales: in the south-west odi, south-east oti

See ydi
:_______________________________.

ydy e? ə DI e (verb)
1
is he?

South Wales: in the south-west odi e?, south-east oti a?
See ydi
:_______________________________.

ydy hi?
ə DI hi (verb)
1
is she?

South Wales: in the south-west odi i / odi ddi, south-east oti i, oti ddi

See ydi

:_______________________________.

ydy o ə DI o (verb)
1
he is (North)
See ydi
:_______________________________.

ydych ə DIKH (verb)
1
you are ('thou art') 2 (question) are you? 3 (answer) yes, you are

South Wales: ych
:_______________________________.

ydych chi? ə DI khi (verb)

:_______________________________.

ydym ə DIM (verb)
1
we are 2 (question) are we? 3 (answer) yes, we are

:_______________________________.

ydyn ə DIN (verb)
1
they are 2 (question) are they? 3 (answer) yes, they are

:_______________________________.

ydyn nhw? ə DI nu (verb)
1
are they?

:_______________________________.

ydynt ə DINT (verb)
(literary form)
1
they are
2
(question) are they?
3
(answer) yes, they are

:_______________________________.

ydyw ə DIU (verb)
(literary form)
1
he is
2
(question) is he?
3
(answer) yes, he is

The 3rd [person] singular ydiw was so written up to the 16th century; and rhymes with words in iw, as friw, diw D. G. (= Dafydd ap Gwilym (North Cardiganshire), floruit 1350-80, reference [is] to Barddoniaeth Dafydd ap Gwilym Llundain, 1789) 35 cf. 119, 144, 193, etc. and G. (= Gwalchmai, Anglesey. Floruit 1150-90) 186, 193, 203, 206, 235, 247, also with yw (= iw); see paragraph 77 v. The Late Modern ydyw is an etymological spelling, and is read diw, except by a few affected persons. The North Wales dialect form is di (and, in answering questions only, ndi, a curious attempt to sound y with the tongue in the d position). South Wales dialect, in questions and answers, di.



(delwedd 7261)

:_______________________________.

yfed Ə ved (verb)
1
to drink
siocled yfed drinking chocolate (chocolate (of) drinking)

2
to drink alcoholic drinks
yfed fel ych drink like a fish (drink like an ox)
yfed cwrw fel ych drink beer like theres no tomorrow (drink beer like an ox)
yfed nes hurtio drink oneself stupid
yfed i iechyd rhywun drink to the health of (somebody), toast (somebody)
pethau yfed alcoholic drinks

Yr oedd yn y dafarn honno jwg piwtar yn dal hanner galwyn o gwrw. Y gamp oedd yfed ei lond o gwrw ar un llwnc, hynny yw, heb gymryd gwynt. In the pub mentioned there was a pewter jug holding half a gallon of beer, The trick (feat) was to drink all the beer in it at once / in a single draught (on one swallow), without taking a breath

:_______________________________.

yfed Ə ved (verb)
1
let him / her / it drink
Diarhebion 31:7 Yfed efe, fel yr anghofio ei dlodi; ac ac un na feddylio am ei flinfyd mwy.
Proverbs 31:7 Let him drink, and forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more.

ETYMOLOGY: (yf- stem of yfed = to drink) + (-ed = verbal inflexion)

:_______________________________.

yfory ə VOO ri (adverb)
1
tomorrow
Colloquially fory

2
Coch i fyny teg yfory Red sky at night, shepherds delight (red up, fair tomorrow)
if the sky is red at sunset, tomorrow will be a fine day

3 Heddiw piau hi, nid yfory Dont put off until tomorrow what you can do today, Dont leave until tomorrow what you can do today

:_______________________________.

yma Ə ma (adverb)
1
here

:_______________________________.

ymadael
ə MAA del (verb)
1
leave, depart

2 ymadael foresake, give up, leave behind

 

(Apocrypha) Ecclesiasticus 35:3 Ewyllys yr Arglwydd yw troi oddi wrth ddrygioni; a bodloni yw ymado ag anghyfiawnder.
(Apocrypha) Ecclesiasticus 35:3 To depart from wickedness is a thing pleasing to the Lord; and to forsake unrighteousness is a propitiation.

 


:_______________________________.

ymadawiad ə-ma- dau -yad masculine noun
PLURAL ymadawiadau ə-ma-dau- yaa -de
1
departure (Scotland: way-going)

2
departure = resignation from a job

3
death
Ymadawiad Arthur The Passing of Arthur (awdl alliterative poem, in different metres by T. Gwynn Jones who was awarded the bardic chair in the eisteddfod in 1902, relating the death of Arthur after being wounded in battle)

ychydig cyn ei ymadawiad shortly before his death

ETYMOLOGY: (ymadaw-, stem of ymadael = to depart) + (-iad suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

y mae
1
"that-is". This is normally mae in the spoken language (the y is dropped)
Arni h y mae'r bai > Arni h mae'r bai It's her fault ("(it is) on her that-is the blame")

:_______________________________.

y mae ə MAE (verb)
1
there is, she is, he is, it is

:_______________________________.

y mae ef ə MAE EEV (verb)
1
he is

:_______________________________.

y mae hi ə MAE HII (verb)
1
she is

:_______________________________.

y maent ə MAINT (verb)
1
they are

:_______________________________.

y maent hwy ə MAINT HUI (verb)
1
they are

:_______________________________.

ymaflyd ə MAV lid (verb)
1
ymaflyd (yn rhywbeth)
take hold of, grasp (something)

Ymaflodd yn nwylo y ferch fechan
She grasped the little girl`s hands

2 ymaflyd codwm ə MAV lid KOO dum (masculine noun)
wrestling

ETYMOLOGY: ymaflyd, ymaflyd a contracted form ymafaelyd, from (ymafael = to grasp) + (-yd suffix for forming verbs). Ymafael is (ym- prefix of reflexivity or reciprocity) + soft mutation + (gafael = to grasp, to hold)

:_______________________________.

ymith ə MAITH adverb
1
away

2 halio ymith tow away, tow off
Maer heddlu wedi halio ei gar ymith
The police have towed away his car

crafu ymaith scrape off, scrape away

:_______________________________.

ymalltudio ə-malh- tid -yo verb
1 go into exile

ETYMOLOGY: exile oneself (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + (alltudio = to exile)

:_______________________________.

ymarfer ə MAR ver (verb)
1
practise

maes ymarfer golff golf driving range (field (of) practising golf)

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/551486 Maes Ymarfer Golff Tre-borth, Ynys Mn


ETYMOLOGY: practise oneself (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + (arfer = to practise)
:_______________________________.

ymarferiad tn ə-mar- ver -yad taan feminine noun
PLURAL ymarferiadau tn ə-mar-ver- y -de taan
1
fire-drill, fire-practice

ETYMOLOGY: practice (of) fire (ymarferiad = practice) + (tn = fire)

:_______________________________.

ymarferol əm-ar-v -rol adjective
1
practical (as opposed to theoretical)

2
anymarferol unfeasible, impractical

ETYMOLOGY: (ymarfer = to practise, to use) + (-ol suffix)

:_______________________________.

ymarfer saethu ə-mar-ver sei-thi masculine noun
PLURAL ymarferion saethu ə-mar-ver-yon sei-thi
1
target practice

ETYMOLOGY: practice (of) shooting, shooting practice (ymarfer = practice) + (saethu = to shoot, shooting)

:_______________________________.

ymarfogi ə mar VO gi (verb)
1
arm (oneself), take up arms

ETYMOLOGY: arm oneself (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + (arfogi = to arm, to furnish with a weapon or weapons)

:_______________________________.

ymarllwys ə- mar -lhuis verb
1
pour out (eg people leaving a crowded room)
pan oedd y dorf yn ymarllwys or neuadd when the crowd was pouring out of the hall

2
ymarllwys yn y mr (river) flow into the sea

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- reflexive prefix) + (arllwys = pour)

:_______________________________.

ymarweddiad ə-mar-wedh-yad masculine noun
1 (literary) ymarweddiad bearing, behaviour, conduct, attitude, inclination, disposition

cod ymarweddiad code of conduct (a set of principles which a member of a particular group of people must adhere to and not contravene)

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (arweddiad bearing, behaviour, attitude)

:_______________________________.

ymateb ə MA-teb (verb)
1
react, respond

2 ymateb ir gofynion, rise to the occasion (react to the requirements)

3 (noun) response

cael ymateb get a response
cael ymateb cadarnhaol get a positive response

ETYMOLOGY: answer oneself / to others (ym- = reflexive or reciprocative prefix ) + (ateb = to answer)

:_______________________________.

ymbarl, ymbarls / ymbarelau / ymbareli əm ba REL, əm ba RELS / əm ba RE le / əm ba RE li (feminine noun)
1
umbrella

agor ymbarl
open an umbrella

cau ymbarl
close an umbrella

ymbarl traeth beach umbrella

ymbarl golff
golf umbrella

cuddio dan ymbarl
hide under an umbrella

2 corff ymbarl umbrella group, umbrella organisation an single organisation which incorporates many different organisations to represent their interests

Mae Mentrau Iaith Cymru yn gorff ymbarl ir rhwydwaith o Fentrau Iaith

Language Entreprise Grooups of Wales is an umbrella organisation for the network of Language Entreprise Groups

:_______________________________.

ymbarati əm ba ra TOI (verb)
1
prepare oneself, get oneself ready
ymbarati i farw prepare oneself for death

ymbarati at arolygiad prepare oneself for an inspection

ETYMOLOGY: prepare oneself (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + (parati = to prepare)
:_______________________________.

ymbelydredd əm be LƏ dredh (masculine noun)
1
radiation

:_______________________________.

ymbelydrol əm be LƏ drol (adjective)
1
radio-active

:_______________________________.

ymbincio əm BINGK yo (verb)
1
make up, put on make up
bwrdd ymbincio dressing table

:_______________________________.

ymborth əm -borth masculine noun
1
food, sustenance;
byw heb ymborth live without eating and drinking;
literary Welsh cymeryd eich ymborth to eat, to have a meal ("to take your food")

ETYM
OLOGY: stem of the verb ymborthi = to feed oneself, to eat, to eat and drink

:_______________________________.

ymborthi əm- bor -thi verb
1
formal to eat, to have a meal;
Yr oedd yn ymborthi a darllen ar unwaith He was eating and reading at the same time

2
(animal) ymborthi ar, eat, feed on = give food to oneself;
Bydd y ddraenog yn ymborthi ar falwod, pryfed a chwilod
The hedgehog feeds on snails, insects and beetles

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix) + soft mutation + (porthi = to feed).
The verb porthi is (*porth < British *port- < Latin portare = to carry) + (-i verbal suffix)

:_______________________________.

ymbwyllo əm BUI lho (verb)
1
cool down after an argument

ETYMOLOGY: restore discretion to oneself (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (pwyllo = to consider, contemplate, exercise discretion)
:_______________________________.

ymchwil ƏM khwil (feminine noun)
1 research
2 cudd-ymchwil intelligence = secret information about an enemy
(cudd = hidden) + (ymchwil = research)


:_______________________________.

ymchwilio əm KHWIL yo (feminine noun)
1 to research

ETYMOLOGY: search + oneself (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + (chwilio = to search)

:_______________________________.

ymdaith, ymdeithiau ƏM daith, əm DEITH ye (feminine noun)
1
march
2
gorymdaith procession (gor- = intensifying prefix) + (ymdaith = march)

:_______________________________.

ymdeithio əm DEITH yo (feminine noun)
1 to march

Ymdeithiasant dros fynyddoedd Berwyn a Rug i ymosod ar y gelyn
They marched over the Berwyn and Rug mountains to attack the enemy

2 walk, make ones way

Exodus 6:4 Hefyd mi a sicrheais fy nghyfamod a hwynt, am roddi iddynt wlad Canaan, sef gwlad eu hymdaith, yr hon yr ymdeithiasant ynddi.
Exodus 6:4 And I have also established my covenant with them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, wherein they were strangers (that they made their way into)

pan ddisgynodd y Gwaredwr o'r nef ac yr ymdeithiodd ym mhlith dynion.

When the Saviour descende from Heaven and made his way among mankind

ETYMOLOGY: (ymdaith = march) + (-io verbal prefix)

:_______________________________.

ymddangos əm DHANG gos (verb)
1
show up, appear

ETYMOLOGY: show oneself (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (chwilio = to show)
:_______________________________.

ymddeol əm DHE ol (verb)
1
retire

:_______________________________.

ymddidan əm DHI dhan, əm dhi DHAN yon (masculine noun)
1
conversation

:_______________________________.

ymddidan əm DHI dhan (verb)
1
converse (with)

:_______________________________.

ymddiddori (mewn) əm dhi DHO ri (verb)
1
be interested in

ETYMOLOGY: interest oneself (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + (diddori = to interest)
:_______________________________.

ymddiried əm DHIR yed (verb)
1
trust, place one's confidence in

2
ymddiried (rhywbeth i rywun) i = entrust (something to somebody)

Rydym ni wedi ymddiried brwydr yr iaith i wleidyddion yn rhy hir
Weve entrusted the struggle for the language to politicians for too long

3 tor ymddiried breach of trust, breach of faith

:_______________________________.

ymddirwyn əm DHIR uibn (verb)
1
to snake, to wind (= to move, to twist)

ymddirwynair trn ar hyd llethraur mynydd
the train snaked along the mountain slopes

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- reflexive prefix) + soft mutation + (dirwyn= to wind, to twist)

:_______________________________.

ymddiswyddo əm-dhi- sui -dho verb
1
resign, (Scotland: demit), leave

Cyhoeddodd Prif Weithredwr y cwmni ei fod yn ymddiswyddo ar l blwyddyn
The Chief Executive annocunced that he is leaving after a year

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- reflexive prefix) + soft mutation + (diswyddo = to dismiss)

:_______________________________.

ymdeithgan əm- deith -gan feminine noun
PLURAL ymdeithganau əm-deith- g-ne

1
march = music to which soldiers march

2
ymdeithgan angladdol funeral march

ETYMOLOGY: (ymdeith-, stem of ymdeithio = to march) + soft mutation + (cn = song)

:_______________________________.

ymdoddi əm D dhi (verb)
1
to melt
2
ymdoddi ir dorf melt into the crowd, disappear

ymdoddi ir cefndir merge into the background
Mae modd peintio dysgl loeren iddi ymdoddi ir cefndir

There is a way to paint a satellite dish so that it merges into the background

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- reflexive prefix) + soft mutation + (toddi = to melt)
:_______________________________.

ymdonni
əm- do -ni verb
1
undulate

..neu'r dyfroedd mawrion yn ymdonni mewn ehangder ofnadwy ger ein bron

or the great waters undulating in an awful expanse before us

(Richard Davies, Year 1810, Y Pregethau a fwriadawyd i ddangos i Ddynol-ryw, y dylent fucheddu yn wir-gristianogol)

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix) + soft mutation + (tonni = undulate)

:_______________________________.

ymdrabaeddu əm-dra- bei -dhi verb
1
wallow; see ymdrybaeddu

:_______________________________.

ymdrech, ymdrechion ƏM drekh, ən DERKH yon (feminine noun)
1 effort, endeavour, exertion
yn ddiymdrech effortlessly

2
cyfeirioch ymdrechion tuag at (ryw nod) direct your efforts towards (some goal)

3
gwenu gydag ymdrech force a smile (smile with an effort)

4
gwneud ymdrech i wneud (rhywbeth) attempt to do (something) (make an effort...)

:_______________________________.

ymdrechu əm DR khi (verb)
1
strive
ymdrechu phob diwydrwydd i strive hard to (do something) (to strive with every diligence / assiduity)

:_______________________________.

ymdreiddiad əm- dreidh -yad masculine noun
PLURAL ymdreiddiadau əm- dreidh- yaa -de
1 penetration
rhyw heb ymdreiddiad non-penetrative sex

ETYMOLOGY: (ymdreidd- stem of ymdreiddio = penetrate) + (-i-ad noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

ymdreiglfa əm- dreigl -va feminine noun
1
wallowing place

Pedr-2 2:22 Eithr digwyddodd iddynt yn l y wir ddihareb, Y ci a ymchwelodd at ei chwydfa ei hun; ar hwch wedi ei golchi, iw hymdreiglfa yn y dom
Peter-2 2:22 But it is happened unto them according to the true proverb, The dog is turned to his own vomit again; and the sow that was washed to her wallowing in the mire.

ETYMOLOGY: (ymdreigl- stem of ymdreiglo = to wallow) + (-fa noun-forming suffix, indicating a place)

:_______________________________.

ymdrochi əm DRO khi (verb)
1
bathe, have a dip

dŵr ymdrochi bathing water

Mae'r tymor ymdrochi yng Nghymru yn ymestyn o 1 Mai tan 30 Medi.
The bathing season in Wales extends from May 1 to September 30

:_______________________________.

ymdrybaeddu əm-drə- bei -dhi verb
1
wallow
ymdrybaeddu yn y mwd wallow in the mud

2
wallow = indulge oneself
ymdrybaeddu mewn budreddi wallow in vice

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- reflexive prefix) + soft mutation + (trybaeddu = to stain; to wallow)
NOTE: Also ymdrabaeddu

:_______________________________.

yml ə- mel
(verb)
1 colloquial form of ymhl (qv)

ymhl (rhywbeth) become involved with
:_______________________________.

ymelach mhel
(verb)
1 colloquial form of ymhelach < ymhl (qv)
ymhl (rhywbeth) become involved with

:_______________________________.

ymennydd, ymenyddau ə ME nidh, ə me NƏ dhe (masculine noun)
1
brain

llid yr ymenydd meningitis (infection of the brain)

parlys yr ymennydd cerebral palsy (paralysis of the brain)
hylif yr ymenydd
brain fluid

2
ymenyddol cerebral

:_______________________________.

ymenyddol ə me NƏƏ dhol (masculine noun)

1 cerebral
:_______________________________.

ymenyn ə ME nin (masculine noun)
Colloquially: menyn

1
butter

2
Maen nhw mor wahanol ml a menyn
Theyre as different as chalk and cheese (as different as honey and butter)

3
Saying:
Tri enllyn iechyd: ml, ymenyn a llaeth The three companages for health are honey, butter and milk (companage something which accompanies bread)

:_______________________________.

ymerawdr, ymerawdwyr ə mhe RAU dər (masculine noun)
1
emperor
2
Yr Ymerawdwr Rufeinig Sanctaidd the Holy Roman Emperor

:_______________________________.

ymerodraeth, ymerodraethau ə me RO dreth, ə me ro DREI the (feminine noun)
1
empire

2 Yr Ymerodraeth Rufeinig Sanctaidd the Holy Roman Empire, a one-thousand year old empire; European territories ruled by a German king from the time of Charlemagne in 800A.D. to 1806, when the emperor Francis II relinquished his crown

:_______________________________.

ymerodrol ə-me-ro-drol adj
1 imperial

2 y Ddinas Ymerodrol = Empire City (i.e. New York)
y Dalaith Ymerodrol the Empire State = New York State
Adeilad y Dalaith Ymerodrol The Empire State Building

ETYMOLOGY: (ymherodr = empire) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives) *ymherodrol < ymerodrol (the h is lost if it is not the initial consonant in the tonic syllable)

:_______________________________.

ymesgusodi ə me ski S di (verb)
1
excuse oneself
ymesgusodi rhag gwneud rhywbeth excuse oneself from doing something

:_______________________________.

ymestyn ə ME stin (verb)
1
stretch

:_______________________________.

ymfudiad, ymfudiadau əm VID yad, əm vid YA de (masculine noun)
1
migration

:_______________________________.

ymfudo əm VI do (masculine noun)
1
migrate

:_______________________________.

ymfudol əm VI dol (adjective)
1
migratory

:_______________________________.

ymfudwr, ymfudwyr əm VI dur, əm VID wir (masculine noun)
1
migrant

:_______________________________.

ymfyddino əm və DHI no (verb)
1
(army) mobilise

:_______________________________.

ymgais ƏM gais (masculine noun)
1
attempt

2
ni + gwneud un ymgais at not make any attempt to
Nid oeddid erioed wedi gwneud un ymgais at sychu y siglenydd a'r lleoedd corsiog
No attempt had ever been made to drain the swamps and the boggy places

3
gwneud ymgais i wneud (rhywbeth) attempt to do (something) (make an attempt...)
ni + gwneud un ymgais at not make any attempt to

Nid oeddid erioed wedi gwneud un ymgais at sychu y siglenydd a'r lleoedd corsiog
No attempt had ever been made to drain the swamps and the boggy places

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- reflexive prefix) + soft mutation + (cais = an attempt, a try)
:_______________________________.

ymgeledd
əm- g ledh masculine noun
1
care, support, help

2
helpmate = helpful wife or husband, help meet
The English word helpmate results from a misunderstanding of an helpe meet (= suitable) for him in Genesis 18:20

Hefyd yr Arglwydd Dduw a ddywedodd, Nid da bod y dyn ei hunan; gwnaf iddo ymgeledd cymwys iddo... (18:20) Ac Adda a enwodd enwau ar yr holl anifeiliaid, ac ar ehediad y nefoedd ac ar holl fwystfilod y maes; ond ni chafodd efe i Adda ymgeledd cymwys iddo
Genesis 18:20 And the Lord God said, It is not good that the
man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him...
(18:20) And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air,
and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him

Yn y flwyddyn 1797, yn mhen dwy flynedd wedi ei urddiad, efe a gymerodd Mary Brees y Coed, yn ymgeledd cymwys iddo ei hun (Cofiant y Tri Brawd / E Pan Jones / 1892 / t12 )
In the year 1797, two years after his ordination, he took Mary Brees from Y Coed as a wife (suitable help)

3
diymgeledd destitute

ETYMOLOGY: (ymgel- stem of the verb ymgelu, presumably meaning to give refuge to, to shelter from ym- reflexive-reciprocal prefix + soft mutation + celu = conceal, hide) +
(-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)


:_______________________________.

ymgeleddu əm ge LE dhi (verb)
1
look after, care for

:_______________________________.

ymgeleddwr, ymgeleddwyr əm ge LE dhur, əm ge LEDH wir (verb)
1
carer

:_______________________________.

ymgloddio əm- glodh -yo v
1 entrench oneself

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (cloddio dig a ditch, dig ditches, entrench)

:_______________________________.

ymgodymu
əm-go- -mi verb
1
ymgodymu fight with, wrestle with
ymgodymu ag anhawsterau contend with difficulties, struggle with problems


ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (codymu = fall; fell, make fall; wrestle)

:_______________________________.

ymgofleidio
əm-go-vleid -yo verb
1
embrace each other

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive or reciprocal prefix) + soft mutation + (cyfleidio = embrace, hug)

:_______________________________.

ymgom, ymgomion ƏM gom, əm GOM yon (feminine noun)
1
conversation

:_______________________________.

ymgomio əm GOM yo (verb)
1
converse with

:_______________________________.

ymgroesi əm- groi -si verb
1
cross oneself. make the sign of the cross

2
ymgroesi rhg = beware of, guard against;
Cafodd ein dysgu i ymgroesi rhg lcohol we were taught to beware of alcohol
Ymgroesa = (vocative, second-person singular) be careful (not to do something)

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix) + soft mutation+ (croesi = cross)

:_______________________________.

ymguddio əm- gidh -yo verb
1
hide oneself
Tai mawrion yn ymguddio yn y coed ar lannaur afon segur
Big houses hidden in the trees on the banks of the slow-flowing river

mynd i ymguddio go into hiding

2
take refuge
Byddair glowyr yn ymguddio mewn manol pan ddeuai siwrne i lawr yr inclein
The miners would take refuge in an alcove when a line of coal trucks came down the incline

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix self-, auto- , oneself) + soft mutation + (cuddio = to hide)

:_______________________________.

ymgydio əm- gəd -yo verb
1
ymgydio copulate with

Lefiticus 20:15 A lladder yn farw y gŵr a ymgydio ag anifail; lladdant hefyd yr anifail
Leviticus 20:15 And if a man lie with a beast, he shall surely be put to death: and ye shall slay the beast.

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive or reciprocal prounoun) + soft mutation + (cydio = to connect)

:_______________________________.

ymgyflwyniad
əm-gəv- luin -yad masculine noun
1
commitment
ymgyflwyniad hollol i waith yr Arglwydd
a complete commitment to the work of the Lord

ETYMOLOGY: (ymgyflwyn-, stem of ymgyflwyno = commit oneself) + (-i-ad noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

ymgyflwyno
əm-gəv- lui-no verb
1
commit oneself

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- reflexive prefix) + soft mutation + (cyflwyno = to present)

:_______________________________.

ymgynghori əm-gə- ngh ri verb
1 consult, confer
ymgynghori i gilydd confer with each other, consult each other

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (cynghori = to consult)

:_______________________________.

ymgynghoriad əm-gə- nghor -yad masculine noun
PLURAL ymgynghoriadau əm-gə- nghor-y -de
1 consultation

Deddf yr Iaith Gymraeg 1993 - Ymgynghoriad Cyhoeddus ar Gynllun Iaith Drafft
Welsh Language Act 1993 - Public Consultation on the Draft Welsh Language Scheme
Cymro 18 12 1996

ETYMOLOGY: (ymgynghor- stem of ymgynghori = consultar-se) + (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)
:_______________________________.

ymgynhaliol əm-gə-nhal-yol adjective
1
subsistence
ffermio ymgynhaliol subsistence farming

ETYMOLOGY: (ymgynhal-, penult syllable form of ymgynnal = support oneself) + (-iol adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

ymgynghorwr əm-gə-ngh-rur masculine noun
PLURAL ymgynghorwyr əm-gə-nghor-wir
See ymgynghorydd

:_______________________________.

ymgynghorydd əm-gə-ngh-ridh masculine noun
PLURAL ymgynghorwyr əm-gə-nghor-wir
1
consultant
ymgynghorwr ariannol financial consultant, adviser on investments, house purchase, etc
ymgynghorwr cynllunio planning consultant, adviser on architectural and town-planning matters

ETYMOLOGY: (ymgynghor-, stem of ymgynghori = to consult) + (-ydd, suffix to indicate an agent)
NOTE: also with the suffix
(1) -wr -
ymgynghorwr - to indicate a man,
and
(2) -wraig -
ymgynghorwraig - to indicate a woman

:_______________________________.

ymgynnal
əm- -nal verb
1
subsist, support oneself
lwfans ymgynnal subsistence allowance

:_______________________________.

ymgynnig əm- -nig verb
1
volunteer
ymgynnig ar gyfer rhywbeth volunteer for something

ETYMOLOGY: offer oneself (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (cynnig = to offer)

:_______________________________.

ymgyrchu əm- gər -khi verb
1
campaign, fight
ymgyrchu dros to campaign for
ymgyrchu yn erbyn to campaign against

ymgyrchu'n ddi-drais dros uno Iwerddon
campaign in a non-violent manner to unite Ireland, for the unification of Ireland

ymgyrchu dros well darpariaeth ffisiothrapi
campaign for better provision of physiotherapy

2
ymgyrchu'n fwg ac yn dn yn erbyn... campaign vehemently against... ("campaign smoke and fire")

Bu'r aelodau seneddol Llafur yn ymgyrchu'n fwg ac yn dn yn erbyn senedd i Gymru
The Labour Members of Parliament fought vehemently against a parliament for Wales

ETYMOLOGY: (ymgyrch = campaign) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

ymgysegru əm-gə-SE-gri verb
1
dedicate oneself
ymgysegru i astudio dedicate oneself to study

ETYMOLOGY: (ym-, reflexive prefix) + soft mutation + (cysegru = consecrate)

:_______________________________.

ymhl əm- hel verb
1 ymhl (rhywbeth) meddle with, tamper with, interfere with

2 ymhl (rhywbeth) become involved with

3 dabble in (black magic, etc)
ymhl r gelfyddyd ddu engage in balck magic

4 ymhl (rhywun) be involved with someone,
Paid ag ymhl ag e Dont bother with him, Dont have anything to do with him

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + (hel- = to hunt)

NOTE: colloquial forms: yml, mhel; ymhela, mela; ymhelach, ymelach, melach
:_______________________________.

ymhela ə mhe -la (verb)
1 variant de of ymhl (qv) (with the suffix -a)
ymhl (rhywbeth) become involved with

:_______________________________.

ymhelach mhel
(verb)
1 variant de of ymhl (qv) (with the suffix -ach)
ymhl (rhywbeth) become involved with

:_______________________________.

ymhll ə MHELL (adverb)
1
distant, far
2
bod ymhll ar y blaen be well in the lead, be well ahead

:_______________________________.

ymhn ə MHEN (preposition)
1
within (time), 'at the end of'
ymhn yr hir ar hwyr with the passage of time, over time

:_______________________________.

ymhlth ə MHLIITH (preposition)
1
among, amongst

2 ystyried rhywun ymhlth eich cyfeillion consider someone as a friend, count somebody among your friends

:_______________________________.

ymhb ə MHOOB (prep + det)
1
in each, in every
2
ymhb dull a ffordd in all sorts of ways (in every form and way)

:_______________________________.

ymhobman ə MHOB man (adverb)
1
all over, everywhere

:_______________________________.

ymhonni verb Om HO ni
1
ymhonni yn claim to be, pretend to be, pass oneself off as
ymhonnin fardd call oneself a poet
ymhonnin bensaer make oneself out to be an architect

:_______________________________.

ymiro ə - m -ro verb
1
anoint onself

Daniel 10:3 Ni fwyteais fara blasus, ac ni ddaeth cig na gwin yn fy ngenau; gan ymiro hefyd nid ymirais, nes cyflawni tair wythnos o ddyddiau.
Daniel 10:3 I ate no pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine in my mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all, till three whole weeks were fulfilled.

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix) + (iro = to anoint, to oil)

:_______________________________.

ymlacio əm- lak -yo (verb without an object)
1
relax
Yr wyf yn ymlacio drwy ddarllen nofelau detectif I relax by reading detective novels

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (llacio = to slacken, to loosen)

:_______________________________.

ymladd verb ƏM ladh
1
fight

2
ymladd neu ffoi (Biology) fight or flight

3 diwedd ar yr ymladd cessation of hostilites

4
ymladd fel cŵn a chathod fight like cat and dog

Roedd y Taffis ar Padis yn ymladd fel cŵn a chathod yn ardaloedd glo Amrica
The Taffies (= the Welsh) and the Paddies (= the Irish) fought like cats and dogs in the coalmining areas of America

5
(county of Penfro) ymladd cymalau fight with the bare fists

:_______________________________.

ymlen əm LAIN (adverb)
1
forward

2
o hyn ymlen from now on, henceforward
(o = from) + (hyn this (time)) + (ymlen = forward)

3
ymlaenaf
(superlative form of ymlen) foremost (see following entry)

:_______________________________.

ymlaenaf əm LEI Na (adverb)
1
foremost

pethau cyntaf ymlaenaf first things first

rhoir troed gorau ymlaenaf put your best foot forward = do your best, go your fastest (put the best foot foremost)

:_______________________________.

ymledu əm-LEE-di (v)
1
spread (vi)

Ymledodd gwn fawr dros ei wyneb A big smile spread over his face

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix) + soft mutation + (lledu = to broaden)

 

:_______________________________.

ymlusgio əm LIS ko (v)
1
drag oneself

 

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- prefix = self) + soft mutation + (llusgo = drag)
:_______________________________.

ymlusgiad, ymlusgiaid əm LISK yad, əm LISK yed (masculine noun)
1
reptile
ETYMOLOGY: (ymlusg- stem of the verb ymlusgo = drag oneself) + (-i-ad = noun-forming suffix)
:_______________________________.

ym mhen əm MHEN (preposition)
1
at the top of

ym mhen y cwm at the top of the valley

2 rhoi sarhd ym mhen anaf add insult to injury (put an insult into the top of an injury)

gweld y goleuni ym mhen y twnel see the light at the end of the tunnel, see that a difficult task is nearing completion, see that difficult circumstances will soon be overcome

:_______________________________.

ymnhedd əm -nhedh verb
1
(obsolete) supplicating, beseeching, request
ymnhedd < ymanhedd = beseech, implore (ym + hyedd + -u)

Diarhebion 19:7 Holl frodyr y tlawd 'i casnt ef - pa faint mwy yr ymbellha ei gyfeillion oddi wrtho? er maint a ymnheddo, ni throant ato
Proverbs 19:7 All the brethren of the poor do hate him: how much more do his friends go far from him? he pursueth them with words, yet they are wanting to him.

Esther 4:8 Ac efe a roddodd iddo destun ysgrifen y gorchymyn a osodasid yn Susan i'w dinistrio hwynt, i'w ddangos i Esther, ac i'w fynegi iddi, ac i orchymyn iddi fyned i mewn at y brenin, i ymbil ag ef, ac i ymnhedd o'i flaen ef dros ei phobl.
Esther 4:8 Also he gave him the copy of the writing of the decree that was given at Shushan to destroy them, to show it unto Esther, and to declare it unto her, and to charge her that she should go in unto the king, to make supplication unto him, and to make request before him for her people.

ETYMOLOGY: ymnheddu < ymanhedd < *ymanhyedd (ym- = prefix reflexiu) + (anhyedd = entreaty, supplication )

:_______________________________.

ymofyn ə MOO vin (verb)
1
want (particulary in South Wales, where it is reduced to moyn [moin]
2 go and fetch

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- prefix = self) + soft mutation + (gofyn = ask)
:_______________________________.

ymolch Ə molkh (verb)
1
wash oneself

:_______________________________.

ymolchi ə MOL khi (verb)
1
wash oneself
basnau ymolchi a bthau washbasins and bths

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- prefix = self) + soft mutation + (golchi = wash)
:_______________________________.

ymoleuo əm- o-lei-o verb
1
to enlighten
2
(m) enlightenment
Cyfnod yr Ymoleuo the Age of Enlightenment (movement in the 18th century advocating the use of reason)

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix) + soft mutation + (goleuo = illuminate)

:_______________________________.

ymoleuol ə-mo-lei-ol adjective
1
enlightening
2
luminous

ETYMOLOGY: (ymoleu- stem of ymoleuo = enlighten) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

ymollwng
ə-mo-lhung verb
1
fall, sink
ymollwng i anobaith to sink into despair, to despair, to lose hope


ETYMOLOGY: (ym- prefix = self) + soft mutation + (gostwng = release)
:_______________________________.

ymorol ə MO rol (verb)
1
ymorol am look after, take care of; see to

:_______________________________.

ymosod ə MO sod (verb)
1
to attack
ymosod ar (rywun)
attack (somebody) ('put onself on')
2
Gorau amddiffyn, ymosod The best form of defence is attack (best defending, attacking)

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- prefix = self) + soft mutation + (gosod = put, set)
:_______________________________.

ymosodiad, ymosodiadau əm ə SOD yad, əm ə sod Y de (masculine noun)
1
attack

2
bwrw (ymosodiad) yn ei l repel (an attack)
gwthio (ymosodiad) yn ei l repel (an attack)
gyrru (ymosodiad) yn ei l repel (an attack)

3
ymosodiad rhywiol sexual assualt

:_______________________________.

ymosodol ə-mo-so-dol adjective
1
aggressive
2
hostile

ETYMOLOGY: (ymosod = to attack) + (-ol = suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

ymosodwr ə-mo-so-dur masculine noun
PLURAL ymosodwyr ə-mo-sod-wir
1
attacker

ETYMOLOGY: (ymosod = to attack) + (-wr = agent suffix)

:_______________________________.

ymostwng ə-mo-stung verb
1
submit
ymostwng i'r drefn = conform to the system ("submit to the system")
2
surrender, give up

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix) + soft mutation + (gostwng = lower, humiliate)

:_______________________________.

ymostyngar ə-mo-stəng-gar adjective
1
submissive

ETYMOLOGY: (ymostwng = submit) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives; = propensity)

:_______________________________.

ymostyngiad ə-mo-stəng-yad masculine noun
PLURAL ymostyngiadau ə-mə-stəng-ya-de
1
submission

ETYMOLOGY: (ymostwng = submit) + (-iad = suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

ymotbren ə-ot-bren masculine noun
PLURAL ymotbrennau ə-mot-bre-ne
1
stirrer = stick for stirring

ETYMOLOGY: (ymod = to stir) + soft mutation + (pren = wood)
Colloquial form: 'motbren, 'mopren

:_______________________________.

ympryd əm-prid masculine noun
PLURAL ymprydiau əm-prəd-ye
1
fast (period without food)
dydd ympryd fast day, day of fasting
torrich ympryd break your fast

:_______________________________.

ymprydio əm-prəd-yo verb
1
(verb without an object) to fast

ETYMOLOGY: (ympryd = fast) + (-io = suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

ymprydiwr əm-prəd-yur masculine noun
PLURAL ymprydwyr əm-prəd-wir
1
faster, person who is fasting

ETYMOLOGY: (ympryd-i- = stem of ymprydio = to fast) + (-wr = agent suffix, 'man')

:_______________________________.

1..ymrafael əm-ra-vel masculine noun
PLURAL ymrafaelion əm-ra-veil-yon
1
dispute, quarrel

2
confrontation

3
conflict
ymrafael cymdeithasol social conflict, confrontation or fighting between different sectors of society

:_______________________________.

2...ymrafael əm-ra-vel verb
1
ymrafael () to be in dispute (with), to quarrel (with), to have a quarrel (with)
2
ymrafael () struggle (with), do battle (with)

:_______________________________.

ymraniad əm-ran-yad masculine noun
PLURAL ymraniadau əm-ran-ya-de
1
division = act of dividing

2
division = state of being divided

3
division = (English parliament) act of voting

4
division = rupture, disagreement, difference in opinion

5
(political party, group, association, congregation) division, split, separation

ETYMOLOGY: (ymran-, root of ymrannu = split) + (-iad)

:_______________________________.

ymrannu əm-ra-ni verb without an object
1
divide, split (river, path, road, tree trunk, branch etc)
ymrannu'n ddwy = split into two

2
divide, break, rend

3
to divide = (English parliament) to vote

4
split into factions (dros = on account of)

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix) + soft mutation + (rhannu = divide)

:_______________________________.

ymrannwr əm-ra-nur masculine noun
PLURAL ymranwyr əm-ran-wir
1
splitter, divider

:_______________________________.

ymreolaeth əm-re--leth feminine noun
1
home rule, autonomy

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix) + soft mutation + (rheolaeth = government)

:_______________________________.

ymreolaethol əm-re-o-lei-thol adjective
1
autonomous;
rhanbarth ymreolaethol autonomous region

ETYMOLOGY: (ymreolaeth = autonomy) + (-ol = suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

ymreolaethwr əm-re-o-lei-thur masculine noun
PLURAL ymreolaethwyr əm-re-o-leith-wir
1
home ruler, supporter of home rule, autonomist

ETYMOLOGY: (ymreolaeth = autonomy) + (-wr = agent suffix)

:_______________________________.

ymrhyddd əm-hridh-haad masculine noun
1
liberate oneself
rhyfel ymrhyddhd war of liberation

ETYMOLOGY: (ymrhydd- stem of the verb ymrhyddhu = free oneself) + (-hd, suffix for forming nouns from verbs with the termination -hu, = ha- + -ad,)

:_______________________________.

ymrhyddu əm-hridh-hai verb
1
liberate oneself

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix) + (rhyddhu = liberate)

:_______________________________.

ymrithio əm- rith -yo verb
1 appear
tŷ lle bu ellyllon ac ysbrydion drwg yn ymrithio ymhob twll a chornel a house where sprites and ghosts appeared in every nook and cranny

2 ymrithio fel appear in the guise of, be disguised as

3 appear (in a dream)

4 ymrithion fyw come to life
Ymrithiodd ei dad-cun fyw o flaen ei lygaid His grandfather came to life before his eyes

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (rhithio = shape, form; be shaped, be formed; transfigure; be transfigured)

:_______________________________.

ymroddi əm-r-dhi verb
1
dedicate oneself
2
ymroddi eich holl egni ir gwaith o
devote all ones efforts to (dedicate your whole energy to the work of)

:_______________________________.

ymrwygiad əm- ruig -yad masculine noun
PLURAL ymrwygiadau əm- rui-y -de
1 erupcion
2 split, break

ETYMOLOGY: (ymrwyg- stem of ymrwygo = burst, break) + (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

ymrwygo əm- rui -go verb
1 tear
2 burst

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (rhwygo = rupture)

:_______________________________.

ymryson əm RƏ son (verb)
1
argue, dispute
tir ymryson land in dispute, debatable land

Cf the English name Debatable Land on the Scottish-English border; this was the borderland between the rivers Esk and Sark, an area formerly claimed by both Scotland and England, and now part of Scotland

:_______________________________.

ymsythu əm- -thi
(verb sense objecte)

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (sythu = straighten)

:_______________________________.

ymweld əm WELD (verb)
1
to visit

:_______________________________.

ymwadu əm W di (verb)
1
deny, refute
2
diymwad undeniable, irrefutable, indisputable, incontrovertible, conclusive
Mae'n ffaith gwbl ddiymwad Its an undeniable fact (Its a completely undeniable fact)
(di- = negative prefix) + (ymwad- stem of ymwadu = deny, refute )

:_______________________________.

ymweliad, ymweliadau əm WEL yad, əm wel YA de (masculine noun)
1
visit

:_______________________________.

ymwelydd, ymwelwyr əm WE lidh, əm WEL wir (masculine noun)
1
visitor
ymwelydd undydd day tripper (visitor (of) one day)

:_______________________________.

ymwingo əm- wi -ngo verb
1 (vi) wriggle, writhe

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (gwingo = wriggle, writhe )

:_______________________________.

ymwisgo əm- wi -sko verb
1 get dressed, dress oneself

Rhaid ymwisgo'n addas ar gyfer y tywydd oer hwn
One should dress properly for the cold weather

2 bwrdd ymwisgo dressing table

ETYMOLOGY: (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (gwisgo = dress oneself)

:_______________________________.

ymwthio əm WTH yo (verb)
1
push oneself

2
ymwthio trwyr dorf push ones way through the crowd (push oneself through the crowd)

:_______________________________.

ymwybod əm UI bod (masculine noun)
1
consciousness

2 llif yr ymwybod stream of consciousness

:_______________________________.

ymyl, ymylon Ə mil, ə MƏ lon (masculine noun)
1
brink, edge

ymyl dibyn chwarel edge of a quarry face
Gofala na ei din rhy agos ir ymyl
Be careful not to go too close to the edge

2 ar ymyl on the edge of
ar ymyl y bth on the edge of the bath

3 dod i ymyl rhywun come to somebodys side
os caf fi ddod ith ymyl if I may come to your side

:_______________________________.

ymyriad ə- mər-yad masculine noun
PLURAL ymyriadau ə-mər-y-de
1
interference

2
ymyriad dwyfol divine intervention

3
ymyriad hawliau dynol violation of human rights

ETYMOLOGY: (ymyr-, stem of ymyrru = interfere) + (-iad suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

ymyrrwr ə- -rur masculine noun
PLURAL ymyrrwyr ə- mər -wir
1 meddler

ETYMOLOGY: (ymyrr- = stem of the verb ymyrryd = interfere) + (-wr suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

ymyrryd ə MƏ rid (verb)
1
interfere

:_______________________________.

ymysg ə MISK (preposition)
1
among, amongst

2 bwrwch coelbren ymysg.... throw in your lot with
Dywedir iddo fod yn weinidog ar eglwys o Fedyddwyr yn Sir Benfro, ond iddo, wrth wrando Howel Harries, benderfynu bwrw ei goelbren i fysg y Diwygwyr It is said that he was the minister of a church made up of Baptists in Penfro county but that after hearing Howel Harries he decided to throw in his lot with the Revivalists

ymysg ei gilydd among(st) themselves
sibrwd ymysg ei gilydd whisper amongst themselves


:_______________________________.

yn ən preposition
1
in, inside, within. into
the root yn- is used for first and second persons; the third person singular and plural has yndd-

(1) yno i Ə noi (first person singular) in me

(2) ynon ni Ə no ni (first person plural) in us

(3) ynot ti Ə no ti (second person singular) in you ('thee')

(4) ynoch chi Ə no khi (second person plural) in you (you all)

(5) ynddo fe / fo ƏN dho ve / vo (third person masculine singular) in him

(6) ynddi hi ƏN dhi hi (third person feminine singular) in her

(7) ynddyn nhw (literary form: ynddynt hwy) ƏN dhi nu - ƏN dhint hui
(third person plural) in them

2
(juxtaposition)
..1/ ochr yn ochr side by side,
..2/ wyneb yn wyneb face to face
..3/ ystlys yn ystlys side by side, cheek by jowl

3
(referring to a characteristic of somebody)
bod naw byw cath yn (rhywun) be like a cat and have nine lives
Mae rhyw bethau rhyfedd ynddo Hes got some odd ways
Mae rhyw bethau d ynddo Hes got some odd ways

4
quality in a material
a gwisgo ynddo (piece of clothing) hard-wearing (and wearing in it)
a phara ynddo (piece of clothing) hard-wearing (and lasting in it)

5 dodi (rhywun) yn y cywilydd shame (someone) (put someone in the shame)

6 after certain verbs:
ymaflyd (yn rhywbeth) take hold of, grasp (something)
Ymaflodd yn nwylo y ferch fechan She grasped the little girl`s hands

:_______________________________.

-yn ən definite article
1 a fossilised form of the definite article (in Cornish and Breton the basic form of the definite article is an; in Welsh the n became r at some early date)

It is to be seen still in some phrases:

..a/ yn awr / nawr (= now) the hour

..b/ y naill (= the one, as opposed to the other) is from an original yn aill the other

..c/ hyd yn oed (= even) is probably up to the point, literally as far as the appointed time

(hyd = length; as far as) + (yn definite article) + (oed = age; appointed time)

:_______________________________.

-yn ən (suffix)
1
to form diminutives of masculine nouns

..1/ cornel (= corner) > cornelyn (= little corner)

..2/ delff (South Wales) (= numskull, stupid person, blockhead, dolt, idiot ) > delffyn (= same meaning)

..3/ gorchwyl (= task) > gorchwylyn (= small task)

In many words with a the vowel y in the following syllable causes a change to e
..1/ blas (= taste) > blesyn (= little taste)
..2/ llygad (= eye) > llygedyn (= eyelet; least bit)
..3/ rhaff (=rope) > rheffyn (= small rope)

Some are borrowings from English
..1/ pac (= pack) > pecyn (= small pack)
..2/ planc (= plank) > plencyn (= plank)
..3/ sgamp (= scamp) > sgempyn (= little scamp)
..4/ tramp (=tramp) > trempyn (= tramp)

In modern formations, vowel affection does not now take place
..1/ cap (= cap) > capyn (= little cap)

2 with diminutives of men's names

Hywyn < Hywel
Iolyn < Iolo
Lewsyn < Lewys (= Lewis)
Gutyn < Guto < Gruffudd
(as in the Englished surname Gittins)
Mocyn < Moc < Morgan

Sionyn < Sin
(= John)
Siorsyn < Sirs (= George)

Possibly Rhobert > Rhobyn, unless Rhobyn is an adaptation of English Robin

Occurs as a coalesced patronymic Probyn, and as the
surname Probyn
:_______________________________.

yna Ə na (adverb)
1
there

:_______________________________.

yn ambell fan ə NAM belh VAN (adverb)
1
in some places

:_______________________________.

ynad heddwch Ə nad HE dhukh (masculine noun)
1
justice of the peace

:_______________________________.

ynad, ynadon Ə nad, ə NA don (masculine noun)
1
magistrate

:_______________________________.

yn anffodus ən an FO dis (adverb)
1
unfortunately

:_______________________________.

yn awr ə NAUR (adverb)
1
now

:_______________________________.

yn awr ac eilwaith ə NAUR ag EIL weth (adverb)
1
now and then

:_______________________________.

yn barod ən BA rod (adverb)
1
already, ready

:_______________________________.

yn blwmp ac yn blaen ən blump aag ən blain adv;;)
1
straight out, frankly
dweud eich meddwl yn blwmp ac yn blaen speak your mind, say what you are thinking, speak without mincing words

2 dweud na yn blwmp ac yn blaen give a definite no

ETYMOLOGY: (yn = linking particle, used for forming adverbials) + soft mutation + (plump = direct) + (ac = and) + (yn linking particle) + soft mutation + (plaen = clear, plain)

:_______________________________.

yn byw ən BIU (phrase)
1
alive

:_______________________________.

yndach ən DAKH (verb)
1
yes, you are (North-west)

:_______________________________.

yndan ən DAN (verb)
1
yes, we are (North-west)

:_______________________________.

ynddi ƏN dhi (preposition)
1
see 'yn' = in

:_______________________________.

yn ddiamau ən dhi A me (adverb)
1
doubtlessly, without a doubt

:_______________________________.

yn ddau ən DHI e (adverb)
1
doubtlessly, without a doubt

:_______________________________.

yn ddistaw bach ən DHI stau BAAKH (adverb)
1
on the sly

:_______________________________.

ynddo ƏN dho (preposition)
1
see 'yn' = in

:_______________________________.

ynddyn ƏN dhin (preposition)
1
see 'yn' = in

:_______________________________.

yndech ən DEKH (verb)
1
yes, you are (North-east)

:_______________________________.

ynden ən DEN (verb)
1
yes, we are (North-east)

:_______________________________.

yndi ən DI (verb)
1
yes, she/he/it is (North) = ydi

:_______________________________.

yn do? ən DOO (phrase)
1
wasn't it? = onid do

:_______________________________.

yndw ən DU (verb)
1
yes, I am (North)

:_______________________________.

yndyn ən DIN (verb)
1
yes, they are (North)

:_______________________________.

yne ə -ne
1
(North-east Wales) = yna (adverb) there; (pronoun) that
felne = like that, in that way

ETYMOLOGY: felne < fel yne (fel = like) + (yne, northeastern form of yne = that)

:_______________________________.

yn ei chanol hi ən i kha nol hi
1
(in the middle of it)
Ryn ni yn ei chanol hi yn peintor tŷ Were in the middle of painting the house

ETYMOLOGY: (yn = in) + (ei = her) + aspirate mutation + (canol = middle) + (hi = of her)

:_______________________________.

yn eich bwriad ən əkh bur -yad adv
1 bod yn eich bwriad gwneud (rhywbeth) intend to do something

ETYMOLOGY: in your intention (yn = in) + (eich = your) + (bwriad = intention)

:_______________________________.

yn eich llawn dwf ən əkh lhaun duuv adverb
(prepositonial phrase, adjectival)
1
fully grown, grown-up, adult, mature
gweld dynion yn eu llawn dwf yn chwarae threnau bach
seeing grown men playing with toy trains

2
ripe
afal yn ei lawn dwf a ripe apple

ETYMOLOGY: in your full growth (yn = in) + (eich = el your) + (llawn = full) + soft mutation + (twf = growth)

:_______________________________.

yn eich l ən əkh OOL (phrase)
1
back, in the direction from which one has come
2
troir cloc yn ei l
..1/ put the clock back
..2/ put the clock back = change from summer time to daylight-saving time on the last Sunday in October
3
bwrw (ymosodiad) yn ei l repel (an attack)
gwthio (ymosodiad) yn ei l repel (an attack)
gyrru (ymosodiad) yn ei l repel (an attack)

:_______________________________.

yn eich unfan ən əkh in -van adverb
1
on the same spot, on the spot
troedio yn eich unfan mark time (walk on the spot)
2
rooted to the spot

ETYMOLOGY: (yn = in) + (eich = your) + (unfan = same place)

:_______________________________.

yn eisiau ən EI she (phrase)
1
wanted

:_______________________________.

yn erbyn ən ER bin (preposition)
1
against
2
codi llais yn erbyn speak out against (raise a voice against)
dwyn achwyniad (yn erbyn) present / lodge a complaint
gwneud achwyniad (yn erbyn) present / lodge a complaint
pechu yn erbyn rhywun to cross somebody, offend somebody (sin against somebody)

:_______________________________.

yn farw ən VA ru (phrase)
1
dead

:_______________________________.

yn fry ən VRII (adverb)
1
above

:_______________________________.

ynfyd ƏN vid (adjective)
1
mad = mentally unstable, insane
2
angry, furious
mynd yn ynfyd wallgo get furious (go insane mad)
bod yn ynfyd wallgo be furious, be hopping mad

:_______________________________.

yn fy myw ən və MIU (adverb)
1
(never before) in my life

:_______________________________.

yn fynych ən VƏ nikh (adverb)
1
often

:_______________________________.

yn fyw ən VW (phrase)
1
alive

:_______________________________.

yng : -yng-nghyfraith ə NGHƏ vreth
1
-in-law
mab-yng-nghyfraith = son-in-law

:_______________________________.

yng əng (preposition)
1
in - form used before the intials C. G when mutated C,G - Caernarfon / yng Nghaernarfon, Gwynedd, yng Ngwynedd

:_______________________________.

yngan
ə- ngan verb
1
pronounce
gair haws i'w yngan yw hwn this ones a word easier to pronounce

2 mention, say, utter (a word)
Paid ag ynganu gair wrth enaid byw Dont breathe a word to a living soul
Y mae llawer yn ein gwlad ni yn mynd i wendid os bydd rhywun yn yngan y geiriau "chwarae teg ir iaith Gymraeg Many people in our country have a blue fit if someone mentions the words fair play for the Welsh language

NOTE: also ynganu
ə-nga-ni, yngenyd ə-nge-nid

ETYMOLOGY: ?? (the main element is probably cn- as in canu = to sing)

:_______________________________.

ynghanol ə NGHA nol (preposition)
1
in the middle of
:_______________________________.

ynghlo ə- nghlooo adv
1 locked
Cafodd fod drws ei gartref ynghlo He found that the door to his home was locked
drws ynghlo locked door

ETYMOLOGY: (yn = in) + nasal mutation + (clo = locked)

:_______________________________.

ynghlwm ə NGHLUM (adverb)
1
tied to
bod ynghlwm wrth linyn ffedog ei fam be tied to his mothers apron strings

:_______________________________.

ynghroes ə- nghrois preposici
1 (arms) folded

ETYMOLOGY: yng nghroes (yn = pre-adjectival particle) + nasal mutation + (croes = crossed)
(yn > yng before an initial consonant c mutated to ngh-)

:_______________________________.

ynghyd ə NGHIID aa (preposition)
1
as well as

2 Sometimes as ynghyda
yr arf-orsaf filwrol, athrofa amaethyddol, ynghyda nifer o adeiladau a sefydliadau rhagorol eraill,
the military arsenal, the agricultural college, as well as a number of other excellent buildings and institutions

 

:_______________________________.

ynghyfer
ə NGHƏ ver (numeral)
1
for

 

(Apocrypha) Llyfr Cyntaf Esdras 1:9 Jechoneias hefyd, a Samaias, a Nathanael ei frawd, a Sabaias, ac Ochiel, a Joram, milwriaid, a roddasant i'r Lefiaid ynghyfer y Pasg, bum mil o ddefaid, a seithgant o eidionau.

(Apocrypha) Esdras-1 1:9 And Jeconias, and Samaias, and Nathanael his brother, and Assabias, and Ochiel, and Joram, captains over thousands, gave to the Levites for the passover five thousand sheep, and seven hundred calves.


:_______________________________.

ynghylch ə NGHILKH (preposition)
1
about
2
after certain verbs or verbal phrases

..1/ bod yn ddistaw ynghylch (rhywbeth), keep quiet about (something)

..2/ cael gwynt rhywun ynghylch rhywbeth sound somebody out, find out somebodys opinion about something

..3/ cynhyrfu ynghylch get excited about
..cynhyrfu ynghylch y pethau lleiaf get excited about the least thing, over nothing

..4/ holi ynghylch ask about, enquire after
..Holodd fi yn ei chylch He asked me about her

..5/ poeni ynghylch worry about
..Ych chin poeni o hyd yng nghylch y cyfarfod? Are you still worried about the meeting?

..6/
peidio dweud dim ynghylch (rhywbeth) keep quiet about (something)

..7/ pryderu ynghylch worry about
Byddai hin pryderu yn wastad ynghylch y dyfodol She was constantly worried about the future

..8/ taeru ynghylch wrangle about, argue about
..taeru ynghylch rhywbeth rhywun be in dispute about something with someone

..9/ tewi ynghylch (rhywbeth) keep quiet about (something)

3
llawer o helynt ynghylch dim a lot of fuss over nothing (a lot of trouble about nothing!)
bod mewn pryder mawr ynghylch... be very worried about...

4 holi mil a mwy o gwestiynau ynghylch rhywbeth ask thousands of questions about (something) (a thousand and more of questions)

:_______________________________.

yn groes i ən GROIS ii (preposition)
1
against, contrary to

byw yn groes i gyfraith Duw live contrary to the law of God

2 mynd yn groes i run counter to
mynd yn gwbl groes i run directly counter to (go opposed / contrary to)
mynd yn groes i orchymyn rhywun disobey somebody, disregard somebodys order

3 yn groes i bob disgwyl contrary to expectations (contrary to every expectation)

4 yn groes ir cloc anticlockwise

:_______________________________.

yn gynt ən GINT (adverb)
1
earlier

:_______________________________.

yn hytrach ən HƏ trakh (adverb)
1
rather

:_______________________________.

yn llawes ei grys ən LHAU es i GRIIS (adverb)
1
in his / her shirtsleeves

:_______________________________.

yn lle ən LHEE (preposition)
1
in place of

:_______________________________.

yn marw ən MA ru (phrase)
1
dying

:_______________________________.

yn nhw i nu (verb)
1
they are

:_______________________________.

ynn in (plural)
1
(plural form) See: onnen = ash tree

:_______________________________.

yn ni i ni (verb)
1
we are

:_______________________________.

yn nwfn eich calon ən nu-vun əkh ka-lon adv
1
deep down, at the bottom of ones heart (in (the) depth (of) your heart)

ETYMOLOGY: (yn = in) + nasal mutation + (dwfn = depth) + (eich = your) + (calon = heart)

:_______________________________.

yno ə NO (adverb)
1
there (in a place not visible)

:_______________________________.

yn oes oesoedd ən ois OI sodh (adverb)
1
for evermore

:_______________________________.

yn ofer ən O ver (adverb)
1
in vain

:_______________________________.

yn ogystal ən o GƏ stal (adverb)
1
as well

:_______________________________.

..1 yn l ə NOOL (preposition)
1
according to
yr Efengyl yn l Marc ər e VE ngil ə nool MARK
the Gospel according to Saint Mark

2 barnu (rhywun) yn l ei olwg judge (somebody) by his appearance (judge (somebody) according to his appearance)

:_______________________________.

..2 yn l ə NOOL (adverb)
1
ago
dair blynedd yn l
dai BLƏ nedh ə NOOL three years ago

2 back
dod yn l
dood ə NOOL (verb) come back
dod rhywbeth yn l i
= bring something back to
Der ag e nl i fi (South Wales) Bring it back to me

3 troir cloc yn ei l
..1/ put the clock back = change the time shown on the clock to an earlier time, for example with a clock which is fast and the correct time is restored

..2/ put the clock back = change from summer time to daylight-saving time on the last Sunday in October

..3/ put the clock back = change a way of life to how it was at an earlier period; usually suggests a change for the worse

4 back (in reciprocating an action) A gwenodd Olwen yn l And Olwen smiled back

:_______________________________.

yn l ac ymlaen ə NOOL ag əm LAIN (adverb)
1
back and forth

:_______________________________.

yn l pob tebyg ə NOOL poob TE big (adverb)
1
very likely, most likely

:_______________________________.

yn raddol ən RA dhol (adverb)
1
gradually

:_______________________________.

yn rhith ən hriith preposition
1
in the form of, in the guise of, disguised as, in the shape of

yn rhith bugail disguised as a shepherd
Yr oedd yno ar werth debotau yn rhith malwod, trionglau, sgwariau, ac yn y blaen
There were teapots for sale there shaped like snails, triangles, squares, etc

ETYMOLOGY: in (the) appearance (of) (yn = in) + soft mutation + (rhith = appearance)

:_______________________________.

ynteu
ən -te
1
(conjunction) or, or otherwise

In offering a choice of two things - .this or that? the first or the second?

..1/ Before the first option ai, and before the second ynteu

Galatiaid 3:2 Hyn yn unig a ewyllysiaf ei ddysgu gennych, Ai wrth weithredoedd ddeddf y derbyniasoch yr Ysbryd, ynteu wrth wrandawiad ffydd?
Galatians 3:2 This only would I learn of you, Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?

..2/ In colloquial Welsh ai is dropped
Pa un - hwn ynteu'r llall? Which one - this one or the other?

Tu blaen ynteu tu chwith? heads or tails?
(North Wales) Cing ta brits? heads or tails? (Old pennies had the head of the king hence
cing - on the obverse and Britannia hence brit -on the reverse)

Cyfaill ynteu gelyn? (Soldier on watch duty challenging someone unknown) Friend or foe?

..3
/ In colloquial Welsh in the north-west ai... ynteu... can also be ta... ta...

..4/ Also in literary Welsh as ai ynteu in introducing a second or further option

Samuel-2 24:13 A fynni ddyfod i ti saith mlynedd o newyn yn dy wlad? neu ffoi dri mis o flaen dy elynion, a hwy yn dy erlid? ai ynteu bod haint yn y wlad dri diwrnod?
Samuel-2 24:13 Shall seven years of famine come unto thee in thy land? or wilt thou flee three months before thine enemies, while they pursue thee? or that there be three days' pestilence in thy land?

2
(adverb) then
nawr te (South Wales) now then
rwan ta (North Wales) now then
-Yr wyt ti'n meddwl y galla i fynd te?
-Wrth gwrs y gelli di fynd.

-Do you think I can go then?
-Of course you can go

3
(adverb) then = in that case, if this is the situation
onid du, llwyd ynteu if its not black, then its grey
O! wel, maen ol reit ta Oh! Well, its all right then
Thenciw fawr, ta Thanks very much, then

4 ynteu? Makes a statement interrogative; is it?

ETYMOLOGY: Ynteu is the same word as the pronoun yntau (= he too, he for his part, he on the other hand).

Final au in Welsh was earlier eu, so ynteu is an earlier spelling of yntau which has been preferred to distinguish the conjunction / adverb from the pronoun

NOTE: Colloquially te the final diphthong -eu is simplified to the vowel -e ynteu > ynte, and the first syllabe is dropped ynte > te. In North-west Wales, a final -e becomes -a, so ynte > ynta > ta

:_______________________________.

yn unol ən -nol aa
1
in accordance with
gwneud yn unol ch dymuniadau comply with your wishes

:_______________________________.

ynta fa ən-ta va
1
in the south-east, a form of onid e (a tag added to an abnormal sentence, that is, one with a first element which is not a verb placed for emphasis at the head of sentence),
Dyna storm fu nithwr, ynta fa? (south-east) What a storm there was last night, eh?

:_______________________________.

yn unlle ə NIN lhe (adverb)
1
anywhere, nowhere

:_______________________________.

yn unman ə NIN man (adverb)
1
anywhere, nowhere

:_______________________________.

yn wir ən WIIR (phrase)
1
indeed

:_______________________________.

yn wyneb haul llygad goleuni ən ui-beb hail lhə-gad go-lei-ni
1
in broad daylight

ETYMOLOGY: (in (the) face (of) (the) sun (which is) (the) eye (of) light)
(yn = in) + (wyneb = face) + (haul = sun) + (llygad = eye) + (goleuni = light)

:_______________________________.

ynydu ə- -di verb
1
initiate

ETYMOLOGY: (ynyd = beginning) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

yn y byd

1 in
the world at all, whatsiever, in the least
..a/ heb reswm yn y byd for no reason at all
..b/ heb drafferth yn y byd with no trouble at all, effortlessly
..c/ heb fod o bwys yn y byd of no consequence whatsoever

:_______________________________.

yn y cyswllt hwn
ən ə -sullt hun adverb
1
as regards this, in this context, in this regard

ETYMOLOGY: (in this connection) (yn = in) + (y = the) + (cyswllt = connection) + (hwn = (of-) this)

:_______________________________.

yn y fan ar fan
1
in such and such a place = in a place indicated but not specified

Aem at bobl y farchnad a dweud wrthynt fod
John Jones, Tŷ-gwyn, neu ryw berson dychmygol arall, yn ymofyn ei weled yn y fan ar fan
We would go up to the people in the market and say to them that John Jones, of Tŷ-gwyn, or some other imaginary person, was asking to see them in such and such a place


:_______________________________.

yn y Gymru gyfoes ən ə GƏM ri GƏ vois (adverb)
1
in contemporary Wales

:_______________________________.

yn y Gymru Gymreg ən ə GƏM ri gəm RAIG (adverb)
1
in Welsh Wales, in the areas which have not succumbed to anglicisation 2 amongst the Welsh (who have not been anglicised)

:_______________________________.

yn y Gymru sydd ohoni ən ə GƏM ri sidh o HO ni (adverb)
1
in present-day Wales

:_______________________________.

ynys, ynysoedd Ə nis, ə NI sodh (feminine noun)
1
island

Yr Ynys Sanctaidd The Sacred Island, Ireland

2 There is soft mutation of names after
ynys in early place names

Ynys Gybi, Ynys Mn island of saint Cybi
Ynys Dysilio, Ynys Mn island of saint Tysilio

glasynys green island, green meadow
Y Lasynys (SH5932) locality in the district of Meirionnydd (county of Gwynedd)
(y = definite article) + soft mutation + (glasynys = green island; green meadow)
(glas = blue; but when referring to the colour of vegetation, equivalent to English green) + (ynys = island; waterside land which floods, which is liable to be covered in water at times)


Ynysoedd Frisia the Frisian Isles

2 water meadow

3 ?land between two watercourses at a confluence
See Ynysawdre, Ynyscedwyn

4 Y Gyfynys ə gəv Ə nis
SH6079 farm name, Ynys Mn, north of Llan-faes

(ў definite article) + soft mutation + (cyfynys = two meadows, adjoining meadows)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH6078

5 In many place names in the south-east, reduced to ys- when it occurs as a first element in a name

 

This has been reinterpreted as the definite article y, followed by a name beginning with s.

As is common with names with the definite article y, the article is often dropped

 

ynys tl y fera > Y|stal|y|fera > Y|stal|fe|ra > Y Stal|fe|ra > Stal|fe|ra

ynys Forgan > Y|sfor|gan > Y Sfor|gan > Sfor|gan

 

local form / base form / base form with elements spelt separately

Cwm-sgou / Cwm-ynys-gau / Cwm Ynys Gau

Y Sgedwyn / Ynysgedwyn / Ynys Gedwyn

Y Sgenfridd (?) / Ynysgeynwraidd / Ynys Gynwraidd

Y Sgeti / Ynysgedi / Ynys Gedi

Y Sgiwan / Ynys... / Ynys ....

Y Smitw / Ynysmeudwy / Ynys y Meudwy

Y Snawdra / Ynysyrhafdre / Ynys yr Hafdre

Y Stalfera / Ynystalyfera / Ynys Tl yr Fera

Y Stawe / Ynystawe / Ynys Tawe

 


(delwedd 7402)


NOTE: Compare the use of eye (= water meadow) in English place names (from Old English g = island)

Northenden, Manchester: Former field names are Midley < Middle Eye (middle water-meadow), Cooksons Eye, Northern Eye (= Northenden water-meadow), Eatsey < East Eye.

 

Also holm, holme in Scotland and the north of England, literally island, but here a low-lying land by a stream or a river which is covered in water or isolated when there is a flood, from Old Norse holmr (= island).

 

:_______________________________.

Ynysfor ə nƏs vor (feminine noun)
1
SH6042 Name of a farm, from the name of a rocky outcrop on which it stands

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH6042

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)


ETYMOLOGY: big island (ynys = island ) + soft mutation + (mawr = big) > ynys-fwr > ynsfawr > ynysfor

For whatever reason, the noun and adjective become a compound form and the accent shifted to the penultimate syllable; the diphthong aw in the final syllable was reduced to the simple vowel o, as is usual in literary and colloquial Welsh.

NOTE: The island is a rocky hill with trees which at one time was an island in the sea. When Cob Porthmadog was built, the land was reclaimed from the sea. Nearby, to the north-west, is Ynys-fach.

:_______________________________.


Ynys Gwylan ə- nis gui-lan

1 the name of two islands off Aberdaron

Ynys Gwylan Fawr greater Ynys Gwylan

Ynys Gwylan bach
lesser Ynys Gwylan

ETYMOLOGY: gull island (ynys = island) + (gwylan = gull).

The form of the name though is curious Ynys yr Wylan (the) island (of) the gull would perhaps be expected. QUERY: Do earlier forms show it to be Ynys Gwylain ynys y gwylain, the island of the gulls?

:_______________________________.

Yr Ynys-hir ər Ə-nis HIIR [ər ˡənɪs ˡhr]
1 place name

 

ETYMOLOGY: the long riverside meadow (yr definite article) + (ynys = island; riverside meadow) + (hir = long).

 

NOTE: The spelling Ynyshir is incorrect. Habitative names are spelt as a single word, but if it contains a stressed final monosyllabic word, this is separated by a hyphen.

As the name of a meadow it would be Yr Ynys Hir (elements spelt separately).

 

:_______________________________.

ynyslyn
ə- nəs -lin
1
?

Apparently the meaning of Ynyslyn in the street name Ynyslyn Road in Y Ddraenen-wen (Pont-ty^-pridd, county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) is meadow lake(without having been able to study the history of the name) (the street name would be Heol Ynyslyn / Heol yr Ynyslyn in Welsh)

ETYMOLOGY: meadow lake (ynys = meadow; island ) + soft mutation + ( llyn = lake)
Unless the final element is
glyn (= valley)


:_______________________________.

Ynyswydrin ə-nis wi -drin
1 Glastonbury (England)

ETYMOLOGY: Apparently woad island

(ynys = island) + soft mutation + (gwydrin adjective = of woad, relating to woad)

Woad (Isatis tinctora) is a plant yielding a dye which was used for colouring glass

The adjective gwydrin is (gwydr = woad) + (-in suffix for forming adjectives)

Welsh gwydr (glass, woad) < Latin vitrum (= woad; blue colour; glass)

English woad < Old English waad.

The English word is related to Latin vitrum (= woad; blue colur; glass) and Greek isatis (= woad), as in the scientific name Isatis tinctora

:_______________________________.

Ynys-y-bŵl Ə-nis ə BUUL [ˡənɪs ə ˡbl]

1 ST0594 village in the county of Rhondda Cynon Taf

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/564642

2 short form:
Yr Ynys (the meadow)
or Ynys i lawr at y Pandy from
Ynys-y-bŵl down to Y Pandy

NOTE: The Anglican cleric Glanffrwd (William Thomas) was born in Ynɥs-y-bŵl in 1843, and published his reminiscences in 1888 Plwɥf Llanwyno, yr Hen Amser, yr Hen Bobl, ar Hen Droion (the Parish of Llanwynno, the old times, the old people, and the old events)

Dichon mai natur a sefyllfa ddaearyddol y lle roddodd yr enw i Ynɥs-y-bŵl. Fodd bynnag, gellid yn naturiol ddywedɥd Ynɥs-y-pwll. Gelwir ef yn Saesneg Bowling Green. Wn i ddim pwɥ a Seisnigeiddiodd yr enw. Ond yn ddiau, gwnaeth gamsyniad. Yr oedd y lle yn Ynɥs-y-pwll er y cread, ond yn gymharol ddiweddar y dechreuwɥd chware Bwlbinnau ynddo. Fellɥ, nid oes gennɥf ddim diolch iw dalu i neb am roddi enw Saesneg ir lle. Ond daeth yr enw Ynɥs-y-bŵl i gael ei gymhwɥso at yr holl ardal i fynɥ at Dair Plwɥf a lleoedd eraill ar bob llaw
The geographical nature and situation probably gave the name to Ynɥs-y-bŵl (the meadow of the bowl). However it could be said naturally Ynɥs-y-pwll (the meadow of the pool). In English it is called Bowling Green. I dont know who Englished the name. But doubtlessly, he made a mistake. The place had been Ynɥs-y-pwll since the Creation, but (only) comparatively recently people began to play ninepins / skittles there. So I have no thanks to pay to anybody for giving it an English name. But the name Ynɥs-y-bŵl came to be applied to the whole area up to Tair Plwɥf (the parish houses) and other places all around

NOTE: The wikipedia entry 2008-11-19 for Ynysybwl states: It is wrong to double-hyphenate 'Ynys-y-bwl', as this is contrary to Welsh usage; there are different roads signs with these two spellings, which have given rise to controversy.

In fact, it is quite the opposite. The form without hyphens is the incorrect form.

It also gives the meaning (incorrectly) as island in the mountains, saying that this would aptly describe its position, surrounded on each side by mountains and flanked on each side by rivers and streams.

It gives the English pronunciation as [ʌnɪsʌbʊl] (roughly "Un-iss-u-bull" in English). The local people however refer to the village as "Bwl" or "The Bwl".

But whatever the English pronunciation is, the earlier forms show the final vowel to be a long vowel, as this is Welsh bŵl [buul] (= a wooden ball) < English boule [buul] (= wooden ball) < French boule < Latin bulla (= round object, bubble).

Although bŵl might refer to some topographical feature a round hill or a round hollow the meaning of the name is possibly the one discounted by Glanffrwd, when he says about the English name Bowling Green (translated from Welsh) I dont know who Englished the name. But doubtlessly, he made a mistake. He maintains that that the place was Ynys y Pwll (the) river meadow (by) the pool (in the river), though this form is not noted, and would hardly have become Ynys-y-bŵl.

If it means bowling green, meadow where bowls were played it corresponds to Alafowlia in Dinbych / Denbigh bowling alley.

:_______________________________.

yr ƏR (definite article)
1
Before a vowel (a e i o u w y) and h.
yr anifail the animal
yr hanner the half

The final r is lost before consonants (b c d dd f g j l ll m n p r rh s sh t th tsh w z)
y cae the field

After a vowel the definite article is r, and is used before all vowels and consonants
ir afon into the river
ir dre to / into the town

2
the linking definite article y / yr / r (showing a genitive relationship) is often lost in place names.
On maps both forms are often seen.
Pen-y-sarn / Pen-sarn ((the) end (of) the paved way)
Pen-y-bryn / Pen-bryn ((the) top (of) the hill)
Cefn-y-coed / Cefn-coed ((the) hill (with) the wood)

3
Not used traditionally before river names, though there are examples in modern minor place names
..a/ Sŵnyllethi / Sŵn y Llethi street name in Llanarth, county of Ceredigion (Swn-y-Llethi)

:_______________________________.

yr
1
Before a vowel (a e i o u w y) and h.
yr anifail the animal
The final r is lost before consonants (b c d dd f g j l ll m n p r rh s sh t th tsh w z) (definite article + noun), (definite article + noun + adjective)
y cae the field

Place names:
Some place names / house names / street names have the article, and some do not.
This is especially evident with some feminine nouns with soft-mutable initial consonants (C P T G B D) where the article is omitted but the soft mutation remains
..a/ Glasynys / Y Lasynys (= green meadow / the green meadow) > Lasynys
..b/ Treflan / Y Dreflan (= village / the village) / > Dreflan

:_______________________________.

Yr Ynys
ər Ə-nis
1
SH3836 locality in Gwynedd

2 Yr Ynys is also used as a short form of place names beginning with Ynys

..a/ Ynys-y-bŵl (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)
or Ynys i lawr at y Pandy from
Ynys-y-bŵl down to Y Pandy

NOTE: In some places pronounced as Rynys
yn yr Ynys > yn Rynys

:_______________________________.

Ynys Afallon ə-nis a-v-lhon feminine noun
1
Avalon = the Celtic paradise, a mythical island in the western sea
2
place identified with Glastonbury (county of Somerset, south-west England) - zone lost by the Welsh to the invading English around 700 AD

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh Ynys Afallon < Ynys Afallach = the island of Afallach; afallon (as if "abundant in apples", in fact a reformation of the medieval name with Afallach, who was reckoned to be a divine ancestor of many of the early Welsh dynasties)

:_______________________________.

Ynɥsawdre ə-nis AU-dre

1 A locality in the county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr

ETYMOLOGY: ynys Hafdref, (the) meadow (of the place called) Hafdref;

hafdref (= summer homestead), (haf = summer) + soft mutation + (tref = homestead)

..1/ A final f is lost in polysyllabic words hafdref > hafdre

..2/ There was a later change of [v] > [w] hafdre > hawdre

..3/ In the (traditional) Welsh of the south-east the h is generally absent hafdre > afdre


NOTE: Local form: Y Snawdra.

..1/ transposition of the n so that it occurs after the s;

Ynysawdre > *Y Nysawdre > *Y Synawdre > Y Snawdre

..2/ the a instead of e in a final syllable is a normal feature of South-eastern Welsh
Y Snawdre > Y Snawdra


:_______________________________.

Ynys Bŷr
ə-nis biir
1
(SS1396) island in the county of Penfro
English name: Caldy Island

ETYMOLOGY: island (of) Pŷr

(ynys = island) + soft mutation + (Pŷr male name)

There is a monastery here that was founded arounf AD 525, by Pŷr, a disciple of Illtud

:_______________________________.

Ynys-deg ə-nis deeg
1
house name in Bancyfelin (county of Caerfyrddin)

2 street name in Ton-du (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (Ynysdeg)

ETYMOLOGY: fair island / fair meadow (ynys = island; riverside meadow)

+ soft mutation + (teg = fair)

:_______________________________.

Ynys Dewi ə-nis deu i
1
island in the county of Penfro

2
Ynys Dewi (SM7023) ((the) island (of) David) an island 3km southwest of Penmaen Dewi, near Tyddewi
English name: Ramsey Island

Here there is also Swnt Dewi ((the) strait (of) David), the strait between the Welsh mainland and the island
English name: Ramsey Sound

ETYMOLOGY: (ynys =island) + (Dewi = David)

:_______________________________.

Ynys Fach Llyffan Gawr ə-nis vaakh lhə-fan gaur
1
(SN0141) promontory north of Brynhenllan. Dinas (the county of Penfro) south-west Wales
English name: Dinas Island

ETYMOLOGY: the Ynys Fach of Llyffan the Giant (Llyffan = mans name) + soft mutation + (cawr = giant). Ynys Fach = little island (ynys = island) + soft mutation + (bach = little)

:_______________________________.

Ynysgedwyn ə-nis ged -win
1
SN7709 area, Ystradgynlais Isaf (Brycheiniog, county of Powys)
Local form: Sgedwyn

2 seat on Cyngor Sir Powys (the county adminstration)

:_______________________________.

ynys groesi, ynysoedd croesi ə nis GROI si (feminine noun)
1
traffic island

:_______________________________.

ys əs (verb)
1
(obsolete) it is

 

Rhufeiniad 7: 24 Ys truan o ddyn wyf fi! pwy am gwared i oddi wrth gorff y farwolaeth hon?

Romans 7:24 O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death?

 

(delwedd 7365)

:_______________________________.

ysgatfydd ə-SKAT-vidh (feminine noun)
1
perhaps, maybe, peradventure

 

Rhufeiniaid 5:7 Oblegid braidd y bydd neb farw dros un cyfiawn: oblegid dros y da ysgatfydd fe feiddiai un farw hefyd.

Romans 5:7 For scarcely for a righteous man will one die: yet peradventure for a good man some would even dare to die.

 


:_______________________________.

ysgub ə -skib feminine noun
PLURAL ysgubau ə- sk -be
1 sheaf

2
broom; brush made with twigs
coes ysgub broomstick

3
broom = household brush, especially one with a long handle

4
(Heraldry) gerbe = wheatsheaf

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh ysgub < *ysgb (prosthetic y-) + (sgub) < *sgub < British *sgb- < *scp- < Latin scpa

From the same British root: Cornish skubell (= birch broom), Breton skubell (= broom, brush), skub (= a sweeping)

Hibernina languages: manx: skeab (= broom) (?from Welsh)

Cf English <skpyulə> scopula a small tuft of dense hairs on the legs and chelicerae of some spiders 1800-1900 New Latin < scopula (= a broom twig) < scpae (= thin twigs)


NOTE: colloquially also ysgub > ysgib > ysbig

:_______________________________.

ysgubwr ə- sk -bur
PLURAL ysgubwyr ə- skib -wir
1
sweeper

ETYMOLOGY: (ysgub- root of the verb ysgubo = to sweep) + (-wr suffix = man)
NOTE: Colloquially 'sgubwr

:_______________________________.

Ynys Gybi ə nis GƏ bi (feminine noun)
1
island off Mn ('Cybi's island')

:_______________________________.

Ynys Manaw Ə-nis MA nau (feminine noun)
1
Isle of Man

 

:_______________________________.

Ynys Metgawdd Ə-nis MET-gaudh (f)
1
Ynys Metgawdd NU1241 Lindisfarne, or Holy Island, Northumberland, England

 

(delwedd 7372

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/761409



:_______________________________.

Ynysmeudwy ə-nis mei -dui
1
SN7305 village in the county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) Local name: Smtw

ETYMOLOGY: Apparently ynys y meudwy - meadow of the hermit

NOTE: Explanation of the local form Smiitw
(1) Ynysmeudwy > Y Smeudwy (loss of the first syllable)
(2) *Smeudwy (loss of the article y)
(3) *Smeudw in colloquial Welsh final wy ui > vowel w u
(4) *Smiidw in the south, an ei in the tonic syllable > half-long vowel i
(5) in the south-east, the d at the beginning of the final syllable > t (loss of voicing)
Hence Smiitw

:_______________________________.

Ynys Mn ə-nis moon feminine noun
1
island in north-west Wales
Population (1981) 67,000
Area: 714 square kilometres / 276 square miles
Percentage of Welsh-speakers: (1981) 61.63%

2 a county until 1974

3 (1974-1996) for twenty-two years, a district ("dosbarth") of the county of Gwynedd

4 a county recreated in 1996
trigolion Ynys Mn a Gwynedd the inhabitants (of the counties of) Ynys Mn and Gwynedd

5 assembly constituency = electoral district for the Welsh Assembly in Caer-dydd

6 parliamentary constituency = electoral district for the English parliament in London
yr Aelod Seneddol (yr AS) dros Ynys Mn
the Member of Parliament (the MP) for Ynys Mn

ETYMOLOGY: (ynys = island) + (Mn = name, probably that of a Celtic goddess)
NOTE: See Mn

:_______________________________.

yn ystod ə NƏ stod (preposition)
1 during

:_______________________________.

ynt int (verb)
1
they are (literary Welsh)

:_______________________________.

yntau ƏN te (pronoun)
1
he too

:_______________________________.

ynte ən TE (preposition)
1
(conjunction) or 2 isn't it?

:_______________________________.

yr Ynys Werdd ə-nis werdh feminine noun
1
the Emerald Isle, poetic name for Ireland

ETYMOLOGY: ("the green island") (ynys = isle) + soft mutation + (gwerdd, feminine form of gwyrdd = green)

:_______________________________.

ynysu ə- -si verb
1
isolate
2
insulate;
tp ynysu (USA: friction tape) (Englandic: insulating tape)

ETYMOLOGY: (ynys = island) + (-u verbal suffix)

:_______________________________.

( Yorath ) yo-rath masculine noun
1
Anglicised spelling of Iorath, south-eastern form of the mans name Iorwerth

:_______________________________.

1 yr ər
1
definite article; see y ə

:_______________________________.

2 yr ər partcula amb el verb BOD = ser, estar)
1
see y ə relative = that, which, who : dyna'r meddyg yr aeth ato - this is the doctor he went to

:_______________________________.

yr hwn ər hun pronoun
1
obsolete (at the head of a sentence) the person who, whosoever, he that, she that
Ioan 8:7 Yr hwn sydd ddibechod ohonoch, tafled yn gyntaf garreg ati hi
John 8:7 He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her

2 obsolete (introduing a dependent clause) who
:_______________________________.

yr oeddech chwi ə ROI dhe khwi (verb)
1
you were

:_______________________________.

yr oedd ef ə ROI dhev (verb)
1
he was

:_______________________________.

yr oedd hi ə ROIDH hi (verb)
1
she was

:_______________________________.

yr oedd o ə ROI DHOO (verb)
1
he was (North)

:_______________________________.

yr oeddem ni ə ROI dhem ni (verb)
1
we were

:_______________________________.

yr oeddet ti ə ROI dhe ti (verb)
1
you were ('thou wert')

:_______________________________.

yr oeddwn i ə ROI dhun i (verb)
1
I was

:_______________________________.

yr oeddynt hwy ə ROI dhint hui (verb)
1
they were

:_______________________________.

yr un ər iin pronom
1
(with a negator ni / na / nid / nad ) not one, not one of them, none of them, neither of them.
Colloquially run after a vowel
yr un o not one of...
yr un ohonom; yr un ohonon ni neither of us, none of us
yr un ohonoch; yr un ohonoch chi neither of you, none of you
yr un ohonynt; yr un ohonyn nhw neither of them, none of them
'phrynwn i 'run o'r llyfrau hyn I wouldn't buy any of these books

2
does yr un...
there's nobody...
Does yr un ato Theres nobody who can measure up to him, theres no one equal to him (there is nobody to him)

3
yr un... the one...
mi fydd yr ornest honno yn siwr o fod tipyn yn galetach na'r un yn yr Ariannin
that contest is certain to be a bit harder than the one in Argentina

:_______________________________.

yr un wedd or iin weedh adverb
1 in the same way

ETYMOLOGY: (yr = definite article) + (un = any) + soft mutaiton + (gwedd = aspect)

:_______________________________.

yr wyf ə RUIV (verb)
1
I am

:_______________________________.

yr wyt ə RUIT (verb)
1
you are ('thou art')

:_______________________________.

yr ych ə RIIKH (verb)
1
you are (South)

:_______________________________.

yr ydoedd ef ə rə doi DHEEV (verb)
1
he was

:_______________________________.

yr ydoedd hi ə rə doidh HII (verb)
1
she was

:_______________________________.

yr ydwyf fi ə rə dui VII (verb)
1
I am

:_______________________________.

yr ydwyt ti ə rə dui TII (verb)
1
you are ('thou art')

:_______________________________.

yr ydych chwi ə rə di KHWII (verb)
1
you are

:_______________________________.

yr ydym ni ə rə dim NII (verb)
1
we are

:_______________________________.

yr ydynt hwy ə rə dint HUI (verb)
1
they are

:_______________________________.

yr ydyw ef ə rə diu EEV (verb)
1
he is

:_______________________________.

yr ydyw hi ə rə diu HII (verb)
1
she is

:_______________________________.

yr ym ə RIIM (verb)
1
we are (South)

:_______________________________.

-ys

1
suffix used in forming female names

Car
ɥs KAA ris female name
cr- (= love; stem of the verb caru = to love) + (-ys); without the vowel change a > e under the influence of final y (vowel affection)

Cer
ɥs KEE ris female name
cr- (= love; stem of the verb caru = to love) + (-ys); vowel change a > e under the influence of final y (vowel affection)

Glen
ɥs GLEE nis female name
gln (= beautiful) + (-ys); vowel change a > e under the influence of final y (vowel affection)

Ner
ɥs NEE nis female name lady, female ruler
nr (= lord, chief) + (-ys);

ETYMOLOGY: Query: Is this suffix taken from the word melys (= sweet), supposing this to be ml (= honey) and a suffix ys, though in fact from a British form *melis- (though ultimately based on the root of the word ml = honey, being from the Indo-European root melit- (= honey)). A Latin cognate of melys is mulsus (= honey-sweet). Irish has milis (= sweet).

Equally it may be from the name
Gwladys, a variant spelling of Gwladus, from Gwladus ferch Brychan, one of the saintly daughters of Brychan, ruler of Brycheiniog female ruler (gwlad = country) + (-us suffix)

Either or both may have been reinforced by the word
dilys (sincere; genuine, authentic).

NOTE: Eurys (eur- < aur = gold) is a male name

:_______________________________.

ys-

1 shortened form of ynys (= meadow) in some place names

 

This has been reinterpreted as the definite article y, followed by a name beginning with s.

 

As is common with names with the definite article y, the article is often dropped

 

ynys tl y fera > Y|stal|y|fera > Y|stal|fe|ra > Y Stal|fe|ra > Stal|fe|ra

ynys Forgan > Y|sfor|gan > Y Sfor|gan > Sfor|gan

 

local form / base form / base form with elements spelt separately

Y Sgedwyn / Ynysgedwyn / Ynys Gedwyn

Y Sgenfridd (?) / Ynysgynwraidd / Ynys Gynwraidd

Y Sgeti / Ynysgedi / Ynys Gedi

Y Sgiwan / Ynys... / Ynys ....

Y Smitw / Ynysmeudwy / Ynys y Meudwy

Y Snawdra < ynys hafdre / Ynysyrhafdre / Ynys yr Hafdre

Y Stalfera / Ynystalyfera / Ynys Tl yr Fera

Y Stawe / Ynystawe / Ynys Tawe

 

Also Cwm-sgou < Cwm-y-sgu / Cwm-ynys-gau / Cwm Ynys Gau

 


(delwedd 7402)

See the entry for the letter s

:_______________________________.

yr Ysgrythur Ln ər ə SKRI thir LAAN (feminine noun)
1
Holy Scripture

:_______________________________.

ys gwn i ə SKU ni (phrase)
1
I wonder

:_______________________________.

ysbaddu ə SPA dhi (verb)
1
castrate

:_______________________________.

ysbaid, ysbeidiau Ə spaid, ə SPAID ye (feminine noun)
1
while, a short while

:_______________________________.

ysbail, ysbeiliau Ə spail, ə SPEIL ye (feminine noun)
1
loot

:_______________________________.

ysbeiliad
ə- speil -yad masculine noun
PLURAL ysbeiliadau
ə-speil-y-de
1
plundering, pillage, pillaging (a village, a town, etc)
2
mugging, robbery with violence, attacking a person in order to steal from him / her

ETYMOLOGY: (ysbeili-, stem of the verb ysbeilio = to plunder, to sack, to steal) (-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

ysbeilio ə SPEIL yo (verb)
1
to loot, to sack, to plunder

:_______________________________.

ysbeiliwr ə- speil -yur masculine noun
PLURAL ysbeilwyr ə- speil -wir
1
plunderer
ysbeiliwr beddau grave robber

ETYMOLOGY: (ysbeili- = stem of ysbeilio = to plunder) + (-wr = agent suffix)

:_______________________________.

ysbwr, ysbiwyr ə SBI ur, ə SBI wir (masculine noun)
1
spy
ysbwr dwbl double agent
ysbwr bob ochr double agent (spy (of) each side)

:_______________________________.

ysblennydd ə SPLE nidh (adjective)
1
splendid

:_______________________________.

ysbodol bysgod, ysbodolau pysgod ə SPOO dol BƏ skod, ə spo DOO le PƏ skod (feminine noun)
1
spatula, fish slice

:_______________________________.

ysbryd, ysbrydion Ə sprid, ə SPRID yon (masculine noun)
1
spirit

:_______________________________.

ysbrydol ə-SPRƏ-dol (adjective)
1
spiritual

ETYMOLOGY: (ysbryd = spirit) + (-ol adjectival suffix)

 

:_______________________________.

ysbyty ə SPƏ ti, PLURAL: ysbytai ə SPƏ tai masculine noun)
1
hospital


2
ysbyty athrofaol
teaching hospital
Ysbyty Athrofaol Cymru University Teaching Hospital of Wales


ETYMOLOGY: ysbyty < *esbyty < *osbyty (*osbyd + ty^ = house).

 

Welsh *osbyd is from the British form *ospt- < Latin ospites < hospites (= guests), plural of hospes (= guest)

:_______________________________.

ysgadenyn, ysgadan ə-ska-DEE-nin, ə-SKAA-dan (masculine noun)
1
herring

:_______________________________.

ysgafell, ysgafellau ə SKA velh, ə ska VE lhe (feminine noun)
1
ledge (projecting from a cliff)

2 brow, eyebrows
edrych dan eich ysgafell ar look at (somebody) darkly, scowl at (look under your brow on)

:_______________________________.

ysgafn Ə ska vən, Ə skaun (adjective)
1
light
esgidiau ysgafnlight shoes

2 (disease, infection) mild, not serious or life-threatening
ffurf ysgafn ar falaria a mild form of malaria

3 (sound of knocking) light, gentle
Clywodd guro ysgafn ar y drws
He heard some gentle knocking on the door

:_______________________________.

ysgallen ə-sga-lhen feminine noun
PLURAL ysgall ə-sgalh
1
Onopordum acanthium (Cotton Thistle, Scotch Thistle, Scottish Thistle, Spear Thistle)

 

(delwedd 7481)

 

2 ysgallen Fair ((the) thistle (of the Virgin) Mary).
Also ysgallen wen (white thistle) and ysgallen fraith (speckled thistle) Silybium marianum milk thistle

Ynys-yr-ysgallen-fraith (lost name) ((the) meadow (of) the milk thistle)
According to John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911), it occurred as the name of a house in the chapelry of Yr Eglwysnewydd, Caer-dydd

3
gwln ysgall thistledown (wool (of) thistle, thistle wool)

Also gwlaniach ysgall thistledown (bits of wool (of) thistle)

Also plu ysgall thistledown (feathers (of) thistle, thistle feathers / down)

 

(delwedd 7480)

Cynara cardunculus = thistle


ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British
From the same British root: Breton askollenn (= thistle), Cornish askallenn (= thistle)

:_______________________________.

ysgarlad ə- skar -lad adjective
1
scarlet = a vivid red
gwraig ysgarlad scarlet woman, a sinful woman

From this verse in the Bible:
Datguddiad Ioan 17:3 Ac efe am dygodd i ir diffeithwch yn yr ysbryd: ac mi a welais wraig yn eistedd ar fwystfil o liw ysgarlad, yn llawn o enwau cabledd, a saith ben iddo, a deg corn. 17:4 Ar wraig oedd wedi ei dilladu phorffor ac ysgarlad, ac wedi ei gwychu ag aur, ac main gwerthfawr, a pherlau, a chanddi gwpan aur yn ei llaw, yn llawn o ffieidd-dra ac aflendid ei phuteindra. 17:5 Ac ar ei thalcen yr oedd enw ei ysgrifennu. DIRGELWCH, BABILON FAWR, MAM PUTEINIAID A FFEIDD-DRAR MAWR 17:19... y saith ben, saith fynydd ydynt, lle maer wraig yn eistedd arnynt

Revelations 17:3 So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns. 17:4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication: 17:5 And upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH... 17:9... The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth.

(In fact, the woman is thought to represent Rome, which sits on seven hills, and the seven heads of the beast on which she rides are the heads of seven (unidentified) Roman emperors, the beast being the Roman Empire)

cywennod claearwyn eu plu chribau ysgarlad

fowls with bright white plumage and scarlet coxcombs

ETYMOLOGY: English scarlet < French escarlate type of fine cloth, word of unknown origin. Modern French carlate (= scarlet)

:_______________________________.

ysgawen, ysgaw ə SKAU en, Ə skau (feminine noun)
1
elderberry

gwin ysgaw elderberry wine


:_______________________________.

ysgeler ə SKE ler (adjective)
1
atrocious, horrendous

:_______________________________.

ysgithrog ə ski -throg adj
1 toothed, having projecting teeth

2 tusked, having tusks

3 craggy, rugged (mountain)

4 (weather) stormy. windy

5 chwyrnwr ysgithrog (Trigla lyra) piper gurnard, or piper; fish found on sand and mud bottoms. Eats shrimps and crabs

6 Brochfael Ysgithrog father of saint Tysilio (died 662), and Cadell, king of Powys (ysgithrog = having projecting teeth)

ETYMOLOGY: (ysgithr = tusk) + (-og, suffix for forming adjectives)

NOTE: Also as sgythrog (loss of pretonic syllable ə, reduction of tonic vowel i > obscure vowel ə

:_______________________________.

ysglefrio ə SKLEVR yo (verb)
1
skate

:_______________________________.

ysglyfaethus ə-sklə- vei this adjective
1
predatory
aderyn ysglyfaethus bird of prey

ETYMOLOGY: (ysglyfaeth = prey) + (-us suffix for forming adjectives)
:_______________________________.

ysgog Ə -skog

1 stem of the verb ysgogi (= move, budge) 

 

diysgog firm, immobile

:_______________________________.

ysgogi ə -SKOO-gi (v)

1 move, stir

Salmau 16:8 Gosodais yr ARGLWYDD bob amser ger fy mron: am ei fod ar fy neheulaw, nim hysgogir.
Psalms 16:8 I have set the LORD always before me: because he is at my right hand, I shall not be moved.




2 motivate, encourage, urge, stimulate
ysgogi mudiadau gwirfoddol i ddefnyddior iaith Gymraeg encourage voluntary organisations to use Welsh

ysgogi ymateb provoke (a response)


ETYMOLOGY: ysgogi < (ysgog = Old Welsh *sgog) + (-i verbal suffix).

Celtic *skok < Indo-European *skek- (= jump)

 

:_______________________________.

ysgogiad ə -SKOG-yad (m)
PLURAL ysgogiadau ə-skog-YAA-dai, -de

1 movement

gweud ysgogiad pen ar (rywun) acknowledge (somebody) with a nod of the head (make (a) movement (of) head on somebody)

 

2 impetus

:_______________________________.

ysgol ə -skol feminine noun
PLURAL ysgolion
ə- skol -yon
1
school = building for teaching and learning

2 Heol Yr Ysgol (the) street / road (of) the school (a southern form, since heol is generally used in the south where ffordd or stryd is preferred in the north)

Heol Yr Ysgol
..a/ Cefneithin (county of Caerfyrddin)
..b/ Glynebwy (county of Blaenau Gwent)
..c/ Llangynwyd (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
..d/ Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr
..e/ Saint-y-brid (SS8974) (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
..f/ Ton-du, (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
..g/ Y Coety (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

Heol yr Ysgol would be one possible translation of numerous streets in Wales called in English School Road or School Street

3 ysgol wladol state school

4
school = conference, course of instruction
ysgol undydd one-day conference (school (of) one day)
ysgol Basg Easter school, Easter conference
ysgol haf summer school, summer conference

5 school = lessons at school
Does dim ysgol heddiw Theres no school today
ar l ysgol after school (= when lessons have finished for the day)

6 education, schooling
dyn heb ddim ysgol a man with no education

7 school = all the pupils in a place of education

8 school = people with the same ideas, group of artists or writers with the common philosophy and common style

9 school = learning experience
Yr ysgol ore yn yr hollfyd, i ddysgu dyn yw ysgol adfyd The best school in all the world to teach somebody is the school of adversity

10 gwersyll ysgol school camp
mynd i wersyll ysgol go to school camp

ETYM
OLOGY: Welsh ysgol < *ysgl əskol < *sgl < British skool-
< Latin *scoola < schoola < Greek schol (= leisure employed in leaning)

From the same British root: Cornish skol (= school), Breton skol (= school)

:_______________________________.

ysgol annibynnol, ysgolion annibynnol Ə skol a ni BƏ nol, ə SKOL yon a ni BƏ nol (feminine noun)
1
independent school - school not receiving state aid

:_______________________________.

ysgol barati, ysgolion parati Ə skol ba ra TOI, ə SKOL yon ba ra TOI ( f)
1
prep school - private school which prepares pupils for entry into the private-school system

:_______________________________.

ysgol Basg, ysgolion Pasg Ə skol BASK, ə SKOL yon PASK (feminine noun)
Easter school - series of conferences held at Easter

:_______________________________.

ysgol breifat, ysgolion preifat ə skol BREI vat, ə SKOL yon PREI vat (feminine noun)
1
private school

:_______________________________.

ysgol ddyddiol, ysgolion dyddiol ə skol DHƏDH yol, ə SKOL yon DƏDH yol (feminine noun)
1
day school

:_______________________________.

ysgol eglwys, ysgolion eglwys Ə skol E gluis, ə SKOL yon E gluis (f)
1
church school - school paid for by the state but run by the Anglican Church

:_______________________________.

ysgol elfennol, ysgolion elfennol Ə skol el VE nol, ə SKOL yon el VE nol (feminine noun)
1
primary school, elementary school, school for pupils 5-11 years old

:_______________________________.

ysgol fabanod, ysgolion babanod Ə skol va BA nod, ə SKOL yon ba BA nod
1
infants' school, school for pupils 5-7 years old

:_______________________________.

ysgol farchogaeth, ysgolion marchogaeth Ə skol var KHO geth, ə SKOL yon mar KHO geth
1
riding school

:_______________________________.

ysgol fechgyn, ysgolion bechgyn Ə skol VEKH gin, ə SKOL yon BEKH gin 1 boys' school

:_______________________________.

ysgol feithrin, ysgolion meithrin ə skol VEITH rin
1
nursery school (3-5-years old)

:_______________________________.

ysgol feithrin Gymreg, ysgolion meithrin Cymreg ə skol VEITH rin gəm RAIG, ə SKOL yon MEITH rin gəm RAIG (
1
Welsh-language nursery school (3-5-years old)

:_______________________________.

ysgol ferched, ysgolion merched Ə skol VER khed, ə SKOL yon MER khed
1
girls' school

:_______________________________.

ysgol foduro, ysgolion moduro Ə skol vo DI ro, ə SKOL yon mo DI ro
1
driving school

:_______________________________.

ysgol fonedd, ysgolion bonedd ə skol VO nedh, ə SKOL yon BO nedh (feminine noun)
1
public school, boarding school for the aristocracy

:_______________________________.

ysgol gyfun, ysgolion cyfun Ə skol GƏ vin, ə SKOL yon KƏ vin
1
co-educational high school - secondary school, for pupils 11-18 years of age, where there is no segregation according to academic prospects (under the old system, future university students attended the YSGOL RAMADEG or grammar school, and pupils not considered academically bright were obliged to go to the YSGOL FODERN or secondary modern school)

:_______________________________.

ysgol gyfun Gymreg, ysgolion cyfun Cymreg ə skol GƏ vin kəm RAIG, ə SKOL yon KƏ vin kəm RAIG (feminine noun)
1
Welsh high school - Welsh comprehensive school, school where the language of instruction is Welsh

:_______________________________.

ysgol Gymreg, ysgolion Cymreg Ə skol kəm RAIG, ə SKOL yon kəm RAIG
1
Welsh school, school where the language of instruction is Welsh

:_______________________________.

ysgol gymysg, ysgolion cymysg Ə skol GƏ misk, ə SKOL yon KƏ misk (feminine noun)
1
mixed school, coeducational school

:_______________________________.

ysgol gynradd, ysgolion cynradd Ə skol GƏN radh, ə SKOL yon KƏN radh (feminine noun)
1
primary school

:_______________________________.

ysgol gynradd Gymreg, ysgolion cynradd Cymreg Ə skol GƏN radh kəm RAIG, ə SKOL yon KƏN radh kəm RAIG
1
Welsh primary school, primary school where the language of instruction is Welsh

:_______________________________.

ysgol haf, ysgolion haf ə skol HAAV, ə SKOL yon HAAV (feminine noun)
1
summer school

:_______________________________.

ysgol ramadeg, ysgolion gramadeg Ə skol ra MA deg, ə SKOL yon gra MA deg ( f)
1
grammar school

ETYMOLOGY: Literal translation of English grammar school.

School (of) grammar (ysgol = school) + soft mutation + (gramadeg = grammar)

Grammar schools taught Latin (i.e. Latin grammar) to pupils who were destined to be the priests and monks of the future; the schools were attached to cathedrals and monasteries. Other subjects necessary for fulfilling ones duties as a cleric were music and verse (for liturgy), astronomy and mathematics (for the church calendar) and law (for administration).

:_______________________________.

Ysgol Sul, ysgolion Sul Ə skol SIIL, ə SKOL yon SIIL (feminine noun)
1
Sunday school

:_______________________________.

ysgol undydd Ə skol IN didh, ə SKOL yon IN didh ( f)
1
one-day conference

:_______________________________.

ysgol uwchradd, ysgolion uwchradd Ə skol IUKH radh, ə SKOL yon IUKH radh (feminine noun)
1
high school (England: secondary school)

:_______________________________.

ysgol uwchradd fodern, ysgolion uwchradd modern Ə skol IUKH radh VO dern, ə SKOL yon IUKH radh MO dern (feminine noun)
1
secondary-modern school

:_______________________________.

ysgoldy, ysgoldai ə SKOL di / dai (f)
1
schoolhouse

:_______________________________.

ysgolfeistr, ysgolfeistri ə skol-VEIS-stir, ə skol-VEIS-stre (m)
1
schoolmaster

:_______________________________.

ysgolfeistres, ysgolfeistresau ə skol-VEI-stres, ə-skol-vei-STRE-se (f )
1
schoolmistress

:_______________________________.

ysgolhig, ysgolheigion ə skol HAIG, ə skol HEIG yon (masculine noun)
1
scholar = erudite person

:_______________________________.

ysgolheictod ə skol HEIK tod (masculine noun)
1
scholarship, erudition

:_______________________________.

ysgolheigaidd ə skol HEI gedh (adjective)
1
scholarly

:_______________________________.

ysgolor, ysgolorion ə SKO lor, ə sko LOR yon (masculine noun)
1
scholar 2 scholar = student with a scholarship/ grant

:_______________________________.

ysgoloriaeth, ysgoloriaethau ə sko LOR yeth, ə sko lor YEI the (feminine noun)
1
scholarship

:_______________________________.

Ysgotyn, Ysgotiaid ə SGO tin, ə SKOT yed (masculine noun)
1
Scot

:_______________________________.

ysgrch ə- sgreekh f
1 screech; see sgrech

:_______________________________.

ysgrif, ysgrifau ə SKRIIV, ə SKRII ve (feminine noun)
1
essay

:_______________________________.

ysgrifbin ə SKRIV bin (masculine noun)
1
pen

:_______________________________.

ysgrifell ə-SKRII-velh f
PLURAL ysgrifellau o-skri- v -lhe
1 pen

ETYMOLOGY: First recorded use: 1783 (ysgrif- = stem of ysgrifennu = to write) +
(-en diminutive suffix)

:_______________________________.

ysgrifen ə SKRI ven (feminine noun)
1
writing (style of handwriting)

:_______________________________.

ysgrifennu ə skri VE ni (verb)
1
write

:_______________________________.

ysgrifennydd, ysgrifenyddion ə skri VE nidh, ə skri ve NƏDH yon (masculine noun)
1
secretary (man)

:_______________________________.

ysgrifenyddes, ysgrifenyddesau ə skri ve NƏ dhes, ə skri ve ne DHƏ se (feminine noun)
1
secretary (woman)

:_______________________________.

Ysgrythur ə SKRI thir (feminine noun)
1
Scripture, RE (Religious Education), RI (Religious Instruction) - school subject

:_______________________________.

ysgub, ysgubau Ə skib, ə SKI be (feminine noun)
1
sheaf

:_______________________________.

ysgubo ə SKI bo (verb)
1
sweep

:_______________________________.

ysgubor ə-sk-bor feminine noun
PLURAL ysguboriau ə-ski-bor-ye
1
barn = large farm outbuilding where hay and grain are stored, and livestock is sometimes kept

ysgubor ŷd corn barn

ysgubor wair hay barn

Tonysguboriau, locally: Tonsgubora ton-ski-b-ra, village in Rhondda Cynon Taf (ton yr ysguboriau - (the) grassland (of) the barns). English name: Talbot Green

ETYMOLOGY: ysgubor < ysgubawr < British, apparently < Latin *scoprium (= place for sheaves) < scoprum (feminine plural form of scopae = blades of grass; sheaf)

From the same British root: Cornish skiber (= barn), Breton skiber (= barn);
Irish sciobl (= barn) is a loan word from Welsh ysgubor

NOTE: The colloquial form is sgubor sk-bor with the loss of the pretonic first syllable


Compare
..a/ ymenyn (= butter) > menyn,
..b/ ystafell (= room) > stafell

:_______________________________.

ysgubor ddegwm ə-sk-bor dh-gum feminine noun
PLURAL ysguboriau degwm ə-ski-bor-ye dh-gum
1
tithe barn = barn where the tithes collected from a parish were stored

ETYMOLOGY: (ysgubor = barn) + soft mutation + (degwm = tithe)

:_______________________________.

Yr Ysgubornewydd ə-sk-bor neu-idh feminine noun
1
SO0505 locality in the town of Merthyrtudful

2 SN 667814 farm north-west of Goginan (Ceredigion) (Ysgubornewydd)

3 Farm in Croesyceiliog (Torfaen) (Ysgubornewydd)

4 place in Llan-wern, Brycheiniog district of Powys (Ysgubornewydd) LD3 0TT.

5 farm in Rhaglan (county of Mynwy) (Ysgubornewydd)

6 farm in Ffrwd-grech, Aberhonddu (Powys) (Ysgubornewydd) LD3 8LE

7 farm in Man-moel (Caerffili) (Ysgubornewydd)

8 farm in Melindwr (Ceredigion) (Skybernewydd, Kellys Directory 1895)

9 cottage in Henryd (county of Conwy) (Ysgubor Newydd)

10 farm in Henllys (Torfaen), demolished in the late 1990s


11 (Burgess Roll, 1783-1789, Caernarfon) Edward Morris, Ysgubornewydd, Llaneilian (2 March 1784)

12 locality LL15 2HB at Graigfechan (county of Dinbych) (Ysgubor Newydd)

13 merchants house from the 1400s in Machynlleth (Powys) (Ysgubor Newydd)

14 farm, 1851 Census, Gwyddelwern (Ysgubor Newydd)

15 place at Llangristiolus (Ynys Mn) (Ysgubor Newydd)

16 place mentioned in 1891 Census for Llanfachreth (Gwynedd) (Ysgubor Newydd)

17 place in Paradwys, Bodorgan (Ynys Mn) (Ysgubor Newydd).

18 place in Y Fan, Llanidloes SY18 6N (Ysgubor Newydd).

19 farm, Ffordd Llangernyw, Abergele (Conwy) (Ysgubor Newydd).

20 farm in Llanfair Talhaearn (county of Dinbych) (Ysgubor Newydd).

ETYMOLOGY: the new barn (yr = the) + (ysgubor = barn) + (newydd = new)

:_______________________________.

ysgubor wersyllu ə-sk-bor wer--lhi feminine noun
PLURAL ysguboriau gwersyllu ə-ski-bor-ye gwer--lhi
1
camping barn - barn with cheap basic accommodation for travellers, basic washing and toilet facilities and beds or bunks for use with sleeping bags

ETYMOLOGY: (ysgubor = barn) + soft mutation + (gwersyllu = to camp); translation of English camping barn

:_______________________________.

Ysgubor-y-coed ə-sk-bor ə kid feminine noun
1
mansion and locality in the north of the county of Ceredigion

Cyngor Bro Ysgubor-y-coed Ysgubor-y-coed Community Council (local administrative unit covering this locality)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) barn (of) the wood, wood barn (ysgubor = barn) + (y = the) + (coed = wood)

:_______________________________.

ysgwyd llaw Ə skuid (verb)
1
shake
(Instructions) Ysgydwer y botel Shake the bottle
2 ysgwyd llaw Ə skuid LHAU aa shake hands with

:_______________________________.

ysgwydd, ysgwyddau Ə skuidh, ə SKUI dhe (masculine noun)
1
shoulder

 

2 (place names) hill, ridge

:_______________________________.

Ysgwydd-gwyn Ə-skuidh GWIN (masculine noun)
1
farm in Y Deri, Caerffili

Ysgwydd-gwyn Isaf SO1200 farm name lower Ysgwydd-gwyn

Capel yr Ysgwydd-gwyn SO1201 a Calvinistic Methodist chapel in y Deri

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/534292

ETYMOLOGY: white shoulder / ridge (ysgwydd = shoulder) + (gwyn = white)

:_______________________________.

ysgydwad
ə- skəd -wad masculine noun
PLURAL ysgydwadau
ə-skəd- w -de
1
shake; shock See ysgytwad

:_______________________________.

ysgytwad
ə- skət -wad masculine noun
PLURAL ysgydwadau
ə-skət- w -de
1
shake, shaking

2 shock
Bur newydd yn ysgatwad imi The news was a shock to me

ETYMOLOGY: ysgytwad > ysgydwad > ysgydw- stem of ysgwydaf < ?*ysgwydwaf < ysgwydaf < ysgwyd (= to shake)

:_______________________________.

ysgyfant, ysgyfaint ə SKƏ vant, ə SKƏ vent (masculine noun)
1
lung

:_______________________________.

ysgyfarn ə- skə -varn feminine noun
1
obsolete, ear (in modern Welsh, ear is clust). It occurs in the word ysgyfarnog (= hare). See below.

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh ysgyfarn < *ysgyfrn < *sgyfrn < British *skuvrn < *skovrn- < *skob-
From the same British root: Cornish skovarn (= ear), Breton skouarn (= ear)

:_______________________________.

..1 ysgyfarnog ə-skə- var -nog adjective
1
obsolete with long ears

ETYMOLOGY: 'eared', i.e. with big ears (ysgyfarn = ear) + (-og, suffix for forming adjectives); from the same British root: Cornish skovarnek = long-eared, (referring to a pot) having handles, Breton skouarnek = long-eared, (referring to a pot) having handles

:_______________________________.

..2 ysgyfarnog ə-skə- var -nog feminine noun
PLURAL ysgyfarnogod ə-skə-var- n -god
1
hare

2 gwl ysgyfarnog hare's form, the bed of a hare shaped by its body

3 codi ysgyfarnog start a hare, raise a hare - drive a hare from its hiding place in order to begin hunting it; (newspaper) introduce a matter for comment or debate, a talking point, a controversial subject

Colofn wythnosol sy'n rhoi cyfle i newyddiadurwyr staff "Y Cymro" godi ambell i sgwarnog a mynegi barn personol
A weekly column which gives journalists on the staff of "Y Cymro" to raise a matter ("start an occasional hare") and express a personal opinion

4 codi ysgyfarnogod draw a red herring across the track, introduce a red herring, a subject introduced into a conversation to divert attention from the topic under discussion ("raise hares")

5 mor fywiog 'sgwarnog as lively as a hare

6 South-west Wales Hys 'da'r ci a hai 'da'r sgwarnog to have a foot in both camps, run with the hare and run with the hounds, to support both sides in a dispute ("'at him, boy!' with the dog and 'go!' with the hare")

7 cas gan ysgyfarnog Aconitum lagoctonum hare's bane ("(plant) hated by (a) hare")

8 bwch ysgyfarnog, plural bychod ysgyfarnogod buck hare, jack hare, male hare ("buck (of) hare")

9 ysgyfarnog wryw, plural ysgyfarnogod gwryw buck hare, jack hare, male hare ("hare + male")

10 ysgyfarnog fenyw, plural ysgyfarnogod benyw doe, female hare ("hare + female")

11 hela ysgyfarnogod hunt hares

12 ysgyfarnog neidiol jumping hare

ETYMOLOGY: (the) long-weared one. Originally an adjective; so we can assume a noun such as anifail (= animal) followed by the adjective ysgyfarnog = long-eared (animal), (animal) with long ears


NOTE: Colloquial forms are sgyfarnog and sgwarnog skwar-nog

:_______________________________.

ysgyrno
ə-skər-n verb
1
= ysgyrnu

:_______________________________.

ysgyrnu
ə-skər-ni verb
1
(dog) snarl; bare its teeth in anger

ETYMOLOGY: ysgyrnu < esgyrnu < (esgyrn = bones, plural of asgwrn = bone) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)


NOTE: Also ysgyrno

:_______________________________.

ysigo
ə SI go (verb)
1
= sigo

:_______________________________.

ysmygu ə- smə -gi verb
1
smoke


Nac ysmyger Do not smoke

ETYMOLOGY: Origin unknown. Cf mygu (= to smoke) < mwg (= smoke); and English smoke

:_______________________________.

ysol
1
as a suffix: eating, -vorous
..1/ cigysol carnivorous, meat-eating
..2/ ffrwthysol frugivorous, fruit-eating
..3/ hadysol seed-eating
..4/ hollysol omnivorous
..5/ llysysol herbivorous, grass-eating
..6/ pryfysol insectivorous, insect-eating
..7/ pysgysol fish-eating
..8/ tomysol scatophagous, excrement-eating, shit-eating

:_______________________________.

-ysor
ə -sor suffix
1
(animals and birds) suffix eater plural -ysorion
..1/ cigysor carnivore
..2/ ffrwthysor frugivore
..3/ hadysor seed-eating bird
..4/ hollysor omnivore (in Geiriadur yr Acdemi Cymreig / Welsh Acaademy Dictionary there is only the form hollysydd)
..5/ llysysor herbivore
..6/ pryfysor insectivore
..7/ pysgysor fish-eating bird or animal
..8/ tomysor scatophagous animal, shit-eating animal

An alternative form is -ysydd, plural -ysyddion
..1/ cigysor / cigysydd
..2/ ffrwthysor / ffrwythysydd
..3/ hadysor / hadysydd
..4/ hollysor / hollysydd
..5/ llysysor / llysysydd
..6/ pryfysor / pryfysydd
..7/ pysgysor / pysgysydd
..8/ tomysor / tomysydd

ETYMOLOGY: (ys- stem of ysu = consume) + (-or suffix for indicating a an agent; from Latin -rius, in words taken from Latin (canghellor (= chancellor) < cancellrius; afterwards used as a suffix with native words telynor = harpist)

:_______________________________.

ystd, ystadau ə STAAD, ə STA de (feminine noun)
1
estate

:_______________________________.

ystd dai, ystadau tai
ə-staad DAI, ə-STA-de TAI
1
housing estate

:_______________________________.

ystd ddiwydiannol, ystadau diwydiannol
ə STAAD dhi wə di A nol, ə STA de di wə di A nol (feminine noun)
1
industrial estate

:_______________________________.

ystafell, ystafelloedd ('stafelloedd)
ə STA velh, sta VE lhodh (feminine noun)
1
room
2 ystafell gynhadledd conference room
3 ystafell ddiogel strongroom

:_______________________________.

ystafell arddangos ə STA velh ar DHANG gos (feminine noun)
1
exhibition room, showrrom

:_______________________________.

ystafell aros əs STA velh A ros (feminine noun)
1
waiting room

:_______________________________.

ystafell ddiogel, ystafelloedd diogel ə STA velh dhi O gel, ə sta VE lhodh di O gel (feminine noun)
1
strongroom

:_______________________________.

ystafell ddosbarth, ystafelloedd dosbarth ə ATA velh DHO sparth, ə sta VE lhodh DO sparth (feminine noun)
1
classroom

:_______________________________.

ystafell ddysgu, ystafelloedd dysgu ə STA velh DHƏ ski, ə sta VE lhodh DƏ ski (feminine noun)
1
class room

:_______________________________.

ystafell de, ystafelloedd te ə STA velh DEE, ə sta VE lhodh tee (feminine noun)
1
tea room

:_______________________________.

ystafell fwyta, ystafelloedd bwyta ə STA velh VUI ta, ə sta VE lhodh BUI ta (feminine noun)
1
dining room

:_______________________________.

ystafell fyw, ystafelloedd byw ə STA velh VIU, ə sta VE lhodh BIU (feminine noun)
1
living room

:_______________________________.

ystafell gefn, ystafelloedd cefn ə STA velh GE ven, ə sta VE lhodh KE ven (feminine noun)
1
room at the back of the house

:_______________________________.

ystafell goffi, ystafelloedd coffi ə STA velh GO fi, ə sta VE lhodh KO fi (feminine noun)
1
coffee room

:_______________________________.

ystafell groeso, ystafelloedd croeso ə STA velh GROI so, ə sta VE lhodh KROI so (feminine noun)
1
reception room

:_______________________________.

ystafell sbr ə STA velh SPAAR (feminine noun)
1
spare room

:_______________________________.

ystafell wely ə- sta velh w-li feminine noun
PLURAL ystafelloedd gwely ə-sta-v-lhodh gw-li
1
bedroom

ETYMOLOGY: (ystafell = room) + soft mutation + (gwely = bed)

:_______________________________.

ystafell wisgo ə- sta velh wis-go feminine noun
PLURAL ystafelloedd gwisgo ə-sta-v-lhodh gwis-go
1
changing room, dressing room

ETYMOLOGY: (ystafell = room) + soft mutation + (gwisgo = to dress)

:_______________________________.

ystafell ymolchi ə- sta velh ə-mol-khi feminine noun
PLURAL ystafelloedd ymolchi ə-sta-v-lhodh ə-mol-khi
1
bathroom, washroom

ETYMOLOGY: (ystafell = room) + (ymolchi = to get washed, to have a wash)
NOTE: colloquial form: stafell molchi

:_______________________________.

ystafellydd ə-sta-v-lhidh masculine noun
PLURAL ystafellyddion ə-sta-ve-lhədh-yon
1
chamberlain

ETYMOLOGY: (ystafell = room) + (-ydd suffix to indicate a person)

:_______________________________.

Ystalyfera
ə-stal-ə- v -ra
1
(SN7608) locality in the county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan
Local form: Stalfera < Y Stalfera < Ystalfera <
ynys tl y fera

:_______________________________.

ystatud o-staa-tid f
PLURAL ystatudau ə-sta-t-de
1 statute
See statud
:_______________________________.

Ysteffan
ə-st-fan masculine noun
1
Steven, Stephen
Eglwys Ysteffan SN350108 name of an Anglican church in the village of Llansteffan

ETYMOLOGY: The name Steffan, as in Llansteffan, with a prothetic y this type of prothesis is typical in words in Old Welsh < British < Latin
(1) ysgol (= school) < Latin schla,
(2) ysgrifen (= writing) > Latin
*scrbenda
(3) ystafell (= room)
< Latin *stabellum, a diminutive form of stabulum = shed; etc.

In the case of Ysteffan, it could be an artificial form, from an attempt to bring the word into line with prosthetic y- words and avoid the unusual (in literary Welsh) s + consonant at the beginning of a word


:_______________________________.

ystnt
ə stent masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL ystentiau, ystentau
ə-stent-ye, ə-sten-te
1
extent = an assessment of land and property and a calcuation of their value in order to levy taxes upon them
See stent

ETYMOLOGY: (stent) + with the addition of a prosthetic y
Cf stn (= pitcher) > ystn, stad (= estate, land) > ystd, stryd (= street) > ystrŷd, etc

:_______________________________.

ysticil
ə-STI-kil feminine noun
PLURAL ysticlau
ə-STI-klai, -kle

1 stile. See sticil


:_______________________________.

ysticill
ə-STI-kilh feminine noun
PLURAL ysticillau
ə-sti-KI-lhai, -lhe

1 stile. See sticil

:_______________________________.

Ysticlau
ə-STI-klai, -kle

1 Farm near Nant-y-caws, Caerfyrddin
SN4716

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN4716 map

ETYMOLOGY: yr ysticlau the stiles.

(yr definite article) + (ysticlau, plural form of ysticil = stile)

See sticil

:_______________________________.

ystlys, ystlysau ƏST-lis, əat-LƏ-sai, -se (feminine noun)
1
side


2 drych ystlys side-view mirror, side mirror, wing mirror

ystlys y coed the side of the wood

Ystlys-y-coed Uchaf Farm (meaning upper Ystlys-y-coed) SN5707, near Pont Abraham, county of Caerfyrddin (On the O.S. map as Ystlys-y-coed-uchaf)


:_______________________________.

ystod, ystodion Ə stod, ə STOD yon (feminine noun)
1
swathe = width of one sweep of a scythe
2
yn ystod = during, literally in (the) swathe (of)
yn ystod y rhyfel during the war

:_______________________________.

ystof ə -stov (masculine or feminine noun)
PLURAL ystofau ə- st -ve
1 warp = (in an upright loom) the vertical threads, at right angles to the woof (horizontal threads)

Lefiticus 13:47-8 (47) Ac os dilledyn fydd phla gwahanol ynddo, o ddilledyn gwln, neu o ddilledyn llin, (48) Pa un bynnag ai yn yr ystof, ai yn yr anwe, o lin,
neu o wln, neu mewn croen, neu mewn dim a wnaed o groen
(49) Os gwyrddlas neu goch fydd yr anafod yn y dilledyn, neu yn y croen, neu yn yr ystof, neu yn yr anwe, neu mewn dim o groen; pla'r gwahanglwyf yw efe; a dangoser ef i'r offeiriad
Leviticus 13:47-8 (47) The garment also that the plague of leprosy is in, whether it be a woollen garment, or a linen garment; (48) Whether it be in the warp, or woof; of linen, or of woollen; whether in a skin, or in any thing made of skin; (49) And if the plague be greenish or reddish in the garment, or in the skin, either in the warp or in the woof, or anything of skin; it is a plague of leprosy and shall be showed unto the priest

2 ystof ac anwe warp and woof; weave, structure

ETYMOLOGY: ystof < Old Welsh ystawf < stawf < British stm- < llat stmen (= warp in an upright loom) < stre = to stand)

:_______________________________.

ystofer ə- stoo -ver
1 Possibly a Welsh form of the English word estover (= the right of a commoner to take dead wood from a landowners woodland for fuel; firewood), if the explanation of John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) is correct. In his 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911), he notes "COED-YSTOFER (the estover wood.) In the parish of Leckwith, west of the village, on the right bank of the river Ely.

ETYMOLOGY: English estover < Old French estovoir (= to be necessary) < Latin est opus (= there is need)

:_______________________________.

ystor ə -stor masculine noun
1
resin = solid or semi-solid viscous exudation from a plant
ystor cnabis cannabis resin, from the dried leaves and flowers

ETYMOLOGY: British < Latin storax (a resin from the shrub "Styra Officinalis", formerly used in medicine and to make incense and perfumes) < Greek storax, variant of styrax

:_______________________________.

Ystrad-dyfodwg ə-strad də- vo-dug feminine noun
1
locality (village) ST 0177 in the county of Rhondda Cynon Taf
(1971) population: 6,530; proportion of Welsh-speakers: 9%


Also written Ystradyfodwg (which better reflects the pronunciation, but obscures the sense).


Alternative names: Yr Ystrad, Ystrad Rhondda

ETYMOLOGY: (the) valley (of) Tyfodwg


(ystrad = valley) + soft mutation + (Tyfodwg name of a saint, one of the three saints to whom the church at nearby Llantrisant is dedicated the other two saints are Illtud and Gwynno)

:_______________________________.

Ystradmynach ə strad MƏ nakh &[ˌəstrad ˡmənax]
1
town in the county of Caerffili, five miles north of Caerffili

ETYMOLOGY: ystrad y mynach (the) valley (of) the monk

(ystrad = valley a broad flat valley) + (y definite article) + (mynach = monk)

Mynach would refer to an abbot or an abbey holding land here, though there seems to be no indication of any such landholdings here

Similar names are

Rhosmanach in Llaneilain (Ynys Mn) rhos y mynach ((the) upland (of) the monk),

Cwm Tirymynach (Gwynedd) ((the) valley of Tirymynach) Tirymynach = ((the) land (of) the monk)

Tirymynach (Ceredigion), formerly Tirymynaich ((the) land (of) the monks)

Afon Mynach (Ceredigion) afon y mynach ((the) river (of) the monk)

Afon Mynach (Gwynedd)

NOTE: The official spelling is as two words Ystrad Mynach, though Ystradmynach would be the form if the rule that habitative names form a single word were to be applied throughout.

ETYMOLOGY: possibly ystrad y mynach "(the) valley (of the) monk") that is, as the name stands, without looking at earlier forms of the name which could give a different original meaning

:_______________________________.

Ystrad Marchell ə strad MAR khelh (feminine noun)
1
Valley of Marchell ('Marcellus')

:_______________________________.

Ystrad Tywi ə strad TƏ wi (feminine noun)
1
Valley of the river Tywi

:_______________________________.

Ystradyfodwg ə-strad də- vo-dug feminine noun
1
See Ystrad-dyfodwg

:_______________________________.

Ystrad Ϋw ə strad IU
1
(History) one of the three kmmuds (the other two being Crugywel and Euas) into which Cantref Ida was divided. This kntrev was one of three into which the kingdom of Brycheiniog was divided (the other two being Tewdos and Selyf)

Llanbedr Ystrad Yw ((the) Llanbedr (which is in the kmmud of) Ystrad Yw)

Celtic Folklore Welsh And Manx John Rhys (1901): Now Ystrad Yw, which our mapsters, would have us call Ystrad Wy, as if it had been on the Wye, is supposed to have covered till Henry VIII's time the same area approximately as the hundred of Crickhowel has since, namely, the parishes of (1) Crickhowel, (2) Llanbedr Ystrad Yw with Patrishow, (3) Llanfihangel Cwm Du with Tretower and Penmyarth, (4) Langattock with Llangenny, (5) Llanelly with Brynmawr, and (6) Llangynidr. Of these Llanbedr perpetuates the name of Ystrad Yw, although it is situated near the junction of the Greater and Lesser Grwynd and not in the Strath of the Yw, which Ystrad Yw means. So one can only treat Llanbedr Ystrad Yw as meaning that particular Llanbedr or St. Peter's Church which belongs to the district comprehensively called Ystrad Yw.

:_______________________________.

ystrodur ə- stroo -dir feminine noun
PLURAL ystroduriau ə-stro-dur-ye
1
pack-saddle, saddle of a pack-horse
2
saddle on a shaft horse

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh ystrdur < *ystrodr < *strodr < *strawdr
< British *strtr- < Latin strtra < strtum (= something spread out, horse cloth) < sternere, strtum (= spread)

:_______________________________.

ystryw ə -striu (feminine or masculine noun)
PLURAL ystrywiau ə- strəu -ye
1
trick, ruse, wile, stratagem
byw ar eich ystryw live by your wits
Mae on llawn o 'strywia drwg Hes full of mischief
ystryw oedi delaying tactic Also: tacteg arafu, tacteg arafol
ystrywiau drwg mischievousness, mischief

2
craftiness, cunning

3
trickery

ETYMOLOGY: ystryw < *ystry'w < *stryw < ?*struw < *stro, cf English construct, instruct, destruction, etc
NOTE: The plural ystrywiau is colloquially 'strywia, 'striwie. South-east: ystryw > striw

:_______________________________.

ystum, ystumiau Ə stim, ə STIM ye (feminine noun)
1
pose, position
mewn ystum tanio
(rifle, etc) in firing position
gosod (reiffl) mewn ystum tanio position a rifle ready for firing, bring a rifle to the firing position


2
river-bend

:_______________________________.

ystumio ə STIM yo (verb)
1
disfigure, deform, distort, twist out of shape (also: camystumio)

:_______________________________.

Ystumanner ə sti MA ner (feminine noun)
1
place-name, 'river-bend of the calf'

:_______________________________.

ystumllyn ə- stim -lhin masculine noun
PLURAL ystumllynnoedd ə-stim- lhə-nodh
1
ox-bow lake, abandoned meandre

ETYMOLOGY: (ystum = bend, meander) + soft mutation + (llyn = lake) > *ystumlyn > ystumllyn

:_______________________________.

Ystum-taf ə stim TAAV (feminine noun)
1
district in Caer-dydd ('bend in the river Taf')
English name: Llan-daf North / Llandaff North

:_______________________________.

ystwffwl ə- st -ful masculine noun
PLURAL ystyfflau ə- stə -fle
1 staple = kind of nail

2 column, post

3 gate post, door post

4 sacking placed at the bottom of a door to stop draughts coming in

5 Y Stwffwl name of a traditional melody

ETYMOLOGY: Somehow related to Old English stapol (= prop), Modern English staple (originally = pillar, post; now = wire bent into a U shape); Dutch stapel (= pile of papers, stack of coins), German Staffel (= relay team, squadron, artists easel)

NOTE: Col.loquially 'stwffwl
PLURAL: (possible sequence of the reduction) styffle < ystyffle < ystyffyle < ystyffylau

:_______________________________.

Ystwyll Ə stuilh, diidh Ə stuilh (masculine noun)
1
(Dydd Ystwyll) Twelfth Day (January 6) < British < Latin stella = star
2
carol Ystwyll carol sung at Epiphany

:_______________________________.

1 ystwyth <Ə-stuith> [ˡəstʊɪθ] (adjective)
1
flexible

:_______________________________.

2 Ystwyth <Ə-stuith> [ˡəstʊɪθ] (feminine noun)
1
river in mid-Wales


2
Gwelystwyth <gwel-Ə-stuith> [gwɛlˡəstʊɪθ] view of the river Ystwyth
(gwl = view) + ( Ystwyth = sinuous, winding)
Street name in Llanafan (county of Ceredigion)

 

Cwm Ystwyth <kum-Ə-stuith> [kʊmˡəstʊɪθ] the valley of the river Ystwyth
Cwmystwyth SN7874 name of a village (habitative names are spelt as one word in general)

(the) valley (of) (the river) Ystwyth

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/328010

 

Aberystwyth <a-ber-Ə-stuith> [abɛrˡəstʊɪθ] SN5881 town in Ceredigion (habitative names are spelt as one word in general)

(the) mouth (of) (the river) Ystwyth

In fact, it is a transferred name, since the town is actually north of Aber Rheidol, (the) mouth (of) (the river) Rheidol, and the river Yswyth fell into the see at Allt Wen SN5779.

 

When the Norman castle at Aber Yswyth was moved to a more suitable site at Aber Rheidol, it kept its old name. The course of the Ystwyth was altered a couple of centuries ago so that it now flows into Aber Rheidol SN5780 at Trefechan, and the real Aber Ystwyth is now much nearer the town of Aberystwyth.

 

Glanystwyth SN6475 Farm east of Llanilar (the) bank (of) (the river) Ystwyth

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=247930


:_______________________________.

1 ystwytho <ə-STUI-tho> [əˡstʊɪθɔ] (verb)
1
make flexible
2
ystwytho cymalau bestir oneself (flex joints)

:_______________________________.

ystwythder ə STUITH der (masculine noun)
1
flexibility

:_______________________________.

ystyfnig ə STƏV nig (adjective)
1
stubborn, hard-headed

:_______________________________.

ystyllen
ə- stə -lhen feminine noun
PLURAL ystyllod
ə- stə -lhod
1
board, plank, piece of wood
Doedd y y gwely yn ddim ond styllod pren The bed was nothing but wooden planks

2
board at the front of a cart used by carter as a seat
Roedd Sin Owen yn eistedd ar ystyllen flaen y drol Sin Owen sat on the front board of the cart
Also styllen rech (board (of) fart, farting board)

3 ar y styllen, ar styllen (on the plank) dead; laid out for burial; on the mortuary slab

4 shelf

5 comparisons: slimness
fel ystyllen, colloquially fel styllen (like a board) as thin as a board, as thin as a rake
bod fel styllen be as thin as a rake
bod cyn deneued styllen be as thin as a rake
bod yn fain fel styllen be as thin as a rake

ETYMOLOGY: ystyllen < astyllen (qv)

NOTE: Colloquially ystyllen > styllen, styllan; PLURAL ystyllod > 'styllod

:_______________________________.

ystyr, ystyron Ə stir, ə STƏ ron (feminine noun)
1
meaning

:_______________________________.

ystyried ə STƏR yed (verb)
1
consider

2 o ystyried all things considered, considering the circumstances, in view of the situation
ac ystyried yr amgylchiadau all things considered, considering the circumstances, in view of the situation
o ystyried popeth / ac ystyried popeth / gan ystyried popeth all things considered, considering the circumstances, in view of the situation
erbyn ystyried in view of the situation, come to think of it

3 ystyried rhywun ymhlth eich cyfeillion consider someone as a friend, count somebody among your friends

:_______________________________.

ystyrlon ə-stər-lon adjective
1
meaningful
Ni all iaith fodoli heb bobl iw siarad ac ni all unrhyw gymuned weithredun ystyrlon heb iaith.
A language cannot exist without people to speak it and no community can function meaningfully without a language.

ETYMOLOGY: full of sense (ystyr- ə-stər- penult form of ystyr ə-stir = sense, meaning) + (-lon, suffix formed from llawn = full)

:_______________________________.

ystyrmant ə-stər-mənt masculine noun
1
(North Wales) jew's harp = instrument which is made up of a metal frame and a tongue the frame is placed between the teeth and the tongue is flicked down by the right forefinger to produce sounds

ETYMOLOGY: English instrument > Welsh *instrymant > *instyrmant (with metathesis) > styrmant (with loss of the first syllable)

:_______________________________.

-yswr ə -sur
1
suffix eater (refrerring to people)
cigyswr meat-eater
ffrwythyswr fruitarian

For animals / birds: See -ysydd or -ysor
cigysydd / cigysor carnivore
hollysydd / hollysor omnivore
llysysydd / llysysor herbivore
pryfysydd / pryfysor insectivore

ETYMOLOGY: (ys- stem of ysu = to eat) + soft mutation + (gŵr = man)

:_______________________________.

yw IU (verb)
1
is / are

2
with a relative sense that-it-is
Cythraul o waith yw e Its a devil of a job, Its one devil of a job ((it-is) (a) devil of (a) job that-is it)

3 adjective at the head of a sentence + yw ((it is) + pleasant, etc + that-is)
ofer yw... there's no point, it's pointless...
ofer yw gwario arian yn y cyfeiriad hwn its pointless to spend money this way (in this direction)
hyfryd yw... its wonderful, its lovely
hyfryd yw cael darllen y bedwaredd stori yn y gyfres ar l aros gymaint amdani
its wonderful to be able to read the fourth story in the series after waiting so long for it


Ϋw IU
1
stream name

Ystrad Ϋw (qv) name of a cwmwd / kmmud in Brycheiniog (broad valley of the Ϋw)

Llygad Ϋw
source of the Ϋw stream (eye (of) Ϋw)

Celtic Folklore Welsh And Manx John Rhys (1901): The chief source of this water is called Llygad Yw, and gives its name to a house of some pretensions bearing an inscription showing that it was built in its present form about the middle of the seventeenth century by a member of the Gunter family well known in the history of the county.

Near the house stands a yew tree on the boundary line of the garden, and close to its trunk, but at a lower level, is a spring of bubbling water: this is Llygad Yw, the Eye of the Yw.? For Llygad Yw is a succinct expression for the source of the Yw burn, and the stream retains the name Yw to its fall into the Rhiangoll; but besides the spring of Llygad Yw it has several other similar sources in the fields near the house.

There is nothing, however, in this brook to account for the name of Ystrad Yw having been extended to an important district; but if one traces its short course one will at once guess the explanation.

For a few fields below Llygad Yw is the hamlet of the Gaer or fortress, consisting of four farm houses called the Upper, Middle, and Lower Gaer, and Pen y Gaer: through this hamlet of the Gaer flows the Yw. These, and more especially Pen y Gaer, are supposed to have been the site of a Roman camp of considerable importance, and close by it the Yw is supposed to have been crossed by the Roman road proceeding towards Brecon. The camp in the Strath of the Yw was the head quarters of the ruling power in the district, and hence the application of the name of Ystrad Yw to a wider area.

But for our story one has to regard the name as confined to the land about the Yw burn, or at most to a somewhat larger portion of the parish of Cwm Du, to which the Yw and Tretower belong. The position of the Gaer in Ystrad Yw at the foot of the Bwlch or the gap in the difficult mountain spur stretching down towards the Usk is more likely to have been selected by the Romans than by any of the Celtic inhabitants, whose works are to be found on several of the neighbouring hills, such as Myarth between the Yw and the Usk.

:_______________________________.

ywa ə -wa masculine noun
South-east Wales
1
uncle; see ewa

:_______________________________.

Ywain Ə wen (masculine noun)
1
man's name; an older form of Owain, Owen

:_______________________________.

yw e IU e (verb)
1
he is

:_______________________________.

ywen əu-en feminine noun
PLURAL yw iu
1
yew, yew tree Taxus baccata (often in churchyards probably as a symbol of eternal life, or more prosaically to deter cattle from entering a churchyard, being aware of its poisonous leaves)

Dodwyd gweddillion yr hen filwr i orffwys dan gysgod yr ywen ddu ganghennog
The remains of the old soldier were put to rest under the shade of the branching black yew

2 Heol Tonyrywen street in Caer-dydd (officially "Ton-yr-Ywen Avenue"). From the name of a farm no longer in existence. ("(the) layland (of) the yew tree")

John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911), notes "A farmhouse on the east side of the Llanishen Road, at the third milestone north from Cardiff, on the Heath"

ETYMOLOGY: (yw = yews) + (singulative suffix -en); Welsh < British
From the same British root: Breton ivinenn (= yew)

:_______________________________.

yw hi IU i (verb)
1
she is

:_______________________________.

Z, z
zd feminine noun
1
) twenty-sixth letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e,
6 f, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z
2
) (does not appear in the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet)


:_______________________________.

Zac zak masculine noun
1
Zach, Zack; short form of the name Zachariah (qv)

:_______________________________.

Zachariah za-ka- rei- a masculine noun
1
forename; in the Welsh Bible this is Sechareia. The name, in its English form, was used as a forename in the 1800s until about the First World War by Welsh speakers, perhaps because in naming children the registration authorities of the English state would expect the form used in the English Bible and not the Welsh version to be used.

The name is found in the Bible referring to two individuals:
(1) the father of John the Baptist

Luc 1:5 Yr oedd yn nyddiau Herod brenin Jwdea, ryw offeiriad ai enw Sechareias, o ddyddgylch Abeia: ai wraig oedd o ferched Aaron, ai henw Elisabeth.
Luke 1:5 There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judaea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the course of Abia: and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elisabeth.

(2) A martyr whose name is mentioned by Jesus
Luc 11:51 O waed Abel hyd waed Sechareias, yr hwn a laddwyd rhwng yr allor ar deml: diau meddaf i chwi, Gofynnir ef ir genhedlaeth hon.
Luke 11:51 From the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, which perished between the altar and the temple: verily I say unto you, It shall be required of this generation.

Mathew 23:35 Fel y delo arnoch chwi yr holl waed cyfiawn ar a ollyngwyd ar y ddaear, o waed Abel gyfiawn hyd waed Sechareias fab Baracheias, yr hwn a laddasoch rhwng y deml ar allor.
Matthew 23:35 That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar.

3
the short form of the name Zachariah is Zac (= English Zach, Zack)
Yn Nhachwedd 1982, bu farw un o gymeriadau rhyfeddaf Llanrwst John Casey Edwards oedd ei enw swyddogol, ond Jac Zac i bawb yn y dre gan roddi iddo enw ei dad, Zachariah
(Llafar Gwlad, Rhif 25, Haf 1989)
In November 1982 one of Llanrwsts strangest characters died - John Casey Edwards was his official name, but Jac Zac to everybody in the town, after his fathers name (giving to him his fathers name), Zachariah

zl ZEEL (feminine noun)

1 zeal


The Treatment of English Borrowed Words in Colloquial Welsh / Thomas Powel / Y Cymmrodor Vol. VI 1883. / p133 
 
The following paper is an attempt to give a general account 
of the use and treatment of English words in the colloquial 
Welsh of the present day. Most of the statements here made 
are applicable to the whole of Welsh-speaking Wales; but 
the paper treats more particularly of the dialect spoken, with 
slight variations, in the Counties of Brecon, Caermarthen, 
and the greater part of Cardigan. 


Z. This letter is not known to Welsh, and in borrowed words 
it becomes s. Sl (zeal), dăslo (dazzle), pyslo (puzzle), rser 
(razor), etc. 
 
But z is occasionally found in books, in words like zl, fr. 
E. zeal"; and ostentatious readers pronounce it as in 
English, but it is felt to be an importation. 

 


:_______________________________.

Zws ZE us (masculine noun)
1
Zeus ZUUS

:_______________________________.

zinc ZINGK (masculine noun)
1
zinc
sht zinc / shiten zinc a zinc sheet

:_______________________________.

zw ZUU (masculine noun)
1
zoo
(The standard form is with an s, and a circumflex which is strictly speaking unnecessary: )

 

 

 


Ble'r wyf i? Yr ych chi'n ymwld ag un o dudalennau'r Gwefan "CYMRU-CATALONIA"
On sc? Esteu visitant una pgina of the Web "CYMRU-CATALONIA" (= Galles-Catalunya)
Where am I? You are visiting a page from the "CYMRU-CATALONIA" (= Wales-Catalonia) Website
Weər m ai? Y r vziting ə peij frm dhə "CYMRU-CATALONIA" (= Weilz-Katəluniə) Wbsait


CYMRU-CATALONIA

 

 

web tracker
Edrychwch ar fy ystadegau / View My Stats

 

Adolygiadau diweddaraf darreres actualitzacions - latest updates: 2006-03-18