A Welsh to English Dictionary in page format

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y

 

______________________________________________________________

Cybi
<KƏ-bi> [ˡkəbɪ] (masculine noun)
1
mans name; Celtic saint (in the place names Caergybi, Llangybi)

:_______________________________.

cybolfa
<kə-BOL-va> [kəˡbɔlva] (feminine noun)
1
mess (North)
y gybolfa = the mess

:_______________________________.

cyboli
<kə-BOO-li> [kəˡboˑlɪ] (verb)
1
say stupid things (North)


:_______________________________.

cybolwr, cybolwyr <kə-BOO-lur, kə-BOL-wir> [kəˡboˑlʊr, kəˡbɔlwɪr] (masculine noun)
1
(North) person who botches things

:_______________________________.

cybl <kə-BOOL> [kəˡboːl] (masculine noun)
1
(North Wales) nonsense

:_______________________________.

cybydd, cybyddion
<KƏ-bidh, kə-BƏDH-yon> [ˡkəbɪ, kəˡbəjɔn] (masculine noun)
1
miser

:_______________________________.

cychod
<KƏ-khod> [ˡkəxɔd] (plural noun)
1
boats (plural of cwch)

:_______________________________.

cychwyn
<KƏKH-win> [ˡkəxwɪn] (verb / masculine noun)
1
to begin, to set off

2
cychwyn ir mr set out to sea (begin to the sea)

3 postyn cychwyn (horse racing) starting post (post (of) starting)
gadael (ceffyl) wrth y postyn cychwyn (in a horse race) - to leave (a horse) standing, rush ahead before another horse has, or other horses have, started to move off

4 go = energy, iniciative, impetus (in a person)
(North Wales) Does cychwyn arno Hes got no go in him (theres no starting / initiative on him)
digychwyn lacking impetus or initiative
Un digychwyn di o Hes got no go in him

5 cychwyn terfysg start a riot

NOTE:
Page 46 / A Welsh Grammar - Historical and Comparative / John Morris-Jones (1864-1929) /1913:

The following words may be mentioned as those most commonly mispronounced: wy is the falling diphthong in cern vat, disgl, look, expect, Gnedd Venedotia, Gndid, id., morn maiden, tern fervent; it is the rising diphthong in oherdd because of, cychn, rise, start, erchn protector, [bed]-side, deddd happy

:_______________________________.

cychwyniad
<kə-KHWƏN-yad> [kəˡxwənjad] masculine noun
PLURAL cychwyniadau
<kə-khwən-YAA-dai, -de> [kəxwənˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
start, beginning

2 origin, birth
gwlad eich cychwyniad your country of origin ((the) country (of) your beginning)

ETYMOLOGY: (cychwynn- stem of cychwyn = to begin) (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyd-
<kiid> [kiːd] (prefix)
1
together, con-

In modern coinings, used as an equivelnt of the Latin prefix con- (= with) (see below c
ytref, cytsain, cytser)

2 (cyd + t) > (cyd-d) > (cyt-)
..a/ cytew (North Wales)
..........(adj) (liquid) thick, stiff;
.......... (m) egg batter (flour, eggs, milk)
cytew < cyd-dew (cyd- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (tew = fat; thick)

..b/ cytir common land (wood, pasture or waste)
cytir < cyd-dir (cyd- = joint) + soft mutation + ( tir = land)

..c/ cytref conurbation
cytref < cyd-dref (cyd- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (tref = town)

3 (cyd + s) > (cyt-s-)

c
ytsain (= consonant),

c
ytser (= constellation)

:_______________________________.

cyd-adrodd
<kiid-A-drodh> [kiːdˡadrɔ] (verb)
1
recite together


:_______________________________.


cyd-daro
<kiid-DAA-ro> [kiːdˡdɑˑrɔ] v
1 coincide

2
cyd-drawiad (qv) coincidence

ETYMOLOGY: hitting together (cyd-
prefix = together) + soft mutation + (taro = to hit, to strike)



:_______________________________.

cyd-ddweud
<kiid-DHWEID> [kiːdˡwəɪd] verb
1
say to each other

Hebryngwyd ef at ei dadau i fynwent plwyf Llanbrynmair, gan dyrfa fawr o wŷr bucheddol, mewn teimladau drylliog; a phawb yn cyd-ddyweud fod tywysog a gŵr mawr wedi cwympo yn Israel." (Cofiant y Tri Brawd / E Pan Jones / 1892 / t11)
He was taken to lie with his forefathers in the cemetery of the parish of Llanbrynmair, by a great crowd of non-chapel people, overcome with emotion; everybody said to each other that a prince and a great man had fallen in Israel.


ETYMOLOGY: (cyd = together) + soft mutation + (dweud = to say)

:_______________________________.

c
yddwyso <kə-DHUI-so> [kəˡʊɪsɔ] verb
1
condense = change from gas to liquid in contact with a cold surface

ETYMOLOGY: (c
y- intensifying prefix, form of cyf-) + soft mutation + (dwyso = intensify)
Cf. c
ywasgu (= to compress) < gwasgu (= to press, to squeeze)

:_______________________________.

c
yddwysydd <-DHUI-SIDH> [kəˡʊɪsɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL cyddwys
yddion <-DHUI-sədh-yon> [kəʊɪˡsəjɔn] 1 condenser = apparatus for converting vapour into liquid

ETYMOLOGY: (c
yddwys- stem of cyddwyso = to condense) (-ydd noun suffix for indicating a device or an agent)

:_______________________________.

cyd-drawiad
<kid-DRAU-yad> [kɪdˡdraʊjad] masculine noun
PLURAL cyd-drawiadau
<kid-drau-YAA-dai, -e> [kɪddraʊˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
coincidence

Nid cyd-drawiad yw bod its no coincidence that

ETYMOLOGY: (cyd-draw- stem of cyd-daro = to coincide) +(
i-ad noun suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyd-drefnedig
<kid-drev-NEE-dig> [kɪddrɛvˡneˑdɪg] adj
1 co-ordinated

ETYMOLOGY: (cyd-drefn- stem of cyd-drefnu = coordinar) + (-edig suffix for forming a past participle adjective)

:_______________________________.

cyd-enwadol
<kiid-en-WAA-dol> [kiːdɛnˡwɑˑdɔl] (adjective)
1
interdenominational
:_______________________________.

cyd-hyd
<kiid-HIID> [kiːdˡhiːd] masculine noun
1
of the same length
bod gyd-led gyd-hyd be as long as it is broad

(bod = to be) + soft mutation + (cyd-led = co-length) + soft mutation + (cyd-hyd = co-width). There is soft mutation of an initial consonant in adverbial phrases. hence cyd > gyd

:_______________________________.

cydio
<KƏD-yo> [ˡkədjɔ] (verb)
1
cydio mewn (+ indefinite noun) get hold of

cydio yn (+ definite noun) get hold of
cydio yn rhywun gerfydd ei goler grab someone by the collar

:_______________________________.

cyd-led
<kiid-LEED> [kiːdˡleːd] masculine noun
1
of the same width
bod gyd-led gyd-hyd be as long as it is broad

(bod = to be) + soft mutation + (cyd-led = co-length) + soft mutation + (cyd-hyd = co-width). There is soft mutation of an initial consonant in adverbial phrases. hence cyd > gydd

:_______________________________.

cydlynu
<kəd-LƏ-ni> [kədˡlənɪ] verb
1 cohere

2 co-ordinate
Fe fydd yn gyfrifold am gyd-lynu gweithgareddau marchnata'r coleg
Hell be the one responsible for co-ordinating the collegess marketing activities

ETYMOLOGY: 'stick together' (cyd- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (glynu = to stick) Calque on English cohere < Latin cohaerre (= stick together), (co- = together) + (haerre = adhere)
:_______________________________.

cydlynus
<kəd-LƏ-nis> [kədˡlənɪs] adj
1 coherent
fframwaith c
ydlynus coherent framework
strategaeth g
ydlynus coherent strategy

ETYMOLOGY: (cydlyn- stem of cydlynu = cohere) + (-us suffix for forming adjectives)
:_______________________________.

cydnabod
<kəd-NAA-bod> [kədˡnɑˑbɔd] (verb)
1
to recognise

:_______________________________.

cydol
<KƏ-dol> [ˡkədɔl] masculine or feminine noun
1
totality, whole (in use only in a number of set expressions)
trwy gydol y nos all night long
am gydol y flwyddyn all year long

ETYMOLOGY: noun the whole < adjective total, entire, whole;
(cyd < cyyd < cyhyd = so long, as long) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

 

:_______________________________.

cyd-orwedd
<kiid-OR-wedh> &[kiːdˡɔrwɛ] verb
1
cyd-orwedd to lie together with, to lie alongside


:_______________________________.

cydradd
[KƏD-radh] [ˡkədra] (adjective)
1
of equal rank
2
c
ymal cydradd co-ordinating clause

:_______________________________.

cydran, cydrannau
<KƏ-dran, kə-DRA-nai, -e> [ˡkədran, kəˡdranaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
component (for a car)
y gydran = the component

:_______________________________.

c
ydrannol <kə-DRA-nol> [kəˡdranɔl]
1
shared
2
wal g
ydrannol party wall

ETYMOLOGY: (cyd prefix = together) + soft mutation + (rhannol = partial)


:_______________________________.

cyd-synio
<kiid-SƏN-yo> [kədˡsənjɔ] (verb)
1
to agree with
cyd-synio rhywun to agree with somebody
:_______________________________.

cydweddiad, cydweddiadau
<kəd-WEDH-yad, kəd-wedh-YAA-dai, -e> [kədˡwɛjad, kədwɛˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
analogy
2
camg
ydweddiad false analogy

:_______________________________.

cyd-
weithfa, cyd-weithfydd
<kiid-WEITH-va, kiid-weith-VEIDH> [kiːdˡwəɪθva, kiːiˑdwəɪθˡvəɪ] (feminine noun)
1
cooperative
y gyd-weithfa = the cooperative

:_______________________________.

cyd-weithio
<kiid-WEITH-yo> [kiːdˡwəɪθjɔ] (verb)
1
to cooperate

:_______________________________.

cyd-weithredu
<kiid-weith-REE-di> [kiːdwəɪθˡreˑdɪ] (verb)
1
to collaborate

:_______________________________.

Cydweli
<kəd-WEE-li> [kədˡweˑlɪ] (feminine noun)
1
village, south-west; see Cedweli

:_______________________________.

cydymaith, cymdeithion
<kə-DƏ-maith, -meth, kəm-DEITH-yon> [kəˡdəmaɪθ, -ɛθ kəmˡdəɪθjɔn] (masculine noun)
1
travelling companion

:_______________________________.

cyfaddasiad
<kə-va-DHAS-yad> [kəvaˡasjad] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfaddasiadau
<kə-va-dhas-YAA-dai, -e> [kəvaasˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
adaptation
2
abbreviation (in a dictionary entry) = cfdds.

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfaddas-, stem of cyfaddasu = to adapt) + (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyfaddef
<kə-VAA-dhev, kə-VAA-dhe> [kəˡvɑˑɛv, kəˡvɑˑɛ] (verb)
1
to confess

:_______________________________.

cyfadran, cyfadrannau
<kə-VA-dran, kə-va-DRA-nai, -e> [kəˡvadran, kəvaˡdranaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
university faculty
y gyfadran= the faculty

:_______________________________.

cyfagos
<kə-VAA-gos> [kəˡvɑˑgɔs] (adjective)
1
nearby

:_______________________________.

cyfaill
<KƏ-vailh, -velh> [ˡkəvaɪɬ, ˡkəvɛɬ] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfeillion
<kə-VEILH-yon> [kəˡvəɪɬjɔn]
1
friend
cwrdd hen gyfeillion meet old friends
cyfeillion bore oes childhood friends (friends (of) morning (of) life)
cyfaill mynwesol bosom friend
cyfaill calon bosom friend (friend (of) heart)
cyfaill ysgol school friend
cyfaill tywyllodrus a false friend, a friend who deceives (a deceitful friend)

2
some phrases with cyfaill i (friend + to)
bod yn gyfaill i mi be a friend of mine, be friends with me, be my friend (be a friend to me)
Dyw e ddim yn gyfaill i mi Hes not my friend, Hes no friend of mine
bod yn hen gyfaill i mi be an old friend of mine
mynd yn gyfaill i mi become my friend, become friends with me
cyfaill ir teulu a friend of the family ((a) friend to the family)
cyfaill o artist i mi an artist friend of mine ((a) friend of artist to me)

3
Cyfaill ynteu gelyn? (Soldier on watch duty challenging someone unknown) Friend or foe?

4
friend = patron, sponsor, benefactor
cyfaill ir tlodion a friend of the poor

As cyfeillion friends in titles of support groups for some cause or instituion
Cyfeillion yr Amgueddfa Friends of the Museum (society to raise funds for a museum)

5
bod chyfeillion yn y llys to have friends at court, to know people in an influential position who can help

6
Y cyfaill gwir yn yr ing fei gwelir A friend in need is a friend indeed
(the true friend, in the anguish he is seen - i.e. he will appear when you are in an anguished situation)

7
Cyfaill Friend, Quaker
Cymdeithas Grefyddol y Cyfeillion The Religious Society of Friends or Cymdeithas y Cyfeillion The Society of Friends - the proper designation of the Christian body founded by George Fox (1624-91) known popularly as the Quakers

8
as part of the title of certain books, almanacs, magazines in the 1800s
Cyfaill Defnyddiol Useful Friend
Cyfaill yr Aelwyd ((the) friend (of) the fireplace / hearth) magazine 1881-1894

9
Christianity y Cyfaill gorau gaed said of Jesus (the best friend that was ever had)

10
Christianity Cyfaill Duw The Friend of God = Abraham, a patriarch of the Old Testament and founder of the Hebrew people

Iago 2:23 A chyflawnwyd yr ysgrythur yr hon sydd yn dywedyd, Credodd Abraham i Dduw, a chyfrifwyd iddo yn gyfiawnder: a Chyfaill Duw y galwyd ef
James 2:23 And the Scripture was fulfilled which saith, Abraham believed God, and it was imputed unto him for righteousness: and he was called the Friend of God

11
(in addressing a friend or friends),
gyfaill, friend!, gyfeillion! friends
(in Welsh there is generally soft mutation of the initial in vocative forms)

Einion, gyfaill da My good friend Einion (in beginning a letter)

ETYMOLOGY: cyfaill < cyfaillt
(cyf- prefix) + (aillt) < British *kom-alt-jos (= joined together; joined in friendship)
The element alt is to be seen

(1) in obsolete Welsh cyfalle (= union, joining together; spouse) < cyfalledd < British *kom-alt-ij

(2) in Cornish kevals (= joint, articulation) (British kom-alt),

(3) and in the Irish words alt (= joint, articularion); comhalta (= foster brother, foster sister; member);
and comhaltas (= association)

NOTE: cyfeilles (= female friend) (cyfaill + -es, suffix denoting a female);
y gyfeilles the (female) friend

:_______________________________.

c
yfaint <KƏ-vaint> [ˡkəvaɪnt] masculine noun
PLURAL c
yfeintiau <kə-VEINT-yai, -ye> [kəˡvəɪntjaɪ, -ɛ]
1 volume = space in a container occupied by a liquid or gas
space holding cubical content

ETYMOLOGY:
(c
y- < cyf- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (maint = size)

:_______________________________.

c
yfair <KƏ-vair -ver> [ˡkəvaɪr, ˡkəvɛr] masculine noun
PLURAL c
yfeiriau <kə-VEIR-yai, -ye> [kəˡvəɪrjaɪ, -ɛ]
1 (obsolete) direction

2 region, place, spot
From this sense is the preposition ar g
yfer (= opposite; ar facing + soft mutation + cyfer / cyfair (= direction, place). Cf Scottish fa chomhair (= opposite, literally: under + direction )

3 acre = measure of land,
4,840 square yards

4 acre = land measuring an acre

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British.
From the same British root: Breton kever, kever-douar (= acre)
From the same Celtic root: Irish comhair in the preposition phrase faoi chomhair (= for, intended for); Scottish fa chomhair (= opposite)

:_______________________________.

cyfalaf
<kə-VAA-lav> [kəvˡɑˑlav] masculine noun
1
capital = wealth used for the production of more wealth

2
capital = a persons savings
byw ar eich cyfalaf live off ones capital (live on ones capital)

3
capital, = money invested
croniad cyfalaf capital accumulation (accumulation / gathering (of) capital)
cyfalaf cyfrandaliadau share capital (capital (of) shares)
cyfalaf gweithredol working capital (capital + working, operative)
dibrisiad cyfalaf capital depreciation (depreciation (of) capital)
enillion cyfalaf capital gains (gains / earnings (of) capital)
gwariant cyfalaf capital expenditure (expenditure (of) capital)
treth ar enillion cyfalaf capital gains tax (tax on earnings (of) capital)

4
Capital = the capitalist class and its interests (cf Llafur = labour)
cyfalaf a llafur capital and labour

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf-, prefix = together) + (alaf (obsolete) = herd of cattle)

:_______________________________.

cyfalafiaeth
<kə-va-LAV-yaith -yeth> [kəvaˡlavjaɪθ, -ɛθ] feminine noun
1
capitalism = economic system where wealth used for production is owned by individuals and not the state

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfalaf = capital) + (-i-aeth, suffix to form abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

cyfalafol
<kə-va-LAA-vol> [kəvaˡlɑˑvɔl] adjective
1
capitalist

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfalaf = capital) + (-ol = suffix to form adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cyfalafwr
<kə-va-LAA-vur> [kəvaˡlɑˑvʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfalafwyr
<kə-va-LAV-wir> [kəvaˡlavwɪr]
1
capitalist = person who owns capital; private owner, as opposed to a a state (as an agent of public ownership)

2
capitalist = supporter of capitalism

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfalaf = capital) + (-wr, suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

cyfan
<KƏ-van> [ˡkəvan] (adjective)
1
whole, total, all
mentror c
yfan go for broke (venture the whole lot)

2
y cyfan o, the whole of, all
bron y cyfan o almost all, nearly all

Mae en
treulio bron y cyfan o'i amser hamdden yn y tafarn
He spends nearly all of his leisure time in the pub

y cyfan bron o almost all, nearly all

:_______________________________.

cyfandir, cyfandiroedd
<kə-VAN-dir, kə-van-DII-roidh, -rodh> [kəˡvandɪr, kəvanˡdiˑrɔɪ -ɔ] (masculine noun)
1
continent

:_______________________________.

cyfandirol
<kə-van-DII-rol> [kəvanˡdiˑrɔl] (adjective)
1
continental

:_______________________________.

cyfanfor
<kə-VAN-vor> [kəˡvanvɔr] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfanforoedd
<kə-van-VOO-roidh, -rodh> [kəvanˡvoˑrɔɪ -ɔ]
1
ocean
Dros Gyfanfor a Chyfandir (over ocean and continent) title of a book by William Davies Evans (Aberystwyth 1883) relating his travels in the USA in 1881-2

There is an on-line edition of this book in our website: Type kimkat, gyfanfor into Google search box

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfan = entire, complete) + soft mutation + (mr = sea)

:_______________________________.

cyfannedd
<kə-VA-nedh> [kəˡvanɛ] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfanheddau
<kə-va-NHEE-dhai, -e> [kəvaˡnheˑaɪ, -ɛ]
1
dwelling place

Habacuc 1:6 Canys wele fi yn codi y Caldeaid, cenedl chwerw a phrysur, yr hon a rodia a r hyd lled y tir, i feddiannu cyfanheddoedd nid yw eiddynt
Habakkuk 1:6 For, lo, I raise up the Chaldeans, that bitter and hasty nation, which shall march through the breadth of the land, to possess the dwellingplaces that are not theirs

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- = together) + (annedd = dwelling)

:_______________________________.

cyfannol
<kə-VA-nol> [kəˡvanɔl] adj
1 integrated
Rheoli Ansawdd C
yfannol Integrated Quality Management
cylched gyfannol (f) plural cylchedau c
yfannol integrated circuit
Rhaglen
Ymchwil Gyfannol Integrated Research Programme
cludiant cyfannol integrated transport
trafnidiaeth gyfannol integrated transport

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfann- penultimate syllable form of cyfan = complet) (-ol = suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cyfansoddi
<kə-van-SOO-dhi> [kəvanˡsoˑɪ] (verb)
1
to compose

:_______________________________.

cyfansoddiad
<kə-van-SODH-yad> [kəvanˡsɔjad] (masculine noun)

PLURAL cyfansoddiadau
<kə-van-sodh-YAA-dai, -e> [kəvansɔjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
constitution

2 composition

:_______________________________.

cyfanswm, cyfansymiau
<kə-VAN-sum, kə-van-SƏM-yai, -e> [kəˡvansʊm, kəvanˡsəmjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
total amount

:_______________________________.

c
yfar <KƏ-VAR> [ˡkəvar] masculine noun
1
(obsolete) joint ploughing, co-tillage

ETYMOLOGY: (c
yf- prefix = co-, together) + (r = tillage)
Cornish kevar (= joint tillage ), Breton kever (= direction; arpent unit of length)
Cf Irish: comhar (= combined work, co-operation)

:_______________________________.

cyfarch
<KƏ-varkh> [ˡkəvarx] verb
1
greet = say hello to

2
cyfarch ei gilydd say hello to each other, greet each other

ni chyfarchodd yr un or ddau ei gilydd neither of the two greeted the other

3
cyfarch (rhywun) fel chi use the chi form with someone (the polite way of saying you, equivalent in use to French vous, Catalan vos, as distinct from the familiar form ti, equivalent to French tu, Catalan tu)

4
cyfarch gwell i to greet
cyfarch gwell iw gilydd to greet each other

ETYMOLOGY: the verb is from the noun cyfarch = greeting

:_______________________________.

cyfarch
<KƏ-varkh> [ˡkəvarx] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfarchion
<kə-VARKH-yon> [kəˡvarxjɔn]
1
greeting
cyfarchion oddi wrth... greetings from...
cyfarchion y tymor (in Christmas cards, etc) compliments of the season, seasons greetings

2
attributive complimentary = given free as a courtesy;
copi cyfarch complimentary copy

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf-, prefix = each other) + (-arch = order)

:_______________________________.

cyfarchfa
<kə-VARKH-va> [kəˡvarxva] feminine noun
PLURAL cyfarchfydd
<kə-varkh-VEIDH> [kəvarxˡvəɪ]
1
(obsolete) reception place
y gyfarchfa = the reception place

2
possibly hailing place, place on a riverbank to call a ferry boat from the other bank
Cyfarchfa Lost place name in Caer-dydd

According to John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911):
CYFARCHFA (the hailing-place.) An old thatched cottage on the east bank of the river Taff, a little south of Llandaff bridge.

If this interpretation is correct (hailing place, hallowing point, place on a riverbank to call a ferry boat from the other bank) it is equivalent to the American place name Hallowing Point, which George R. Stewart, in American Place-Names 1970 notes as occuring in Maryland and Virginia, and defines it as a place at one end of a ferry passage... where a person had to stand and hallow, i.e. halloo or shout to gain the attention of the ferryman on the other side.

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfarch, stem of the verb cyfarch = greet; call, hail, summon) + (-fa suffix = place)

:_______________________________.

cyfarchiad, cyfarchion
<kə-VARKH-yad, kə-VARKH-yon> [kəˡvarxjad, kəˡvarxjɔn] (masculine noun)
1
greeting

:_______________________________.

c
yfardir <KƏ-VAR-dir> [ˡkəvarˡdɪr] masculine noun
1
(obsolete) joint ploughland

ETYMOLOGY: (c
yfar = co-tillage) + soft mutation + (tir = land)

:_______________________________.

cyfarfod
<kə-VAR-vod> [kəˡvarvɔd] (verb)
1
to meet

:_______________________________.

cyfarfod, cyfarfodydd
<kə-VAR-vod, kə-var-VOO-didh> [kəˡvarvɔd, kəvarˡvoˑdɪ] (masculine noun)
1
meeting

:_______________________________.

cyfartal
<kə-VAR-tal> [kəˡvartal] (adjective)
1
equal
bod
yn gyfartal r gofynion be equal to the occasion (be equal to the requirements)
2
(football match) drawn

:_______________________________.

cyfarth
<KƏ-varth> [ˡkəvarθ] (verb)
1
to bark

2
gwaeth eich cyfarth nach brath your bark is worse than your bite;
(she) gwaeth ei ch
yfarth nai brath her bark her bite
(he) gwaeth ei g
yfarth nai frath his bark his bite

Gwaeth ei gyfarth nai frath is said of a man whose angry words are worse than any action he may do, that is, of man who can be very angry but who wont really carry out any threats he makes

(gwaeth = worse) + (eich = your) + (c
yfarth = bark) + (na = than) + (eich) + (brath = bark)

:_______________________________.

cyfarthiad
<kə-VARTH-yad> [kəˡvarθjad] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfarthiadau
<kə-varth-YAA-dai, -e> [kəvarθˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]

1
bark; barking

cyfarthiad ci ar y lleuad the barking of a dog at the moon said of some action which has no effect whatsoever

Ni effeithia fwy arnynt na chyfarthiad ci ar y lleuad
It wont effect them any more than the barking of a dog at the moon

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfarth-, stem of cyfarth = to bark) + (-iad prefix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

cyfarwydd
<kə-VAA-ruidh> [kəˡvɑˑrʊɪ] (adjective)
1
familiar

:_______________________________.

cyfarwyddiadau
<kə-va-ruidh-YAA-dai, -e> [kəvarʊɪˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (plural noun)
1
instructions

:_______________________________.

cyfarwyddo
<kə-va-RUI-dho> [kəvarˡʊɪɔ] (verb)
1
instruct, advise, guide
2
clinig c
yfarwyddo plant child guidance clinic

:_______________________________.

cyfarwyddwr
<kə-va-RUI-dhur> [kəvarˡʊɪʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfarwyddwyr
<kə-va-RUIDH-wir> [kəvarˡʊɪwɪr] 1 director

Cyfarwyddwr Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru The director of the University of Wales
cyfarwyddwr addysg director of education
cyfarwyddwr gweithredol executive director
cyfarwyddwr ariannol financial director

2
supervisor = tutor supervising the research work of a student

3
guide
cyfarwyddwr ysbrydol spiritual guide

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfarwydd- stem of cyfarwyddo = direct; advise; instruct) + (-wr suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

cyfatal
<kə-VA-tal> [kəˡvatal] (adjective)
variable (weather)

:_______________________________.

cyfathrach
<kə-VATH-rakh> [kəˡvaθrax] (feminine noun)
1
intercourse
y gyfathrach = intercourse

2
sexual intercourse
cyfathrach rywiol sexual intercourse
cyfathrach eneuol oral sex
cyfathrach refrol anal sex

:_______________________________.

cyfathrebu
<kə-va-THRE-bi> [kəvaˡθreˑbɪ] (verb)
1
to communicate

:_______________________________.

cyfeb
<KƏ-veb> [ˡkəvɛb] adjective
1
pregnant (mare, ewe); in foal; in lamb

ETYMOLOGY: with horse (cyf- = with) + (eb = horse)

:_______________________________.

Cyfeiliog
<kə-VEIL-yog> [kəˡvəɪljɔg] (feminine noun)
1
locality, north-east

:_______________________________.

cyfeillgar
<kə-VEILH-gar> [kəˡvəɪɬgar] adjective)
1
friendly

:_______________________________.

cyfeillion
<kə-VEILH-yon> [kəˡvəɪɬjɔn] (plural noun)
1
friends; plural of cyfaill

:_______________________________.

cyfeiliorn
<kə-VEIL-yorn> [kəˡvəɪljɔrn] masculine noun
1
stray
buwch gyfeiliorn PLURAL: buchod cyfeiliorn stray cow

ETYMOLOGY: cyfeiliorn < cyfeiriorn < British *kom-are-org-n;

Dissimilation of the sequence r-r, which becomes l-r
(kom = modern Welsh cym-, cf Latin cum = with),
(are = in front of, modern Welsh ar);

as regards the element org-n cf dilorni < dyfal-orni (dyfal- < dyfalu = mock) + (orn = blame)
+ (-u suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

cyfeilydd, cyfeilyddion
<kə-VEI-lidh, kə-vei-LƏDH-yon> [kəˡvəɪlɪ, kəvəɪˡləjɔn] (masculine noun)
1
accompanyist

:_______________________________.

cyfeiriad, cyfeiriadau
<kə-VEIR-yad, -kə-veir-YAA-dai, -de> [kəˡvəɪrjad, kəvəɪrˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
direction, address

i gyfeiriad croes ir cloc in an anti-clockwise direction

:_______________________________.

cyfeirio
<kə-VEIR-yo> [kəˡvəɪrjɔ] (verb)
1
to refer
2
to direct
cyfeirioch ymdrechion tuag at (ryw nod) direct your efforts towards (some goal)
arwydd cyfeirio direction sign

:_______________________________.

cyfelin
<kə-VEE-lin> [kəˡveˑlɪn] feminine noun
PLURAL cyfelinau
<kə-ve-LII-ne> [kəvɛˡliˑnaɪ, -ɛ]

1
ell, the length between the elbow and the hand
y gyfelin the ell

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf-, prefix = together) + (elin = elbow)

:_______________________________.

cyfenw, cyfenwau
<kə-VEE-nu, kə-VEN-wai, -we> [kəvˡeˑnʊ, kəvˡɛnwaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
surname
ETYMOLOGY: (cyf-, prefix = together) + (enw = name)

:_______________________________.

cyferbyniol
<kə-ver-BƏN-yol> [kəvɛrˡbənjɔl] (adjectiu)
1 cyferbyniol i opposed to, contrary to
yr oll sydd gyferbyniol i ryddid, dyna yw Toriaeth
everything that goes against freedom, thats what Toryism is
:_______________________________.

cyff, cyffion
<KIIF, KƏF-yon> [kiːf, ˡkəfjɔn] (masculine noun)
1
stump of tree;
2
cyffion = shackles

:_______________________________.

cyffaith, cyffeithiau
<KƏ-faith / KƏ-feth, kə-FEITH-yai, -ye> [ˡkəfaɪθ / ˡkəfɛθ, kəˡfəɪθjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
toffee

:_______________________________.

cyffes, cyffesau
<KƏ-fes, kə-FE-sai, -se> [ˡkəfɛs, kəˡfɛsaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
confession

:_______________________________.

cyffesu
<kə-FE-si> [kəˡfɛsɪ] (verb)
1
confess

2 cyffesuch pechodau confess your sins

:_______________________________.

cyffin
<KƏ-fin> [ˡkəfɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL cyffiniau
<kə-FIN-yai, -ye> [kəˡfɪnjaɪ, -ɛ]
1
boundary

2
cyffiniau bounds, confines
cyfyngu i gyffiniaur ysgol restrict to the area of the school, to within the bounds of the school

3
y cyffiniau = the area, the locality, the surrounding district
Tir Iarll ar Cyffiniau Tir Iarll and the surrounding district

4
Y Gyffin SH7776 (the frontier) locality in the county of Conwy (a suburb on the south side of the town of Conwy)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin confnium (con- = with, finis = limit, boundary, end)

:_______________________________.

cyffiniwr
<kə-FIN-yur> [kəˡfɪnjʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cyffinwyr
<kə-FIN-wir> [kəˡfɪnwɪr]
1
borderer, border dweller, one who lives on the border

2
Cyffinwyr De Cymru South Wales Borderers, name of a Welsh regiment based in Aberhonddu / Brecon since 1873 (in the former county of Sir Aberhonddu / Breconshire, in south-eastern Wales, bordering on England)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyffin = frontier) + (-i-wr suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

cyffordd
<KƏ-fordh> [ˡkəfɔr] feminine noun
PLURAL cyffyrdd
<KƏ-firdh> [ˡkəfɪr]
1
(railway) junction
y gyffordd = the junction

Wedi ir trn gyrraedd cyffordd y Gaerwen
after the train reached Gaerwen junction

2 (railway) junction = station where railway lines come together
Cyffordd Llandudno (qv) station on the North Wales coastal railway route;
English name: Llandudno Junction

3
road junction
Ym Maes y Frenhines y mae Capel y Morfa, ar g
yffordd Heol Portland a Morfa Mawr, gyferbyn Neuadd y Dref
Morfa Chapel is in (the square called) Maes y Frenhines, at the junction of (the road called) Heol Portland and (the road called) Morfa Mawr, opposite the town hall

4
motorway junction, place where one can join or leave a motorway

Mae yn hawdd ei gyrraedd o gyffordd 48 yr M4
Its easy to reach from Junction 48 on the M4 motorway

ETYMOLOGY: (cy- prefix = together) + (ffordd = road)

:_______________________________.

Cyffordd Llandudno
<KƏ-fordh lhan-DID-no> [ˡkəfɔr ɬanˡdɪdnɔ]
1
station on the North Wales coastal railway route;
English name: Llandudno Junction

2
locality in the county of Conwy, by Cyffordd Llandudno railway station. English name: Llandudno Junction (if the general rule was applied of spelling settlement names as a single word wherever possible, Cyfforddllandudno would be the form)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) junction (of) Llandudno i.e. the junction formed by a branch line which goes off to the town of Llandudno from the main Chester to Caergybi (Holyhead) railway line (cyffordd = junction) + (Llandudno = name of the town to which the branch line goes).

The Welsh name is a direct translation of the English name.

:_______________________________.

cyfforddus
<kə-FOR-dhis> [kəˡfɔrɪs] (adjective)
1
comfortable

:_______________________________.

cyffredin
<kə-FRE-din> [kəˡfreˑdɪn] (adjective)
1
usual, common, general, frequent

2
Dibarch rh
y gyffredin Familiarity breeds content ((it-is) without-respect (a thing) (which-is) too common)

Ni bydd h
ybarch rhy gyffredin Familiarity breeds contempt (It is not venerable (the thing) too usual)

3 canfod tir cyffredin find common ground

4 metel cyffredin base metal

:_______________________________.

cyffredinol
<kə-fre-DII-nol> [kəfrɛˡdiˑnɔl] (adjective)
1
general

:_______________________________.

cyffro
<KƏ-fro> [ˡkəfrɔ] (m)
1 excitement, commotion, uproar, furore
Aeth yn gyffro trwyr ystafell pandemonium broke out in the room

2 cyffro meddyliol mental disturbance

:_______________________________.

cyffroi
<kə-FROI> [kəˡfrɔɪ] (v)
1
excite, stir


Er hyn oll prin y cyffry neb;

In spite of all this almost nobody stirs
(Nicander = Morris Williams 1809-74 / Yr Adgyfodiad = The Resurrection / 1851)

:_______________________________.

cyffrous
<kə-FROIS> [kəˡfrɔɪs] (adjective)
1
exciting

:_______________________________.

cyffty
<KƏF-ti> [ˡkəftɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfftai
<KƏF-tai> [ˡkəftaɪ]
1
log cabin, log house
(cyff- < cyff = stump, log) + soft mutation + (tŷ= house) > cff-dy > cyffty (mutation annulled through the influence of preceding voicelss consonant)

:_______________________________.

cyffur, cyffuriau
<KƏ-fir, kə-FIR-yai, -ye> [ˡkəfɪr, kəˡfɪrjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
drug

2
tawddg
yffur suppository (tawdd-, stem of toddi = to melt) + soft mutation + (cyffur = drug)

:_______________________________.

cyffurgi
<kə-FIR-gi> [kəˡfɪrgɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL cyffurgwn
<kə-FIR-gun> [kəˡfɪrgʊn]
1
junkie, drug addict

ETYMOLOGY: (cyffur = drug) + soft mutation + (ci = dog)

:_______________________________.

cyffurio <kə-FIR-yo> [kəˡfɪrjɔ] verb
1 drug (somebody)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyffur = drug) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

cyffwrdd ()
<KƏ-furdh> [ˡkəfʊr] (verb)
1
to touch


:_______________________________.

 

 

cyffylog <kə-FƏ-log> [kəˡfəlɔg] (m)
PLURAL cyffylogod <kə-fə-LOO-god> [kəfəˡloˑgɔd]

1 Scolopax rusticola, woodcock


ETYMOLOGY: cyffylog < ceffylog (noun) < ceffylog (adj, horse-like, resembling a horse) (ceffyl = horse) + (-og adjectival suffix) < British *kappilk-

From the same British root; Breton kefeleg

 

NOTE: In Penfro county cwffwlog

 

:_______________________________.

cyffyrddiad
<kə-FƏRDH-yad> [kəˡfərjad] masculine noun
PLURAL cyffyrddiadau
<kə-fərdh-YAA-dai, -de> [kəfərˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
touch = act of touching

2
touch = light contact
Teimlodd gyffyrddiad ar ei ysgwydd He felt a touch on his shoulder

3
y cyffyrddiad touch = sense of touch, sensation by which contact is felt

4
touch = application of gentle pressure
Roedd y maen chwyf yn siglo gydar cyffyrddiad lleiaf
The rocking stone moved with the lightest touch

5
touch = (art) stroke with a pen, pencil or brush
cyffyrddiad ysgafn a light touch, a light stroke

6
touch = contact
cadw mewn cyffyrddiad keep in touch with, keep in contact with

7
cyffyrddiad olaf finishing touch

8
touch = small detail which improves an object

Dyma wneud wyneb ar dop y pwdin cheirios siwgwr. Ac yn wir roedd y cyffyrddiad bach yno yn fodd i wneud y pwdin bach dinod yn llwyddiant mawr
Then I made a face on top of the pudding with glac cherries. And indeed this little touch was a means to make the insignificant little pudding into a great success

cyffyrddiad bach chwithig an unfortunate touch, small detail which spoils something

Maer parc wedi eu gweddnewid, ond mae pob arwydd yn uniaith Saesneg. Cyffyrddiad bach chwithig y dylair cyngor feddwl amdano o ddifri
The park has been transformed, but all the signs are in English only. An unfortunate touch that the council should give serious consideration to

ETYMOLOGY: (cyffyrdd- penult stem of cyffwrdd = to touch) + (-iad suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

cyffyrddus
<kə-FƏR-dhis> [kəˡfərɪs] = cyfforddus

:_______________________________.

cyfiau
<KƏV-yai> [ˡkəvjaɪ]

1 (obsolete) joint field, field in the ownership of more than one person.

Common in old field names in Wrecsam and Y Waun, north-east Wales

2 C
yfiau name of a farm in Carno, Caer-sw^s, Powys

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- prefix = together, joint) + (iau = a plough)

:_______________________________.

cyfiawn
<KƏV-yaun> [ˡkəvjaʊn] (adjective)
1
just

:_______________________________.

cyfiawnder
<kəv-YAUN-der> [kəvˡjaʊndɛr] (masculine noun)
1
justice
2
gwneud cyfiawnder r dasg rise to the occasion, be up to the job (do justice to the task)

:_______________________________.

cyfiawnhu
<kəv-yaun-HAI> [kəvjaʊnˡhaɪ] (verb)
1
justify
2
Maer diben yn cyfiawnhur modd The end justifies the means

:_______________________________.

cyfieithiad, cyfieithiadau
<kəv-YEITH-yad, kəv-yeith-YAA-de> [kəvˡjəɪθjad, kəvjəɪθˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
translation

2 camg
yfieithiad mistranslation

3 cyfieithiad rhydd a loose translation, a rough translation (free translation)

:_______________________________.

cyfieithu
<kəv-YEI-thi> [kəvˡjəɪθɪ] (verb)
1
to translate
2
camg
yfieithu mistranslate

:_______________________________.

cyfieithydd, cyfieithyddion
<kəv-YEI-thidh, kəv-yei-THƏDH-yon> [kəvˡjəɪθɪ, kəvjəɪˡθəjɔn] (masculine noun)
1
translator

:_______________________________.

cyflafar
<kəv-LAA-var> [kəvˡlɑˑvar]
1
noisy
2
(m) speaking together, parley, conference

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf-, prefix = together) + soft mutation + (llafar = loud, noisy; spoken)

:_______________________________.

cyflafaredd
<kəv-la-VAA-raidh -redh> [kəvlaˡvɑˑraɪ, -ɛ] masculine noun
1
(obsolete) conversation
2
discussion, conferring, settling differences, reconciliation, parley, arbitration

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflafar-, stem of cyflafareddu = discuss together, confer, arbitrate) + (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

cyflafareddiad
<kəv-la-va-REDH-yad> [kəvlavarˡɛjad] masculine noun
1
arbitration

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflafaredd-, stem of cyflafareddu = discuss together, confer, arbitrate) + (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyflafareddu
<kəv-la-va-REE-dhi> [kəvlavarˡeˑɪ] verb
1
arbitrate

2
(m) arbitration
cyflafareddu rhyngwladol international arbitration
llys cyflafareddu court of arbitration
cymal cyflafareddu arbitration clause

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflafaredd = dicussion) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

cyflafareddwr
<kəv-la-va-REE-dhur> [kəvlavarˡeˑʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cyflafareddwyr
<kəv-la-va-REDH-wir> [kəvlavarˡɛwɪr]
1
arbitrator

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflafaredd-, stem of cyflafareddu = discuss together, confer, arbitrate) + (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyflaith
<KƏV-laith -leth> [ˡkəvlaɪθ, -ɛθ] masculine noun
1
toffee, treacle toffee; a sweet made of black treacle, sugar and butter
cyflaith du treacle toffee

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf-, prefix = together) + soft mutation + (probably llaith = humid, damp, wet)

NOTE: cyflaith literary pronunciation
<KƏV-laith> [ˡkəvlaɪθ], in the e-final districts and in standard colloquial pronunciaiton <KƏV-leth> [ˡkəvlɛθ], in the a-final districts <KƏV-lath> [ˡkəvlaθ]

:_______________________________.

cyflawni
<kəv-LAU-ni> [kəvˡlaʊnɪ] (verb)
1
commit
2
cyflawni trosedd commit a crime
3
c
yflawni hunanladdiad commit suicide
4
cyflawni hunanddistryw gwleidyddol commit politicial suicide
5
cyflawni pechod commit a sin, to sin

:_______________________________.

cyfle
<KƏV-le> [ˡkəvlɛ] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfleoedd
<kəv-LEE-oid,, -odh> [kəvˡleˑɔɪ, - ɔ]
1
opportunity, chance, occasion, break (= opportunity)

y cyfle cyntaf a gewch chi
at the earliest opportunity, as soon as ever you can

Fei gwnaeth y cyfle cyntaf a gafodd He did it at the first opportunity he had

cael digon o gyfle have plenty of opportunity (get plenty of opportunity)

Trueni na fuaset tin setlo lawr i wneud rhyw waith pendant. Rwyt ti wedi cael digon o gyfle
Its a pity you havent settled down to do some definite job. Youve had plenty of opportunity

bod ch ll
ygad ar eich cyfle be on the lookout for your chance (to do something), have an eye on the main chance

y cyfle gorau a fu eried (it was) the chance of a lifetime

ar y cyfle cyntaf at the first opportunity, the first opportunity you get (to do something)

2
cyfle euraid golden opportunity = a very advantageous opportunity

3
achub ar gyfle
seize an opportunity
bachu ar gyfle
seize an opportunity
dal ar gyfle
seize an opportunity

4
cael y cyfle i get the chance to, get the opportunity to

5
cael cyfle i get a chance to
Os ca i gyfle If I get the chance, If I get the opportunity

6
gwneud yn fawr or cyfle make the most of the opportunity (make greatly of the opportunity)

7
cyfle coll lost opportunity

8
obsolete place

9
(in the district of Dwyfor, North-west Wales)
caethgyfle fix (eg inability to get down from a tree, cliff), predicament
(caeth = restricted) + soft mutation + (cyfle = position, place)

bod wedi mynd i gaethgyfle end up in a blind alley, end up in a real fix
mewn caethgyfle in a fix
y caethgyfle yr oedd Ffrainc ynddo yn ddiweddar the difficult situation that France was in recently

10
neidio ar y cyfle jump at the chance = seize an opportunity with enthusiastically
neidio ar y cyfle i (wneud rhywbeth) jump at the chance (to do something)

11
Chaiff e fawr o gyfle He wont get much of a chance

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh (cyf-, prefix = intensifier) + soft mutation + (lle = place)

:_______________________________.

cyflenwad, cyflenwadau
<kəv-LEN-wad, kəv-len-WAA-dai, -de> [kəvˡlɛnwad, kəvlɛnˡwɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
supply
2
atal
y cyflenwad dŵr cut off the water supply

:_______________________________.

cyflenwr
<kəv-LEN-ur> [kəvˡleˑnʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cyflenwyr
<kəv-LEN-wir> [kəvˡlɛnwɪr]
1
supplier = person or company providing a product or service

2 cyflenwr adeiladwyr builders merchant (supplier (of) builders)

3 cyflenwr llongau ships chandler (supplier (of) ships)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflenw-, stem of cylenwi = provide, supply) + (-wr, suffix = agent)

:_______________________________.

cyflus <kəv-LEIS> [kəvˡləɪs] adj
1 convenient

2 cyflus gan convenient for
os bydd hi'n gyflus gennyt ti if it's convenient for you
anghyflus inconvenient

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfle = oportunity) + (-us suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cyfleuster, cyfleusterau
<kəv-LEI-ster, kəv-lei-STEE-re> [kəvˡləɪstɛr, kəvləɪsˡteˑraɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
convenience

2 cyfleusterau cyhoeddus
kəv lei STE re kə HOI dhis (plural noun) <kəv-lei-STE-rai, -re kə-HOI-dhis> [kəvləɪsˡteˑrai -ɛ kəˡhɔɪɪs]
public convenience

:_______________________________.

cyfliw
<KƏV-liu> [ˡkəvlɪʊ] adjective
1
obsolete of the same colour, homochromous
2
pan fo gyfliw gŵr a llwyn
at nightfall, at dusk (when man and bush are the same colour)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- = together) + soft mutation + (lliw = colour)

:_______________________________.

cyflo
<KƏF-lo> [ˡkəflɔ] adjective
1
(cow) in calf
buwch gyflo, PLURAL: buchod cyflo cow in calf, cows in calf

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- = together) + soft mutation + (llo = calf)
cf Breton kevleue = in calf

:_______________________________.

cyflog
<KƏV-log> [ˡkəvlɔg] masculine and feminine noun
PLURAL cyflogau
<kəv-LOO-gai, -ge> [kəvˡloˑgaɪ, -ɛ]
North Wales - masculine noun y cyflog
South Wales - feminine noun y gyflog

1
salary = payment for ones work or service
Fei penodwyd yn athro cynorthwyol am gyflog o 20,000 y flwyddyn
He was appointed as an assistant teacher at a salary of 20,000 a year

2
cyflog mwnci = derisory pay, peanuts (salary (of) (a) monkey)
cael cyflog mwnci be paid peanuts
talu cyflog mwnci pay peanuts

3
reward

Rhufeiniaid 6:23 Canys cyflog pechod yw marwolaeth; eithr dawn Duw yw bywyd tragwyddol, trwy Iesu Grist ein Harglwydd
Romans 6:23 For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord

Pedr-2 2:13 Ac a dderbyniant gyflog anghyfiawnder
Peter-2 2:13 And shall receive the reward of unrighteousness

4
South Wales employment agreement, terms for hiring, engagement for service (an agreement made between a farmhand / servant / maid, and a master or mistress)

torri ar eich cyflog (employee) break ones agreement

South Wales gwneuthur cyflog gwas take on a servant, hire a servant (make (an) agreement (of) servant)

South Wales gwneuthur eich cyflog hire onself out as a servant, enter into an agreement as a servant (make your agreement)

5
adjective = hired, employed
gwas cyflog = hired servant
Dw i ddim ond gwas cyflog Im only doing my job (Im just a hired servant i.e. I can only do what Ive been told to do)
morwyn gyflog = hired maid

6 isafswm
yr Isafswm Cyflog Cenedlaethol the National Minimum Wage, the minimum salary which employers must pay workers in in the English state
(isaf = lowest) + (swm = sum, total, quantity

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- = together) + soft mutation + (llog = profit, wage)

:_______________________________.

cyflogadwy
<kəv-lo-GAA-dui> [kəvlɔˡgɑˑdʊɪ] adjective
1 employable

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflog-, stem of cyflogi = to employ) + (-aeth = adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyflogaeth
<kəv-LOO-gaith -geth> [kəvˡloˑgaɪθ, -ɛθ]

feminine noun
1
employment

2
cyflogaeth lawn full employment

3
gorgyflogaeth overemployment - the situation of people having to work too many hours for a subsistence income

4
tangyflogaeth underemployment - the situation of people working only partially or being overqualified for a low-paying job

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflog-, stem of cyflogi = to employ) + (-aeth = suffix for forming abstract nouns

:_______________________________.

cyflogai
<kəv-LOO-gai> [kəvˡloˑgaɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL cyflogeion
<kəv-lo-GEI-on> [kəvlɔgˡəɪɔn]
1
(USA: employe) (Englandic: employee)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflog-, stem of cyflogi = to employ) + (-ai = suffix, person who is the object of an action

:_______________________________.

cyflog clir
<KƏV-log-KLIIR> [ˡkəvlɔg ˡklɪr] masculine noun
1
take-home pay, net salary

ETYMOLOGY: clear salary

:_______________________________.

cyflogedig
<kəv-lo-GEE-dig> [kəvlɔˡgeˑdɪg] adjective
1
(person) stipendary, receiving a salary
ynad cyflogedig stipendary magistrate

2
(work, employment) gainful = paid
gwaith cyflogedig = paid work, gainful employment

3
hunan-gyflogedig self-employed

4
masculine noun : Bible hired person

Malachi 3:5 A mi a nesf atoch chwi i farn; a byddaf dyst cyflym yn erbyn yr hudolion, ac yn erbyn y godinebwyr, ac yn erbyn yr anudonwyr, ac yn erbyn camatalwyr cyflog y cyflogedig
Malachi 3:5 And I will come near to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers, and against false swearers, and against those that oppress the hireling in his wages

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflog-, stem of cyflogi = to employ) + (-edig = suffix, past participle, passive)

:_______________________________.

cyflogi
<kəv-LOO-gi> [kəvˡloˑgɪ]
verb with an object
1
employ = make use of a persons labour in return for payment

2
take on, hire = engage a person to work
Gwn am ysgolion syn ei chael yn wirioneddol anodd cyflogi staff
I know of schools which are finding it a real problem to hire staff

3
hire = give payment for borrowing something
Yr unig ffordd i deithio yn Wisconsin y pryd hwnnw ydoedd cyflogi gwedd neu gerdded

The only way to travel in Wisconsin in those days was to hire a pair (of oxen and a cart) or to walk

verb without an object
4
hire servants for the year
ffair gyflogi hiring fair (where farm labourers and servants would go in the hope of being taken on for a year by a farmer) (until the early 1900s)

5
engage oneself as a servant / farmhand / maid, enter service with
Mi gyflogodd o efo Js Pen-bryn am flwyddyn
He hired himself out to Jones of Pen-bryn farm for a year

6
Adran Gyflogi Department of Employment (government department)

7
swyddfa g
yflogi employment agency; employment office

NOTE: a colloquial form is clogi / clogi <KLO-gi> [ˡklɔgɪ]

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflog = salary) + (-i suffix to form verbs)

:_______________________________.

cyflogwr
<kəv-LOO-gur> [kəvˡloˑgʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cyflogwyr
<kəv-LOG-wir> [kəvˡlɔgwɪr]
1
employer
2
y cyflogwyr the employers

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflog-, stem of cyflogi = to employ) + (-edig = agent suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyfli
<kəv-LOI> [kəvˡlɔɪ] verb
1
(cow) calve
Myswynog neu byswynog a ddywedir am fuwch heb gyfloi, ac o ganlyniad ddim yn llaetha
Myswynog or byswynog is the word used for a cow which has never calved, and so does not give milk

2
impregnate (bull impregnating a cow)

Job 21:10 Y mae eu tarw hwynt yn cyfloi, ac ni chyll ei had; ei fuwch ef a fwrw lo, ac nid erthyla
Job 21:10 Their bull gendereth, and faileth not; their cow calveth, and casteth not her calf.

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflo = in calf) + (-i suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

cyfluniad
<kəv-LIN-yad> [kəvˡlɪnjad] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfluniadau
<kəv-lin-YAA-dai, -e> [kəvlɪnˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] 1 configuration = form given to a programme or computer system so that it is appropriate for specific purposes

ETYMOLOGY: (cyflun-, stem of cyflunio = configure) + (-iad = suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

cyflunio
<kəv-LIN-yo> [kəvˡlɪnjɔ] verb
1
configure = insert information to shape a program or computer system

Nid yw'r porwr wedi ei gyflunio i fedru anfon post-e The browser isnt configured to send e-mail
2
cyflunio yn shape into, transform into, make into

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (llunio = to shape, to form)

:_______________________________.

c
yflusg <KƏV-LISK> [ˡkəvˡlɪsk] masculine noun
PLURAL cyflusgion
<kəv-LƏSK-yon> [kəvˡləskjɔn]
1
(music) slur

ETYMOLOGY: (c
yf- prefix = together) + soft mutaiton + (llusg = dragging)

:_______________________________.

c
yflusgo <kəv-LƏ-sko> [kəvˡləskɔ] verb
1
(music) slur
c
yflusgo dau nodyn slur two notes

ETYMOLOGY: (c
yf- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (llusg = to drag)

:_______________________________.

cyflwr
<KƏV-lur> [ˡkəvlʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cyflyrau
<kəv-LƏ-rai, -re> [kəvˡləraɪ, -ɛ]
1
condition = situation, state, existing circumstances

mewn c
yflwr gwael in a bad state, in a bad way, serious condition

Yr oedd y ty newydd ar y pryd mewn llawer gwaeth cyflwr nag yr hen dy
At the time the new house was in a far worse state then the old house

Mae pryder am gyflwr y coedwigoedd hyn
There is concern about the condition of these woods

2
(health) condition, state
mewn cyflwr gwael
in a serious condition, very poorly, in a pretty bad way, in quite a bad state,

3
(grammar) case
cyflwr meddiannol genitive case
cyflwr traws or gair hwn an oblique case of this word

4
condition = ailment

cost y cyffuriau a ragnodir yn fynych gan feddygon ar gyfer cyflyrau fel arthritis rhiwmatoid
the cost of the drugs often prescribed by doctors for conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis


bod yn fodlon ich cyflwr be satisfied with your lot in life

 

(Apocrypha) Eccelsiasticus 40:18 Melys yw buchedd yr hwn a weithio, ac a fyddo bodlon i'w gyflwr; gwell na'r ddau yw yr hwn a gaffo drysor.

(Apocrypha) Eccelsiasticus 40:18 To labour, and to be content with that a man hath, is a sweet life: but he that findeth a treasure is above them both.


ETYMOLOGY: (1400-; cyflwr < cyflwrw (cyf-, prefix, together) + soft mutation + (llwrw = path, form)

:_______________________________.

cyflwyno
<kəv-LUI-no> [kəvˡlʊɪnɔ] (verb)
1
to present
2 cyflwyno (rhywun i rywun arall) introduce (somebody) to (someone else)
Cyflwynodd ei frawd ir offeiriad. He introduced his brother to the vicar

:_______________________________.

cyflychwyr <kəv-LƏKH-uir> [kəvˡləxʊɪr] (m)
1 twilight, dusk

Yn llwydni'r cyflychwyr ddiwrnod talu'r rhent t25 Plant y Gwrthrwm / Gwyneth Vaughan / 1908 In the greyness of the dusk of the rent payment day

ETYMOLOGY: cyflychwyr < cyflychwr (cyf- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (llychwr = (obsolete) daylight, light, brightness).

wr > hwyr under the influence of the word hwyr (= evening).

:_______________________________.

cyflymu
<kəv-LƏ-mi> [kəvˡləmɪ] (verb)
1
to go quicker, to accelerate; to make go quicker, to accelerate

:_______________________________.

cyflym
<KƏV-lim> [ˡkəvlɪm] (adjective)
1
quick, rapid, fast

:_______________________________.

cyfnerthedig
<kəv-ner-THEE-dig> [kəvnɛrθˡeˑdɪg] adjective
1
reinforced
concrid cyfnerthedig reinforced concrete

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfnerthu = strengthen) + (-edig = past participle passive suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyfnewid
<kəv-NEU-id> [kəvˡnɛʊɪd] (m)
1
exchange
cyfnewid teg fair exchange

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- prefix = together) + (newid = to change)

:_______________________________.

cyfnewidfa
<kəv-neu-ID-va> [kəvnɛʊˡɪdva] (m)

PLURAL cyfnewidfydd
<kəv-neu-id-VEIDH> [kəvnɛʊɪdˡvəɪ] (m)
1
interchange = highway intersection

Cyfnewidfar Gabalfa the Gabalfa Interchange ST1679
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/39500

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- prefix = together) + (newid = to change)

:_______________________________.

cyfnewidiol
<kəv-neu-ID-yol> [kəvnɛʊˡɪdjɔl] (adjective)
1
(weather) changeable

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfnewid-i- stem of c
ynewid = to change, to exchange) + (-ol = adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyfnither,
<kəv-NII-ther, kəv-ni-THEE-roidh, -rodh> [kəvˡniˑθɛr, kəvnɪˡθeˑrɔɪ -ɔ] (feminine noun)
1
female cousin
y gyfnither = the cousin
Often reduced colloquially to cnither / y gnither

:_______________________________.

cyfnod, cyfnodau
<KƏV-nod, -kəv-NOO-dai, -de> [ˡkəvnɔd, kəvˡnoˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
period

:_______________________________.

c
yfnodol <KƏV-NOO-DOL> [ˡkəvˡnoˑdɔl] adjective
1
periodic
2
staggered = arranged in a series of time periods instead of all at once
m
ynediad cifnodol staggered entry

ETYMOLOGY: (c
yfnod = period) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cyfoethog
<kə-VOI-thog> [kəˡvɔɪθɔg] (adjective)
1
rich

:_______________________________.

cyfoglyn
<kə-VOG-lin> [kəˡvɔglɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfoglynnoedd, cyfoglynnau
<kə-vog-LƏ-noidh -nodh, -nai, -ne> [kəvɔgˡlənɔɪ -ɔ, kəvɔgˡlənaɪ, -ɛ]
1
emetic = a medicine to induce vomiting

ETYMOLOGY: (first recorded example: 1708) (cyfog- stem of cyfogi = to vomit) + soft mutation + (llyn = liquid )

:_______________________________.

cyfr- <KƏVR> [kəvr] prefix
1 intensifying prefix = completely, very

cyfrwys cunning (cyfr- + unknown element gwys <gwiis> [gwiːs] )

cyfrgoll completely lost

amgyffred (= to understand) (am = around) + (cyfr = complete) + rhed- = to run) > (cyffred-)

cyffredin (= general) (cyfr = complete) + (rhed- = to run) + (-in adjectival suffix)

ETYMOLOGY: British *kom-ro < *kom-pro
Cf Latin cum (= with), pro (= for)

:_______________________________.

cyfradd
<KƏV-radh> [ˡkəvra] feminine noun
PLURAL cyfraddau
<kəv-RAA-dhai, -dhe> [kəvˡrɑˑaɪ, -ɛ]
1
rate = price, charge per unit;
y gyfradd = the rate

cyfradd gyfnewid = rate of exchange;
cyfradd unffurf = flat rate

2
rate = comparative amount, proportional measure
cyfradd genedigaethau birth rate

3
rate = price with reference to a standard
cyfradd llog rate of interest

4
rate = relative speed of change of a variable
cyfradd trydarthu = transpiration rate

5 cyfradd wahaniaethol differential rate

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (gradd = degree)

:_______________________________.

cyfradd adennill
<KƏV-radh ad-E-nilh> [ˡkəvra adˡɛnɪɬ] feminine noun
PLURAL cyfraddau adennill
<kəv-RAA-dhai, -dhe ad-E-nilh> [kəvˡrɑˑaɪ -ɛ adˡɛnɪɬ]
1
rate of return = the amount of profit generated
y gyfradd adennill = the rate of return

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfradd = rate) + (adennill earn again)

:_______________________________.

cyfradd benodol
<KƏV-radh be-NOO-dol> [ˡkəvra bɛˡnoˑdɔl] feminine noun
PLURAL cyfraddau penodol
<kəv-RAA-dhai dhe pe-NOO-dol> [kəvˡrɑˑaɪ -ɛ pɛˡnoˑdɔl]
1 set rate
y gyfradd benodol = the set rate

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfradd = rate) + soft mutation + (penodol = fixed)

:_______________________________.

cyfradd cyfnewid
<KƏV-radh kəv-NEU-id> [ˡkəvra kəvˡnɛʊɪd] feminine noun
PLURAL cyfraddau cyfnewid
<kəv-RAA-dhai dhe kəv-NEU-id> [kəvˡrɑˑaɪ -ɛ kəvˡnɛʊɪd]
1 rate of exchange
y gyfradd cyfnewid = the rate of exchange

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfradd = rate) + (cyfnewid = change)

:_______________________________.

cyfraddiad
<kəv-RADH-yad> [kəvˡrajad] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfraddiadau
<kəv-radh-YAA-dai, -de> [kəvraˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
rating = process of establishing a rate
2
rating = score

:_______________________________.

cyfradd leol
<KƏV-radh LEE-ol> [ˡkəvra ˡleˑɔl] feminine noun

PLURAL
cyfraddau lleol <kəv-RAA-dhai dhe ɬeˑɔl> [kəvˡrɑˑaɪ -ɛ ɬeˑɔl]
1
local rate = price for making a local telephone call
y gyfradd leol = the local rate

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfradd = rate) + soft mutation + (lleol = local)

:_______________________________.

cyfraith, cyfreithiau
<KƏV-raith, -reth, kəv-REITH-yai, -ye> [ˡkəvraɪθ / ˡkəvrɛθ, kəvˡrəɪθjaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
law
y gyfraith = the law

2
gweithredur gyfraith apply the law, enforce the law
rhoir gyfraith mewn grym apply the law, enforce the law
parch at y gyfraith respect for the law

3
cymryd y gyfraith yn eich dwylo eich hunan take the law into your own hands

4
rhoir gyfraith ar (rywun) take (someone) to court, prosecute (someone)
5
yn enwr gyraith in the name of the law

6
cyfreithiwr
lawyer / cyfreithiol legal / cyfreithlon legal / anghyfreithlon illegal

7 cyfreithiau gorthrymus repressive laws
cyfreithiau gormesol repressive laws

:_______________________________.

cyfranc
<KƏV-rangk> [ˡkəvraŋk] feminine or masculine noun
PLURAL cyfrangau
<kəv-RANG-ai, -e> [kəvˡraŋaɪ, -ɛ]
1
(obsolete) tale, history, story.

y gyfranc / y cyfranc = the story

It occurs in the name of the seventh tale in the Mabinogion compilation,
Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys
<KƏV-rank LHIIDH a lhe-VEE-lis> [ˡkəvraŋk ˡɬiː a ɬɛˡveˑlɪs] (the tale of Lludd {and his brother} Llefelys)

ETYMOLOGY: cyfranc = (1) tale < (2) history of a battle < (3) battle.

(cyf- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (the obsolete element rhanc = satisfaction).

There is a corresponding word in Irish: comhrac (= battle, encounter)

:_______________________________.

Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys
<KƏV-rank LHIIDH a lhe-VEE-lis> [ˡkəvraŋk ˡɬiː a ɬɛˡveˑlɪs]
1
tale in the Mabinogion (the tale of Lludd {and his brother} Llefelys)

:_______________________________.

cyfrandaliwr, cyfrandalwyr
<kəv-ran-DAL-yur, kə-vran-DAL-wir> [kəvranˡdaljʊr, kəvranˡdalwɪr] (masculine noun)
1
shareholder

:_______________________________.

cyfraniad, cyfraniadau
<kəv-RAN-yad, kəv-ran-YAA-dai, -de> [kəvˡranjad, kəvranˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
contribution

:_______________________________.

cyfrannedd
<kəv-RA-nedh> [kəvˡranɛ] masculine noun
1
proportion
mewn cyfrannedd gwrthdro inversely proportional to (in an inverse proportion with)
mewn cyfrannedd union directly proportional to (in an direct proportion with)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfrann- = penult form before a vowel of cyfran = portion) + (-edd suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyfrannu
<kəv-RA-ni> [kəvˡranɪ] (verb)
1
contribute

:_______________________________.

cyfrdy <KƏVR-di> [ˡkəvrdɪ] m
1 (obsolete) beerhouse, tavern

ETYMOLOGY: cyfrdy < cyrfdy (penult form of cwrf = beer) + soft mutation + = house). Modern Welsh cwrw (= beer) < cwrwf < *cwryf < cwrf


:_______________________________.

cyfredol <kəv-REE-dol> [kəvˡreˑdɔl] adjective
1 current

yn ystod y flwyddyn ariannol gyfredol during the current financial year


:_______________________________.

c
yfrei <KƏV-rei> [ˡkəvrəɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfreion
<kəv-REI-on> [kəvˡrəɪɔn]
1
(obsolete) leash = a rope or chain for restraining a dog, etc
fel cŵn ar gyfreion straining at the leash (like dogs on leashes): eager to begin some task

ETYMOLOGY: Possibly a variant of cyfrwy (qv) (= saddle).
Breton has kevre (= leash, tether)

:_______________________________.

cyfreithiol
<kəv-REITH-yol> [kəvˡrəɪθjɔl] (adjective)
1
legal

:_______________________________.

cyfreithiwr, cyfreithwyr
<kə-VREITH-yur, kə-VREITH-wir> [kəˡvrəɪθjʊr, kəˡvrəɪθwɪr] (masculine noun)
1
lawyer

:_______________________________.

cyfreithlon
<kəv-REITH-lon> [kəvˡrəɪθlɔn] (adjective)
1
legal

:_______________________________.

cyfres, cyfresi
<KƏ-vres, kə-VRE-si> [ˡkəvrɛs, kəˡvrɛsɪ] (feminine noun)
1
series
y gyfres = the series

2 drama gyfres
<DRA-ma GƏV-res> [ˡdrama ˡgəvrɛs] (feminine noun)
drama which is part of a series (on radio, TV)

:_______________________________.

cyfrif
<KƏV-ri> [ˡkəvrɪ] (verb)
1
to count

2
Peidiwch chyfrir cywion cyn iddyn nhw ddeor
Dont count your chickens before they are hatched
(cease with counting the chickens before to-them them hatching)

:_______________________________.

cyfrif, cyfrifon
<KƏV-ri, kəv-RII-von> [ˡkəvrɪ, kəvˡriˑvɔn] (masculine noun)
1
account

2
ar sawl cyfrif in many respects
ar lawer cyfrif in many respects

3 ar gyfrif yn y byd on any account

:_______________________________.

cyfrifiad
<kəv-RIV-yad> [kəvˡrɪvjad] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfrifiadau
<kəv-riv-YAA-dai, -de> [kəvrɪvˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
census = a count of a population

2
census = information from a count of the population, with additional information such as place of birth, age, sex, occupation, (and in Wales, ability to speak Welsh) and so on

3
census = any official count (eg traffic census)

4
computation, counting, reckoning

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfrif-i = stem of cyfrif = to count) + (-ad, suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

cyfrifiadur
<kəv-riv-YAA-dir> [kəvrɪvˡjɑˑdɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfrifiaduron
<kəv-riv-ya-DII-ron> [kəvrɪvjaˡdiˑrɔn]
1
computer

ETYMOLOGY: counter, computer, reckoner (cyfrif-i = stem of cyfrif = to count, to compute, to reckon) + (-adur = suffix indicating a machine)

:_______________________________.

cyfrifiadureg
<kəv-riv-ya-DII-reg> [kəvrɪvjaˡdiˑrɛg] (feminine noun)
1
computer science

:_______________________________.

cyfrifol
<kəv-RII-vol> <kəvˡriˑvɔl> (adjective)
1
responsible

:_______________________________.

cyfrifoldeb
<kəv-ri-VOL-deb> [kəvrɪˡvɔldɛb] (masculine noun)
1
responsibility = obligations

2
responsibility = liablity, ability to be responsible for ones conduct
cyfrifoldeb lleihadig dimished responsibility

3
Bonedd a ddwg gyfrifoldeb Noblesse oblige, to be born into the nobility implies just behaviour and the need to act according to high moral principles
((it is) nobility which brings responsibility)

:_______________________________.

cyfrifydd
<kəv-RII-vidh> [kəvˡriˑvɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL cyfryddion, cyfrifwyr
<kəv-RƏDH-yon, kəv-RIV-wir> [kəvˡrəjɔn, kəvˡrɪvwɪr]
1
accountant = person who maintains and audits the accounts of businesses
2
cyfrifydd siartredig chartered accountant

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfrif- stem of cyfrif = to count) + (-ydd agent suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyfrinach, cyfrinachau
<kə-VRII-nakh, -kə-vri-NAA-khai, -e> [kəˡvriˑnax, kəvrɪˡnɑˑxaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
secret
y gyfrinach = the secret

2
Rw i ar fy llw i gadwr gyfrinach Ive sworn not to tell the secret, Im sworn to secrecy (Im on my oath to keep the secret)

3
gollwng cyfrinach let out a secret, reveal a secret, let a secret slip out, let slip a secret
datgelu cyfrinach (i rywun) reveal a secret (to someone), let (someone) into a secret

4 cael cyfrinach o groen rhywun prise / wheedle a secret out of somebody (get a secret from the skin of someone)

5 Nid cyfrinach ond rhwng dau, rhwng tridyn, cannyn ai clyw tell a secret to more than one person and it becomes everybodys secret ((it is) not a secret except between two; between three people, one hundred people will hear it)

Rhin deuddyn, cyfrin yw; rhin tridyn, cannyn ai clyw tell a secret to more than one person and it becomes everybodys secret (secret of two people, (it is) (a) secret that-it-is; secret of three people, one hundred people will hear it)

:_______________________________.

cyfrinachedd
<kə-vri-NAA-khedh> [kəvrɪnˡɑˑxɛ] (masculine noun)
1
secrecy
perygl i gyfrinachedd security risk ((a) danger to secrecy)

:_______________________________.

c
yfrinachgar <kə-vri-NAKH-gar> [ˡkəvrɪnˡaxgar] adjective
1 secretive

ETYMOLOGY: (c
yfrinach = secret) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, meaning fond of, < car-, the root of caru = to love)

:_______________________________.

cyfrinair, cyfrineiriau
<kə-VRII-nair, kə-vri-NEIR-yai, -e> [kəˡvriˑnaɪr, kəvrɪˡnəɪrjaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
password

:_______________________________.

cyfrol, cyfrolau
<KƏ-vrol, -kə-VRO-lai, -e> [ˡkəvrɔl, kəˡvrɔlaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
volume (= book)
y gyfrol= the volume

:_______________________________.

cyfrwy, cyfrwyau
<KƏ-vrui, kə-VRUI-ai, -e> [ˡkəvrʊɪ, kəˡvrʊɪaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
saddle = leather seat for a horse rider

lliain cyfrwy saddle-cloth ("cloth (of) saddle")

bod yn y cyfrwy be in the saddle = be in a commanding position, in control, in power

 

2 saddle = seat on a bicycle


2
(landscape) saddle = saddle-shaped hill, col (= saddle-like formation, dip between two higher parts of a ridge), pass between hills


ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (rhwy)

Cf modrwy (= roing), aerwy (in Breton the corrsponding word is kevre = leash, tether, tie, bond)

 

NOTE: Variants are:

cyfrwydd <KƏ-vruiɪdh> [ˡkəvrʊɪ] (county of Ceredigion) -dd is added at the end;

cowrw <KƏ-vruiɪdh, kə-VRUIDH-ai, -e> [ˡkəvrʊɪɪ, kəˡvrʊɪɪaɪ, -ɛ] (South-west Wales) final wy reduced to w (a typical development in southern Welsh), [v] becomes [w], and the obscure vowel becomes o. Cf taflu (= to throw) > towlu in the south

 


:_______________________________.

Y Cyfrwy <KƏ-vrui> [ˡkəvrʊɪ] (masculine noun)

1 the saddle SH7013 a mountain in Gwynedd (Height: 811 metrres)

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/358687 (here the saddle shape is clearly seen)

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/358653

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1025875

 

ETYMOLOGY: The saddle. See previous entry

 

:_______________________________.


cyfrwydd, cyfrwyddau <KƏ-vruɪdh, kə-VRUIDH-ai, -e> [ˡkəvrʊɪ, kəˡvrʊɪaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)

1 See cyfrwy
:_______________________________.


cyfrwysgall
<kə-VRUIS-galh> [kəˡvrʊɪsgaɬ] adjective
1 crafty, wily, cunning

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfrwys = wily, cunning) + soft mutation + ( call = sensible)

:_______________________________.

cyfrwyso
<kə-VRUIS-o> [kəˡvrʊɪsɔ] verb
1 become crafty, wily, cunning
2 make crafty, wily, cunning

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfrwys = astute, cunning, wily, crafty) + (-o suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

cyfryngol <kə-VRƏ-ngol> [kəˡvrəŋɔl] adj
1 media (qualifier)
y cwmnau cyfryngol blaenllaw yng Nghymru the leading media companies in Wales

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfryng- < cyfrwng = medium, cyfryngau = media) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)
:_______________________________.

cyfuchlin <kə-VIKH-lin> [kəˡvɪxlɪn] m
PLURAL cyfuchlinau <kə-vikh-LIN-yai, -e> [kəvɪxˡlɪnjaɪ, -ɛ]
1 contour line
map cyfuchlin = contour map

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfuch- = equal height) + soft mutation + ( llin = line )

:_______________________________.

cyfun <KƏ-vin> [ˡkəvɪn] adjective
1
comprehensive = including everything

ysgol gyfun comprehensive school (school for pupils of all abilities, instead of the traditional English model of a grammar school ysgol ramadeg for academically competent students who are expected to stay at school until the age of 18 and enter tertiary education, and the secondary modern school (ysgol uwchradd fodern) for students who are prepared for work at 16.

2
combined, united
(Teyrnas Gyfun Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon translation of the official English name for the English state The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)

Y Deyrnas Gyfun the United Kingdom = a short title for the English state, sometimes as an initialism y D.G. (ə dee eg)

3
prefix = integrat, combinat
(a) trefn = order, cyfundrefn = system
(b) rhif = number, cyfunrhif = combination, number of a combination lock (of safe, etc)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- prefix = together) + (un = one)

:_______________________________.

cyfundrefn
<kə-VIN-drevn> [kəˡvɪndrɛvn] feminine noun
PLURAL cyfundrefnau
<kə-vin-DREV-nai, -e> [kəvɪnˡdrɛvnaɪ, -ɛ]
1
system
y gyfundrefn nerfol the nervous system
y gyfundrefn heulol the solar system

2
organisation
Cyfundrefn y Cenhedloedd Unedig (CCU) the United Nations Organisation (UNO)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfun = joint ) + soft mutation + (trefn = order)

:_______________________________.

c
yfuno <kə -VII-no> [ˡkəˡviˑnɔ] verb
1
(verb with an object) join together, combine, bring together
c
yfuno busnes phleser combine business with pleasure

2
(Chemistry)
(verb without an object) combine = to come together and form a new compound
(verb with an object) combine = to cause to come together and form a new compound

ETYMOLOGY: (c
yf- = prefix, together) + (uno = combine, unite)

:_______________________________.

cyfunol
<kə-VII-nol> [kəˡviˑnɔl] adjective
1
collective
fferm gyfunol collective farm (farm organised on the the principle of collectivism the political theory that the means of production belong to every individual; or the practical application of this by placing a workplace under government control, though supposedly it is in the ownership of the workers who work there )

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfun = united) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives); or (cyf- prefix = together) + (unol = united)

:_______________________________.

cyfunrhywiol <kə-vin-HRIU-yol> [ˌkəvɪnˡhriujɔl] adjective
1
homosexual, gay

ETYMOLOGY: (cyfunrhyw = same sex) + (-iol, suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cyfuwch <KƏV-iukh> [ˡkəviux]
NOTE: colloquially cuwch
<KII-ukh> [ˡkiˑux]
1
so high, as high, of equal height

cyfuwch
as high as, the same height as, equal in height to

2
cuwch ysgwydd shoulder high

Y diwetha' welais i ar Jack oedd ei weld e'n cael ei gario cuwch ysgwydd trwy'r stryd (Hen Wlad fy Nhadau / Jack Jones, translated into Welsh by Kitchener Davies (19021952) / 1938 t74)
The last thing I saw of Jack was that he was being carried shoulder high through the street

ETYMOLOGY: (cyf- prefix indicating equality) + (uwch = higher, < uchel = high)

:_______________________________.

cyfweld ()
<kəv-WELD> [kəvˡwɛld] (verb)
1
to interview

ETYMOLOGY: cyfwld < cyfweld < cyfweled

see together (cyf- prefix, = together) + soft mutation + (gweled = to see)
:_______________________________.

cyfweliad, cyfweliadau
<kəv-WEL-yad, kəv-wel-YAA-dai, -e> [kəvˡwɛljad, kəvwɛlˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
interview

:_______________________________.

cyfwelydd, cyfwelwyr
<kəv-WEE-lidh, kəv-WEL-wir> [kəvˡweˑlɪ, kəvˡwɛlwɪr] (masculine noun)
1
interviewer

:_______________________________.

cyfwlch
<KƏ-vulkh> [ˡkəvʊlx] adj
1
(obsolete) complete, entire, whole

2 C
yfwlch old Welsh personal name

3 c
yfylchi (qv) (in place names) circular fort

ETYMOLOGY: cyfwlch is (cyf- prefix = together) + (an unknown element wlch, with a possible meaning of circle)

:_______________________________.

cyfylchi
<kə-VƏl-xi> [kəˡvəlxɪ] (feminine noun)
1
round fort, circular fort

There are three places in Wales where the name appears:

..a/ In the south-east, by Pont-rhyd-y-fen in Castell-nedd ac Aberafan county:
Y Gyfylchi (= the fort), Bwlch y Gyfylchi (= the pass of Y Gyfylchi), Craig y Gyfylchi (= the rock of Y Gyfylchi), Capel y Gyfylchi (= the chapel of Y Gyfylchi)

..b/ In the south-east, in the county of Mynwy / Monmouth, between Llaneuddogwy and Tryleg:
Y Gyfylchi

..c/ In the north-west there is Dwygyfylchi [dui gə vəl khi] Village (SH7377) in Conwy, between Penmaen-mawr and Penmaen-bach

Thers is mention of the place in the 1500s as
y ddwy gyfylchi the two forts (y definite article) + soft mutation + (dwy = two) + soft mutation + (cyfylchi = fort)

 

..d/ Gyfylchau, farm near Llanerfyl, Powys

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/314131 map




(delw 7012)


ETYMOLOGY: cyfylchi < (cyfylch- < cyfwlch = complete, perfect; circle) + (-i noun suffix)

Cyfwlch is (cyf- prefix = together) + (an unknown element wlch, with a possible meaning of circle)

NOTE: Is i a pluralising suffix? Possibly the meaning is (two) concentric circles or (two) circles side by side. In Ar Draws Gwlad Ysgrifau ar Enwau Lleoedd / Gwasg Carreg Gwalch / 1997, Gwynedd O. Pierce - although he gives no explanation of the name cyfylchi - suggests that the soft mutation here is one that occurred in older Welsh after the definite article to denote a dual form.

The soft mutation was formerly used in dual plurals that is, to indicate that a plural form was referring to two only; no more than two

There is a vestige of this old dual plural in the plural form gefelliaid (twins) from gefell (= twin)
<GEE-velh, ge-VELH-yaid, -yed> [ˡgeˑvɛɬ, gɛˡvɛɬjaɪd, -jɛd]

Although after the definite article the expected form y gefeilliaid is generally used, yr efelliaid, with soft mutation of the initial g, occurs too,.

:_______________________________.

cyfyng
<KƏ-ving> [ˡkəvɪŋ] masculine noun
1
hardship, distress

2
(obsolete) strait; narrow place
Place names examples:

..1/ Y Cyfyng narrow passage by Yr Wybrnant in the parish of Dolwyddelan; here there is Pontcyfyng (SJ7357) (between Capelcurig and Betws-y-coed, North-west Wales)

< Pont y Cyfyng (bridge of Y Cyfyng)

..2/ Y Cyfyng, Ystalyfera (SN7608); here there is Cyfyng Road (which would be Heol y Cyfyng in Welsh) between Ystalyfera and Pant-teg to the south

ETYMOLOGY: from the adjective cyfyng (= narrow)

:_______________________________.

cyfyngedig
<kə-və-NGEE-dig> [kəvəˡŋeˑdɪg] (adjective)
1
limited, restricted

:_______________________________.

cyfyng-gyngor
<KƏ-ving-GƏ-ngor> [ˡkəvɪŋ ˡgəŋɔr] (masculine noun)
1
tight spot, problem
bod ar gyfyng-gyngor
<bood ar GƏ-ving-GƏ-ngor> [boːd ar ˡgəvɪŋ ˡgəŋɔr] be in a fix, be in a bit of a fix

:_______________________________.

cyfyngiad, cyfyngiadau
<kə-VƏNG-yad, -kə-vəng-YAA-dai, -e> [kəˡvəŋjad, kəvəŋˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
restriction

2 cyfyngiad amser time limit
cyfyngiad amser caeth strict time limit


:_______________________________.

cyfyngol
<kə-VƏ-ngol> [kəˡvəŋɔl] (adjective)
1
restrictive

:_______________________________.

cyfyngu
<kə-VƏ-ngi> [kəˡvəŋɪ] (verb)
1
to restrict

:_______________________________.

cyfyrder, cyfyrdyr
<kə-VƏR-der, kəv-VƏR-dir> [kəˡvərdɛr, kəˡvərdɪr] (masculine noun)
1
second cousin (male)

:_______________________________.

cyfyrderes, cyfyrderesau
<kə-vər-DEE-res, -kə-vər-de-RE-sai, -e> [kəvərˡdeˑrɛs, kəvərdɛˡrɛsaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
second cousin (female)

:_______________________________.

cyhoeddi
<kə-HOI-dhi> [kəˡhɔɪɪ] (verb)
1
to publish

2
to make public
cyhoeddich gwarth eich hun to cry stinking fish (make public your own shame)

3
c
yhoeddi rhywun yn euog declare somebody guilty

:_______________________________.

cyhoeddiad, cyhoeddiadau
<kə-HOIDH-yad, -kə-hoidh-YAA-dai, -e> [kəˡhɔɪjad, kəhɔɪˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
publication

:_______________________________.

cyhoeddus
<kə-HOI-dhis> [kəˡhɔɪɪs] (adjective)
1
public = not private

2
public = for the benefit of the public, available to the public (for example, provided by a local or central administration)

cerbyd cyhoeddus public service vehicle
llyfrgell gyhoeddus public library
trafnidiaeth g
yhoeddus public transport

ETYMOLOGY: (cyhoedd-, stem of cyhoedd = the public) + (-us adjectival suffix)

:_______________________________.

cyhoeddwr
<kə-HOI-dhur> [kəˡhɔɪʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cyhoeddwyr
<kə-HOIDH-wir> [kəˡhɔɪwɪr]
1
publisher = a person who produces and distributes periodicals or books

2
publisher = a firm in the publishing business; publishing house, publishing firm, publishing company
Hughes ai Fab, Cyhoeddwyr, Gwrecsam Hughes and Son, Publishers, Wrecsam (imprint in the book Perlau Awen Islwyn, 1909)

3
announcer = person who makes the announcements (about forthcoming
services and visiting preachers, chapel activities, etc) in a Nonconformist chapel

Cyhoeddwr ym Methania oedd William Jones
William Jones was an announcer in Bethesda chapel

ETYMOLOGY: (cyhoedd-, stem of cyhoeddu = to publish) + (-iad agent suffix, = man)

:_______________________________.

cyhuddiad
<kə-HIDH-yad> [kəˡhɪjad] masculine noun
PLURAL cyhuddiadau
<kə-hidh-YAA-dai, -e> [kəhɪˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
accusation = an assertion that someone has done wrong

2
charge = formal accusation that a person is is guilty of an offence or crime
taflu pob cyhuddiad at
throw the book at (throw every accusation at)

ETYMOLOGY: (cyhudd-, stem of cyhuddo = to accuse) + (-iad suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

cyhuddo
<kə-HII-dho> [kəˡhiˑɔ] (verb)
1
to accuse

2 cyhuddo (rhywun) o fod yn (gwneud rhywbeth) accuse (somebody) of (doing something)

:_______________________________.

cyhydedd <kə-HƏ-dedh> [kəˡhədɛ] m
PLURAL cyhydeddau <kə-hə-DEE-dhai, -e> [kəhəˡdeˑaɪ, -ɛ]
1 equator

2 equinox
Gwyl Fair y Cyhydedd 25 March, Lady Day feast (of) Mary (at) the equinox

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh (cyhŷd = of the same length) + (-edd) + (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)

Cf Breton keheder

:_______________________________.

cyhydeddol <kə-hə-DEE-dhol> [kəhəˡdeˑɔl] adj
1 equatorial
Gini Gyhydeddol = Equatorial Guinea

ETYMOLOGY: (cyhydedd = equator) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cylch, cylchoedd
<KILKH, KƏL-khoidh, -khodh> [kɪlx, ˡkəlxɔɪ, -ɔ] (masculine noun)
1
circle = geometric shape

2
circle, group of people who meet for a specific purpose
cylch trafod discussion group

3
trogylch (tro= turn, turning ) + soft mutation + ( cylch = circle )

..1/ (USA: traffic circle, roundabout) (Englandic: roundabout) = central island at a road junction around which traffic circulates in one direction; junction with such an island

..2/ circus = circular area where streets converge

4 theatr gylch theatre in the round

:_______________________________.

cylched <KƏL-khed> [ˡkəlxɛd] (feminine noun)
PLURAL cylchedau <kəl-KHEE-dai, -e> [kəlˡxeˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1 circuit = path of an electric current
y gylched = the circuit

2 cylched gyfannol (f) plural cylchedau cyfannol integrated circuit

ETYMOLOGY: (cylch- [ə] penultimate-syllable form of cylch [ɪ] = circle) + (suffix -ed

:_______________________________.

cylchfa, cylchfydd
<KƏLKH-va, kəlkh-VEIDH> [ˡkəlxva, kəlxˡvəɪ] (feminine noun)
1
zone
y gylchfa = the zone
2
cylchfa ragod buffer zone

:_______________________________.

cylchfan
<KƏLKH-van> [ˡkəlxvan] masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL cylchfannau
<kəlkh-VA-nai, -e> [kəlxˡvanaɪ, -ɛ]
1
(USA: traffic circle) (Englandic: roundabout) = central island at a road junction around which traffic circulates in one direction; junction with such an island
y cylchfan / y gylchfan = the roundabout

Also: trogylch

ETYMOLOGY: (cylch-
[ə], penult form of cylch [ɪ] = circle ) + soft mutation + ( man = place)

:_______________________________.

cylchffordd
<KƏLKH-fordh> [ˡkəlxfɔr] feminine noun
PLURAL cylchffyrdd
<KƏLKH-firdh> [ˡkəlxfɪr] 1 (American: beltway) (Englandic: ring road) road around the periphery of a town or city
y gylchffordd = the beltway

ETYMOLOGY: ("circle-road", circular road)
(cylch-
[ə], penult form of cylch [ɪ] = circle ) + ( ffordd = road)

:_______________________________.

cylchgrawn, cylchgronau
<KƏLKH-graun, kəlkh-GROO-nai, -e> [ˡkəlxgraʊn, kəlxˡgroˑnaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
magazine

:_______________________________.

cylionen, cylion
[kəlˡjoˑnɛn, ˡkəljɔn] (feminine noun)
1
fly
y gylionen = the fly

:_______________________________.

cyll
<KILH> [kɪɬ] plural
1
hazel trees; plural of collen
llwyn cyll hazel grove

:_______________________________.

cyll
<KILH> [kɪɬ] verb
1 (he / she) will lose < colli to lose
third person singular indicative present-future (literary form the colloquial form would be colliff / collith)
Rhy lawn, a gyll Grasp all, lose all (too full, he will-lose)

:_______________________________.

cyllell, cyllyll
<KƏ-lhelh, KƏ-lhilh> [ˡkəɬɛɬ, ˡkəɬɪɬ] (feminine noun)
1
knife (colloquially: cylleth, cyllyth)
y gyllell = the knife

blaen y gyllell the thin end of the wedge, a small beginning of a process which will lead to worse things (the tip of the knife)
cyllell lem a sharp knife

2
cyllell boced, cyllyll poced
<KƏ-lhelh-BO-ked, KƏ-lhilh PO-ked> [ˡkəɬɛɬ ˡbɔkɛd, ˡkəɬɪɬ ˡpɔkɛd] (feminine noun)
pocket knife

3
bod ch c
yllell ynddo / ynddi have your knife in him, in her = be constantly hostile or unfair towars
Mae e i g
yllell ynof o hyd Hes always getting at me (He has his knife in me constantly)

4 Cystal bys a bawd chyllell a fforc Fingers were made before forks (in excusing oneself for not eating with a knife and fork) ((it-is) as-good (a ) finger and thumb as (a) knife and fork)

:_______________________________.

cyllid, cyllidau
<KƏ-lhid, kə-LHII-dai, -e> [ˡkəɬɪd, kəˡɬiˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
budget

:_______________________________.

cyllido
<kə-LHII-do> [kəˡɬiˑdɔ] (verb)
1
to finance
2
cwmni cyllido finance company, one which finances HP (higher-purchase) sales

:_______________________________.

cylltyrau
<kəlh-TƏ-rai, -e> [kəɬˡtəraɪ, -ɛ] (plural noun)
1
coulters; see cwlltwr

:_______________________________.

cyllyll
<KƏ-lhilh> [ˡkəɬɪɬ] (plural noun)
1
knives; see cyllell

:_______________________________.

cymain
<KƏ-main> [ˡkəmaɪn] masculine noun
1
a form of cymaint = so much, as many
cymain un everyone, all without exception

Ephesiaid 5:33 Ond chwithau hefyd cymain un, felly cared pob un ohonoch ei wraig, fel ef ei hunan; a'r wraig edryched ar iddi berchi ei gŵr
Ephesians 5:33
Nevertheless let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; and the wife see that she reverence her husband.

:_______________________________.

cymaint
<KƏ-maint, KƏ-mint> [ˡkəmaɪnt, ˡkəmɪnt] (masculine noun)
1
as much, so much
c
ymaint as big / much / many as
cymaint arall
<KƏ-mint AA-ralh> [ˡkəmɪnt ˡɑˑraɬ] as much again
cymaint arall (o rywbeth) the same amount again (of something)

2 hanner c
ymaint half as big / much / many
Rhowch hanner cymaint imi eto Give me half as much again
hanner c
ymaint half as big / much / many as
hanner c
ymaint eto half as big / much / many again

3 dwywaith cymaint twice as big
bod ddwywaith cymaint be twice as big as

teirgwaith cymaint three times as big as
teirgwaith cymaint o (bobl) three times as many (people)
bod deirgwaith cymaint o (bobl) three times as many (people)

pedair gwaith cymaint four times as big as
bod bedair gwaith cymaint four times as big as

pum gwaith cymaint five times as big as
bod bum gwaith cymaint be five times the size of
bod bum gwaith cymaint o (bobl) be five times as many (people)
bod bum gwaith cymaint o (hylif) be five times as much (liquid)

chwe gwaith cymaint six times as big as
bod chwe gwaith cymaint o (bobl) six times as many (people)

4 cymaint ddwywaith twice as big
bod cymaint ddwywaith be twice as big as
bod cymaint ddwywaith arafach be twice as slow as
cymaint deirgwaith three times as big as
cymaint deirgwaith o (bobl) three times as many (people)
cymaint bedair gwaith four times as big as
cymaint bedair gwaith o (bobl) four times as many (people)
cymaint bum gwaith five times as big as
cymaint bum gwaith o (bobl) five times as many (people) cymaint chwe gwaith six times as big as
cymaint chwe gwaith o (bobl) six times as many (people)

5
yn gymaint insomuch as, but rather
Nid tref yw Wrecsam,
yn gymaint phentre mawr
Wrecsam isnt a town insomuch as a large village

6 cymaint fyth a fynnoch chi as much / many as you like
Cymaint ag y gall e wneud fydd (gwneud rhywbeth)

Hell find it hard to, hell find it an effort to, hell find it a job to, hell have his work cut out to..., itll be one helluva job for him to... (itll be as much as he can do to...)

7 lawn cymaint just as much, to the same extent

Rw in hoffir darlun bach ma ond rw in hoffir darlun arall lawn cymaint
I like this small picture but I like the other picture just as much
(lawn fully < llawn = full) + (cymaint so much, the same quantity). There is soft mutation of an initial consonant in adverbial phrases, hence dydd > ddydd (d > dd)

8 so much
There is soft mutation of an initial consonant in adverbial phrases, hence cymaint > gymaint (c > g)
(= so often) Pam mae e gymaint ar ei ben ei hunan? Why is he alone so much?
y naill gymaint r llall one as much as the other, equally
Rwy in hoffir naill gymaint r llall I like them both equally, I like one as much as the other

:_______________________________.

c
ymal <KƏ-MAL> [ˡkəmal] masculine noun
PLURAL c
ymalau <kə-MAA-lai, -e> [ˡkəˡmɑˑlaɪ, -ɛ]
1
(anatomy) joint = place where two bones meet
cymal y glun hip joint

2 knuckle

3 c
ymal cyflafareddu arbitration clause

4 (plant stem) joint = part of stem from which a branch or leaf grows

5 (mechanical device) joint = articulation, place where two parts are joined, either rigidly or allowing movement

6 (meat) joint = portion of a carcass of a size suitable for cooking

7 (grammar) clause
c
ymal addef concessive clause
c
ymal amod conditional clause
c
ymal canlyniad consecutive clause
c
ymal cydradd co-ordinating clause
c
ymal isradd subordinating clause
c
ymal perthynol relative clause

8
(legal document) clause

9 (car) part

10 cryd c
ymalau rheumatism (fever (of) joints)

11 (South Wales) dod ich c
ymal get into ones stride (in some task)
cael eich c
ymal aga get into ones stride (in some task)

12 (North Wales) hel eich ch
ymalau walk, get moving

13 limb, branch torrin g
ymalau dismember

14 (county of Penfro)
ymladd cymalau fight with the bare fists

15
ystwytho cymalau bestir oneself (flex joints)

16
trwy bob cymal cynhaliaeth by that which every joint supplieth, (the nerves and ligaments in ancient medical science were considered to give life)

Epistolau Sant Paul at y Effesiai)
4:16 O'r hwn y mae'r holl gorff wedi ei gydymgynnull a'i gydgysylltu, trwy bob cymal cynhaliaeth, yn l y nerthol weithrediad ym mesur pob rhan, yn gwneuthur cynnydd y corn, i'w adeiladu ei hun mewn cariad
Ephesians 4:16 From whom the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love

ETYMOLOGY: (c
ym- < cyn = together) + (*mal = member);
*mal < British < Celtic **mel-so < mel- (member; to join)
Cornish mell (=articulation; link of a chain; vertebra), Breton mell (= articulation; vertebra), cf Greek mlos (= song)


:_______________________________.

c
ymalwst <kə -MAA-lust> [ˡkəˡmɑˑlʊst] masculine noun
1 gout = inflamation of the big toe from uric acid deposited in the joint

ETYMOLOGY: (c
ymal = joint, articulation ) + soft mutation + (gwst = pain)

:_______________________________.

cymanfa, cymanfaoedd
<kə-MAN-va, kə-man-VAA-oidh,, -odh> [kəˡmanva, kəmanˡvɑˑɔɪ -ɔ] (feminine noun)
1
assembly
y gymanfa the assembly

cymanfa ganu, cymanfaoedd canu
<kə-MAN-va GAA-ni> [kəˡmanva ˡgɑˑnɪ] hymn-singing festival

 

In the United States a cymanfa ganu is referred to in English by non-Welsh-speaking Welsh descendants in the soft-mutated form, gymanfa ganu, resulting in the unfortunately incorrect title of the organisation promoting this kind of event as the WNGGA, the Welsh National Gymanfa Ganu Association, when it should be the WNCGA, the Welsh National Cymanfa Ganu Association.

 

http://www.wngga.org/ (2008-12-06)

The Welsh National Gymanfa Ganu Association, North American Welsh cultural organization. Promotion of everything Welsh, particularly the Gymanfa Ganu (Guhmonva Gonee) or Welsh Singing Festival.

cymanfa garolau
<kə-MAN-va ga-ROO-lai, -e> [kəˡmanva gaˡroˑlaɪ, -ɛ] carol service

cymanfa ysgolion
<kə-MAN-va ə-SKOL-yon> [kəˡmanva əˡskɔljɔn] school choir festival

:_______________________________.

cymar <KƏ-mar> [ˡkəmar] masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL cymheiriaid <kə-MHEIR-yaid, -yed> [kəˡmhəɪrjaɪd, -ɛd]
1 companion

2 spouse, marriage partner, husband

3 spouse, marriage partner, wife

4 counterpart

5 (animal, bird) mate

6 equal

7 partner in a dance
Roedd yn gymar perffaith iddi yn y ddawns
He was a perfect partner for her in the dance

8 amlgymharus promiscuous
(aml-, prefix = multi ) + soft mutation + (cymharus)
cymharus
: (cymhar- penultimate syllable stem < cymar = pair) + (-us suffix for forming adjectives)

9 Mae i bob celwydd ei gymar One lie leads to another (there is to every lie its partner)

ETYMOLOGY: cymar < cymhar < British *compar- < Latin compar-em (< adjective = equal to each other) < (com- together) + (par equal);
cymheriaid < (cymhar- penultimate syllable stem) + (-iaid sufix plural)

:_______________________________.

cymaroldeb
<kə-ma-ROL-deb> [kəmaˡrɔldɛb] masculine noun
1
comparability

ETYMOLOGY: (cymarol- / cymharol = comparative) + (-deb suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

cymdeithas, cymdeithasau
<kəm-DEI-thas, kəm-dei-THA-sai, -e> [kəmˡdəɪθas, kəmdəɪˡθasaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
society
y gymdeithas = the society

2 Cymdeithas Dafydd ap Gwilym
<kəm-DEI-thas DAA vidh ap GWII-lim>

[kəmˡdəɪθas ˡdɑˑvɪ ap ˡgwiˑlɪm]
the society of Dafydd ap Gwilym, a Welsh literary society formed in the late 1800s by Welsh students at the University of Oxford, England. Dafydd ap Gwilym was the foremost medieval Welsh poet

3 Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymreg
<kəm-DEI-thas ər yaith gəm-RAIG> wɑˑ [kəmˡdəɪθas ər jaɪθ gəmˡraɪg]
the society for the Welsh language - a pacificist direct-action organisation founded in the 1960s to campaign for the linguistic rights of Welsh-speakers
http://www.cymdeithas.com/cartref.htm

4 cymdeithas rieni ac athrawon PLURAL cymdeithasau rhieni ac athrawon
parent-teacher association

:_______________________________.

cymdeithas tai
<kəm-DEI-thas-TAI> [kəmˡdəɪθasˡtaɪ] feminine noun
PLURAL cymdeithasau tai
<kəm-dei-THA-se TAI> [kəmdəɪˡθasɛ ˡtaɪ]
1
housing association = non-profit organisation providing rented housing for a community

ETYMOLOGY: association (of) houses (cymdeithas = association) + (tai = houses, plural of ty = house)

:_______________________________.

cymdogaeth, cymdogaethau
<kəm-DOO-geth, -kəm-do-GEI-thai, -e> [kəmˡdoˑgaɪθ, -ɛθ kəmdɔˡgəɪθaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1
neighborhood (Englandic: neighbourhood)
y gymdogaeth the neighborhood

:_______________________________.

cymdogion
<kəm-DOG-yon> [kəmˡdɔgjɔn] (plural noun)
1
neighbors (Englandic: neighbours); see cymydog

:_______________________________.

cymell
<KƏ-melh> [ˡkəmɛɬ] (verb)
1
to urge

:_______________________________.

cymedrol
<kə-ME-drol> [kəˡmɛdrɔl] (adj)
1
moderate

2 unadventurous
Rh
ywbeth cymedrol iawn yw hi, ynte
She's very unadventurous, isn't she?

:_______________________________.

cymen
<KƏ-men> [ˡkəmɛn] (adj)
1 tidy
2 anghymen untidy
(an- = negative prefix) + nasal mutation + (cymen = tidy)

:_______________________________.

cymer
<KƏ-mer> [ˡkəmɛr] masculine noun
PLURAL cymerau
<kə-MEE-rai, -e> [kəˡmeˑraɪ, -ɛ]
1
confluence

2 a frequent element in place names;
..1/ Pentrellyncymer (village by the lake of the confluence),
..2/ Pontycymer (bridge by the confluence),
..3/ Rhydcymerau (ford of the confluences) etc

ETYMOLOGY: British *kom-ber (kom = together) + (ber = carry, take; flow).

This is also the basis of the Welsh verb cymeryd / cymryd (= to take).

From the same British root: Cornish kemmer (= confluence), Breton kember (= confluence), and the Breton place name Kemper (called by the French Quimper).

Besides cymer and cymeryd, the element ber occurs too in the following words in Welsh:
(a) aber (= confluence, river mouth, estuary),
(b) adfer (= restore),
(c) arfer (= practise),
(d) diabred (= withheld, held back, refused),
(e) diferu (= to drip),
(f) gofer (= run-off, ditch, stream).

It is related to
(a) Irish beir (= carry),
(b) English to bear (= to carry),
(c) Greek pherein (= to carry, to bring, as in the English word of Greek origin paraphernalia miscellaneous items, but originally personal property of a married woman; para = alongside, beyond)

NOTE: in South-west Wales the plural cymerau is colloquially cwmere
ku-m-re

:_______________________________.

Y Cymer
<ə KƏ-mer> [ə ˡkəmɛr]
1
locality in the county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan (SS 8696)
...1961: population: 4,551; proportion of Welsh-speakers: 17%
...1971: population: 4,470; proportion of Welsh-speakers: 9%


2 (SH 7219) monastery in Llanelltud (district of Meirionnydd in the county of Gwynedd)

3 (ST 0290) locality in the county of Rhondda-Cynon-Taf
<HRON-dha KƏ-non TAAV> [ˡhrɔna ˡkənɔn ˡtɑːv]
Also: Cymer Rhondda

:_______________________________.

cymr
<kə-MEER> [kəˡmeːr] masculine noun
North Wales
1
character, real character = a person with an interesting eccentric personality
Collwyd cymr pan fu farw Stan Bevan (Phylip Hughes) yng Nghwmderi
Cwmderi
(fictional village in a long-running drama series on Welsh-language TV) saw the loss of a real character with the death of Stan Bevan (played by Phylip Hughes) (it was lost a character when Stan Bevan died...)

ETYMOLOGY: short form of cymeriad = character

:_______________________________.

cymeradwyaeth
<kə-me-ra-DUI-aith -eth> [kəmɛraˡdʊɪaɪθ, -ɛθ] (feminine noun)
1
approval, recommendation
y gymeradwyaeth = the approval

:_______________________________.

cymeradwyo
<kə-me-ra-DUI-o> [kəmɛraˡdʊɪɔ] (verb)
1
approve, recommend

:_______________________________.

cymeriad, cymeriadau
<kə-MER-yad, kə-mer-YAA-dai, -e> [kəˡmɛrjad, kəmɛrˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
character
Mae hynnyn groes iw gymeriad Its out of character for him (that is contrary to his character)

2 (North Wales) tenancy, agreement, lease, contract

Mae Robert Gruffudd wedii droi allan or Hafodolau a mae John Thomas, y Siop Goch, wedi cael y cymeriad
Robert Gruffudd has been turned out of / evicted from Hafodolau and John Thomas, from Siop Goch (i.e. red shop of the carpenter), has got the tenency
:_______________________________.

cymeryd
<kə-MEE-rid> [kəˡmeˑrɪd] (verb)
1
to take, variant of cymryd

:_______________________________.

cymesur
<kə-ME-sir> [kəˡmɛsɪr] (adjective)
1
cymesur commensurate with, in proportion to, in proportion with
heb fod yn gymesur out of proportion to, out of proportion with
Nid ywr gyflog yn gymesur ag urddas y swydd The salary is not commensurate with the importance (dignity) of the job

:_______________________________.

cymesuredd
<kə-me-SII-redh> [kəmɛˡsiˑrɛ] masculine noun
1
proportion = correct relationship
collich synnwyr cymesuredd lose your sense of proportion
colli pob amcan am gymesuredd lose all sense of proportion

2 symmetry

ETYMOLOGY: (cymesur = equitative, symmetrical) + (-edd, suffix)

:_______________________________.

cymesurol
<kə-me-SII-rol> [kəmɛˡsiˑrɔl] adjective
1
proportional

ETYMOLOGY: (cymesur = equitative, symmetrical) + (-ol, suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cymhedrol
<kəm-HE-drol> [kəmˡhɛdrɔl] (adjective)
1
moderate

:_______________________________.

cymhleth
<KƏ-mhleth> [ˡkəmhlɛθ] (adjective)
1
complicated

:_______________________________.

cymdda
<KƏM-dha> [ˡkəma] masculine noun
South-east Wales
1
See cimdda (= common land) (of which cymdda is a variant) for more information on the following place names:

(1) Cymdda-bach formerly the name of a cottage in Llan-daf (Caer-dydd).

(2) Cymdda-bach - formerly the name of a small thatched house blown down in a storm in 1895 on the south side of Parc y Rhath (Caer-dydd).

(3) Nant Cymdda Bach stream between Llantrisant and Beddau (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

(4) Coed y Cymdda name of a wood east of Gwenf (county of Bro Morgannwg)

(5) Y Cymdda SS9183 common land south of Y Sarn (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
A street by this place has the same name: Y Cymdda

:_______________________________.

cymhares
<kəm-HAA-res> [kəmˡhɑˑrɛs] feminine noun
PLURAL cymaresau
<kə-ma-RE-sai, -e> [kəmaˡrɛsaɪ, -ɛ]
1
companion
y gymhares = the companion

2 wife

3 counterpart

4 (animal, bird) mate

5 peer, equal

6 (dance) partner

ETYMOLOGY: (cymhar-, a form of cymar
(= partner) before a final element of one syllable) + (-es noun suffix indicating a female)

:_______________________________.

cymhariaeth
<kə-MHAR-yaith -yeth> [kəˡmharjaɪθ, -ɛθ] feminine noun
PLURAL cymariaethau
<kə-mar-YEI-thai, -e> [kəmarˡjəɪθaɪ, -ɛ]
1
comparison
y gymhariaeth = the comparison
2
cymariaethol comparative

ETYMOLOGY: (cymhar- < cymharu
= to compare) + (-aeth suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

cymharol
<kə-MHAA-rol> [kəˡmhɑˑrɔl] adj
1
comparative
gradd gymharol (adjectives) comparative degree

2 comparatively, fairly
cymharol fychan comparatively small
cymharol fyr fairly small

3 cymaroldeb comparability

ETYMOLOGY: (cymhar- < cymharu
= to compare) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cymharu
<kə-MHAA-ri> [kəˡmhɑˑrɪ] verb
1
(verb with an object) compare

2
mate, pair off
Mae ysgyfarnogod yn cymharu rhwng Chwefror a Medi gan esgor ar dri neu bedwar torllwyth
Hares mate between February and September and produce three or four litters

ETYMOLOGY: (cymhar-, a form of cymar
= partner before a final element of one syllable) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

cymharus
<kə-mhaa-ris> [kəmhɑˑrɪs] adj
1
compatible
ieuon gymharus (of a man and woman) make a good match (yoke compatibly)

ETYMOLOGY: (cymhar-, a form of cymar
= partner before a final element of one syllable) + (-us suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

cymhedrol
<kəm-HE-drol> [kəmˡhɛdrɔl] adjective
1
erroneous form of cymedrol. Etymologically there is no h. Influenced by similar words where the h is indeed present
cymhelliad (= motive) < cymell (= urge)
cymhennu (= tidy up) < cymen (= tidy)
cymhlethu (= to complicate) < cymhleth = complex, complicated)
cymhwyso (= adapt) < cymwys (= suitable)
cymhorthdal (= subsidy, literally help payment) < cymorth (= help) etc

:_______________________________.

cymla
<KƏM-la> [ˡkəmla] masculine noun
1
(Place names, South-east Wales) common land. Variant of cimla (qv)

:_______________________________.

cymod <KƏ-mod> [ˡkəmɔd] masculine noun
PLURAL cymodau <kə-MOO-dai, -e> [kəˡmoˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
atonement
gwneud cymod am (rywbeth) make atonement for

2 reconciliation

3 Cymdeithas y Cymod <kəm-DEI-thas ə KƏ-mod> [kəmˡdəɪθas ə ˡkəmɔd] Fellowship of Reconciliation

4 Dydd y Cymod Day of Atonement (Jewish festival)

ETYMOLOGY: (cym- prefix = together) + soft mutation + (bod = being) > *cymfod > cymod

:_______________________________.

cymodi <kə-MOO-di> [kəˡmoˑdɪ] verb
1
reconcile = cause to leave aside a dispute

2 become reconciled, make it up, make up, patch up ones differences with

3 dygymod reconcile oneself to, resign oneself to, come to terms with, accept and be content with, come round to
(dy- intensifying prefix ) + soft mutation + ( cymod-, cymodi = reconcile)

ETYMOLOGY: (cymod = reconciliation) (-i suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

cymoedd
<KƏ-moidh -modh> [ˡkəmɔr, ˡkəmɔ] (plural noun)
1
valleys; see cwm

:_______________________________.

cymorth, cymhorthau
<KƏ-morth, kə-MHOR-thai, -e> [ˡkəmɔrθ, kəˡmhɔrθaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
help, aid

:_______________________________.

Cymreg
<kəm-RAIG> [kəmˡraɪg] (feminine noun, adjective)
1
Welsh
y Gymreg = the Welsh language

2 in broken Welsh, in bad Welsh, in halting Welsh
mewn C
ymraeg bratiog (= ragged) <kəm-RAIG BRAT-yog> [kəmˡraɪg ˡbratjɔg]
mewn C
ymraeg drylliog (= shattered)
mewn C
ymraeg clapiog (= lumpy) <kəm-RAIG KLAP-yog> [kəmˡraɪg ˡklapjɔg]
mewn C
ymraeg cerrig calch (= Welsh (of the) limestone (quarries)) <kəm-RAIG KE-rig-KALKH> [kəmˡraɪg ˡkɛrɪg ˡkalx] - from the Welsh spoken by limestone quarry workers in the south-east in the 1700s, 1800s who were immigrants to Wales from Somerset)
Cymreg ceffylau
<kəm-RAIG ke-FƏ-lai, -e> [kəmˡraɪg kɛˡfəlaɪ, -ɛ] bad Welsh ( = ?Welsh like the neighing of horses)

3 Cymraeg carbwl garbled Welsh, mangled Welsh
siarad Cymraeg carbwl speak bad Welsh

4 Does fawr o Gymreg rhyngddyn nhw There not speaking to each other, Theyve fallen out, Theyre not on good terms with each other (theres not much Welsh between them)

:_______________________________.

Cymreg
<kəm-RAIG> [kəmˡraɪg] adjective
1
Welsh-speaking = (territory) having Welsh as its language
Maelor Saesneg medieval division ('cwmwd') of the country (gwlad) of Powys
(the part of the district called) Maelor (which is) English-speaking / inhabited by English people

:_______________________________.

Cymreg eich iaith
<kəm-RAAIG əkh YAITH> [kəmˡrɑˑɪg əx ˡjaɪθ] adjective
1
Welsh-speaking = (person) able to speak Welsh
pobl ifainc Cymreg eu hiaith young Welsh-speakers

2 Welsh-speaking = (community) using Welsh as the usual language
Rhaid sicrhu mair Gymreg ywr unig gyfrwng dysgu yn yr ardaloedd Cymreg eu hiaith

We must ensure that Welsh is the sole medium of instruction in Welsh-speaking areas

ETYMOLOGY: Cymraeg eich iaith = Welsh your language. See eich for other examples of this construction

:_______________________________.

Cymreg Patagonia
<kəm-RAAIG pa-ta-GON-ya> [kəmˡrɑˑɪg pataˡgɔnja] feminine noun
1
the Welsh of Patagonia - the variant of the language spoken by the descendents of the Welsh immigrants who arrived in 1865 and after, characterized originally by a phonology resembling northern Welsh (apparently through the influence of Welsh teachers and chapel leaders mostly from the North), but nowadays with a heavily Castilianised phonology amongst the youngest speakers; with a lexis including a few words which are nowadays obsolete in the Welsh of modern Wales, some neologisms from the nineteenth century which gained currency here but did not gain acceptance in the ordinary language in Wales, and loan words from Castilian; for examples of this latter category, see hecterw (= hectare), tshacra (= farm), naffta (= petrol)

:_______________________________.

Cymres
<kəm-RAIS> [kəmˡrɑɪs] feminine noun
PLURAL Cymrasau, Cymryesau
<kəm-ra-E-se, kəm-ri-E-sai, -e> [kəmraˡɛsaɪ, -ɛ, kəmrɪˡɛsaɪ, -ɛ]
1
Welshwoman = woman born in Wales;
y Gymres = the Welsh woman
cyd-Gymres = fellow-Welshwoman
Cymres iaith cyntaf = a Welshwoman whose first language is Welsh, native Welsh speaker

2 Welshwoman = woman of Welsh descent (parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, etc)
Nid Saesnes go iawn mohoni. Cymres yw hi o dras - cafodd ei thad-cu ei eni yn Llangynwyd

3
Welshwoman = a person who speaks Welsh

4 Welshwoman = a person who lives in Wales and considers herself Welsh even though she was not born in Wales and is not of Welsh descent

5 Welshwoman = inhabitant of the Hen Ogledd - the Old North, Welsh territories before the invasion of the Anglians around the 900s, especially Ystrad Clud (now Strathclyde, Scotland) and Rheged (now Cumbria, England)

6 Cymres ln a thorough Welshwoman (a pure Welshwoman)
Cymres ln loyw a thorough Welshwoman (a pure and clear Welshwoman)
Cymres o waed coch cyfa a thorough Welshwoman (a Welshwoman of complete red blood)


7 ...o Gymres = Welsh (of (a) Welshwoman)
mam o Gymres a Welsh mother

8 Cymres or De a southerner (Welshwoman from the south)

9 Cymres uniaith Welshwoman who speaks only Welsh, monoglot Welshwoman
Cymres ddi-Gymraeg non-Welsh-speaking Welshwoman, a Welshwoman who doesnt know the language of her own country

10 Cymres Gymraeg Welsh-speaking Welshwoman - an expression which reflects the state of the Welsh language today, after centuries of official policy to eradicate it, where four out of five inhabitants of Wales are unable to speak the language of their country. The same expression applied to the English would sound odd in the extreme - an English-speaking Englishwoman

11 Cymres Llundain one of the London Welsh, London Welshwoman
Cymres Patagonia a Welshwoman from Patagonia

ETYMOLOGY: British *kom-brog-iss > Welsh Cym|r|es > Cym|res. For the meaning of *kom-brog- see Cymro
NOTE: in the South, the form Cymreiges is common instead of Cymres

:_______________________________.

Cymrig
<kəm-REIG> [kəmˡrəɪg] (adjective)
1
Welsh (people, country; not the language, which is Cymraeg)
pabi Cymrig (Meconopsis cambrica) Welsh poppy

2 pro-G
ymrig pro-Welsh
gwrth-G
ymrig anti-Welsh

3 ffug-Gymreig pseudo-Welsh

4
helygen Gymreig (Salix fragilis var decipiens) Welsh willow

:_______________________________.

Cymreigaidd
<kəm-REI-gaidh -gedh> [kəmˡrəɪgaɪ, -ɛ] adjective
1
Welsh in language and character, not Anglicised
siroedd Cymreigaidd fel Ceredigion, Dinbych a Chonwy, a rhai Seisnigaidd fel Casnewydd, Caerffili a Rhondda Cynon Taf
Welsh (non-Anglicised) counties such as fel Ceredigion, Dinbych and Conwy, and English (Anglicised) ones like Casnewydd, Caerffili and Rhondda Cynon Taf

ETYMOLOGY: (Cymreig adjective = Welsh) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

Cymreigedig
<kəm-reig-EE-dig> [kəmrəɪgˡeˑdɪg] adjective
1
Welshified

ETYMOLOGY: (Cymreig-i-, stem of Cymreigio = to Cymricise, make Welsh) + (-edig, suffix for forming adjectives with a passive past particle meaning)

:_______________________________.

Cymreigeiddiad
<kəm-rei-GEIDH-yad> [kəmrəɪˡgəɪjad] masculine noun
PLURAL Cymreigeiddiadau
<kəm-rei-geidh-YAA-dai, -e> [kəmrəɪgəɪˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
Cymricisation, Welshification, Wallicisation

ETYMOLOGY: (Cymreigeidd-i-, stem of Cymreigeiddio = to Cymricise, make Welsh) + (-ad, suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

Cymreigeiddio
<kəm-rei-GEIDH-yo> [kəmrəɪˡgəɪjɔ] verb
1
Cymricise
Nid enw Cymraeg mo Rhyl yn y bn ond gair Saesneg wedi ei Gymreigeiddio
Rhyl isnt a Welsh name in origin but an English word that has been Cymricised

ETYMOLOGY: (Cymreigaidd = Welsh) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

Cymreiges
<kəm-REI-ges> [kəmˡrəɪgɛs] feminine noun
PLURAL Cymreigesau
<kəm-rei-GE-sai, -e> [kəmrəɪˡgɛsaɪ, -ɛ]
South Wales
1
Welshwoman
y Gymreiges = the Welsh woman

ETYMOLOGY: (Cymreig adjective = Welsh) + (-es noun suffix to indicate a female)

:_______________________________.

Cymreigiad
<kəm-REIG-yad> [kəmˡrəɪgjad] masculine noun
PLURAL Cymreigiadau
<kəm-reig-YAA-dai, -e> [kəmrəɪgˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
Cymricisation, adaption = giving a Welsh form to a foreign word

Prin y gellid disgwyl gweld y gair Cymraeg am prion yn ein geiriaduron. Efallai y byddai preion yn gystal Cymreigiad r un
Youre hardly likely to find the Welsh word for prion in our dictionaries. Maybe preion would be as good an adaptation as any

2 Cymricisation; Cymricised form; a word which has been adapted into Welsh from another language

3 translation into Welsh
Cyhoeddodd Gymreigiad gan Dyfed o rai o emynau Sankey, dan y teitl Y Tlws Cerddorol
(The poet) Dyfed published a Welsh translation of some of Sankeys hymns, under the title Y Tlws Cerddorol (the musical treasure)

ETYMOLOGY: (Cymreig-i-, stem of Cymreigio = to Cymricise, make Welsh) + (-ad, suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

Cymreigio
<kəm-REIG-yo> [kəmˡrəɪgjɔ] verb
1
translate into Welsh

2 Cymricise = (visually) introduce Welsh on signs, etc; (socially) encourage Welsh society to use the Welsh language
ymgyrch i Gymreigio siopaur dref
a campaign to Cymricise the towns shops

3 (institution, administration, business) adopt a Welsh-language policy

ETYMOLOGY: (Cymreig = Welsh) + (-io = suffix for forming verbs). The adjective Cymreig however means Welsh but without reference to the Welsh language (with the meaning of Welsh-language the adjective is the same as the name of the language, Cymreg)

:_______________________________.

Cymreigiwr
<kəm-REIG-yur> [kəmˡrəɪgjʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL Cymreigwyr
<kəm-REIG-wir> [kəmˡrəɪgwɪr]
1
person skilled in Welsh, Welsh scholar

2 person who has great love for the Welsh language and Welsh literature

3 Welsh speaker

4 Cymriciser, person who seeks to introduce the Welsh language into ambits from which it has been excluded, person who seeks to make an institution or community Welsh in sentiment and language

Cymreigiwr y gyfraith. Ym marw Syr William Mars-Jones, collodd Cymru un or gwyr cyfraith mwyaf ei ymroddiad i Gymreigior system gyfreithiol yng Nghymru (Cymro 20 01 99)
Cymriciser of the law. With the death of Sir William Mars-Jones Wales has lost one of the lawyers with the greatest dedication / commitment to Cymricising the legal system in Wales

ETYMOLOGY: (Cymreig- stem of Cymreigio = to Cymricise) + (-i-wr = agent suffix)

:_______________________________.

Cymreigrwydd
<kəm-REIG-ruidh> [kəmˡrəɪgrʊɪ] masculine noun
1
Welshness = (person) characteristics which show a person to be Welsh - such as knowledge of the Welsh language, always using the language in Wales, loyalty to ones district and country, identification with the people of Wales, interest and involvement in Welsh cultural life, or religious life, or Welsh politics

Yr oedd rhai or modelaun priodin dda chwedl hwythau. Bronwen Pugh yn priodir Arglwydd Astor cefnog (ac anghofioi Chymreigrwydd yn llwyr) (Cymro 27 04 94)
Some of the models married well as they put it. Bronwen Pugh married the rich Lord Astor (and forgot her Welshness completely)

Sawl gwaith a ydym ni wedi gweld cyd-Gymry oedd yn bleidiol ir iaith yn ei hieuenctyd yn diosg eu Cymreigrwydd cyn gynted ag yr oedd gwneud hynny yn fantais iw gyrfa?
How many times have we seen fellow Welsh people who were supporters of the language in their youth divesting themselves of their Welshness as soon as doing so was advantageous to their career?

2 Welshness = Welsh language and culture
rhaid achub ar bob cyfle i hybu Cymreigrwydd
we must seize every opportunity to promote Welshness

3 (community) Welsh-speaking, Welsh in character and outlook
Ac yntaun lle mor Seisnig erbyn heddiw, maen syndod sylweddoli Cymreigrwydd Cwm-bach Aber-dr yr adeg honno
With it being such an English place today, its surprising to realise the Welshness of Cwm-bach (by) Aber-dr at that time

ETYMOLOGY: (Cymreig = Welsh) + (-rwydd, suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

Cymreigydd
<kəm-REI-gidh> [kəmˡrəɪgɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL Cymreigyddion
<kəm-rei-GƏDH-yon> [kəmrəɪˡgəjɔn]

1 person with great knowledge of Welsh, Welsh scholar

2 person who has great love for the Welsh language and Welsh literature; devotee
Cyhoeddwyd Ystn Sioned yn 1882 gan Silvan Evans. Gwnaeth y Cymreigydd hylon hwn wasanaeth mawr ir wlad trwy gyhoeddir gyfrol glodwiw hon
Ystn Sioned was published in 1882 by Silvan Evans. This cheerful devotee of the Welsh language did the country a great service by publishing this commendable book

3 (nineteenth century) Y Cymreigyddion a Welsh literary and historical association (the Welshmen / the Welsh scholars)

Mae yn y brif-ddinas lawer o gannoedd o Gymry, ond nid oes dros ugain, un amser, yn ymgyfarfod yn ystafell y Cymreigyddion
Seren Gomer 1835. Diffyg Gwladgarwch yn Mhlith y Cymry, ac Adfeiliad y Gymraeg.
There are in the capital city (= London) many hundreds of Welsh people, but there are no more at any one time than twenty who meet in the room of the Cymreigyddion
Seren Gomer 1835 (The Lack of Patriotism among the Welsh, and the Decay of the Welsh Language)

Cymdeithas Cymreigyddion y Fenni Abergavenny Welsh Society, established in 1833 ((the) society (of) (the) Welsh scholars (of) Y Fenni)

Neuadd y Cymreigyddion Cymreigyddion Hall, a meeting place for members of a Cymreigyddion society; such a place is mentioned as being above the Llew Gwyn (White Lion Inn) in Merthyrtudful in 1846

ETYMOLOGY: (Cymreig adjective, = Welsh) + (-ydd = suffix for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

CYMRICISED FORMS OF ENGLISH PLACE NAMES

(INCLUDING PLACE NAMES IN WALES OF ENGLISH ORIGIN):

Bryste Bristol, England (from the older English form Bristow).

Ednob <ED-nob> ɛdnɔb] Locality in England near the Welsh border; a village 9km north-west of Colunwy (Clun), in the parish of Mainstone (SO2787) (county of Shropshire). English name: Edenhope

Efsam
<EV-sam> ɛvsam] Evesham (Worcestershire, England)

Einsiob
<EIN-shob> əɪnʃɔb] Evenjobb (SO2662), village in Powys, 6km south-east of Llanandras.

Henffordd
<HEN-fordh> hɛnfɔr] Hereford, England. The English name means army road; the Welsh form is a reinterpretation of the same as old road.

Lerpwl Liverpool, England (from an older English form Lerpool).

Llwydlo Ludlow, England

Llundain London, England.

Prestatyn (county of Flint, Wales).

Y Rhyl (county of Dinbych, Wales).

:_______________________________.

Cymro
<KƏM-ro> [ˡkəmrɔ] masculine noun
PLURAL Cymry
<KƏM-ri> [ˡkəmrɪ] 1 Welshman = man born in Wales; (archaic, facetious: Cambrian)
cyd-Gymro = fellow-Welshman
Cymro iaith gyntaf = a Welshman whose first language is Welsh, native Welsh speaker
Nid oes ond un or pedwar tiwtor ar ddeg yn Gymro iaith gyntaf
Only one of the fourteen tutors is a native Welsh-speaker

2
Welshman = man of Welsh descent (parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, etc)
Nid Sais go iawn mohono. Cymro yw e o dras - cafodd ei dad-cu ei eni yn Llangynwyd
Hes not a real Englishman. Hes a Welshman by descent - his grandfather was born in Llangynwyd

3
Welshman = a person who speaks Welsh

4
Welshman = a person who lives in Wales and considers himself Welsh even though he was not born in Wales and is not of Welsh descent

5
Welshman = inhabitant of the Hen Ogledd - the Old North, Welsh territories before the invasion of the Anglians around the 900s, especially Ystrad Clud (now Strathclyde, Scotland) and Rheged (now Cumbria, England)

6
Sais-Gymro anglicised Welshman, English Welshman, Welshman ignorant of the language of his people
(Sais = Englishman) + soft mutation + (Cymro = Welshman)
y Sais-Gymry the English Welsh

7
Cymro di-Gymraeg (Welshman without Welsh) anglicised Welshman, English Welshman, non-Welsh-speaking Welshman, Welshman ignorant of the language of his people

8
Cymro gln a thorough Welshman (a pure Welshman)

Dewch Gymry gln / I wrando ar ein cn / Fel bu y fordaith rownd yr Horn
Come fellow-Welsh (you thorough Welsh people, you fine splendid Welsh people, you true Welsh people) / To listen to our song / How the voyage was around the Horn (= tip of South America) (from the folk song Rownd yr Horn)

Cymro gln gloyw a thorough Welshman ((a) pure (and) clear Welshman)
Cymro o waed coch cyfa a thorough Welshman (a Welshman of complete red blood)

9
Name often given to a dog (just as dogs in England have typical names cf Fido, Rover)

10
Name often given to a horse
Hwntw a Cymro oedd enwau ceffylau Llwyn-brith
The horses at Llwyn-brith farm were called Hwntw (= southern Welshman) and Cymro (= Welshman)

11
...o Gymro
= Welsh (of (a) Welshman)

tad o Gymro a Welsh father

tad a mam o Gymry a babi o Sais a Welsh father and a Welsh mother and an English child (= English-speaking, who doesnt know Welsh)

yr actor o Gymro the Welsh actor

Y mae deng mlynedd ar hugain neu fwy ers i mi weld yr actor o Gymro, Hugh Griffith, yn y ffilm Tom Jones
Its thirty years or more since I saw the Welsh actor, Hugh Griffith, in the film Tom Jones

12
tri chynnig i Gymro = third time lucky (three tries for a Welshman)

13 (vocative) Gymry = Welsh people, my fellow Welsh people
A chofiwch, Gymry, gwlad yw Cymru thraddodiad a iaith ar wahn i unrhyw wlad arall
And remember, my fellow Welsh people, that Wales is a country with a tradition and language different to any other country

14
yr hen Gymry, the British = the ancestors of the Welsh people, before the Germanic conquest circa 500-800

Fe ddaethom ni wedyn i Gaer Gorun yr hen Gymry - Corinium y Rhufeiniaid neu Cirencester y Saeson
After we arrived in Caer Gorun of the British - Corinium according to the Romans or Cirencester according to the English

15
yr hen Gymry, the old Welsh, the Welsh in days gone by, our Welsh forefathers, our ancestors

gwin yr hen Gymry facetious name for spring water (the wine of the old Welsh, the ancient Welsh)

Trysorid y glain nadroedd, fel yi gelwir gan rai, gan lawer or hen Gymry.
the adder stones (a kind of amulet) as they called them were regarded as a treasure by many of the Welsh in days gone by

16
Cymro or De a southerner (Welshman from the south)

Cymry or De southerners, Southern Welsh, Welsh people from the south, South Walians

Cymry or De oedd y rhan fwyaf o drigolion y pentref hwnnw ym Mhennsylfania
most of the inhabitants of that village in Pennsylvania were southern Welsh people

17
Gymro the Welshman, or Welsh-speaker.
(soft mutation of Cymro = Welshman; epithets had soft mutation of the first consonant)

Found as an epithet sometimes in parish registers, rolls, registers, etc. It seems strange that a Welshman should have such a name within Wales, but it may be that it occured in predominantly English environments such as fortified towns, or in bilingual social groups, such as the gentry families which began to abandon their native language and become English following the annexation of Wales to England in 1536.

An individual who was unable to speak English may have been called this by other Welsh-speakers to distinguish him from somebody of the same name who did not speak Welsh, or who was bilingual in Welsh and English

(Welshmen able to speak English, or who perhaps had lived in England, sometimes had the epithet Sais = Englishman; English-speaker, which has given rise to the surname Sayce).

Examples of Gymro are:

(1) Dafydd Gymro name of an individual in the year 1326 in the village of Cas-bwnsh (county of Penfro) (i.e. near the southern English-speaking area of the county of Penfro)

(2) Sin ap Rhys Gymro in Aberhonddu in the year 1538 (i.e. in a Norman-English castletown)

(3) Gerallt Gymro Gerald the Welshman, translation of Giraldus Cambrensis, (Gerald of Wales), the name used by the Latin writer Gerald de Barri (c1146-1223), a Welshman of a mixed Norman settler and native Welsh background

18
Gymro - in the county of Penfro this in used in the sense of home-made, in reference to agricultural implements. Here it has the form Gimro
arad Gimro home-made plough

19 Cymro uniaith
Welshman who speaks only Welsh, monoglot Welshman
Cymro di-Gymraeg non-Welsh-speaking Welshman, a Welshman who doesnt know the language of his own country

20
Cymro Cymraeg Welsh-speaking Welshman - an expression which reflects the state of the Welsh language today, after centuries of official policy to eradicate it, where four out of five inhabitants of Wales are unable to speak the language of their country. The same expression applied to the English would sound odd in the extreme - an English-speaking Englishman

Cymry Cymraeg - Welsh-speaking Welsh people

21
Y Cymro (= the Welshman) name of a Welsh-language weekly newspaper (see separate entry)

22
Cymru (qv) Wales - a spelling variant of Cymry = Welsh people

23
Y Cymry ar wasgar the Welsh diaspora, the Welsh people scattered all over the world

24
Cymry Llundain
the Welsh people who live in London, the London Welsh
Cymry Patagonia the Welsh of Patagonia, the Patagonian Welsh

25
Bror Cymry Welshry, district occupied by the Welsh (im medieval times, in a territory divided between Welsh and English inhabitants)

ETYMOLOGY: Literally compatriot, fellow countryman. Cymro < British kom-brog-os = person from the same country, compatriot; (kom- = together) + (brog- = country)
(in modern Welsh kom- survives as the prefixes cy-, cym-, cyn-; related to the Latin prefix co-, com-, con-)

In modern Welsh it is equivalent to the elements
(cym- prefix) + soft mutation + (bro = district, country) > Cymfro > Cymro (with the loss of
[v]).

Breton: kenvroad, kenvroiz (= compatriot, compatriots)

NOTE:
(1) Sometimes in South-east Wales Cymro > Cwmro.
<KUM-ro> [ˡkʊmrɔ]

(2) In the county of Penfro in the south-west Cymro > Cimro.
<KIM-ro> [ˡkɪmrɔ]

(3) The name of the country - Cymru (= Wales) - is an adapted spelling from the 1500s of Cymry (= the Welsh people). Cymru is pronounced
<KƏM-ri> [ˡkəmrɪ], exactly the same as Cymry.

(4) The Welsh name for France (Ffrainc) is also a plural noun referring to the inhabitants - literally it is the Francs, from Ffranc (= a Frank), as is Sweden, from English Sweden (the Swedes).

:_______________________________.


Y Cymro
<ə-KƏM-ro> [ə ˡkəmrɔ] masculine noun
1
A weekly Welsh-language newspaper published since 1932 (the Welshman)

:_______________________________.

Cymroaidd <kəm-ROO-aidh -edh> [kəmˡroˑaɪ, -ɛ] (adj)
1 (archaic) Welsh in character or behaviour; Cymric

Ar ei ddyfodiad atom yn Amrica yr oedd yn ei holl berson yn berffaith Gymroaidd
On his coming to us in America he was in all his person perfectly Welsh

Y mae rhywbeth digon Cymreig neu 'Gymroaidd', fel y byddai'r Arglwyddes Llanofer yn ei ddweud, ynghylch y ffordd y mae trigolion di-Gymraeg Blaenaur Cymoedd yn byw
There is something quite Welsh or Cymric, as Lady Llanover would say, about the way the English-speaking inhabitants of the Heads of the Valleys live

2 (obsolete) Welsh = of the Welsh people

Seren Gomer 1836, tudalen 340
Sefydliad Cymdeithas Gymroaidd yn y Casbach
Mr. Gomer - Gan fod yn ddywenydd o'r mwyaf genych glywed, yn nghyd 'ch plant gwasgaredig, am y Cymdeithasau Cymroaidd sydd yn cael eu sefydlu, o bryd i bryd, gan feibion Gomer, yr ydym ni, tua Mynwy, wedi bod yn hir megys yn cysgu mewn llonyddwch a difaterwch am ein Hiaith a'n cenedl, pan oedd canwyllau yn cael eu goleuo mewn amryw fanau ar hyd y Dywysogaeth, a thrwy fod y cyfryw ganwyllau yn taflu ychydig ddefnynau o'r goleu hyd atom ni, trwy gyfrwng y Cyhoeddiadau clodwiw, deffrowyd rhai o honom er ys tymmor hir yn nghylch codi Cymdeithas Gymroaidd,

The founding of a Welsh Society in Cas-bach (In English, Castleton. Cas-bach was originally yn Sir Fynwy / Monmouthshire; now administratively part of Caer-dydd / Cardiff),
Mr. Gomer, As you, as well as your children scattered about, are very happy to hear aboput Welsh Societies being founded, from time to time, by the sons og Gomer (= Welsh people), we, in Monmouthshire, have long been as it wwere sleeping in peace and indifference to our language and nation, when candles were beling lighted in various places throughout the Principality, and since those candles have been casting glimmers of light towards us, by means of praisworthy publications, for quite some time now some of us have been awakened in the mater of founding a Welsh Society.

:_______________________________.

cymrodedd <kəm-ROO-dedh> [kəmˡroˑdɛ] (m)
1 compromise, agreement
Rhyw fath o gymrodedd rhwng y gramadegwr a'r llenor yw Cymraeg safonol
Standard Welsh is a kind of compromise between the grammarian and the writer

ETYMOLOGY: cymrodedd < *cymrawdedd < *cymfrawdedd
(cym- = together) + soft mutation + (brawd = judgement, verdict) + (-edd suffix for forming abstract nouns)
:_______________________________.

Cymro di-Gymraeg
<KƏM-ro dii-gəm-RAIG> [ˡkəmrɔ diˑgəmˡraɪg] masculine noun
PLURAL Cymry di-Gymraeg
<KƏM-ri...> [ˡkəmrɪ...] 1 English Welshman, non-Welsh-speaking Welshman, Welshman who doesnt know the language of his country

2
Cymry di-Gymraeg English Welsh people, non-Welsh-speaking Welsh people,Welsh people who dont know the language of their country

NOTE: Welsh became a minority language within Wales around 1900. Nowadays the English Welsh, English immigrants, and English-speaking immigrants from other countries form over 80% of the population of Wales. Slightly less than twenty per cent are Welsh-speaking (Welsh people and assimilated immigrants). (Recently (2007) there are indications of a modest increase in the percentage of the inhabitants of Wales who have at least some ability in the language)

Before this unusual situation arose and when the majority of the inhabitants of Wales were Welsh-speaking (many of them monoglot Welsh), there was no special term for Welsh people ignorant of the language of the country, and they were referred to simply as Saeson (English people, English speakers). In colloquial Welsh, this is often still the case.

ETYMOLOGY: (Cymro = Welshman) + (di-Gymraeg = Welsh-less)

:_______________________________.

Cymru
<KƏM-ri> [ˡkəmrɪ] feminine noun
1
Wales, Cambria
A Celtic nation in the mountainous and hilly western part of south central Britain. (Celtic is a linguistic term meaning speaking a language derived from the Common Celtic of the Continent and is not an ethnic term).

The Welsh, like the Cornish and Bretons, are the surviving remnants of the British-speaking peoples (in a sense island Gauls, being identical with the Gauls who lived in what is present-day France, Northern Italy and Belgium).

 

These island Celts are probably pre-Celtic peoples who adopted the Celtic language (for whatever motive) of newcomers from the east who settled among the existing population, rather than the descendents of invaders who replaced an existing pre-Celtic population.

The British (i.e. these speakers of the British language) populated the whole of the island until around 400 AD when new invaders came from the east, this time Germanic peoples who began a centuries-long conquest and settlement. Eventually these newcomers (after some three hundred years) were in possession of most of the territories of the British in the southern portion of the island of Britain. A united kingdom, England, emerged.

 

The British language underwent a profound change at the time of this invasion in the 500s - to become an early form of Welsh.

 

(The British / Welsh territories of the north of the island were overrun by the Scots, who had come over from Ireland moving southwards and eastwards, and the Anglian English, moving northwards)

Again, much of the Germanic conquest may have been through subjugation and assimilation, or merely sharing territory which resulted in the new arrivals eventually assimilating the Welsh-speakers (British became Welsh at the time of this conquest), rather than through killings or expulsion.

In spite of the loss of most of their territory, the independent Welsh were able to resist foreign domination for over eight hundred years in the part of the island which is today Wales a broad mountainous western peninsula, difficult for an invader to overrun and retain.

England was conquered by the Normans in 1066, who within a few years had already secured a foothold in Wales, but it took two hundred years before the English Normans managed to penetrate this last portion of land occupied by the native British and bring it under their control.

The English Crown claimed the territory as its own through conquest, and under the Statute of Rhuddlan (1284) (a castletown in the north-west of Wales), the Welsh rulers recognised English domination of their lands.

Two hundred and fifty years later, between 1536 and 1542, the Welsh lands were formally annexed to England (though the laws enacted were not laws of annexation as such, but ones of extending English customs and adminstrative practices into Wales)

Although now part of the English state, the territory of the Welsh retained the name (Wales) by which they had been known for centuries in English, though this area was now regarded as a regional appendage to England.

(The Scottish portion of the English state is simply Scotland. The English portion of it called officially England and Wales, although this does not imply any kind of co-federation of equals, or any recognition of Wales as being a country apart from England).

From the time of this annexation there was no government to represent Wales as a whole; only local government was allowed to the Welsh, being a replica of the local government system in England. (In fact, the territory in the more troublesome western coastal fringe had already been divided into English-type counties after 1284, some two hundred and fifty years before).

Wales is often referred to as a principality though this is a meaningless term administratively it merely reflects an arrangement within the royal family where the heir to the throne is known as the Prince of Wales, a title dating from 1301 to indicate English supremacy over Wales after the military defeat of the surviving independent Welsh leaders.

The English name Wales is literally (the) foreigners, from an obsolete English word with the radical form

wal-. The name has developed a locative meaning (the land of) (the) foreigners, though the sense is more exactly people who are not Germanic like us and it may have referred to people who speak a Celtic language, though since it was not used to describe the Irish, it may be that it was applied to them not because of the language they spoke but from the fact that these people were people of the Roman Empire. At any rate it did not have the connotation that foreigners may have in modern English.

The same word is used in modern German in Switzerland, Welsch
[velsh] refers to the French-speaking Swiss - and also to Romansch speakers. It may have been first applied to them when they were Celtic speakers (Gaulish), later adopting Latin after the conquest by the Romans of the Gauls and the incorporation of their lands into the Roman Empire. The word though does not seem to apply to any language they may have spoken, but to their non-Germanic Romanised society.

The element wal- occurs in English walnut (the foreign nut, the nut from the south of Europe), and in numerous place names in England Walton (the village of the Welsh people), from the time of the gradual English occupation of Welsh lands. (In some cases, though, wal- may be wall, fence)

Under the terms of the 1536-42 annexation, the Welsh were allowed to continue to live in their home territory, but were discriminated against if they did not adopt English language and culture. Welshmen could become administrators in Wales only if they spoke English.

In reality, these prohibitions had little effect. Welsh was excluded from the law courts and administration, but the people continued to speak their own language outside these specialised ambits. Wales now posed no military threat to England, and was not of any real concern for the English state, which had other domestic preoccupations such as the subjugation of the Scots and the Irish, and later on the establishment of an Empire across the globe.

Although the Welsh gentry had become progressively English in outlook and language after the annexation (and some gentry families long before this), the mass of the people remained monolingual Welsh.

Welsh identity was not seriously threatened until the latter half of the 1800s, when the government of England embarked on a course of linguicide or cultural genocide and began to apply measures aimed at eradicating Welsh (and the Scots language, and Scottish) from what was considered to be English territory (although the policy was presented as one of enlightening the non-English peoples of the islands.

 

This destruction of Celtic languages as a form of civilisation is still the general English perception of the process; very few English people would accept that it is cultural genocide). Many Welsh people, who could not see this policy for what it was, were in favour of this extension of English in Wales perhaps not understanding that the state intended it to replace rather then complement the native language.

As a result of this systematic eradication of the language a process which many Welsh people, both non-Welsh-speakers and Welsh-speakers, have come to accept and even encourage in the belief that it represents progress there are today no monoglot Welsh people (apart maybe from infants, and some adults with diseases of senility who have lost competence in their second language, English).

All Welsh people can speak English, and only one out of five of the population of Wales is able to speak Welsh at all. (However, considering the massive influx of outsiders into Wales in modern times, the percentage of Welsh-speakers as a proportion of those born in Wales would be somewhat higher. According to the 2001 Census, around a quarter of the population is foreign-born, the vast majority being English people)

Indeed, to most Welsh people today it seems monstrous to suggest that anyone should be monoglot Welsh, though the existence of monoglot English people, and in surrounding countries monoglot Norwegians, Danes, Dutch, French, Icelanders, or Germans is regarded as being completely natural! (There are though some Welsh speakers in Patagonia who also speak Castilian but have no knowledge of English. This is considered by English people in general to be exotic in the extreme, since Welsh is always seen as secondary to the English language, and Welsh bilingualism in another language is incomprehensible to them)

For many of these incomers, Wales is a part of Greater England, and the language and culture of the native people are held in contempt (Why do I have to learn another language to live in my own country? is a usual question). At present, assimilation of English and other immigrants is very unusual so unusual as to be newsworthy in Welsh-language newspapers and magazines.

Another problem is that many Anglicised Welsh people also view with contempt their native culture, or at least have no desire to see it being any other than a folkloric vestige.

In part it can be explained a feeling of inferiority caused by their lack of acceptance by the English as equals. Showing their dislike of their own language endears them to the English, they believe. However the very fact of being Welsh in spite of being fanatically pro-English is enough to prevent their acceptance as being just as English as the English themselves.

For in spite of their Anglophilia, often they are suspected by the English as being crypto-Welsh speakers or secret Welsh patriots anyway, however much they may profess to hate the language of their own country and its separate identity.

It seems that attitudes are beginning to change however, and prejudice against the language is not as virulent today amongst native Welsh people (both monoglot English and even bilinguals!) and long-established immigrants as it was in the 1970s and 1980s. Recent immigrants (the great majority are English people) tend to be the most aggressively anti-Welsh-language segment of the inhabitants of Wales.

Continuing immigration of English-speaking people, especially into the heartlands of the country which until now have resisted the imposition of English language, culture, and values, and the exodus of Welsh-speakers partly as a result of this influx, and partly due to the political and economic policies of the English state which are neglectful of Wales, and rural Wales in particular, remain a grave problem, and there is a great deal of pessimism in these areas that Welsh will cease to be a community language (and hence a normal language) within the next two decades (i.e. by 2020).

2
y Gymru Rydd Free Wales, the future independent and free Wales, Wales free of English overlordship

gwlad ffraegar a chynhennus iawn fydd y Gymru Rydd (Cymro 24 06 92)
Free Wales will be a very quarrelsome and contentious country

Cymru Rydd slogan, graffito Free Wales (i.e. (We want a) free Wales, we want to be free from foreign domination)

3
y Gymru Gymraeg, Welsh-speaking Wales, Welsh-speaking people; the parts of the country or those in Welsh society who have resisted the imposition of the language and culture of England

4
Cymru gyfan the whole of Wales
drwy Gymru gyfan throughout Wales
Roedd yn adnabyddus drwy Gymru gyfan
He was well known through the whole of Wales

5
yng Nghymru i gyd in all Wales

6
Cymru am byth Wales for ever (patriotic slogan)

7
gollwng deigryn dros Gymru see a man about a dog, have a pee (to shed a tear for Wales)

8 Cumru Name of a township in Berks County, Pennsylvania.
The first landowner was Hugh Jones, who bought 1,000 acres of land in Cumru Township in Lancaster County in the year 1732. (Berks County was formed out of Lancaster County in 1752)
The name is a form of Cymru (= Wales), with the spelling of the vowel of the first syllable changed to u.

..a/ Although y is the obscure vowel (mid central unrounded vowel) , which also exists in English of course, there is no special symbol for it in English. Since the letter u in English can represent the half-open unrounded vowel between back and front (phonetic symbol - an inverted v) (as in run, sun, hunt, etc) has almost the same sound, in Anglicising spellings of Welsh place names it is often seen.
Examples from Wales are Crymlyn > Crumlyn (curved valley), Dyffryn > Duffryn (= valley).

..b/ The final u of Cymru / Cumru, pronounced as
[i] in South Wales (and a variant [i] sound in the north) has been misunderstood as an English u. If this place name Cumru" had been spelt Cumri in English it would have retained more of the original Welsh pronunciation.

9
USED AS AN ATTRIBUTE
..a/ Welsh, of Wales, belonging to Wales, representing Wales, situated in Wales; for Wales or the Welsh people (Note: no soft mutation after a feminine noun)

..1/ Canolbarth Cymru (= Central Wales)

..2/ Gardd Cymru ((the) Garden (of) Wales), an epithet for Bro Morgannwg, the coastal lowland west of Caer-dydd

..3/ Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru (the) national library (of) Wales, (llyfrgell is a feminine noun)

..4/ Plaid Cymru = 'the party of Wales', name of the nationalist party
(plaid
(= political party) is a feminine noun)

..5/ plant ysgol Cymru Welsh schoolchildren

..6/ Prifysgol Cymru (the) government (of) Wales, the Welsh government (prifysgol is a feminine noun)

..b/ When it is used with the meaning made in Wales, produced in Wales, characteristic of Wales / according to Welsh practice / of the type found in Wales rather than belonging to Wales the soft-mutated form Gymru is found after singular feminine nouns

biff Cymru
...tramorwyr yn canu clodydd biff Cymru people from abroad singing the praises of Welsh beef

cwrw Cymru Welsh beer, beer made in Wales

cynnyrch Cymru
product or products made in Wales ((a) product (of) Wales)

gwlanen Gymru Welsh flannel (i.e. made in Wales, or resembling the type found in Wales)

menyn Cymru Welsh butter

ETYMOLOGY: Cymru < Cymry = Welsh people. The spelling change was introduced in the 1500s to differentiate the two senses of Welsh population and Welsh territory
Cornish: Kembri (= Wales), Breton: Kembre (= Wales); (these are probably late forms).
Note that Irish has An Bhreatain Bheag Little Britain = Wales,
and An Bhreatainn Mhr Big Britain (= the island of Britain). Brittany is An Bhriotin in Irish. Scottish has Cuimridh (= Wales), an adaptation of the Welsh name C
ymru.

NOTE:
(1) The name is a respelling of Cymry, literally Welsh people, used in the sense of Gwlad y Cymry (the land of the Welsh). By the 1500s u and y, originally representing different sounds, were both pronounced as y. The use of u was a useful spelling differentiation to indicate the country rather than its inhabitants.

(2) The Welsh word for France - Ffrainc has a similar origin - Franks, the plural of Ffranc a Frank,

(3) Also Welsh Sweden < English Sweden < Scandinavian Sweden (= the Swedes)

(4) Cymru, like all names of countries and towns in Welsh, is a feminine noun, and so there is soft mutation of the initial consonant of a following adjective

rhydd = free; Cymru Rydd (qv) free Wales
Cymraeg = Welsh (in language); Cymru Gymraeg = Welsh-speaking Wales

:_______________________________.

Cymru a Lloegr
<KƏM-ri a LHOI-ger> [ˡkəmrɪ a ˡɬɔɪgɛr]
1
England and Wales (literally: Wales and England).

:_______________________________.

Cymru Coch
<KƏM-ri KOOKH> [ˡkəmrɪ ˡkoːx] masculine noun
1
Y Cymru Coch popular name for the magazine Cymru (1891-1927)

ETYMOLOGY: the red Cymru (from the colour of its cover). Cymru is a feminine noun, but since here Cymru is the magazine (cylchgrawn, a masculine noun), there is no soft mutation after Cymru. See Cymru Goch

:_______________________________.

Cymru Goch
<KƏM-ri-GOOKH> [ˡkəmrɪˡ goːx] feminine noun
1
name of a Welsh Socialist organisation

ETYMOLOGY: Red Wales (Cymru = Wales) + soft mutation + (coch = red)

:_______________________________.

Cymry
<KƏM-ri> [ˡkəmrɪ] (plural noun)
1
Welshmen; Welsh people. See Cymru = Wales

:_______________________________.

cymryd
<KƏM-rid> [ˡkəmrɪd] (verb)
1
take
- cymryd diddordeb mewn
<KƏM-rid di-DHOR-deb meun> [ˡkəmrɪd dɪˡɔrdɛb mɛʊn] (verb) take an interest in

2 cymryd arnoch ddiofryd tlodi take a vow of poverty

3 cymryd hynny a wnaiff hi (container, receptacle) take as much as it can hold

4 cymryd clap (actor at the end of a performance) take a bow

5 cymryd trugaredd ar (rywun) take pity on someone

6 C
ymer e neu beidio Take it or leave it (take it or refrain)

7 cymryd gormod o gegaid bite off more than you can chew (take (an) excess of mouthful)

8 cymryd cam ffl do something rash (take (a) foolish step)

9 cymryd y gyfraith yn eich dwylo eich hunan take the law into your own hands

:_______________________________.

cymudo
<kə-MII-do> [kəˡmiˑdɔ] verb
1
commute = travel regularly between two points, as between home and a place of work

ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of the English word commute (from Latin commutre). Cymudo is based on the verb mudo (= to move), from British < Latin mutre (= to change).
(cym- Welsh prefix corresponding to the Latin prefix com-) + (mud-) + (-o, suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

cymudwr
<kə-MII-dur> [kəˡmiˑdʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cymudwyr
<kə-MID-wir> [kəˡmɪdwɪr]
1
commuter, a person who commutes

ETYMOLOGY: (cymud-, stem of cymudo = to commute) + (-wr suffix denoting an agent for forming nouns)

:_______________________________.

cymun
<KƏ-min> [ˡkəmɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL cymunau
<kə-MII-nai, -e> [kəˡmiˑnaɪ, -ɛ]
1
Y Cymun (in full Y Cymun Bendigaid) Communion, Holy Communion = the celebration of the Eucharist, commemoration of the Last Supper with the consecration of bread and wine
derbyn eich cymun cyntaf receive first communion

2
Holy Communion - name of a religious service

Eglwys Sant Eleth (Amlwch). 8am. Cymun Bendigaid (Saesneg)
Saint Eleths Church (Amlwch). 8am. Holy Communion (English-language service) (advert in Yr Herald, 06 08 94)

3
cwpan cymun communion cup

4
bwrdd cymun communion table; South Wales bord gymun communion table

5
Sul y Cymun Communion Sunday = any Sunday on which communion takes place

ETYMOLOGY: Latin commni (= general participation) < commnis (= common)

:_______________________________.

Cymun Bendigaid
<KƏ-min ben-DII-gaid -ged> [ˡkəmɪn bɛnˡdiˑgaɪd, -ɛd] masculine noun
1
Holy Communion. See cymun = communion

:_______________________________.

cymundeb, cymundebau
<kə-MIN-deb, kə-min-DEE-bai, -e> [kəˡmɪndɛb, kəmɪnˡdeˑbaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine noun)
1
communion

:_______________________________.

cymuned
<kə-MII-ned> [kəˡmiˑnɛd] feminine noun
PLURAL cymunedau
<kə-mi-NEE-dai, -e> [kəmɪˡneˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
community
y gymuned = the community
rhan o gymuned Gymraeg Llundain
part of the London Welsh community

Cymuned, mudiad a ffurfiwyd yn y flwyddyn 2001 i amddiffyn y cymunedau Cymraeg
Cymuned (= community), a movement which was formed in the year 2001 to defend the Welsh-speaking communities
http://www.cymuned.org/

2
gofal yn y gymuned community care (for example, help for people with mental illness who are able to live within a community instead of being confined to a hospital)

3
community = administrative unit created in 1974

ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of the English word community; cym- = com(m)-, uned = unit(y)

:_______________________________.

cymwys
<KƏ-muis> [ˡkəmʊɪs] (adjective)
1
apt, suitable
ymgeledd cymwys helpmate = helpful wife or husband, help meet
The English word helpmate results from a misunderstanding of
'an helpe meet (= suitable) for him'

In Genesis 18:20
Hefyd
yr Arglwydd Dduw a ddywedodd, Nid da bod y dyn
ei hunan; gwnaf iddo
ymgeledd cymwys iddo...
(18:20) Ac Adda a enwodd enwau ar
yr holl anifeiliaid, ac
ar ehediad
y nefoedd ac ar holl fwystfilod y maes;
ond ni chafodd efe i Adda
ymgeledd cymwys iddo
Genesis 18:20 And the Lord God said, It is not good that the
man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him...
(18:20) And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air,
and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not
found an help meet for him

Yn y flwyddyn 1797, yn mhen dwy flynedd wedi ei urddiad, efe a gymerodd Mary Brees y Coed, yn ymgeledd cymwys iddo ei hun (Cofiant y Tri Brawd / E Pan Jones / 1892 / t12 )
In the year 1797, two years after his ordination, he took Mary Brees from Y Coed as a wife (suitable help)

2 straight
mor gymwys saeth (as straight as an arrow) as straight as an arrow, as straight as a ramrod Also: mor gymwys 'r saeth (as straight as the arrow)

In the South: mor gwmws...

:_______________________________.

cymydau
<kə-MƏ-dai, -e> [kəˡmədaɪ, -ɛ] (plural noun)
1
See: cwmwd

:_______________________________.

cymydog, cymdogion
<kə-MƏ-dog, kəm-DOG-yon> [kəˡmədɔg, kəmˡdɔgjɔn] (masculine noun)
1
neighbor

:_______________________________.

cymylau
<kə-MƏ-lai, -e> [kəˡməlaɪ, -ɛ] (plural noun)
1
clouds; see: cwmwl

:_______________________________.

cymylog
<kə-MƏ-log> [kəˡməlɔg] (adjective)
1
cloudy

:_______________________________.

cymynrodd
<kə-MƏN-rodh> [kəˡmənrɔ] feminine noun
PLURAL cymynroddiau, cymynroddion
<kə-mən-RODH-yai, -ye, -yon> [kəmənˡrɔjaɪ, -jɛ, -jɔn]
1 legacy, bequest

Gadawodd gymunroddion mewn arian iw wasanaethyddion yn y Friog er cof am eu gwasanaeth cywir iddo (Plant y Gorthrwm / 1908 / Gwyneth Vaughan (= Anne Harriet Hughes 1852-1910 t166)
He left bequests in money to his servants in the Friog in appreciation of (in memory of) their honest service to him

ETYMOLOGY: cymynrodd < cymunrodd (cymun = communion ) + soft mutation + ( rhodd = gift, donation)

:_______________________________.

cymysgu
<kə-MƏ-ski> [kəˡməskɪ] (verb)
1
mix up

:_______________________________.

cymysg
<KƏ-misk> [ˡkəmɪsk] (adjective)
1
mixed up

:_______________________________.

cyn
<KIN> [kɪn] (preposition)
1
before
cyn cinio
<kin KIN-yo> [kɪn ˡkɪnjɔ] before dinner
codi pais cyn piso first things first (lift a petticoat before pissing)

2
equative comparisons = as
cyn ddistawed r bedd as silent as the grave
cyn dloted ...
<kin-DLO-ted> [kɪn ˡdlɔtɛd] (adjective) as poor as
cyn gynted ag y
<kin-GƏN-ted ag ə> [kɪnˡgəntɛd ag ə] (phrase) as soon as
cyn lleied ...
<kin-LHEI-ed a> [kɪnˡɬəɪd a] (adverb) as little as, as few as
cyn wynned r eira
= as white as snow

3
cyn y
<kin ə> [kɪn ə] (conjunction) before

:_______________________________.

..1 c
yn- <KIN> [kɪn] prefix
1
pre-
clinig cyn geni ante-natal clinic


:_______________________________.

..2 cyn-
<KƏN> [kən]
1
first element in compound words or derivatives with the sense of dog / warrior.
Cf the modern word cŵn (= dogs), the plural form of ci (= dog, hound; formerly also warrior)

1/ cyndyn (= stubborn)
dog tight (cyn-) + soft mutation + (tyn = tight)

2/ cynddaredd (= rage, rabies)
dog dizziness (cyn-) + soft mutation + (dr = ?giddy, dizzy) + (-edd suffix for forming nouns)

3/ cynffon (= tail)
dog stick (cyn-) + (ffon = stick)

4/ cynllyfan (literary word; dogs leash, dogs lead)
dog rope (cyn-) + (llyfan = rope)

5/ cyndy (obsolete; = kennel)
dog house (cyn-) + soft mutation + (ty = house)

6/ cyna (also cwna) be in heat (said of a bitch)

(dog-seeking)

7/ Cynon (mans name)
(cyn- = warrior) + (-on = suffix used in names of deities)

:_______________________________.

-cyn
<KIN> [kɪn]

1 diminutive suffix

brycyn hillock (bryn = hill)

Y Twyncyn
(the hillock ) district in Dinaspowys, county of Bro Morgannwg, South-east Wales (twyn = hill)

:_______________________________.

cyna
<KƏ-na> [ˡkəna] verb
NOTE: also: cwna
1
North Wales (bitch) be in heat; maer ast yn cwna the bitch is in heat

ETYMOLOGY: (cyn-, historical stem of the word ci = dog) + (-a)

:_______________________________.

cynadledda
<kə-nad-LEE-dha> [kənadˡleˑa] verb
1
confer, talk

ETYMOLOGY: (cynadledd-, stem of cynhadledd = conference, debate, talk) + (-a)

:_______________________________.

cynadleddau
<kə-nad-LEE-dhai, -e> [kənadˡleˑaɪ, -ɛ]
1
plural form of cynhadledd = conference

:_______________________________.

c
ynadleddfa <kə-nad-LEDH-va> [kənadˡlɛva] feminine noun
PLURAL c
ynadleddfydd <kə-nad-ledh-VEIDH> [kənadlɛˡvəɪ]
1 conference room

ETYMOLOGY: (c
ynadledd-, stem of cynhadledd = conference, debate, talk) + (-fa suffix = place

:_______________________________.

c
ynadleddwr <kə-nad-LEEDH-ur> [ˡkənadˡleˑʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL c
ynadleddwyr <kə-nad-LEDH-wir> [kənadˡlɛwɪr]
1 person attending a conference, conference-goer (USA: conferee)

Bydd llety ar gael
yng Ngwesty Glan-y-mr ar gyfer y cynadleddwyr Accommodation will be available un the Gla-y-mr guest house for those attending the conference

ETYMOLOGY: (c
ynadledd-, stem of cynhadledd = conference, debate, talk) + (-wr suffix = person, man)

:_______________________________.

cynaeafu
<kə-nei-AA-vi> [kənəɪˡɑˑvɪ] (verb)
1
to harvest

2 cynaeafu tra bon dywydd deg make hay while the sun shines, make the most of an opportunity
(tywydd is usually masculine; in some places feminine)

:_______________________________.

cynaeafwr
<kə-nei-AA-vur> [kənəɪˡɑˑvʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL cynaeafwyr
<kə-nei-AV-wir> [kənəɪˡavwɪr]
1
(person) harvester

2 cynaeafwr gwair haymaker

ETYMOLOGY: (cynaeaf-, penult forma of cynhaeaf = harvest) + (-wr agent suffix, man)

:_______________________________.

cynalath
<kə-NAA-lath> [kəˡnɑˑlaθ] feminine noun
South-east Wales
1
maintenance See: cynhaliaeth

:_______________________________.

cynal-i-
<kə-NA-li> [kəˡnalɪ]
1
a stem of cynnal = uphold, maintain, sustain

:_______________________________.

cynaliadwy
<kə-nal-YAA-dui>