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Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
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les i Catalunya
The Wales-Catalonia Website

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7000_kimkat1676e.jpgI, J, K









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E, e ee feminine noun

1 ) fifth letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e,
6 f, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z

) seventh letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e,
8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y



e < a
Vowel affection through the influence of the vowel y in the following syllable.

An example is seen in words with the addition of the suffix -yn
arf (= implement, weapon) > erfyn (= implement, weapon)
chwap (= blow; instant) > chwepyn (South Wales) (= blow; instant)
rhaff (= rope) > rheffyn (= thin rope)

In modern Welsh, the affection is not now usual. Some words have only a; others have a alongside an older form with e. More recent combinations (?last couple of centuries) have a only.
cnap (= lump) > cnapyn (= little lump) (besides older cnepyn)
nap (= nap) > napyn (= short nap) (besides older nepyn)


e < English a

clec ( = bang) < English clack

cnec ( = bang; fart) < English knack ( = crack, click)

het ( = hat) < English hat (in fact, het borrowed from Old English)


e < ae, ai, au in a final syllable

This reduction occurs over most of Wales; in the south-east and the north-west, where an e in a final syllable becomes a (bachgen (= boy) > bachgan), e which is a reduction of ae, ai, au does likewise

chwarae (= to play) > chware (north-east, midlands), hware (south-west)

dwyrain (= east) > dwyren

pethau (= things) > pethe

Although the general rule for the spelling of place names is to use a standard literary form, without this colloquial reduction of the vowel, the e in fact occurs in very many names in this e zone

Baecinmel (Conwy), English Kinmel Bay, preserves the name Cinmel < Cinmael (though originally Cilmael) (cil = nook, secluded place; Mael = male forename)

(Official form in Welsh is Bae Cinmel, though strictly speaking that would refer to the bay and not the village).

Cader Idris, a mountain by Dolgellau (Gwynedd), instead of Cadair Idris (seat (of) Idris)

Llanymynech (Powys) instead of Llanymynaich (church (of) the monks)

Machynlleth (Powys) instead of Machynllaith (plain (of) Cynllaith)

Such examples abound.

e < ei
a short [e] in the penult is sometimes a reduction of the diphthong ei

Bleddyn (mans name) < Bleiddyn (blaidd = wolf) + (yn = diminutive suffix)
Gwerful (womans name) < Gweirful


Also in a monosyllabic word in the case of

ceirch (= oats) > cerch (a northern variant)



e < eu
a short [e] in the penult is sometimes a reduction of the diphthong eu

gwenle < gweunle (moorland place)


e < y
An original y
i in a final syllable has become e in some instances.
In certain words e is standard, and the form with y is obsolete; in others it appears only in dialect forms

(1) Mercher = Wednesday (historically Merchyr)

(2) wele = see! behold! < a wely do you see? (in modern Welsh, do you see = a weli di?)

(3) hwde! = take! < hwdy

(4) the conditional tense ending -ych > -ech
byddech (= you might be) < byddych
gwelech (= you might see) < gwelych

(5) cleddyf > *cleddef > cleddeu > cleddau (= sword). (In modern Welsh, both cleddyf and cleddau are in use)

(6) edyf > *edef > edeu > edau (= thread). The plural form is edefion; and a diminutive is edefyn

(7) Rhosyr (old district name, island of Mn)

Apparently this is originally Rhosfir / Rhos Fir, corresponding to modern Welsh Rhos Fair (= upland (of) (the) (Virgin) Mary, upland of the church dedicated to the Virgin Mary)

The evolution would be this, or similar to this: Rhosfir > Rhsfeir > Rhseir > Rhser


(8) the dialect form imbed instead of enbyd is probably a metathesis

enbyd / embyd > embid > imbed E-I > I-E

Examples which are used in certain regions but are not considered standard are:
(1) edrych (= to look) > edrech > edrach (North-west Wales), and

etrach (South-east Wales) (in the north-western and south-eastern corner of the country e > a in a final syllable)

(2) in North-east Wales :
den chi, ryden ni (standard: yr ydym ni = we are)
dch chi, rydech chi (standard: yr ydych chwi = you are)
den nhw, ryden nhw (standard: yr ydynt hwy = they are)

In North-west Wales, final e > a which explains the forms here
dan chi, rydan ni (standard: yr ydym ni = we are)
dch chi, rydach chi (standard: yr ydych chwi = you are)
dan nhw, rydan nhw (standard: yr ydynt hwy = they are)

(3) Gŵyl Gewydd (15 July, feastday of Cewydd) > Gŵyl Gewy > Gŵyl Gewe (South Wales)

(4) South-eastern llethyr (= letter) is possibly a metathesised form of llyther < llythyr

(1) The north-eastern town of Dinbych is colloquially Dimbech

In the following names from south-east Wales, we see the usual change of final e > a, (a change typical too in the north-west.)

..a/ Tredegyr > Tredeger > Tredegar. A mansion in the county of Casnewydd. Tredegar exists as a transferred name in the county of Blaenau Gwent, and in the county of Caerffili there is Tredegar Newydd New Tredegar. Locally in Blaeanu Gwent / Caerffili Tredegar becomes Tredecar (a
g at the beginning of a final syllable is devoiced in the south-east, becoming k) and Decar (loss of the pretonic syllable a common feature in colloquial Welsh)

..b/ Tawe, a river in south-east Wales, historically Tawy (on the fringe of this region, where e remains unchanged in a final syllable, and so Tawa does not occur in the valley of the Tawe, though it does in the rest of the region).


Abertawe (mouth of the river Tawe; English: Swansea) is colloquially Byrtawe locally (Byrtawa in the rest of the south-eastern region east of the Nedd valley).

..c/ The local name of Tindyrn (= locality and abbey in the county of Mynwy) is Dindarn, which is possibly Dindarn < *Dindern < Dindyrn. The modern radical form with t shows an unusual change from the original intial d

..d/ The south-eastern county of Sir Fynwy is Sir Fynwe > Shir Fynwa
shiir vən-wa

..e/ The saints name Sawyl is found in Llansawel (locally Llansawal)

(3) North-west Wales: The saints name Mechyll is found in Llanfechell on the island of Mn (locally Llanfechall)



e < y in the tonic syllable


Cennydd KE-nidh [ˡkɛnɪ]
1 saints name, a variant form of Cynydd
Llangennydd, a variant of Llangynydd SS4291 (English name: Llangennith). Village in the county of Abertawe.


E he

roedd e / oodd e = he was (< yr oedd ef)



-e -

Third-person singular imperect. See -ai

-e fe he would (South-west)
-e hi she would (South-west)

-e fo he would (North-east)
-e hi she would (North-east)


siarade fo he would talk


the grave accent indicates a short vowel when it occurs in a long-vowel environment
The a in monosyllables in Welsh with final b, -d, -g is long
lheed half; fairly
heeb without
hreeg swearword

However English words with a short vowel with the same pattern (monsyllables, with g, b, d as the final consonant) taken into Welsh retain the short vowel in Welsh.
Mg Maggie, Margaret
Nd Ned, Edward

pg clothes peg; tent peg
Pg Margaret

sld cŵn dog sled
Td Ted, Edward

Though it would be more correct to indicate this short vowel with , in general this is not done (Meg, Ned, peg, Peg, sled, Ted, etc)

<EE-ang> aŋg] adjective
wide, extensive, vast in size or extent
Pwnc eang iawn, wrth gwrs, yw ystadegaeth
Of course, statistics is a very wide subject

Mae gennym ddewis eang o hen lyfrau
We have a wide range of old books

diddordebau eang wide interests, interest in many different fields, apart from ones occupation, etc

ar raddfa eang on a wide scale

coedwig eang extensive woodland

gardd eang extensive garden

dylanwad eang extensive influence

2 yn eang adverb extensively
Bu raid hysbysu yn eang er mwyn cael Prif Weithredwr
It was necessary to advertise extensively to get a Chief Executive

3 roomy, spacious
yn llofft storws eang y fferm in the spacious upstairs room of the farm storehouse

4 openminded, cultivated, not narrow-minded; receptive to new ideas and tolerant
Yn l y Saeson, rhai cul ydym nir Cymry, er ein bod yn siarad eu hiaith hwy yn ogystal n hiaith ninnau. Rhaid bod yn uniaith Saesneg i fod yn eang
According to English people, we Welsh people are narrow-minded, even though we speak their language in addition to our own language. You have to be monolingual English to be open-minded

5 eang eich apl
<EE-ang əkh a-PEEL> aŋg əx aˡpeːl] having a wide appeal

6 yn ystyr ehangaf y gair in the widest sense of the word

7 derived forms with three syllables have ehng-, as in ehangder (= immensity), ehangu (= extend, widen)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh eang < ehang < ?*echang
< British *eks-ang-; (eks = out of), (ang- = (obsolete) narrow)


<e-ang-DEE-rai, -re> [eaŋˡdeˑraɪ, -rɛ] plural
plural form of ehangder = immensity


<e-ang-VRƏƏ-dig> [ɛaŋˡvrəˑdɪg]
1 magnanimity, openmindedness, broadmindedness

ETYMOLOGY: (eang = wide) + soft mutation + (-i-edig suffix for forming adjectives)


<e-ang-VRƏƏ-dedh> [ɛaŋˡvrəˑdɛ] adjective
1 magnanimous, open-minded openmindedness, broadmindedness

ETYMOLOGY: (eang = wide) + soft mutation + (bryd = mind) (-ig suffix for forming adjectives)


<EEB> [eːb]
Element with the sense of horse. Does not survive as an independent word in modern Welsh, but occurs in a number of compound words

cyfeb (mare) in foal; (sheep) in lamb; literally with horse (cyf- = with) + (eb = horse)

ebol (= foal) < ebawl < British (*epl-os = small horse) < (epo-s = horse)

e-bran = fodder, stover < (eb- = horse) + soft mutation + (rhan = part)

4) ebrwydd (= rapid); probably (eb- = horse) + soft mutation + (rhwydd = rapid, quick), and so literally rapid like a horse

5) epil (= offspring, children); historically the word meant young horse(s)
(eb- = horse) + (hil = progeny, lineage, race) (b + h = p)
(Cf English kid = child; literally a young goat)

Epona Celtic goddess of horses; British
(ep- = horse) + (on- suffix often used in the names of deities)

Epynt or Mynydd Epynt mountain in the county of Powys; the meaning is probably horse path (eb = horse) + (hynt = way, path) (b + h = p)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh eb- < British epo- < Celtic *ekwo-s
from the same Celtic root: Irish each = horse, Scottish each = horse;

cf Latin equus (= horse) (origin of the English words equitation, equine),

Cognate with Greek hippos (= horse) (basis of the English words hippopotamus (river horse), hippodrome, and the name Phillip)


<e-bar-GOV-yant> [ɛbarˡgɔvjant] masculine noun
1 oblivion
mynd i ebargofiant fall into oblivion, disappear for ever
Mae llawer or hen eiriau ac ymadroddion wedi mynd i ebargofiant erbyn hyn
Many of the old words and expressions have disappeared for ever now

ETYMOLOGY: ebargof-i-, stem of the verb ebargofio = to forget ) + (-ant, suffix for forminh nouns)


<e-bar-GOV-yo> [ɛbarˡgɔvjɔ] verb
obsolete forget

ETYMOLOGY: (ebar unknown element) + soft mutation + (cofio = to remember)


abbreviation = ebychiad (= exclamation)


Ebenezer e-ben-E-ser [ɛbɛnˡɛsɛr]

1 Until 1923 the name of a village in Gwynedd (when it was changed to Deiniolen SH5763).

The name was from Ebenezer, a chapel belonging to the Independents, built just one century previously in 1823. The local name for the chapel is Capal Eban (= Capel Eben)

(delwedd 7516) Capel Ebenezer



ebill, PLURAL ebillion, ebilliau
<EE-bilh, e-BILH-yon, e-BILH-yai, -ye> [ˡeˑbɪɬ, ɛˡbɪɬjɔn, ɛˡbɪɬjaɪ, -jɛ] (masculine noun)

2 ebill deudwll auger for making two holes, in the expression
chwilio am ebill deudwll be on a fools errand (look for a two-hole auger)


ebol, ebolion <EE-bol, e-BOL-yon> [ˡeˑbɔl, ɛˡbɔljɔn]masculine noun

difference, distinction
Mae na ragor ofnadwy rhwng ebol a cheiliog
Theyre as different as chalk from cheese, theyre completely different
(theres a terrible difference / an enormous difference between a foal and a rooster)


<e-BOO-les> [ɛˡboˑlɛs] feminine noun
PLURAL ebolesau
<e-bo-LE-sai, -se> [ɛbɔˡlɛsaɪ, -sɛ]
filly = young female horse

eboles o ferch = spirited young girl ((a) filly of (a) girl)

mor lysti r eboles = as vivacious as a filly

NOTE: : In North Wales there is a form poles (polas in the north-west), plural polesod.
Yr eboles = the filly, with the loss of the pretonic syllable, which is the initial syllable (a very characterisitic feature of Welsh) > y boles. After the initial b was understood as the soft mutation of p, and the result was poles (= filly)

Daeth hen ffermwr pholes ifanc iw phedoli at of y pentref
An old farmer came to the village blacksmith with a young filly to be shoed


EE-bor [ˡɛˑbɔr]
1 British root, see efwr (= cow parsnip)


<e-bo-RAA-kum> [ɛbɔˡrɑˑkʊm]
Eboracum = Latin name for the English city of York (hence Ebor. the signature of the Archbishop of York).


See Efrog (Welsh name for York), efwr (= cow parsnip)


EE -bost [ˡeˑbɔst] masculine noun
PLURAL ebostiau
e-bost-yai, -ye [ɛˡbɔstjaɪ, -jɛ]
e-mail, electronic mail, system of sending and receiving messages via computer terminals

e-mail, message sent by electronic mail
Maer ebost hwn yn gyfrinachol This e-mail is confidential

ETYMOLOGY: Adaptation of the English term e-mail (= electronic mail), with e treated as a prefix which causes soft mutation
(e) + soft mutation + (post = post, mail)


<E-bran> [ˡɛbran] masculine noun
1 fodder, stover

Genesis 24:25 A hi a ddywedodd wrtho ef, Y mae gwellt ac ebran ddigon gennym ni, a lle i letya
Genesis 24:25 She said moreover unto him, We have both straw and provender enough, and room to lodge in.

24:32 Ar gwr a aeth ir tŷ: ac yntau a ryddhaodd y camelod, ac a roddodd wellt ac ebran ir camelod; a dwfr i olchi ei draed ef, a thraed y dynion oedd gydag ef.
Genesis 24:32 And the man came into the house: and he ungirded his camels, and gave straw and provender for the camels, and water to wash his feet, and the mens feet that were with him.

OLOGY: Welsh ebran horse portion < (eb- = horse) + soft mutation + (rhan = part, portion)


<e-BRAN-di> [ɛˡbrandɪ]masculine noun
PLURAL ebrandai
<e-BRAN-dai> [ɛˡbrandaɪ]
1 place where fodder is kept

2 brandy Epenthetic form of ebrandy
There is a street name Brandy in Johnstown, county of Wrecsam. Query: Is this ebrandy?

ETYMOLOGY: (ebran = fodder) + soft mutation + ( = house)


<E-brilh> [ˡɛbrɪɬ] masculine noun
yn Ebrill in April

mis Ebrill April ((the) month (of) April)

fis Ebrill in April

ym mis Ebrill in April
ar ddechrau mis Ebrill at the beginning of April
ar ganol mis Ebrill
in the middle of April, in mid-April
ar ddiwedd mis Ebrill
at the end of April

bob mis Ebrill every April

ffŵl Ebrill (fool (of) April) April fool

diwrnod ffŵl Ebrill April Fools Day, April First. A day when practical jokes are played on other people.

bore ffŵl Ebrill April Fools Day morning, April First. (Practical jokes are only permissible in the morning; any such joke after twelve noon brings bad luck to whoever is the perpetrator)

jc ffŵl Ebrill April Fools joke (a practical joke played on somebody on April the first)

cwn Ebrill curlews ( dogs (of) April) (from the noise of their cries in the spring)

llygad Ebrill Chelidonium majus lesser celandine

Ebrill (y cyntaf o Ebrill)
the first of April
Diwrnod Ffŵl Ebrill April Fools Day

Ebrill (yr ail o Ebrill)
the second of April

Ebrill (y trydydd o Ebrill)
the third of April

Ebrill (y pedwerydd o Ebrill)
the fourth of April

Ebrill (y pumed o Ebrill)
the fifth of April

Ebrill (y chweched o Ebrill)
the sixth of April

Ebrill (y seithfed o Ebrill)
the seventh of April

Ebrill (yr wythfed o Ebrill)
the eighth of April

Ebrill (y nawfed o Ebrill)
the ninth of April

Ebrill (y degfed o Ebrill)
the tenth of April

Ebrill (yr unfed ar ddeg o Ebrill)
the eleventh of April

Ebrill (y deuddegfed o Ebrill)
the twelfth of April

Ebrill (y trydydd ar ddeg o Ebrill)
the thirteenth of April

Ebrill (y pedwerydd ar ddeg o Ebrill)
the fourteenth of April

Ebrill (y pymthegfed o Ebrill)
the fifteenth of April

Ebrill (yr unfed ar bymtheg o Ebrill)
the sixteenth of April

Ebrill (yr ail ar bymtheg o Ebrill)
the seventeenth of April
Gŵyl Badarn (the) feastday (of) Padarn)

Ebrill (y deunawfed o Ebrill)
the eighteenth of April

Ebrill (y pedwerydd ar bymtheg o Ebrill)
the nineteenth of April

Ebrill (yr ugeinfed o Ebrill)
the twentieth of April

Ebrill (yr unfed ar hugain o Ebrill)
the twenty-first of April
Gŵyl Feuno (the) feastday (of) Beuno). Saint of Clynnog Fawr, north-west Wales

Ebrill (yr ail ar hugain o Ebrill)
the twenty-second of April

Ebrill (y trydydd ar hugain o Ebrill)
the twenty-third of April
Gŵyl Siors (the) feastday (of) George)

Ebrill (y pedwerydd ar hugain o Ebrill)
the twenty-fourth of April

Ebrill (y pumed ar hugain o Ebrill)
the twenty-fifth of April
Gŵyl Farc Efengylwr

(the) feastday mark (the) Evangelist)

Ebrill (y chweched ar hugain o Ebrill)
the twenty-sixth of April

Ebrill (y seithfed ar hugain o Ebrill)
the twenty-seventh of April

Ebrill (yr wythfed ar hugain o Ebrill)
the twenty-eighth of April

Ebrill (y nawfed ar hugain o Ebrill)
the twenty-ninth of April

Ebrill (y degfed ar hugain o Ebrill)
the thirtieth of April

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh Ebrill < British < Latin aprlis (= April).


Some Latinists see it as a derivation of Latin aper (= a boar), hence month of the boar.


Others regard it as having its origin in some Etruscan (i.e. pre-Latin) word.

From the same British root: Cornish Ebrel (= April), Breton Ebrel (= April)



Ebrill sych, pob peth a nych
<E-brilh-SIIKH, poob PEETH aa NIIKH> [ˡɛbrɪɬ ˡsiː x, poːb ˡpeːθ aː ˡniːx]
A dry April, everything loses vigour

ETYMOLOGY: (Ebrill = April) + (sych = dry) + ( [ys] = is) + (pob = every) + (peth = thing) + (a = which) + (nych = [it] loses vigour)


<EE-bui> [ˡeˑbʊɪ] feminine noun
Afon Ebwy river in the counties of Blaenau Gwent, Caerffili, Casnewydd
<AA-von EE-bui> [ˡɑˑvɔn ˡeˑbʊɪ]

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

2 Glynebwy A town in Blaenau Gwent. English name: Ebbw Vale. The Welsh name is a translation of the English name. The original Welsh name was Pen-y-cae, locally Pen-c
<GLIN EE-bui> [ˡglɪn ˡeˑbʊɪ]

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

Cwm Ebwy the Ebwy valley
<KUM EE-bui> [ˡkʊm ˡeˑbʊɪ]

4 Ebwy locality in the valley; English name: Greenfield

ETYMOLOGY: Ebwy < Ebwydd, apparently meaning swift, rapid

NOTE: The local form was Ebw, from the usual dialect reduction of final wy ui [ʊɪ] > w u [ʊ]. The English name Ebbw is in fact this dialect form, misspelt with a doubled consonant.


One might have expected Epw as the local form, since in the south-east g,d,b at the head of a final syllable are devoiced to c,t,p


E.g. southern Welsh cer i wipan! (= get lost!) < cer i chwiban


<EE-birth> [ˡeˑbɪrθ]
sacrifices, offerings; plural of aberth
Leviticus 7:11 Dyma hefyd gyfraith yr ebyrth hedd a offryma efe ir Arglwydd
Leviticus 7:11 And this is the law of the sacrifice of peace offerings, which he shall offer unto the Lord

Lefiticus 7:18 Ac os bwyteir dim o gig offrwm ei ebyrth hedd ef o fewn y trydydd dydd, ni byddir bodlon ir hwn ai hoffrymo ef, ac nis cyfrifir iddo, ffieiddbeth fydd; ar dyn a fwyty ohono, a ddwg ei anwiredd.
Leviticus 7:18 And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings be eaten at all on the third day, it shall not be accepted, neither shall it be imputed unto him that offereth it: it shall be an abomination, and the soul that eateth of it shall bear his iniquity.


ebychiad, ebychiadau
<e-BƏKH-yad, a-bəkh-YAA-dai, -de> [ɛˡbəxjad, ɛbɔxˡjɑˑdaɪ, -dɛ]masculine noun
abbreviation (in a dictionary entry) ebd.


<e-BƏKH-nod> [ɛˡbəxnɔd] masculine noun
PLURAL ebychnodau
<e-bəkh-NOO-dai, -de> [ɛbəxˡnoˑdaɪ, -dɛ]
exclamation mark (also: rhyfeddnod <hrə-VEDH-nod> [hrəˡvɛnɔd]

ETYMOLOGY: (ebych- < ebychu = to exclaim) + (nod = mark, sign)


<EKH-doi> [ˡɛxdɔɪ] adverb
the day before yesterday

ETYMOLOGY: (ech- prefix = out of) + (doe = yesterday)
NOTE: colloquially in the south echdo
<EKH-do> [ˡɛxdɔ] with simplification of the final diphthong <oi> [ɔɪ] > <o> [ɔ]


<ekh-DOR-yad> [ɛxˡdɔrjad] masculine noun
PLURAL echdoriadau
<ekh-dor-YAA-dai, -de> [ɛxdɔrˡjɑˑdaɪ, -dɛ]
1 eruption

ETYMOLOGY: outbreak (ech- prefix = out of) + soft mutation + (toriad = break)


<EKH-nos> [ˡɛxnɔs]
the night before last


<EKH-ris> [ˡɛxrɪs] adjective
damwain echrys a terrible accident

(North-east Wales) echrys o (modifier of adjective) terribly

mae hi'n echrys o oer
it's terribly cold

Damwain echrys. Bore ddydd, yr 20fed (= yr ugeinfed) or un mis, yn nghloddfeydd llechi Dinorwic, fel yr oedd llangc ieuangc, 27 oed, or enw Richard Hughes, o blwyf Gwalchmai, Mn, yn dilyn ei alwedigaeth, syrthiodd carreg fawr, dunelli o bwysau yn union ar ei gefn, a llethwyd ef i farwolaeth ar darawiad amrant.

(Y Cyfaill or Hen Wlad yn America: Sef Cylchgrawn o Wybodaeth Fuddiol Ir Cymry. Ebrill 1840. Cyfrol 3. Rhif 28. Tudalen 127)

A terrible accident. (on the) morning (of) the twentieth of the same month, in the slate quarries of Dinorwic, as the young lad, 27 (years of) age, called (of the name) Richard Hughes, from (the) parish (of) Gwalchmai, Mn (= Anglesey), was at work (was following his calling), a large stone fell, weighing tons, (tons of weight) right onto his back, and he was crushed to death instantly (on (a) bat (of a) eyelid) (Y Cyfaill or Hen Wlad yn America: Sef Cylchgrawn o Wybodaeth Fuddiol ir Cymry. The Friend from The Old Country in America. Namely A Magazine of Useful Information For the Welsh People. April 1840. Volume 3. Number 28. Page 127)



<E-khuidh> [ˡeˑxʊɪ] masculine noun
obsolete nine in the morning, the third hour of the day

obsolete the morning, the time between nine and twelve

obsolete time when cattle seek the shade

obsolete shade, place where cattle seek shelter from the sun

(modern meaning) afternoon or evening
Edward Lhuyd in circa 1700 defined it as amser godro sev day or gloch (amser godro sef dau or gloch, = milking time namely two o clock)

cinio echwydd (now obsolete, but in use in the Blaenau Morgannwg area in south-east Wales until the 1900s) dinner

obsolete; South-east Wales godechwydd evening. Probably gwedy echwydd (after the morning or after the afternoon). There is a reference to the use of this word in SO2117 Llangatwg, near Crucywel (county of Powys), in the year
1810 in the form gwdechwdd.

ETYMOLOGY: echwydd < British *okkid- < Latin occiduus (= a going down, a setting) < occidere (= fall; go down, set (of the sun)).

The sense development is sunset > afternoon, evening.

Breton echoaz (1) rest for animals from midday heat; (2) rest; (3) place of resting; echoaza (1) to rest at midday


<e-kiu-MEE-naidh, -nedh> [ɛkɪʊˡmeˑnaɪ, -nɛ]


<e-ko-NO-meg> [ɛkɔˡnɔmɛg]



(third person singular imperative ending) let / may (somebody do something)

(1) CARED Am caro i, cared fy nghi Love me, love my dog (whoever might love me, may he / she love my dog)

Eistedded y gynulleidfa May the congregation sit / be seated

(3) GOCHELED Gocheled y prynwr Caveat emptor, Let the buyer beware

(4) GORFFWYSED Gorffwysed mewn hedd May he / she rest in peace

Huned mewn hedd May he / she sleep in peace

Maddeued y darllenydd i mi am... I hope the reader forgives me for..., may the reader forgive me for..

(7) SAFED Safed pawb Everybody stand
Safed y llys Be upstanding in court (= everybody must stand up)

Other examples (in this case in a prayer):

Bendithied yr Arglwydd di a chadwed di; / May the Lord bless you and save you
a llewyrched yr Arglwydd ei wyneb arnat / And may the Lord shine his face on you
a thrugarhaed wrthyt; / And show you mercy
dyrchafed yr Arglwydd ei wyneb arnat, / May the Lord raise his face on you
a rhodded i ti dangnefedd. Amen / and may he give you peace. Amen.


edau, edafedd
<EE-dai, -de, e-DAA-vedh> [ˡeˑdaɪ, -dɛ, ɛˡdɑˑvɛ]
feminine noun
thread = fine cord of twisted filaments for sewing (cotton, silk, etc)

edau triphlyg three-stranded thread

2 nodwyddo edau thread a needle (needle (a) thread)
(South) dodi edau mewn nodwydd thread a needle (put (a) thread in (a) needle)
(North) rhoi edau mewn nodwydd thread a needle (put / give (a) thread in (a) needle)

3 llyngyren edau threadworm worm (of) thread


<e-DEIRN-yon> [ɛˡdəirnjɔn]
old territory in the north-west


<e-de-LIG-yon> [ɛdɛˡlɪgjɔn]
(History) a cwmwd (kmmud) of the cantref (kntrev) of Gwent Is Coed, South-east Wales

(delwedd 7383)


<EE-den> [ˡeˑdɛn] masculine noun
Gardd Eden the Garden of Eden = place of creation of Adam and Eve
<GARDH EE-den> [ˡgar ˡeˑdɛn]


2 Eden = place of great contentment

ETYMOLOGY: Eden < Hebrew dhen (= place of delight)


<EE-dern> [ˡeˑdɛrn]
forename, Eternus

2 Llanedern former village in Caer-dydd (church of Eternus)

The name was altered to Llanedeyrn, apparently in the 1800s, perhaps to make the final syllable resemble teyrn Old Welsh = monarch) (but Modern Welsh = tyrant!).

The local name would have been Llanetarn

..a/ e in a final syllable in south-east Wales, just as in north-west Wales, is regularly replaced by a

..b/ the consonants b-d-g introducing a final syllable are devoiced and become p-t-c in the traditonal dialect of the south-east of Wales).

Llanedern is found written as Llanedarn in texts in the 1800s.

3 Edern (Eternus or Llanedern (church of Eternus) village in the Llyn peninsula (Gwynedd)
Inscription on a standing stone - "iovenali fili eterni hic iacit" - one of a pair discovered buried in a field in the parish of Llannor some time before 1833 here lies Jovenalis (= Juvenalis) son of Eternus

4 Bodedern (church of Edern) (Ynys Mn)

5 Edeirnion (territory of Edern)

6 Edern ap Nudd a knight of King Arthurs court; mentioned in three of the Mabinogi tales

ETYMOLOGY: Edern < Latin ternus / aeternus, syncopated form of aeviternus, "lasting an age", from vum (= age)


<e-di-var-HAI> [ɛdɪvarˡhaɪ]
edifarhu eich pechodau repent your sins


<e-di-VAA-ri> [ɛdɪˡvɑˑrɪ]

2 Rhy hwyr edifaru wedi llosgir ty Its no use crying over spilt milk
((it-is) too late regretting after (the) burning (of) the house)


<EE-dig> [ˡeˑdɪg]
suffix, past participle suffix, equivalent in function to English ed


cydnabod recognise

cydnabyddedig recognised


<ED-liu> [ˡɛdlɪʊ] verb
edliw (i rywun) (am) reproach (someone for), criticise someone for, reprimand (for), dress down, give (sb) a dressing down, (USA chew out); play hell with, come down on, scold, tick off

anodd heddiw edliw i Gaer-dydd ei Seisnigrwydd
its difficult today to criticise Caer-dydd for its Englishness (i.e. because its becoming more Welsh)

make comments, make remarks, voice criticisms
Roedd mam yn edliw mod in edrych fel hen actras
My mother was making comments about me looking like some old actress

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh (ed-, a form of ad- = intensifying prefix) + (lliw-, the same element as in lliwio = rebuke, upbraid)


..a/ Rhos-llan, Gwynedd: the form edlu is in use: edliw > edli (loss of final -w after -i-) and change of vowel i > u

..b/ Loss of final -w after -i-: see also tanlli (= the colour of fire), heddi southern form of heddiw (= today)

..c/ Change of vowel i > u: usually a pretonic -i- conditioned by a final -u: teulu (= family), originally teilu


<ED-likh> [ˡɛdlɪx] masculine noun
PLURAL edlychod
<ed-LƏƏ-khod> [ɛdˡləˑxɔd]
weakling, frail specimen
edlych o ddyn frail man
edlychod o blant frail children
rhyw edlych o lo ddath y fuwch the cow gave birth to a frail calf
edlych o rywbeth an excuse for something, a poor specimen of something



<ed-MƏƏ-gi> [ɛdˡməˑgɪ] verb
1 (verb with an object) admire
Gŵr yr wyf yn ei edmygu yn fawr yw ef Hes a man I greatly admire
eich edmyguch hun to admire yourself

2 admire = be sexually attracted to

ETYMOLOGY: (prefix ad-) + (prefix am-) + (*mik-).
In fact, it is a compound from the British period (*ate-ambi-mik) if not from earlier Common Celtic *mik (= shine, sparkle?)

Cf llat micare (= to shine)
Cf *do-ad-kom-mik (prefix do) + (prefix ad) + (prefix kom) + (mik-) > dychymyg (= imagination)


<EDN> [ˡɛdn] masculine noun
PLURAL ednod
<ED-nod> [ˡɛdnɔd]
1 (obsolete) bird

It occurs in modern Welsh in the literary word dodefnod (= poultry),
literally tame birds (dof = tame) + (ednod = birds)

2 winged insect

3 (Arfon) bwrw ednod (insects) lay eggs

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic *etnos < *petnos < Indoeuropean *petn- < pet- (= rush, fly, fall).
This element is also found in Welsh adar (= birds).

From the same British root: Cornish edhenn (= bird),
Breton evn (= bird) < Middle Breton ezn (= bird)

Corresponding forms in Hibernian Celtic:
Irish ean (= bird), Scottish ean (= bird), Manks eean (= bird)

A related word is Latin penna (= feather) < *pesna < *petsna

Also Welsh pen (= writing instrument) < English pen < Old French penne < Latin penna (= feather)
Related to Latin penna is Irish eite (wing; fin of a fish) < Celtic *etni < *petni

NOTE: There is also a pronunciation eden
e-den, with an epenthetic vowel


<ED-nob> ɛdnɔb]
locality in England near the Welsh border; a village 9km north-west of Colunwy (Clun), in the parish of Mainstone (SO2787) (county of Shropshire))
English name: Edenhope SO2788 Ednob Isaf / Lower Edenhope SO2688 Ednob Uchaf / Upper Edenhope SO2588 Mynydd Ednob / Edenhope Hill


(delwedd 7432)

ETYMOLOGY: Ednob is a Cymricisation of the English name Edenhope, representing an earlier English pronunciation, and with the usual final -b to replace final -p in words taken from English.


<E-drikh> [ˡɛdrɪx]
to look

edrych am

..1/ to look for
..2/ to visit
mynd i edrych am modryb go to the toilet (go to visit (my) aunt)

edrych ar
to look at
look = appear
Mae en edrych yn dda He looks good

edrych dan eich ysgafell ar look at (somebody) darkly, scowl at (look under your brow on)
edrych dan fargod eich llaw
shade one's eyes with one's hand (to keep out a strong light; by placing the thumb edge of the hand between the eyebrows, and the thumb on the temple) (look under the eave of your hand)

6 edrych gair mewn geiriadur look up a word in a dictionary

7 (verb with an object)
edrych y wlad
see how the land lies (check the country)
edrych gair mewn geiriadur look up a word in the dictionary


<ED-ward> [ˡɛdward]


<ed-WIN-yad> [ɛdˡwɪnjad] masculine noun
PLURAL edwiniadau
<ed-win-YAA-dai, -de> [ɛdwɪnˡjɑˑdaɪ, -dɛ]
atrophy, withering, fading

ETYMOLOGY: (edwin- stem of edwino = to shrink, to atrophy) + (-i-ad abstract noun-forming suffix)


<EE-di> [ˡeˑdɪ]

Soft-mutated form - loss of the initial g- of the radical form
gedy (= he / she / it leaves) (literary Welsh)


ef <EEV> [eːv] pronoun
NOTE: (1) colloquial form: e after a consonant or vowel;
(2) colloquial form: also fe, after a vowel

(independent pronoun) he, him
Nd EF sydd ar fai Its not HIShis fault

Colloquially ef > fe
Nd FE sydd ar fai / Dim FE sydd ar fai / Nage FE sydd ar fai

pronoun used in the place of popeth (= everything)


Efa <EE-va> [ˡeˑva]
womans name - Eva


<e-VAA-di> [ɛˡvɑˑdɪ]verb
efadu trethi tax evasion, use of illegal methods to pay less tax or no tax
efadu talu trethi tax evasion

ETYMOLOGY: (efad- < English to evade) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)


<e-VAA-dur> [ɛˡvɑˑdʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL efadwyr
<e-VAD-wir> [ɛˡvadwɪr]
efadwr trethi tax evader, person who finds illegal ways of not paying taxes

ETYMOLOGY: (efad- stem of the verb efadu = evade + (-wr suffix = man)


<EE-vail, -vel> [ˡeˑvaɪl, -vɛl] Soft-mutated form - loss of the initial g- of the radical form
gefail = smithy.

(In colloquial Welsh efail is often used as the radical form)


yr Efailisaf
<ər EE-vail I-sav> [ər ˡeˑvaɪl ˡɪsav]
village in Rhondda-Cynon-Taf - the lower smithy



In Gwentian, the local form would be Refil Isha <REE-vil I-sha> [ˡreˑvɪl ˡɪʃa]


<e-VA-lhai, -lhe> [ɛˡvaɬaɪ, -ɬɛ]
maybe, perhaps

Efallai nad ywn wir Maybe its not true
(Synonyms of efallai: hwyrach / gall / dichon)


Generally considered that efallai is southern, hwyrach is northern.

But ella is to be heard in the north.


Colloquially, with the loss of the prepenult syllable:

In the South-westfalle <VA-lhe> [ˡvaɬɛ], also walle <WA-lhe> [ˡwaɬɛ], and also wylle <WƏ-lhe> [ˡwəɬɛ]

In the South-east falla <VA-lha> [ˡvaɬa], also walla <WA-lha> [ˡwaɬa], and also wylla <WƏ-lha> [ˡwəɬa]


<EE-van> [ˡeˑvan] masculine noun
Mans name. Not used in standard Welsh, since Ifan is considered to be the correct Welsh form, though Efan is in fact a totally correct Welsh form.

This form of medieval Ieuan is commonly used as a forename, and is found in the surnames Evans (from a Welsh patronymic ab Efan, or simply Efan) and Bevan (from the patronymic Befan < ab Efan)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh Efan (= John) < Iefan (= John) < Iewan < Ieuan (= John) < British < Latin Johannes (= John)

NOTE: The form Iefan was in common use colloquially in the south-east in the 1800s.

Examples of words with an original ieu which has become ief-,and words which show the loss of the initial semi-consonant i- before e are

(1) ieweydd (obsolete) (part of a yoke), also occured as ewydd (iau = yoke)
(2) ieuanc (= young) which has colloquial forms iefanc (now obsolete) and ifanc (in general use)
(3) ieuaf (= youngest) which had the colloquial forms iefaf / iefa and ifaf / ifa
(4) ieuangaidd (= youngish, youthful) > iengaidd, ifancaidd. In the south-east iyngidd
(5) ieuenctid (= youth, youngness) > iefenctid (obsolete) > ienctid (in general use)
(6) ai e? (= is that it?) > Southern Welsh ie fe? > South-eastern Welsh efa?


efeilldref <e-VEILH-drev> [ɛˡvəɪɬdrɛv]

Soft-mutated form - loss of the initial g- of the radical form
See g
efeilldref = twinned town


<e-VEILH-es> [ɛˡvəɪɬɛs]

Soft-mutated form - loss of the initial g- of the radical form
gefeilles = twin (female)


<e-VEILH-yaid, -yed> [ɛˡvəɪɬjaɪd, -jɛd]

Soft-mutated form - loss of the initial g- of the radical form
gefeilliaid = twins


<e-VEILH-yo> [ɛˡvəɪɬjɔ]

Soft-mutated form - loss of the initial g- of the radical form
gefeillio = to twin


<EE-vel> [ˡeˑvɛl]

Soft-mutated form - loss of the initial g- of the radical form
gefel = pincers


Efelffre <e-VEL-fre> [ɛˡvɛlfrɛ]
ancient territory in the south-west


<EE-velh> [ˡeˑvɛɬ]


Soft-mutated form - loss of the initial g- of the radical form
gefell = twin (male)


<e-vel-əkh-AA-dui> [ɛvɛˡəxˡɑˑdʊɪ]adjective

anefelychadwy inimitable

ETYMOLOGY: (efelych- stem of efelychu = to imite) + (-adwy = adjectival suffix indicating possibility)


<e-vel-LƏKH-yad> [ɛvɛlˡləxjad] masculine noun
PLURAL efelychiadau
<e-ve-ləkh-YAA-dai, -de> [ɛvɛləxˡjɑˑdaɪ, -dɛ]

gocheler efelychiadau beware of imitations


ETYMOLOGY: (efelych-, stem of efelychu = imitate) + (-iad suffix)


<e-ve-ləkh-YAA-dol> [ɛvɛləxˡjɑˑdɔl] adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (efelychiad = imitation, simulation) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


efengyl, efengylau <e-VE-ngil, e-ve-NGƏ-lai, -le> [ɛˡvɛŋɪl, ɛvɛˡŋəlaɪ, -lɛ]


effaith, effeithiau
<EE-faith, -feth, e-FEITH-yai, -ye> [ˡeˑfaɪθ -fɛθ, ɛˡfəɪθjaɪ, -jɛ]


effeithiau <e-FEITH-yai, -ye> [ɛˡfəɪθjaɪ, -jɛ]
effects - see effaith


<e-FEITH-yo> [ɛˡfəɪθjɔ]
to affect


<EE-vo> [ˡeˑvɔ] preposition
(North Wales) with
Dos i chwarae efo dy fol! Get stuffed! (go to play with your belly)


efr (efer)
<EVR, EE-ver> [ˡɛvr, ˡeˑvɛr]
See: efryn


<E-vrai, -vre> [ˡɛvraɪ, -vrɛ]plural
See: efryn


<E-vrin> [ˡɛvrɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL efrau, efr (efer)
<E-vrai, EVR, EE-ver> [ˡɛvraɪ, ˡɛvr, ˡeˑvɛr]

1 darnel Lolium temulentum, weed which grows in cereal crops in Europe and Asia

darnel = weed in cereal crops in the Bible; identified with Lolium temulentum (though it could in fact be another plant)

Mathew 13:24 Dameg arall a osododd efe iddynt, gan ddywedyd, Teyrnas nefoedd sydd gyffelyb i ddyn a heuodd had da yn ei faes. (13:25) A thra oedd y dynion yn cysgu, daeth ei elyn ef, ac a heuodd efrau ymhlith y gwenith, ac a aeth ymaith. (13:26) Ac wedyn ir eginyn dyfu, a dwyn ffrwyth, yna yr ymddangosodd yr efrau hefyd
Matthew 13:24 Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field: (13:25) But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way. (13:26) But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also.

Lolium perene a grass cultivated for forage

(South Wales) penefer giddy, dizzy; unruly; spoilt (head (of) darnel).
See the note on
ETYMology below.

(South Wales) efer o, hefer o (= massive, enormous)
efer o beth enormous thing
efer o lwyth enormous load

ETYMOLOGY: English ever (dialect English, south-eastern England) (= darnel) (also every) < Old French ivraie (= rye grass) (same in modern French) < Latin briaca (herba) (= grass which causes drunkenness) < briacus < brius (= drunk).

The word penefer (head (of) darnel) (= giddy, dizzy; unruly; spoilt) is explained by the narcotic efect of this plant.

According to the lexicographer Thomas Richards (Antiquae Linguae Britannicae Thesaurus - Welsh-English Dictionary, 1753) efer is a weed growing among corn, called darnel, tares, ray or cockle; it is naught for the eyes, and will make the head giddy, if eaten in hot bread


<E-vrog> [ˡɛvrɔg] feminine noun
York = city in the north of England.
Latin name Eborcum

2 Alternatively, Caerefrog York (caer = Roman city) + (Efrog)

Swydd Efrog = Yorkshire (the former English county of which York is the historic capital)

pwdin Efrog = Yorkshire pudding, a dish from Yorkshire (England) consisting of a light pudding made from flour, eggs and milk, usually accompanying roast beef

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *Ebork-on, which corresponds in modern Welsh to the elements (efwr Hieracleum sphondylium = cow parsnip) + (-og, suffix indicating abundant in (such and such a plant)).

The English name York is a Scandinavianised form of the Old English name.
This was Eoforwic (boar's dwelling), a reinterpretation of the British name *Eborkon or the Latinised British name Eborcum.

See efwr (Hieracleum sphondylium = cow parsnip)


Efrog Newydd
<E-vrog NEU-idh> [ˡɛvrɔg ˡnɛʊɪ]
feminine noun
New York = seaport at the mouth of the Hudson river, made up of five boroughs - Manhattan, Queens, Bronx, Brooklyn and Staten Island.

New York was formerly a Dutch city on Manhattan Island called
Nieuw Amsterdam (New Amsterdam), and capital of New Netherland; it was captured by the English in 1664 and renamed after the son of Charles 1, and heir to the English and Scottish throne.

He had been given the title Duke of York twenty years previously, in 1644 at the age of 10 / 11. He later became King James II of England (1685) until defeated in battle by William of Orange (1688), who became King William III of England.


<E-vrid> [ˡɛvrɪd]
masculine noun
PLURAL efrydiau
<e-VRID-yai, -ye> [ɛˡvrɪdjaɪ, -jɛ]
study, act of studying

in names of some magazines:
Efrydiau Catholig (= Catholic Studies),
Efrydiau Athronyddol (= Philosophical Studies)

efrydiau allanol, extra-mural studies

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh efryd is a word invented by William Owen-Pughe (1759-1835). It is (e- = prefix) + soft mutation + (bryd = mind).


The prefix e- which he used is apparently used in teh sense of from. It occurs in the word eofn bold, where e- corresponds to Celtic *eks (= from,) hence eofn = free from fear (ofn = fear).


<EV-ridh> [ˡɛvrɪ] adjective
(little used; archaic) weak, feeble, helpless
aros yn wystlon efrydd yn nwylo ein gormeswyr
to remain helpless victims in the hands of our oppressors

(obsolete) crippled, maimed, disabled

ETYMOLOGY: un-free (efrydd < *afrydd (af- = privative suffix) + soft mutation + (rhydd = free); Cornish evredh (= crippled, mutilated)


<EV-sam> [ˡɛvsam] feminine noun
Welsh name for the English town of Evesham

ETYMOLOGY: Cymricisation of the English name Evesham


<EE-vur> [ˡeˑvʊr] masculine noun
(plant) Hieracleum sphondylium = cow parsnip, tall plant with a thick stem and clusters of white or purple flowers (the stem used by children to make blowpipes for water)

A precursor of efwr occurs in many Celtic place names in Celtic Europe, of which the Latin forms are

...(1) Eburacum (now Efrog in Welsh, York in English)
Equivalent to modern Welsh (efwr) + (suffix -og = abundant) > *efyrog > efrog

...(2) Eburobriga
Equivalent to modern Welsh (efwr) + (bre = hill) (e.g. vora de Alopbaa, Portugal)

...(3) Eburodunum
Equivalent to modern Welsh (efwr) + (din = fort) (e.g. Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland; Embrun, eastern Occitania; Brno, Czechia)

...(4) Eburomagus
Equivalent to modern Welsh (efwr) + (ma = plain). (e.g. Yverdun, Switzerland; Bram, western Occitania),

...(5) In South Wales, the element efwr is to be seen in the place name Dinefwr (fort + cow parsnip), in fact the same as the Gaulish name Eburodunum with the elements reversed

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *ebor- < Celtic.

From the same British root: Breton evor (= black alder)
From the same Hibernian root: Irish iubhar (= yew)

Cf French: bourdaine (= black alder) < Gaulish eburigena.

See Dinefwr, Efrog

NOTE: North Wales ewr
eur < efwr (loss of the medial f)


<EE-vidh> [ˡeˑvɪ] masculine noun

cast efydd bronze cast, made of bronze shaped in a mo(u)ld when the bronze was in a molten state

medal efydd bronze medal

4 Crugyrefydd Street name in Crymych (county of Penfro) (Crug Yr Efydd)
((the) mound (of) the bronze) (crug = mound) + (yr = the) + (efydd = bronze)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic *omijo < *em (= red)
Related word: Irish umha
<uu-ə> [ˡuˑə] (= copper, copper alloy, bronze)




<EE-vin> vɪn]

Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See g
efyn = shackle


<e--ni> [ɛˡnɪ]

Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
gefynnu =


<e-VƏR-nig> [ɛˡvərnɪg] feminine noun
obsolete young goat which has produced young and gives milk

*Efyrnig (Not found as such in Welsh, but this would be the modern Welsh form)
Celtic goddess of goats; the name is found in Gaulish as Eburnica-

ETYMOLOGY: British *eburnka (= little goat)


<e-VƏR-nui> [ɛˡvərnʊɪ] feminine noun
river in mid-Wales
A clipped forof the river name occurs in place names Fyrnwy and this is the form used on English-language maps (with English v replacing Welsh f): Vyrnwy


Brynfyrnwy SJ2320, near Llansanffrid ym Mechain

((the) hill (overlooking) (the) Efyrnwy (river))

(on the Ordnance Survey map as Bryn Vyrwy Fm)

Glanfyrnwy SJ2220, near Llansanffrid ym Mechain

((the) bank (of) (the) Efyrnwy (river))

(on the Ordnance Survey map as Bryn Vyrwy Fm)

ETYMOLOGY: British *eburn- as above in efyrnig



-eg suffix

suffix for forming a noun indicating a science
meteleg metallurgy (metel = metal) + (-eg)

2 suffix for forming a noun or adjective indicating a language or dialect

Basgeg Basque

Galiseg Galician

Powyseg Powysian, dialect of Powys


abbreviation for enw gwrywaidd = masculine noun
<EE-nu gu-RIU-aidh, -edh> [ˡɛnʊ gʊˡrɪʊaɪ, -ɛ]


<E-glir> [ˡɛglɪr]


<e-glir-HAAD> [ɛglɪrˡhɑːd]masculine noun
PLURAL eglurhadau
<e-glir-HAA-dai, -de> [ɛglɪrˡhɑˑdaɪ, -dɛ]
1 explanation = act of explaining

2 explanation = statement which explains

3 explanation = reason

4 (map) legend, key, explanation of symbols

5 explanation = something which is a clarification, definition, interpretation
Cymerodd Robert Gruffydd y Beibl, a dechreuodd ddarllen y Salm. Weithiau, ceid ef yn taflu gair o eglurhad ar ambell i adnod

Plant y Gorthrwm / 1908 / Gwyneth Vaughan (= Anne Harriet Hughes 1852-1910) t69
Robert Gruffydd took the Bible, and began to read the Psalm. At times, he was to be seen (found) throwing in (throwing) a word of explanation of an occasional verse

ETYMOLOGY: (eglurh- stem of the verb eglurhu = to explain) +
(-ad suffix for forming abstract nouns)


<e-glir-HAA-ol> [ɛglɪrˡhɑˑɔl] adjective
1 explanatory

ETYMOLOGY: (eglurh- stem of the verb eglurhu = to explain) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


<e-glir-HAI> [ɛglɪrˡhaɪ] verb
1 to explain

ETYMOLOGY: (eglur = evident, plain to see) + (-hau suffix for forming verbs from adjectives)


<e-GLII-ro> [ɛˡgliˑrɔ]
to explain


eglwys, eglwysi
<E-gluis, e-GLUI-si> [ˡɛglʊɪs, ɛˡglʊɪsɪ]
eglwys gadeiriol
<ga-DEIR-yol> [gaˡdəɪrjɔl] cathedral

mor dlawd llygoden eglwys
= as poor as a church mouse

Eglwys Rydd Free Church, one independent of the State, one which does not demand compulsory contributions from the states population

NOTE: There is also a plural form eglwysydd <e-GLUI-sidh> [ɛˡglʊɪsɪ]

<E-gluis BAAKH> [ˡɛglʊɪs ˡbɑːx]
(SH8070) locality in the county of Conwy, 9km north-west of Llan-rŵst
a parish at this place

ETYMOLOGY: yr eglwys bach (the little church)
(yr definite article) + (eglwys = church) + (bach = little)

In North Wales, after a feminine noun bach remains unmutated.
The expected form would be yr eglwys fach


Yr Eglwysnewydd <ər E-gluis NEU-idh > [ər ˡɛglʊɪs ˡnɛʊɪ]

1 ST1479 district of Caer-dydd / Cardiff.

English name: Whitchurch (the white church)

ETYMOLOGY: yr eglwys newydd (the new church)
(yr definite article) + (eglwys = church) + (newydd = new)


Eglwys Oen Duw
<E-gluis oin DIU> [ˡɛglʊɪs ɔɪn ˡdɪʊ] feminine noun
locality 15km west of Llanfair ym Muallt (county of Powys)

ETYMOLOGY: the church of the Lamb of God
(eglwys = church) + (oen = lamb) + (Duw = God).

In the New Testament The Lamb of God" is a name for Christ as a symbol of sacrifice (from the practice of sacrificing lambs to Jehovah)

Ioan 1:29 wele Oen Duw
John 1:29 behold the Lamb of God


<E-gluis WƏƏ-thur> [ˡɛglʊɪs ˡwəˑθʊr]
1 (SN1343)
Parish in the county of Penfro, south-west Wales

English name: Monington

ETYMOLOGY: eglwys Wythyr (the) church (of) Gwythwr
(eglwys = church) + soft mutation + Gwythwr saints name, possibly from Latin Victor-)


Eglwys Ysteffan
<E-gluis ə-STEE-fan> [ˡɛglʊɪs əˡsteˑfan]
SN350108 name of an Anglican church in the village of Llansteffan

ETYMOLOGY: (church of Stephen) (eglwys = church) + (Ysteffan = Stephen)


<EG-ni> [ˡɛgnɪ] (m)
PLURAL: egnon
<eg-NII-on> [ɛgˡniˑɔn]
ymroddi eich holl egni ir gwaith o
devote all ones efforts to


egr (eger)
<EGR, EE-ger> [ɛgr, ˡeˑgɛr]


egwyddor, egwyddorion
<e-GUI-dhor, e-gui-DHOR-yon> [ɛˡgʊɪɔr, ɛgʊɪˡɔrjɔn]

o ran egwyddor on principle
(o ran = from + part) + (egwyddor = principle)


egwyl, egwylion
<E-guil, e-GUIL-yon> [ˡɛgʊɪl, ɛˡgʊɪljɔn]


e-hang <e-HANG> [ɛˡhaŋ]
form before a final syllable of the adjective eang = wide
(See ehangach, ehangaf, ehangder, ehangdir, ehangiad, ehangol, ehangu, Ehangwen)


<e-HA-ngakh> [ɛˡhaŋax] adjective
widest (comparative form of eang = wide)


<e-HA-ngav> [ɛˡhaŋav] adjective
widest (superlative form of eang = wide)

NOTE: Colloquially a final f in superlative forms is lost

ehangaf <e-HA-nga> [ɛˡhaŋa]

Ehangwen <e-HANG-wen> [ɛˡhaŋwɛn] feminine noun
name of Arthur's hall, in the tale of Culhwch ac Owen; built by Gwlyddyn Saer (Gwlyddyn the carpenter / mason)

2 Hangwen - name of a building in Bodedern

William Hughes, born in Sgubor Hangwen (Scybor Hangwen), died
1790 in Llanfihangel Ysgeifiog, Anglesey (source: internet site)

This is possibly Ehangwen, used jocularly to describe a large and imposing building

ETYMOLOGY: substantive use of an adjective ehangwyn spacious and white
(ehang- form before a final syllable of the adjective eang = wide) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white)


<e-HED-lam> [ɛˡhɛdlam] masculine noun
PLURAL ehedlamau
<e-hed-LA-mai, -me> [ɛhɛdˡlamaɪ, -mɛ]
flying leap

ar ehedlam with a flying leap

ETYMOLOGY: (ehed-, stem of ehedu = to fly) + soft mutation + (llam = leap, jump)
NOTE: Often with the loss of the first syllable: hedlam


<e-HEE-didh> [ɛˡheˑdɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL ehedyddion
<e-hə-DƏDH-yon> [ɛhəˡdəjɔn]

1 (bird) (Alauda arvensis) skylark, lark

2 codi gyda'r ehedydd rise with the lark (= get up very early in the morning)

3 codiad yr ehedydd the rising of the lark

4 Colloquially there is a clipped form hedydd, with the loss of the first syllable before the accented syllable (a very common feature in spoken Welsh)

Street name in Bangor: Brynhedydd for bryn (yr) ehedydd (the) hill (of) (the) skylark (LL57 3HR)

ETYMOLOGY: (ehed- stem of ehedu = to fly) + (-ydd noun suffix for indicating a device or an agent)

Breton: alc'houeder


<e-HORTH-rin> [ɛˡhɔrθrɪn] masculine noun
(obsolete) diligence, studiousness. See iorthryn (a variant of this word with the same meaning)

ETYMOLOGY: (eorth = diligent) + soft mutation + (rhyn)




ei > e

In some dialects the diphthong ei in the penult becomes a simple vowel e

ceiniog (= penny) > ceniog

ceiliog (= penny) > celiog

Eilian (male forename) > Elian

Gweirful > Gwerful (female forename)


Observation from The Lives of the British Saints: The Saints of Wales and Cornwall and such Irish Saints as have Dedications in Britain, S. Baring-Gould, M.A, and John Fisher, B.D. In Four Volumes. Vol. II. 1908.


The a of the Latin name being long, we should have expected it to have

become Eilion in Welsh ; but a few exceptions occur. In Anglesey the name

is pronounced Eilian the correct literary form but it is always Elian (occa-

sionally Elien) in the pedigrees. The difference is simply one of dialect e.g., the Anglesey and literary ceiniog and ceiliog become ceniog and celiog in the Denbighshire dialect. A layman named Elian witnesses a grant to the Church of Llandaff in the time of Bishop Trichan (Book of Llan Ddv, p. 201)



..1 ei
<EI> [ əɪ]

Note: the historically authentic form, and that which is used colloquially is i <II> [iː], generally spelt i, as if derived from ei, though this is not so. But the apostrophe is rather a useful device to distinguish the determiner from the preposition i (= to)

his / her / its
ei gilydd
<əi GII-lidh> [ əɪ ˡgiˑlɪ] each other
ei gwadnu hi off, scarper
ei hun
<əi HIIN> [ əɪ ˡhiːn] himself, herself

(title) her
Ei Hanrhydedd Her Honour
Ei Harucheledd Her Excellence
Ei Mawrhydi Her Majesty
Ei Theilyngdod Her Worship (judge, mayor)

(title) his
Ei Anrhydedd His Honour
Ei Arucheledd His Excellence
Eich Mawrhydi His Majesty
Ei Deilyngdod His Worship (judge, mayor)

in forming adjectival phrases, (adjective + possessive determiner + noun)

..1/ da ei fwriad (m), da ei bwriad (f),
well-meaning, well-intentioned (good his intention)

..2/ trwm ei glyw (m), trwm ei chlyw
hard of hearing (heavy his hearing)

5 in forming adjectival phrases, (adjective + possessive determiner + verbnoun)

..1/ parod ei ateb quick to answer back, too ready to answer back

..2/ hawdd ei dwyllo (m), hawdd ei thwyllo (f)
easily deceived (easy his deceiving)
.....un hawdd ei dwyllo (m), un hawdd ei thwyllo (f) an easy touch, somebody easily deceived

..3/ prn ei Saesneg prin i Səs-neg
who doesn't speak much English, who didn't speak much English (scarce one's English)

used in the formation of many phrase verbs of the type (ei) + (verb) + (hi)
..1/ ei bachu hi go away (the hooking of it / her)

..2/ ei gadael hi rhwng rhywun ai gawl / ai botes / ai bethau = let somebody stew in their own juice

..3/ ei rhoi hi (i rywun) lay into someone, attack (someone) = hit, beat ; savagely criticise (someone)
(ei = her) + (rhoi = give / giving) + (hi = of-her)

ei siapo hi get a move on (the shaping of it / her)

..5/ ei throi hi go off, go away
...(the turning of it / her, turn it) (ei = it / her) + aspirate mutation + (troi = turn) + (hi (of) it / her)
...Rhaid imi ei throi hi I must be getting along
...ei throi hi am adre go off home


..2 ei
<EI> [ əɪ] verb
you will go; second person singular of the future form of mynd (= to go)
nid ei di you wont go
Nid ei di byth uwch bawd na sawdl Youll never get anywhere, Youll never make it, Youre doomed to failure (you wont go higher than a toe or a heel)


..3 ei
<EI> [ əɪ]
replaces English ai in borrowings into Welsh
Examples of forenames:
<MAIK> [maɪk]> Meic <MEIK> [məɪk]

<BRAI-ən> [ˡbraɪən]> Breian <BREI-an> [ˡbrəɪan]

<SAI-mən> [ˡsaɪmən]> Seimon <SEI-mon> [ˡsəɪmɔn]



1/ In South Wales the diphthong ei in the penult is reduced to the half-long vowel [i]

neidr / neidir (= snake) > nidir

(= to work) > gwitho

(= last night) > nithwr


ei < ai
An original ei is now ai in monosyllables; but it is maintained in the penult or tonic syllable (Or occurs in the penult in new derivative forms based on ai)

(womans name = beautiful), Ceinwen (womans name; addition of the suffix -wen)

main (= slim), meinion (plural form)

Mair (womans name = Mary), Meirwen (womans name; addition of the suffix -wen)

ei < a

(male name; south-eastern ruler, of Irish origin), Brycheiniog (his territory, Englished as Brecknock, or from his name as Brecon)

gwan (= weak), gweinion (plural form)


3/ Sometimes there are instances of ei > e in the penult or tonic syllable


bleiddyn (= little wolf, wolf cub) > Bleddyn (male forename)

(bleidd- = blaidd = wolf) + (-yn diminutive suffix)

Gweirful > Gwerful (female forename)


ei bachu hi
< ei BAA-khi hii> [əɪ ˡbɑˑxɪ hiː] verb
go off, go away

ETYMOLOGY: hook it ( ei = it / her) + aspirate mutation + ( bachu = to hook, catch with a hook) + ( hi (of) it / her)


<EIX> [əɪx]

Note: the historically authentic form, and that which is used colloquially, is ch <əkh> [əx], generally spelt ych.

eich arian
your money

Colloquially, frequently a tag pronoun is added
eich arian chi your money (your money of-you)

This is also used where emphasis is required
eich arian chi your money (your money of-you)

2 (title) your
Eich Anrhydedd Your Honour, Your Honours
Eich Arucheledd Your Excellence, Your Excellences
Eich Mawrhydi Your Majesty, Your Majesties
Eu Teilyngdod Your Worship (judge, mayor), Your Worships

3 in adjectival phrases of the type (adjective) + eich / your + (noun)

da eich byd in comfortable circumstances

di-ffael eich ergyd unerring in ones aim

bod yn ddi-ffael eich ergyd be a sure shot, be a dead shot (sure, certain, unfailing / your / shot)

eang eich apl
-ang əkh a-peel having a wide appeal

mawr eich croeso warmly welcomed, greatly welcomed, receiving acclaim
llyfr fydd yn fawr ei groeso a book that will be warmly welcomed


Yr Eidal
<ər EI-dal> [ər ˡəɪdal] feminine noun
Esgid yr Eidal the boot of Italy (the shape of Italy as seen on a map)
yn yr Eidal in Italy
ir Eidal to Italy
or Eidal from Italy

ETYMOLOGY: A form of Idal <II-dal> [ˡiˑdal], a Welshed form of the Latin name Italia (in early Welsh there was sonorisation of certain consonants between vowels apparent both in native forms as well as borrowings from Latin during the Roman period).

ei in the modern Welsh form could be the result of English influence if in English the i in Italy was formerly pronounced as <ai> [aɪ], or if the Latin word was pronounced by the English with an English pronunciation.

Or it may be hypercorrection in southern dialects especially, a tonic i is a reduction of the diphthing ei

gwitho < gweithio
(= to work)
gobitho < gobeithio
(= to hope)


<ei-DAA-laidh, -ledh> [əɪˡdɑlaɪ, -lɛ] adjective
Italian = relating to Italy or the Italians

ETYMOLOGY: (Eidal = Italy) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)


<ei-DAA-leg> [əɪˡdɑˑlɛg] feminine noun
Italian = relating to the Italian language
(adjective) Italian, the Italian language

ETYMOLOGY: (Eidal = Italy) + (-eg suffix for forming a noun or adjective indicating a language or dialect)


<ei-DAA-les> [əɪˡdɑˑlɛs] feminine noun
PLURAL Eidalesau
<ei-da-LE-sai, -se> [əɪdaˡlɛsaɪ, -sɛ]
Italian woman

ETYMOLOGY: (Eidal = Italy) + (-es noun suffix indicating a female)


<ei-DAA-lur> [əɪˡdɑˑlʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL Eidalwyr
<ei-DAL-wir> [əɪˡdalwɪr]1 Italian man

ETYMOLOGY: (Eidal = Italy) + (-wr suffix = man)


<ei-DAL-wir> [əɪˡdalwɪr]

1 Italians
See Eidalwr



<EI-dhil> [ˡəɪɪl] (adj)

1 decrepit


NOTE: Some Points of Similarity in the Phonology of Welsh and Breton, 
T.H. Parry-Williams, 1913
In W[elsh], however, the interchange of f and dd is quite common, especially in the dial[ect]s
One example given of the change dd > f is eiddil (delicate, tender ) > eifil 



<EI-dho> [ˡəɪɔ] masculine noun
eiddo ar brydles leasehold property, house or land etc. rented out for a specified period

1 property

eiddo + noun the property of....

eiddo Sin yw e its Johns (it is) (the) property (of) John that-is it

deiddo di yw e its yours


eiddo i the property of

bod yn eiddo i belong to

yr hyn sydd yn eiddo i mi what belongs to me

Roedd ei gar bob amser yn well o lawer nag eiddo neb arall

His car was always far better than that of anybody else


ffon grwca fel eiddo esgob a crooked staff like a bishops

Aeth ei eiddo rhwng seiri a phorthmyn

His property was scattered to the four winds (his property went between craftsmen and drovers, his property was divided up by craftsmen and drovers)


2 property = building or land


Yr oedd rhywun wedi byrddu ei ddrws ffrynt a bricior ffenestri, ac yr oedd arwydd ar bostyn ar y lawnt yn dweud fod yr eiddo wedii gondemnio
Somebody had boarded up his front door and had bricked in the windows, and there was a notice on a post on the lawn saying that the property had been conde,mned


gweithred eiddo plural gweithredoedd eiddo title deed


eiddo ar brydles leasehold property, house or land etc. rented out for a specified period

heb fod yn eiddo dyn non-human, not belonging to a human being

incwm eiddo property income, income resulting from the possession of property

rhestr eiddo property register


In Middle Welsh the personal pronouns were

first person: mau mine, einym ours;

second person tau thine, einwch yours;

eiddo his, eiddi hers, eiddu theirs.


This obsolete third person pronoun eidd (= his, hers) is from Celtic *esyo (= his) and *esy (= hers) in Celtic.


Unaccented forms of *esyo / *esy also resulted in the possessive determiner i (= his, her), which is the spoken Welsh form. Nowadays the literary language has ei, from an artifical spelling used by William Salesbury, the translator of the New Testament into Welsh in 1567, based on Latin eius (= his)


In imitation of inflected pronouns such as ar (= on) and its third person forms two singular (arno on him, arni on her) and one plural (arnynt on them), in early modern Welsh three third person forms of eiddo emerged: eiddo (= his), eiddi (= hers), and eiddu / eiddynt (= theirs).


In inflected prepositions, the first-person and second-person forms tended to be remodelled on the third-person form.


For example, in the case of the preposition ar (= on) the first syllable arn of the third person now occurs in all the persons (arnaf, arnom; arnat, arnoch; arno, arni, arnynt).


So too with eiddo. Eidd- came to be used in too in the first person and second person, and the inflexions of the inflected prepositions were added.

Mau (= mine) > eiddof

Tau (= thine) > eiddot

Einym (= ours) > eiddom

Einwch (= yours) > eiddoch


eiddoch <EI-dhox > [ˡəɪɔx]pronoun

1 yours


yr eiddoch is used in conventional phrases at the end of a letter
yr eiddoch yn gywir yours yours, truly

bod eiddoch (obsolete) be yours


yr eiddoch chwi your property

Corinthiaid-2 12:14 canys ni wyf yn ceisio yr eiddoch chwi, ond chwychi

Corinthians-2 12.14 for I seek not yours, but you


ETYMOLGY: See eiddo



eiddo coll <EI-dho KOLH> [ˡəɪɔ ˡkɔɬ] masculine noun
lost property

NOTE: also eiddo colledig
<EI-dho ko-LHEE-dig> [ˡəɪɔ kɔˡɬeˑdɪg]

ETYMOLOGY: (eiddo = goods) + (coll = lost, stem of the verb colli = to lose);
= (coll-, root of colli = to lose) + (-edig = past participle passive suffix)


that which belongs to us

yr eiddom ni ours

mewn pentref fel yr eiddom ni in a village like ours


ETYMOLGY: See eiddo



ei -dhin feminine noun
womans name (= beautiful)

ETYMOLOGY: According to Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / University of Wales Dictionary, from British *ad-jn-, and found in an inscription (in Gaul) as Adiune


ei-dh-no verb
wish, desire, long for

Drwy y nos, dirion Iesu, eiddunaf Dy hedd heno i gysgu
(Prayer) Through the night, gentle Jesus, I wish for your peace tonight to sleep

eidduno clod i praise (wish praise to)

Rhaid eidduno clod i rai on harchfarchnadoedd am ofalu gosod arwyddion dwyieithog (Y Faner 28 06 1991)
We should praise some of our hypermarkets for taking the trouble to put up bilingual signs

eidduno eich holl egni i dedicate all your energy to (doing something)

ETYMOLOGY: eidduno < *eidd-iuno < *add-iuno); (add- prefix corresponding to Latin ad) + (*iuno = to desire)


EIDH wen
womans name


eiddynt ei-dhint pronoun

1 theirs

bod eiddynt (obsolete) be theirs


Habacuc 1:6 Canys wele fi yn codi y Caldeaid, cenedl chwerw a phrysur, yr hon a rodia a r hyd lled y tir, i feddiannu cyfanheddoedd nid yw eiddynt

Habakkuk 1:6 For, lo, I raise up the Chaldeans, [that] bitter and hasty nation, which shall march through the breadth of the land, to possess the dwellingplaces [that are] not theirs.


ETYMOLGY: See eiddo


EID-yon (m)
PLURAL: eidionau
eid-YOO-nai, -ne
(South Wales) ox, bullock, beef-cow

cig eidion beef
gwr eidion beef tallow

seithgant o eidionau seven hundred beef-cows

(Apocrypha) Llyfr Cyntaf Esdras 1:9 Jechoneias hefyd, a Samaias, a Nathanael ei frawd, a Sabaias, ac Ochiel, a Joram, milwriaid, a roddasant i'r Lefiaid ynghyfer y Pasg, bum mil o ddefaid, a seithgant o eidionau.

(Apocrypha) Esdras-1 1:9 And Jeconias, and Samaias, and Nathanael his brother, and Assabias, and Ochiel, and Joram, captains over thousands, gave to the Levites for the passover five thousand sheep, and seven hundred calves.

ETYMOLOGY: British *otion


Breton ejen (= ox)
Cornish has ojon (= ox) (from an older odion; there is not the expected vowel affection which has occurred in the Welsh and Breton words),

NOTE: In south Wales as eidon / idon
(usual absence of the semin consonant [j] before a final syllable; usual reduction of the diphthong [ei] to the semi-long vowel [i]


EIV yon (f)
Short name for Eifionydd (qv), a medieval kntrev


In Llanystumdwy, there is a locality called Bryneifion SH4838

(this correct spelling Bryneifion is also the spelling found on the Ordnance Survey map)


bryn Eifion (hill overlooking Eifionydd) (bryn = hill) + (Eifion)

Probably from a house name map

(delwedd 7511)

2 (m) mans name (generally there is a connection with the district of Eifionydd (qv))


eiv YOO na (f)
womans name

ETYMOLOGY: the male name Eifion with the addition of the suffix a, used to make female names


ei vi OO nidh
an old territory in the north-west, one of the two kntrevs of the country of Dunoding (the other being Ardudwy, divide into the two kmmuds of Uwch Artro and Is Artro)


(delwedd 7338)


Eifionydd is the district from Penrhyndeudraeth in the east to Afon Erch (the river Arch) in the west. Afon Erch disgorges into the sea at Aber-erch.


The highest point is Moel Hebog 782 m, 2566 ft.

The secondary school in Penrhyndeudraeth is Ysgol Eifionydd.


(delwedd 7542) 
There is a popular short name for the district  Eifion
Some Points of Similarity in the Phonology of Welsh and Breton, 
T.H. Parry-Williams, 1913
In W[elsh], however, the interchange of f and dd is quite common, especially in the dial[ect]s
One example given of the change f > dd is Eifionydd (a district in Carnarvonshire) > Eiddionydd 


● eifl
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geifl =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


● eifr
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geifr =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


ei gadael hi ii g-del hi
ei gadael hi rhwng rhywun ai gawl (leave it between somebody and his broth)
ei gadael hi rhwng rhywun ai botes (leave it between somebody and his broth)
ei gadael hi rhwng rhywun ai bethau (leave it between somebody and his affairs / things)
let somebody stew in their own juice = leave somebody to deal unaided with the unfortunate consequences of their actions


ei gilydd
i g -lidh pronoun
each other (literally: his fellow), one (with) the other

after prepositions:
ar draws ei gilydd one across the other, across each other
at ei gilydd all in all (to its fellow), altogether
dod oddi wrth ei gilydd come apart, fall apart
fel boi gilydd equally, one the same as the other (respect them equally, etc)
mynd iw gilydd (assembling something) go together, fit together
mynd gydai gilydd go together
rhoi wrth ei gilydd put together, assemble
rywsut neui gilydd somehow or other
sibrwd ymysg ei gilydd whisper among themselves

Maen nhw i gyd yr un fath i gilydd Theyre all the same (the same with / as its fellow)

forms reciprocal verb-phrases
caru ei gilydd love each other
casu ei gilydd hate each other
curo ei gilydd hit each other

ETYMOLOGY: his fellow (ei = his) + soft mutaiton + ( cilydd = fellow) < British
From the same British root: Breton egile his fellow, each other


EIG yon
depths, ocean


eig- yon -vor masculine noun
1 (poetry) ocean

ETYMOLOGY: (eigion = ocean) + soft mutation + (mr = sea)


EI-gon [ˡəɪgɔn]
1 saints name

Llanigon SO2139 <lhan-II-gon> [ɬanˡiˑgɔn] a village in Powys.

The present name in fact represents the local pronunciation of
Llaneigon <lhan-EI-gon> [ɬanˡəɪgɔn] church of Eigon (llan = church) + (Eigon)

In the penultimate syllable, especially in South Wales, the diphthong
<EI> [əɪ] becomes a simple vowel, short <I> [ɪ] or semi-long <II> [iˑ] , depending on the following consonant yr eglwys / the church

In the Subsidy Rolls of 1292 there is mentioned a Willelmus filius Eigon in Y Trallwng / Welshpool

(a Latin translation of what would have been Wiliam ab Eigon, or Gwilym ab Eigon)


eil eil f
PLURAL: aeliau
eil -ye
1 aisle (church, chapel, cinema, theatre)
mynd i lawr yr eil go down the aisle, get married

ETYMOLOGY: English aisle < Middle English ele < Old French < Latin la (= wing)
NOTE: also ael


eil -khwil adverb
again, a second time

Genesis 37:14 A dywedodd wrtho, Dos weithian, edrych pa lwyddiant sydd i'th frodyr, a pha lwyddiant sydd i'r praidd; a dwg eilchwyl air i mi. Felly efe a'i hanfonodd ef o ddyffryn Hebron; ac efe a ddaeth i Sichem.
Genesis 37:14
And he said to him, Go, I pray thee, see whether it be well with thy brethren, and well with the flocks; and bring me word again. So he sent him out of the vale of Hebron, and he came to Shechem.

Ar hen Gwmclydach annwyl,
Sydd fel pe bai yn disgwyl
Dawr hen breswylwyr yn eu tro
I aros yno eilchwyl

Llanwynno (1888) Glanffrwd (William Thomas 1843-1890)
And dear old Cwmclydach
Which is as if it is waiting
The old inhabitants will come back in their turn
To stay / live there another time

eilchwyl ac eilchwyl over and over again

yn awr ac eilchwyl
now and again, now and then, from time to time

ETYMOLOGY: (eil-, penult form of ail = second ) + (chwyl = turn)


yr eildro
ər eil -dro adverb
for a second time, for the second time
also: am yr eildro
priodi am yr eildro / priodir eildro get married for the second time

ETYMOLOGY: (eil-, penult form of ail = second) + soft mtuation + ( tro = turn, time, occasion)
NOTE: Also: yr eiltro


ei- l -dol adjective
1 (Electricity) alternating
cyrrent eiledol alternating current, AC

ETYMOLOGY: (eil- < ail = second, next) + ?


eil -vid masculine noun
1 yr eilfyd the afterlife, the world to come

ETYMOLOGY: (eil-, penult form of ail = second ) + soft mutation + (byd = world)


eiliad, eiliadau
EIL yad, eil YA de
second (sixtieth part of a minute)
ar yr union eiliad at that precise moment


eil -yan masculine noun
name of a saint of the Celtic Church
Llaneilian village in Ynys Mn church (of) Eilian (llan = church) + (Eilian)

mans name; revived in the 1800s and 1900s, used occasionally; usually indicates some connection with the parish of Llaneilian

Gŵyl Eilian the feastday of Eilian (13 January)

Ŵyl Eilian on the feastday of Eilian, on 13 January (in adverbial phrases there is soft mutation of the initial consonant, hence gŵyl > ŵyl)

This adverbial form is used in the saying about the lengthening day after the winter solstice:
Awr fawr Calan, dwy ŵyl Eilian, tair ŵyl Fair

big hour (on) the calend (awr fawr y Calan), two on Eilians feastday, and three on Marys feastday

That is, the day will have lengthened since the solstice on the twenty-first of December

(1) a full hour by New Years Day (Y Calan) on January the first, (half an hour in the morning a half an hour in the evening),

(2) two hours on Eilians feastday (Gŵyl Eilian) on January the thirteenth, and

(3) three hours by Lady Day (Gŵyl Fair) on February the second

(delwedd 7043)



EI lir (literary word)
spring equinox


ei -lir masculine noun
spring, vernal equinox
also: Alban Eilir the vernal equinox

Eilir womans name

Eilir mans name

Golygodd y ffaith iddo gyfeirio at Eilir Davies or Felinheli fel pencampWRAIG cwis y rhaglen iddo orfod treulio llawer or dydd Mawrth yn amddiheuro i Mr Davies (Cymro 26 05 1993)
The fact that he referred to Eilir Davies of Y Felinheli as female champion of the quiz on the programme meant he had to spent much of Tuesday apologising to Mr. Davies

ETYMOLOGY: word invented by Iolo Morgannwg (ail = second) + (ir = verdant, green), that is green again
(1) (Llanofer manuscripts in the handwriting of Iolo Morganwg, 1795)
Gŵyl Alban Eilir, yr unfed ar hugain ddydd o Fawrth = the festival of the solar quarter of Eilir, the twenty-first day of March
(2) Dictionary of William Owen-Pughe (produced in sections beginning in 1795): eilir; regeneration, reanimation, a return of moisture


EI liu
womans name


to shave


● eill
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geill = he / she / it can
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


ei -lin masculine noun
image, likeness, representation

idol, graven image = object which is worshipped or revered

Corinthiaid-1 8:4 Am fwyta gan hynny or pethau a aberthir i eilunod, ni a wyddom nad yw eilun ddim yn y byd, ac nad oes un Duw arall ond un
Corinthians-1 8:4 As concerning therefore the eating of those things that are offered in sacrifice unto idols, we know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is none other God but one

idol, person who is an object of great love or admiration
Roedd y ferch fach yn eilun ei rhieni
The little girl was the idol of her parents

imitation, reflection, poor substitute; unskilful, poor at ones job
Eilun o saer yw e Hes a useless carpenter

Bible eilun bugail unskilful shepherd, useless shepherd

Sechareia 11:15 Ar Arglwydd a ddywedodd wrthyf, Cymer eto i ti offer bugail ffl...
(11:17) Gwae yr eilun bugail, yn gadael y praidd; y cleddyf fydd ar ei fraich, ac ar ei lygad deau, ei fraich gan wywo a wywa, ai lygad deau gan dywyllu a dywylla
Zechariah 11:15 And the Lord said unto me, Take unto thee yet the instruments of a foolish shepherd... (11:17) Woe to the idol shepherd that leaveth the flock! the sword shall be upon his arm, and upon his right eye: his arm shall be clean dried up, and his right eye shall be utterly darkened

ETYMOLOGY: eilun < il-lun (eil, penultimate syllable form of ail = second) + soft mutation + (llun = image)


ai -lin adjective
moderately well, neither good nor bad

(health) so-so, middling, not too bad..
Rw in oilin o iach Im fairly well
Shwd y chi eddi? O, oilin bach w i eddi How are you today? Oh, not too bad today

oilin or oilin bach (weather) so-so.
Ma-in ddwarnod oilin bach Its middling weather today

ETYMOLOGY: from the word eilun = idol; it is a development of the sense inexpert, poor.
(1) In the south, eilun > eulun (assimilation of i in the first syllable to the u of the second syllable).
(2) In the south, eu is pronounced
oi and is written ou or oi.
(3) Hence the South Wales form, spelt oulun or oilin,
both having the same pronunciation
oi lin


● eilw
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geilw = he / she / it calls
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


Eilwen EIL wen feminine noun
womans name

ETYMOLOGY: The name is possibly a spelling variant of Aelwen
EIL wen, feminine form of aelwyn (= fair-browed) the pronunciation remains the same, at least in Southern Welsh. (Penult ae is pronounced eu <eɨ> [əɨ] in the North and ei <ei> [əɪ] in the South)

(ael (f) = brow) + soft mutation + (gwyn = white; fair, attractive)

NOTE: The name might also be interpreted as having eil-, ail (= second) as its first element: second-born


ei mentro hi
ii men tro hii verb
have a go; risk it; stick one's neck out

ETYMOLOGY: venture it (ei = it / her) + (mentro = to venture) + (hi (of) it / her)




● eingau
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geingau =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


● eingio
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geingio =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


eingion eing -yon feminine noun
PLURAL einionau
ei- ngy -ne
NOTE: Also (a) einion, and in North Wales ingon / engan

anvil = heavy steel block on which metals are hammered into shape

2 anvil = something similar in shape or use to an anvil

Defnyddid boncyff derwen fel einion i hollti coed arno
An oak stump was used as an anvil to split wood on

3 bod cyn galeted ag einion be very obstinate (be as hard as an anvil)

Street name Sŵnyrengan ((the) sound (of) the anvil) in Y Gaerwen (county of Mn) (Sŵn yr Engan)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh eingion < einion < enian < British < Celtic
From the same British root: Cornish anwan (= anvil), Breton anneo (= anvil)
From the same Celtic root: Irish inneoin
[ˈin'o:n'] (= anvil)

NOTE: Seemingly related to Latin incus (= anvil) < incdere (= to forge)


EIN yos (m)

perygluch einioes put your life in danger (endanger your life)
collich einioes lose your life

cael estyniad einioes get a new lease of life (after a period of illness, depression, loss of vitality, etc to have a renewed vigour, health, drive, optimisim, happiness, etc) (get an extension of life)

cost = sacrifice, loss
ar draul ei einioes at the cost of his life
ar gost ei einioes at the cost of his life


EIN yon
mans name

South Wales: Einon

Gorseinon gors Einon< cors Einon (the) bog (of) Einon

ab Einon (patronymic) > Beinon (coalesced patronymic, and surname) Spelt Beynon in English


ein -yon feminine noun
einionau ein- y -ne
anvil = heavy steel block on which metals are hammered into shape
See eingion


ein -shob feminine noun
SO2662 village in Powys, 6km south-east of Llanandras. English name: Evenjobb tai newydd / new houses Eglwys Bedr / Saint Peters Church

ETYMOLOGY: Cymricisation of the English name Evenjobb



eir EIR v

1 one goes

In fact, the impersonal form of the present-future tense of mynd (= to go)


Cartrefi Cymru, Owen M. Edwards, 1896
Yng nghanol mynyddoedd Meirionnydd, uwchben dyffryn cul a rhamantus,
y mae'r Gerddi Bluog. O Harlech neu Lanbedr yr eir yno.

Y Gerddi Bluog is in the middle of the Meirionydd uplands, above a narrow romantic valley. One goes there from Harlech or Llanbedr / It is reached by going from Harlech or Llanbedr.


eira 1
EI ra (m)

bwrw eira
BU ru EI ra to snow

gwneud eira mawr snow heavily (make big snow)


Eira 2
EI ra

1 womans name
Eira Wen
ei ra WEN ar saith KO rakh Snow White

See the entry above


ei RAA wen

1 womans name (rare)

ETYMOLOGY: snow (eira = snow) + (-wen suffix for forming female forenames, from gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white; pure, holy, fair)

NOTE: Compare the names Eirwen, Gweneira

● eirda
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geirda =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


● eirfa
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geirfa =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


● eirgrawn
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geirgrawn =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


ei rhoi hi
i hroi hi
1 ei rhoi hi (i rywun) lay into someone, attack (someone) = hit, beat ; savagely criticise (someone)

ETYMOLOGY: (ei = her) + (rhoi = give / giving) + (hi = of-her)


Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geiriad =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geiriadur =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geiriaduriaeth =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geiriadurol =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


eir -yan adjective
obsolete fair, beautiful, bright

ETYMOLOGY: unknown; first example in the century 1300-1400


eir -yan feminine noun
(obsolete) beautiful woman

ETYMOLOGY: from the adjective eirian; see preceding entry


eir -yan feminine noun
womans name

ETYMOLOGY: from the word eirian (noun = fair maiden, adjective = fair); ; see preceding entries


eirianedd eir-y-nedh feminine noun
brightness, splendour, beauty; (not in use except as a house name)

Eirianedd House name in Porthmadog (county of Gwynedd)
(in the list of members in The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion 1961 / Part 1)

ETYMOLOGY: (eirian = brightness, splendour, beauty) + (suffix -edd); a word coined by the lexicographer William Owen-Pughe, found in his dictionary published in instalments 1793-1803 ("A Welsh and English Dictionary")


eir-yan-va feminine noun
house name, beautiful place

ETYMOLOGY: (eirian = fair, beautiful) + (-fa, suffix = place, a soft-mutated form of ma = (Old Welsh) place)


eir-yan-van feminine noun
house name, beautiful place
Name of a house in Coed-poeth (county of Wrecsam / Wrexham)

ETYMOLOGY: (eirian = fair, beautiful) + (-fan, suffix, soft-mutated form of man = place)


ei-ri--ni verb
beautify; be beautiful, be radiant

Fel y lili syn eiriannur
Blodau siriol wrth y drws,
Byddai Maggie yn eiriannu
Mhlith yr holl wyryfon tlws.

(Tanybryn, poem by Twynog (1912))

Like the lily which beautifies the cheerful flowers by the door, Maggie would be radiant amongst all the fair maidens

ETYMOLOGY: (eirian = fair, beautiful) + (-u, suffix for forming verbs)


Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geiriau =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


ei- r -nen feminine noun
PLURAL eirin
ei -rin
carreg eirinen plum stone

berry = fruits of other trees


Deuteronomium 23:1 Na ddeued neb wedi ysigo ei eirin, na disbaidd, i gynulleidfa yr Arglwydd
Deuteronomy 23:1 He that is wounded in the stones, or hath his privy member cut off, shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord.

Lefiticus 21:20 Neu a fyddo yn gefngrwm, neu yn gor, neu magl neu bysen ar ei lygad, neu yn grachlyd, neu yn gafrllyd, neu wedi ysigo ei eirin.
Leviticus 21:20 Or crookbacked, or a dwarf, or that hath a blemish in his eye, or be scurvy, or scabbed, or hath his stones broken;

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh eirin < British *agrn- < Celtic
From the same British root: Breton irin.
Hibernian languages: Irish airne (= sloe, fruit of the blackthorn)


eirinen ddu fach
ei-r-nen dhii vaakh feminine noun
PLURAL eirin duon bach
ri-rin dii-on baakh
(South-west Wales) sloe, blackthorn plum, fruit of the common blackthorn Prunus spinosa
mor fn ag eirin duon bach as tiny as sloes.

In other parts known as eirinen sur, eirin surion (= sour plum);

(North) eirinen fach dagu, eirin bach tagu little choking plums;

(North-east) eirinen berthi, eirin perthi plum of the hedges

ETYMOLOGY: little black plum (eirinen = plum) + soft mutation + (du = black) + soft mutation + (bach = little)


eirinen foch
ei-r-nen vookh feminine noun
PLURAL eirin moch
ei-rin mookh
(North Wales) hawthorn berry, haw

coeden ddrain yn goch drosti o eirin moch
a hawthorn bush completely red with haws

ETYMOLOGY: plum (of) pigs (eirinen = plum) + soft mutation + (moch = pigs, plural of mochyn = pig)


eirinen werdd
ei- r -nen werdh feminine noun
PLURAL eirin gwyrdd
ei -rin gwirdh
greengage = sweet greenish-yellow type of plum (Prunus domestica italica)

ETYMOLOGY: green plum (eirinen = plum) + soft mutation + (gwerdd, feminine form of gwyrdd = green )


eirinen wlanog, eirin gwlanog
ei RI nen WLA nog, EI rin GWLA nog
1 peach


Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geiriol =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


eirion eir -yon substantiu plural
what gives splendour, or lustre; ornaments

2 Eirion house name in Paihai, Bay of Islands, New Zealand (in the list of members in The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion 1961 / Part 1)

(delwedd 7051)

ETYMOLOGY: a word coined by the lexicographer William Owen-Pughe, found in the Welsh and English Dictionary" 1793-1803
(eir, penult form of air = brightness, an invented word) + (-ion plural suffix)


eir -yon masculine noun
mans name (very rare)

ETYMOLOGY: (= splendour?) See the preceding entry


eir-yon-wen feminine noun
womans name (very rare)

ETYMOLOGY: (Eirion = mans name) + (-wen suffix for forming female names < gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white)


eir -law masculine noun
bwrw eirlaw = to sleet

ETYMOLOGY: (eir- < eiry, eira = snow) + soft mutation + (glaw = rain)


eir-lau-yo verb
to sleet

ETYMOLOGY: (eirlaw = sleet) + (-io suffix)


eir -lis masculine noun
PLURAL eirlysiau
(flower) Glanthus nivalis = snowdrop

ETYMOLOGY: (eir- < eiry, eira = snow) + soft mutation + (llys = plant)


eir -lis feminine noun
womans name (20th century)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh, from the name of the flower (snowdrop)


ei RO nig


eirth -
bears; plural of the word arth (= bear)

● eirw
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geirw (f) = rippling water; waterfall

symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


ei -ru plural noun
place names waterfall

Eirw Isha = lower waterfall, Eirw Ucha = upper waterfall - in the river Rhondda near Y Porth, county of Rhondda Cynon Taf

Heol Eirw street name in Y Porth

ETYMOLOGY: eirw, soft mutation of geirw (= rough (waters)), plural de garw (= rough)


i EI-ru [ˡəirʊ] (m)
South-west Wales
a local pronunciation of aerwy
[ˡəirui] (= neck-chain, cow collar, cow-house yoke)


eir -wen feminine noun
womans name

ETYMOLOGY: (eir- < eiry, eira = snow) + (-wen suffix for forming female names < gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white)

NOTE: the name Gweneira is the same as Eirwen, with the elements reversed


eirwir Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geirwir =

symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation

Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geirwiredd =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


eir -win adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (eir- < eiry, eira = snow) + soft mutation + (gwyn = white)
NOTE: Feminine form: eirwen. See the proper names Eirwen and Eirwyn


eir-win masculine noun
mans name

ETYMOLOGY: see the preceding entry


ei -ri masculine noun
obsolete older form of eira (qv) = snow


ei-ri feminine noun
womans name

ETYMOLOGY: see the preceding entry
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation

eiryn Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geiryn =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation

EI rin
mans name


ei -rith feminine noun
womans name



ei shapo-hi i sha-po hii verb
South Wales
hurry up, get a move on
cwyd, bachan, shapa-hi = get up, mun, hurry up!


eisiau (ishe, isho)
EIS ye (I she, I sho)

need, necessity

mwy nag sydd ei eisiau more than enough, more than sufficient

Mae eisiau gras! Give me strength! (expression of exasperation, loss of patience) (there is need (of) grace)

Beth fwy sydd arnoch ei eisiau? What more do you want?
Beth sydd arno ei eisiau gen i? What does he want from me / with me?
Mae arna i eisiau iddi fynd I want her to go

5 o eisiau from wanting to
Roedd bron thorri ei fol o eisiau mynd He was dead keen to go (he was almost bursting his belly from (the) want (of) going)

6 Mae ar bawb eisiau mynd yno Everybody wants to go there

7 eisiau bwyd hunger (want (of) food, necessity (for) food)
Enllyn bara da yw eisiau bwyd Hunger is the best sauce (= food no matter how plain becomes very appetising when you are really hungry) ((it is) (a) good companage (of) bread that-is want (of) food)

8 (Caernarfon, North-west Wales) bsantsho = pa beth sydd arnat ti ei eisiau what do you need / require / want?
Let them see how in their spoken Welsh the accent turns a sentence of many words into a single word of one or two syllables... e.g. pa beth sydd arnat ti ei eisieu? has become bsantsho
T Hudson Williams (1873-1961), University College, Bangor / Vox Populi - A Plea for the Vulgar Tongue

9 Mwyaf yn y byd sydd o eisiau (rhywbeth) (something) is even more necessary
Wel, blant bach," ebe hi, gan droi at y genethod ieuainc.
"Mwya yn y byd sydd o eisio gweddio yma ynte, os fel hyn ma petha yn ein plith ni.
Plant y Gorthrwm / 1908 / Gwyneth Vaughan (= Anne Harriet Hughes 1852-1910)
Well, children, she said, turning to the girls. Prayer is even more necessary here isnt it if things are like that in our midst

10 necessity
Fydd dim on ishe i no fory I wont be needed there tomorrow
("there wont be anything of my need there tomorrow")

mae y cwbl yno sydd eisiau ei wybod everything you need to know is there

ei -sin
(plural form) chaff; see eisinen


ei-sin-grig masculine noun
chaff-heap, mill bank; = heap of husks of wheat etc - after husking in a nearby mill, the wheat would be winnowed to remove the chaff

soft place, soft ground

often found in field names with the form Singrug or Shingrug;

...(a) Cwmcaesingrug Name of a farm between Ynys-ddu and Mynyddislwyn (county of Caerffili)

(cwm cae yr eisingrug) ((the) valley (of) Cae yr Eisingrug). The name of the field is (( the) field (of) the chaff pile)
(The local pronunciation is doubtless cwm c shingrug, c as in English care without saying ther)

...(b) In Ffosygerddinen (county of Caerffili) there is a road called Heol Shingrug (Shingrig Road)

...(c) Efailshingrug street name in Trelewis (Treharris, county of Merthyrtudful) ((the) smithy (of) the chaff heap)

ETYMOLOGY: (eisin = chaff) + soft mutation + (crug = pile)

NOTE: Colloquial forms:
(1) Singrug
sin-grig (loss of the first syllable),
(2) (in South Wales Shingrug, with the typical palatalisation in the south si- > shi)


ei-sin-grig feminine noun
SH6134 locality in Gwynedd, 5km north-east of Harlech

2 Afon Eisingrug = a river in in this area

ETYMOLOGY: See eisingrug
NOTE: This place name locally pronounced is the syncopated form Singrug


ei-si-nən masculine noun
PLURAL eisin
ei -sin
(grain) husk
eisingrug (qv) = pile of chaff
eisin sil oat husks

A bryn flawd a bryn eisin The person who buys flour buys chaff
at the same time (to take the good with the bad)

ETYMOLOGY: British < Celtic eks + s + n, from s, si = to sift


● eist
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geist (= bitches), plural of gast (= bitch)
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


eistedd EI stedh ISH te
to sit

eistedd ch coesau o boptur gadair straddle the chair

eistedd ar ben llidiart sit on the fence, not commit oneself to one side or another in a dispute (sit on top of a gate)

NOTE: local forms show the loss of the final dd, and the reduction of the diphthong ei to the simple vowel i

iste, ishte, ista, ishta


eisteddfa, eisteddfeydd (= eisteddfydd) ei-STEDH-va, ei-stedh-VEIDD

1 seat

In the parish of Llangurig there is Eisteddfa Gurig ((the) seat (of) Curig).

QUERY: Could this have been a place of contemplation of Curig?


eisteddfod, eisteddfodau
ei STEDH vod, ei stedh VO de

1 eisteddfod (festival of music / poetry)

2 eisteddfod genedlaethol, eisteddfodau cenedlaethol
ei STEDH vod ge ned LEI thol, ei stedh VO de ke ned LEI thol national eisteddfod (held annually, alternating between the north and south of the country)

3 Allteisteddfod street name, Gwynfryn, county of Wrecsam (spelt on signs and maps as Allt Eisteddfod)
= allt yr eisteddfod (the) hill (of) the eisteddfod


Eisteddfod y Buarth ei-STEDH-vod ə BII-arth feminine noun
(usually as Steddfod y Buarth / Steddfod y Buarth) facetious name for Sioe Amaethyddol Cymru (Welsh Agricultural Show) held at end of July in Llanelwedd, county of Powys, one week before the Eisteddfod Genedlaethol / National Eisteddfod.


Many eisteddfodwyr (eisteddfod visitors) visit Llanelwedd, and in the following week the National Eisteddfod.

ETYMOLOGY: the eisteddfod of the farmyard (eisteddfod / steddfod session, literature and singing competiton) + (y = definite article) + (buarth = farmyard), because it is a similar event to the eisteddfod on a large maes (ground), with various ancilliary stands, and competitions with prizes (but for farm animals rather than poets, writers, musicians, etc)

ETYMOLOGY: the eisteddfod of the farmyard (eisteddfod / steddfod session, literature and singing competiton) + (y = definite article) + (buarth = farmyard)


eitem, eitemau
EI tem, ei TE me


EI tha, I tha
eithaf da
EI tha, I tha DAA quite good
eithaf gwir
EI tha, I tha GWIIR quite right

eithaf un / eitha un extreme
cyrraedd y gwaelod eitha un reach rock bottom, hit rock bottom
(reach the extreme bottom, the very bottom)


ei-tha masculine noun
PLURAL eithafion, eithafoedd
ei-thav-yon, ei-tha-vodh
extremity, furthermost point, maximum extent

yn yr eithaf pellaf oddi wrth... the point furthest removed from.., quite the opposite to....

Wrth ddweud un call yw hwnnw yr ydym yn awgrymu nad oes llawer yn ei ben - ni feddylir y gair yn ei ystyr arferol felly ond yn yr eithaf pellaf oddi wrtho
When we say un call yw hwnnw (hes a bright one) we are suggesting he hasnt got much upstairs - the word isnt meant in its usual sense but in quite the opposite sense (in the furthest extreme from it)

eithaf gorllewin Cymru westernmost point of Wales

eithaf gogledd yr Alban northernmost point of Scotland

hyd at eithafion y ddaear / hyd at eithafoedd y ddaear
to the far ends of the earth

utmost endeavour; gwneud eich eithaf do ones utmost (do your utmost)

ar eich eithaf with all your might, all out (on your utmost)

hyd eithaf eich gallu to the utmost of your ability;

ir eithaf to the utmost

hyd yr eithaf to the utmost;
ymdrechu hyd yr eithaf
try all you can, make the maximum effort to (try as far as the maximum)

manteisio ir eithaf ar (rywbeth
) = make the most of (take advantage to the furthest on)

North Wales gweld eithaf (rhywun) see the worst in someone, see the worst side of someone (see (the) extremity (of) (someone))

North Wales eithaf gan (be) really glad, (be) well pleased;
maen eitha gen i i gl o adra
Im very pleased to have him back home again (= y mae yn eithaf gennyf fi ei gael ef adref)

ich eithaf to your maximum extent

byw bywyd ir eithaf live life to the full

OLOGY: Welsh eithaf
< British *ekt-amo; equivalent to modern Welsh (prefix ech- = out of, from) + (-haf superlative ending)


ei- thav -buint masculine noun
PLURAL eithafbwyntiau
ei-thav- buint -ye
furthest point, ne plus ultra, uttermost point

ETYMOLOGY: (eithaf = the most extreme) + soft mutation + (pwynt = point)


eithaf eithaf
ei-tha ei-tha adjective
county of Mn eitha eitha (with a negative, in referring to somebodys supposed mental disfunction);
Dydy i o ddim yn eitha eitha
= hes not quite right in the head (hes not the fullest extent + the fullest extent)


eithaf gwaith
ei-tha gwaith
expressing that retribution is deserved, that there is just retribution for some wrong done, or some foolish act; to serve someone right

Eitha gwaith chdi. Ddysgith hynna i ti hel diod Serves you right. Thatll teach you to go drinking.

Cythraul o annwyd gafodd wedyn - eitha gwaith ir ffwl gwirion am gerdded o gwmpas yn ei sandalau ar ganol gaeaf
He caught one hell of a cold afterwards serves the silly fool right for walking about in his sandals in the middle of winter

to serve someone right - expresses the fact that the speaker has no sympathy for the disappointment of the person addressed (after the failure of some intention);

Eitha gwaith iti! Tough shit, hard cheese, hard lines, hard luck

ETYMOLOGY: (eithaf = extreme) + (gwaith = work)


ei- thav -nod masculine noun
PLURAL eithafnodau
ei-thav- n -de

1 peak, furthest point, highest point, ne plus ultra, uttermost point, ne plus ultra
eithafnod dedwyddwch the peak of happiness
cyrraedd eithafnod dedwyddwch to reach the peak of happiness

ETYMOLOGY: (eithaf = the most extreme) + (nod = objective, mark)


EI thin

See eithinen


eithinen, eithin
ei THII nen, EI thin
gorse (Ulex europaeus)

(delwedd 7066)

canu 'mhlith yr eithin pigog singing in the midst of the prickly gorse (from the traditional song Gwcw Fach / Little Cuckoo)

2 Bryneithin brin-ei-thin street name in Porthtywyn / Burry Port (county of Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen)

(spelt as Bryneithin). bryn yr eithin (the) hill (of) the furze / gorse (bryn = hill) + (yr definite article) + (eithin = furze, gorse). In place names a linking definite article is often omitted: bryn yr eithin > bryn eithin

3 Brɥnyreithin <brin-ər-EI-thin> [brɪnərˡəɪθɪn]
1 name of a farm SJ1370 near Yr Afon-wen, county of Flintshire (Bryn yr Eithin on the O.S. map) map

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) hill (of) the gorse, gorse hill) (brɥn = hill) + (yr definite article) + (eithin = gorse)


ei THII nog (adj)
gorse-covered, abounding in gorse

Cefn Cnwch Eithinog SN7548 near Ystrad-ffin (county of Caerfyrddin) (the) ridge of Cnwch Eithinog

Cnwch Eithinog is gorse-covered hill (cnwch = hill) + (eithinog = gorse-covered)

2 (f) place abounding in gorse

ETYMOLOGY: (eithin = gorse) + (-og adjectival suffix)


ei-thir preposition
obsolete except

dieithr = strange

eithriad = exception; yn ddieithriad = without exception

eithrio = to except, exclude

oddiithr = except, excepting

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic ektr-o (= external)
From the same Celtic root: Irish eachtreach (= external)
From the same Indo-European root: Latin extr < extera < exterus
(= outside)


eithriad, eithriadau
EITH ryad, eith RY- de

Maer eithriad yn brawf ar y rheol
The exception proves the rule (the exception is a test on the rule)
Eithriad sydd yn brawf ar y rheol yw hwn This is an exception that proves the rule


eithr -yo verb
except, exclude
ac eithrio
except, excluding, with the exception of

eithrio (rhywun) rhg talu trethi
grant a tax exemption to (somebody), exempt (somebody) from paying taxes

ETYMOLOGY: (eithr = exemption) + (-i suffix for forming verbs)


ei throi hi
ii throi hii verb
go off, go away

Rhaid imi ei throi hi
I must be getting along
ei throi hi am adre
go off home

ETYMOLOGY: turn it ( ei = it / her) + aspirate mutation + ( troi = turn) + ( hi (of) it / her)


out of; preposition / prefix in British, equivalent to Latin ex- (= out of, from),

as the prefixes ech-, es- / ys-, e-, ei- in modern Welsh (see following examples)

(1) eks survived as a preposition in Middle Welsh ech (= out of).

It occurs as a prefix in the adverbs
..a/ echdoe (the day before yesterday) (doe = yesterday),
..b/ echnos (= last night) (nos = night)

Used in modern (literary) Welsh as a prefix in new coinings
..a/ echblyg (= explicit) (plygu = to fold)
..b/ echdoriad (= eruption of a volcano, solar eruption) (toriad = breaking, torri = to break)
..c/ echdynnu (= to extract, to isolate a substance by means of heating, distillation,
application of a solvent, etc) (tynnu = to pull, to draw)
..d/ echlifol (= eluvial) (llifol = flowing, llifo = to flow)
..e/ echreiddig (= eccentric, not having a common center) (rheiddio = radiate)

Also from British eks is the prefix es- (and ys-)
..a/ esgor (= cause, originate) < eks-kor
..b/ esmwyth (= comfortable) < eks-mukt-

Also the prefix e-
..a/ eofn (= fearless) < ehofn < echofn (ech = free from) + (ofn = fear) < British (eks + omn-) < Celtic.

In the county of Ceredigion echon < echofn, with the loss of the consonant

In South Wales ewn < eon < eofn. Compare southern hewl for heol (= road)

..b/ eorth (obsolete; = diligent, studious) < British < Celtic eks-ort-; stem *or- (= to rise); cf Latin oriri (= to rise, spring from), as in English origin < Latin org < oriri

..c/ echryd (obsolete; = terror, fright) this is ch-chryd (ech- prefix = from, out of) + (cryd = quaking).

The adjective from this echrydus (= terrifying, awful) is common in modern Welsh

..d/ ethol (= to elect), probably (*th-ddol) < British (*eks-d-dol)
eks (= ex) + interposed consonant d + *dol, variant of *del (= to divide)

Also the prefix ei-
..a/ eisinyn (= husk of a grain) British < Celtic eks + s + n, from s, si = to sift

..b/ eithaf (= extremity) British *ekt-amo; equivalent to modern Welsh (ech preposition, prefix = out of, from) + (-haf superlative ending)

in combination with other prefixes:

..1/ gos- < gwos < British wo-eks (wo = under)

....a/ gosgordd (= retinue) *gwosgordd (cordd = group)

....b/ goslef (= intonation) *gwoslef (llef = cry)

....c/ gosteg (= calm, silence) < *gwosteg < British < Celtic *wo-eks-tek,
< *tak = be silent; cf Welsh tagu (= to throttle), and, Latin taceo (= be silent)

....d/ gostwng (= to lower) < *gwostwng < British < Celtic *wo-eks-tong

ETYMOLOGY: British *eks (= out of, from) < Celtic *eks
From the same Celtic root: Irish es-
From the same Indoeuropean root: Latin ex (= out of), Greek ex-, ek- (exodus, etc)


e- lai
River name. Locally it is Lai or Afon Lai (loss of the pretonic syllable)

.....Afon Eli = ST0285
river in the counties of Rhondda-Cynon-Taf and Caerdydd, south-east Wales

.....Blaen Lai Name of the source of the river is (source (of) Lai, top end (of) Lai), by Carn y Celyn on the mountain between Gilfach-goch in the Ogwr Fach valley and Pen-y-graig in the Rhondda Fawr valley.

The name occurs badly spelt in a street name in the village of Pen-y-graig, Blaenlau Street) (mispelt with a u; in South Wales lai and lau are pronounced the same, though they are different in the North).

In Welsh the street name would be Heol Blaen Lai if named after the source itself, Heol Blaen-lai if it is in fact a farm name.

Cilelai source (of the river) Eli locality in the county of Rhondda-Cynon-Taf.
Local pronunciation: Cileli

wood (by the river) Eli
(ST0285) village on the banks of this river

.....Glaneli bank
(by the river) Eli
(ST0382) mansion and locality on the banks of this river

.....Taf-Eli ((river) Taf and
(river) Eli) This was the name of a county 1974-1996

.....Tre-lai (town of the (river) Eli) suburb of Caer-dydd on the western bank

ETYMOLOGY: Eli < e-li < e-le-i < *e-le-ghi < British *elegi, possibly the prefix el- (= much) + (leg- = flow slowly).

The Breton river name Ell is the same name


e -lain feminine noun
PLURAL elanedd, alanod
e- l nedh, a-l-nod
young doe, fawn

Yr Elain (the fawn) Street name in Dynfant (SS5993) (county of Abertawe)

3 the river name
Elan in Powys is probably related to elain (= fawn)

ETYMOLOGY: British < Celtic *elant < *el- (= boar)
A related word is Irish eilteog (= young doe)


e -lain feminine noun
womans name
Elain Haf Morgan fawn, young doe + summer (two first names) + Morgan (surname)

ETYMOLOGY: See the previous entry


e -lan feminine noun
1 river name

Pont ar Elan (county of Powys) SN90314-71554, 6km west of Rhaeadr-gwy. A bridge in Cwm Elan (the Elan Valley), at the head of Cronlyn Craig yr Allt Goch (Craig yr Allt Goch Reservoir) one of a series of reservoirs constructed to supply water to Birmingham in England in the 1890s (In the book The Vale of Nantgwilt: a submerged valley... by Richard Eustace Tickell (1894) there is a sketch of the bridge by the author)

("bridge over (the river) Elan") (pont = pont) + (ar = on) + (Elan = river name)

ETYMOLOGY: Possibly related to elain (= fawn)


elk masculine noun
PLURAL elcod, elciaid
el-kod, elk-yed
elk = large deer of the northern hemisphere. The male has heavy flattened antlers; it is generally known as elk in Europe and moose in North America

(delwedd 7507)

2 Eurasian elk (Alces alces)

elc Ewrasiaidd Alces alces Eurasian elk
Yr elc yw anifail cenedlaethol Norwy Norways national animal is the elk

2 American elk, wapiti (Cervus canadensis)
elc Americanaidd Cervus canadensis American elk, moose, wapiti

ETYMOLOGY: English elk < Old English;

Cf Latin alcs, Greek elaphos (= deer)


el -dridh feminine noun
womans name



-lekh feminine noun
PLURAL elechau, elych
e-l-khe, -likh
obsolete stone slab

obsolete gravestone

obsolete bakestone

obsolete stone table

place name: Treflach (= Trflach) near Croesoswallt, England (trv by the stone slab)
< Trefelach (=
< Trefelech (=

(tref = trv, farmstead) + (elech = stone slab)

ETYMOLOGY: (e = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (llech = slab)


-led verb
may he go...
Eled iw grogi! Hang the fellow! (may he go to his hanging)


E len
womans name


Elen Benfelen
-len ben-v -len feminine noun
Elen Benfelen a'r Tair Arth Goldilocks and the Three Bears

ETYMOLOGY: "Yellow-haired Elen" (Elen = Helen) + soft mutation + (penfelen, feminine form of penfelyn = yellow head, flaxen-haired)


Elen Luyddog
e-len li-O-dhog feminine noun
1 (Elen of the Hosts) from a noble family in Segontium (Caernarfon).

She married Macsen Wledig (Magnus Maximus), born in the Iberian peninsula, who became commander of the Roman army in Britain and who in AD 383 went to Rome where he deposed Gratian and made himself Emperor, and became a Christian.

It is said that Elen returned to Wales after Macsens death five years later, in AD 388.

The tale is preserved in Breuddwyd Macsen Wledig (the dream of Magnus (the) leader) , written down around 1400 and forming part of the collection of twelve medieval Welsh tales known as the Mabinogion.

2 Her name apears as Helen in

..a/ Sarn Helen name given to several sections of Roman road. (for example, north and south of Y Banwen in the county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)

..b/ Coed Helen literally Helens wood, locality in Caernarfon. Originally though it was Coed Alun, the wood (of) Alun (?a stream name)

See Helen

ETYMOLOGY: (Elen womans name ) + soft mutation + (lluyddog = having many warriors)


e LEE nidh
An area of moorland in the centre of Wales, taking in the eastern part of Ceredigion, western Powys, and north-eastern Sir Gaerfyrddin. It extends from the Pumlumon mountains in the north and is bounded by Mynydd Epynt and Mynydd Du in the south.

In English, the area is called the Cambrian Mountains, though it is mainly an area of high hills and moorland rather than a range of mountains.

The three highest peaks are Pen Pumlumon Fawr SN7886 (752m), Drygarn Fawr SN8658 (645m) and Mynydd Mallaen SN7344 (448m). Two large reservoirs are also in Elenydd Llyn Claerwen SN8565 and Llyn Brianne SN8051.

(delwedd 7042)

Pen Pumlumon Fawr SN7886 (752m)

Drygarn Fawr SN8658 (645m)

Mynydd Mallaen SN7344 (448m).

Llyn Claerwen SN8565

Llyn Brianne SN8051

2 name of a cantref in the country of Rhwng Gwy a Hafren


e LE ri
1 River in northern Ceredigion, flowing through Tal-y-bont
Afon Eleri / Afon Leri

2 womans name (from the name of the river, or from Eleri, a daughter of the ruler Brychan of Brycheiniog)


EL vel
ancient territory in south-east Wales


Elfair (1)
el -vair feminine noun
female name

ETYMOLOGY: Possibly (El- first syllable of the feminine name Elen) + soft mutation + (Mair = womans name, Mary)


Elfair (2)
el -vair
Siop Elfair name of a Welsh shop in Rhuthun
Elfed a Mair Evans syn rhedeg Elfair, siop Gymraeg yng nghanol Rhuthun, sydd yn arbenigo mewn llyfrau Cymraeg, casetiau, CDs, crefftau a nwyddau {eraill} (Cymro 01 09 2001)
Elfed and Mair Evans run Elfair, a Welsh-language shop in the centre (of the town of) Rhuthun, which specialises in Welsh-language books, cassettes, crafts and other goods (non-functioning 2008-11-23)

ETYMOLOGY: (El- first syllable of the masculine name Elfed) + soft mutation + (Mair = womans name, Mary)


EL ved

1 a kmmud (cwmwd) of the kntrev of Cantref Gwarthaf

Cynwyl Elfed SN3727 a village in Sir Gaerfyrddin, in the old kntrev of Elfed

2 Elmet, an old Welsh kingdom; now a part of Yorkshire, England

Barwick in Elmet SE3937

Sherburn in Elmet SE4933

3 mans name, either from a connection with this area north of Caerfyrddin, or more generally after the poet and hymnwriter Elfed
(Howell Elvet Lewis = Hywel Elfed Lewys 1860-1953), who was born in Cynwyl Elfed.

(delwedd 7392)

el -ven feminine noun
PLURAL elfennau
el- ve -ne

element = component part, constituent, ingredient

element = (ancient philosophy) one of the four simple substances - earth, water, fire, air believed held to be the basis of all material bodies

y pedair elfen = the four elements
(note: no soft mutation after the definite article of feminine numerals tair (= three), pedair (= four).


Cf the place name Llan-y-tair-mair the grave accent indicates a short vowel when it occurs in a long-vowel environment

3 element = (chemistry) substance which cannot be broken down into other substances

element = word used in combination with another word, or other words,
or affixes, to form a compound word

5 propensity, innate gift, the makings of something, talent

Mae elfen canu ynddi (there-is (the) element (of) singing in-her)
Shes got the makings of a singer, shes got it in her to be a good singer, shell make a good singer

Mae elfen ffarmio ynddo
Hes got it in him to be a farmer, hes got the talent to be a farmer

one of the first principles of an art or science, or rudiments of knowledge

South Wales - passionate interest
Mae elfen pysgota ynddo Hes mad about fishing

South-west Wales hobby, interest

Ei elfen e yw garddio Gardening is his great interest
familiar environment, surroundings in which one feels at home

teimlo allan och elfen feel out of your element
bod yn eich elfen be in your element

elfennau elements, stormy weather (wind and rain / sleet / snow, and cold)
Bun hir yn brwydro r elfennau ac fel y bur anlwc cryfhaodd yr ystorm
He fought for a long time against the elements but as luck would have it the storm grew in intensity

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh elfen < British < Latin elmentum < elementum


elfen hybrin
el-ven hə-brin feminine noun
trace element

ETYMOLOGY: (elfen= element) + (hybrin = very scarce)


el-ve-nol adjective
elementary = introductory, explaining first principles
llyfr ar Ystadegaeth Elfennol
a book on Elementary Statistics

ETYMOLOGY: (elfenn-, form before a final syllable of elfen (= element) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


eli, elioedd
E li, e LI odh

2 eli haul


mans name


liffant, eliffantod
E li fant, e li FAN tod


eli haul
e li HAIL
sun cream, sun block

elin ee -lin feminine or masculine noun
PLURAL: elinau
e- lii nai. -e
elbow (though nowadays penelin is used)

2 forearm

penelin (end of elbow probably in the sense of folded elbow, bent elbow, angle made by the elbow)

cyfelin (f) PLURAL cyfelinau ell, the length between the elbow and the hand
y gyfelin
the ell
(cyf-, prefix = together) + (elin = elbow)

elinad (qv) ell



e- l -nad feminine noun
PLURAL elinadau
e-li-- n -de
ell, the length between the elbow and the hand

ETYMOLOGY: (elin = elbow) + (-ad suffix for forming abstract nouns)


E lis
mans name

ab Elis son of Elis (patronymic)
Belis son of Elis coalesced patronymic, which was used as a surname (spelt Bellis in English)


e- li -seg
male name

Croes Eliseg Elisegs Cross

Piler Eliseg Elisegs Pillar, the Pillar of Eliseg Piler Eliseg

This monument SJ2044 (Croes Eliseg or Piler Eliseg) dates from the 800s, and commemorates Elisedd ap Gwyllog, a king of Powys who died c. 755. It was erected by Cyngen as a memorial to his great-grandfather.

Part of the Latin inscription (nowadays illegible) read approximately (Welsh names in modern orthography):

Cyngen son of Cadell, Cadell son of Brochfael, Brochfael son of Eliseg, Eliseg son of Gwyllog

And this Cyngen, great-grandson of Eliseg, raised this stone here for his great-grandfather Eliseg

This Eliseg gathered together the inheritance of Powys out of the power of the Angle and his sword and fire

Whoever reads this inscription, may he give a blessing to the soul of Eliseg

The Latin name of the Abbey at Llanegwestl, Valle Crucis (Valley of the Cross), refers to the pillar, at one time surmounted by a cross. The Welsh name (Abaty Glyn y Groes) has the same sense as the Latin name (the) abbey (of) (the) valley (of) the cross. The pillar is a quarter of a mile north of the abbey.

The name Eliseg is a masons error for Elisedd


(noun suffix; diminutive) (non-productive, except in new literary coinings)

1 Welsh < British *ell o *ill < Celtic

..a) with certain common nons
ffynnon (= spring) > ffynhonnell (= source of information)
iwrch (= roe deer) > iyrchell (= young roe)
llin (obsolete, = line) > llinell (= line)
pib (= pipe) > pibell (= pipe)

TRAITH (= beach), traethell TREI thelh (= little beach; flat)

..b) occurs in certain stream names
Crafnell (?craf = wild garlic, ransoms)
Crychell (crych = ripple)
Llyfnell (llynf = smooth)

Note its ocurrence too in the river names of Gaul

Indella (French: Andelle; flows into the river Seine in Normandy)
Mosella (French: Moselle, German Mosel; flows through France, Luxembourg, Germany)

..c) occurs in certain personal names
Ariannell (arian = silver)
Gwynnell (gwyn = white, fair)
Mechell (from an original form Mechyll) (probably mach = bond, surety, guarantee; hostage. Vowel affection a > e resulting from the presence of y in the final syllable, in the suffix yll)

2 Welsh < British < Latin (words ending -ell-us = masculine, -ell-um = neuter)
Some of these masculine or neuter nouns have become masculine in Welsh:
castellum (= fort) > Welsh castell (m) (= fort, castle)
porcellus (= piglet) > Welsh porchell (m) (= piglet)

Others have been influenced by the native suffix -ell and have become feminine nouns:
botellus (m) (= bottle) > bothell > pothell (f) ( = blister)
cancellus (m) (= chancel) > cangell (f) (= chancel)
cultellus (m) (= knife) > cyllell (f) (= knife)
flagellum (n) (= whip) > flangell (f) (= whip)

3 One word of this type is masculine in Welsh but feminine in Latin
cawell (m) < Late Latin cauella (f) (= basket) < cavea (= cage; fence; basket)

4 (f) new coinings: suffix indicating a machine, a device, a functional object
allweddell piano keyboard (allwedd = piano key)
briwell mincer (USA: ?) (briw-, briwo = to mince)
bysell typewriter key, (bys = finger) + (-ell). bysellfwrdd = keyboard;
plygell folder; folder on a computer (plyg-, plygu = to fold)
pennell bookend (pen = end)
terfynell computer terminal (terfyn = limit, < Latin terminus)


e -lhid verb
soft-mutated form of gellid = it could be (done)

ni ellid it would not be possible to, it would be impossible to

Ni ellid moi well Things are going just fine (moi well = ddim oi well nothing of its better)

na ellid that it would not be possible to, that it would be impossible to

Daeth yn glir na ellid codir adeilad o fewn y gyllideb
It became clear that it would be impossible to put up the building within the budget


elli di?
E lhi di
can you?


● ellir
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
gellir =

symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


● elltydd < elltydd
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
gelltydd < elltydd =

symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


● ellygen
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
gellygen =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


ellyll PLURAL ellyllod E lhilh, e LHI lhod [ˡɛɬɪɬ] [ɛˡɬəɬɔd] masculine noun

2 Ceubren yr Ellyll
[ˡkəibrɛn ər ɛˡɬɪɬ] 'the hollow tree of the sprite = hollow oak at Nannau where Owain Glyndwr is said to have hidden the body of his would-be assassin, his cousin Hywel Sele

Ceubren yr Ellyll... Yng nghwr isaf gardd Nannau, ger Meirion, safai gynt dderwen fawr a elwid ar yr enw (Brython 1858-9)
At the bottom of the garden at Nannau... there was formerly a large oak called by this name

(ceubren = hollow tree) + (yr definite article) + (ellyll = sprite, pixie)


e LII ned [ɛˡliˑnɛd]
womans name


elusen PLURAL elusennau
e LI sen, e li SE ne [ɛˡlisɛn] [ɛlɪˡsɛnai, ɛlɪˡsɛnɛ] feminine noun
alms, charity

byw ar elusen
live on charity


elw PLURAL elwau
EE lu, EL wai -e [ˡeˑlʊ] [ˡɛlwai, ˡɛlwɛ] masculine noun


EL wa [ˡɛlwa] verb
to profit, to make a profit

2 budrelwa profiteer (budr- = dirty) + (elwa = profit)


Elwern EL wern [ˡɛlwɛrn]

1 womans name (rare)

2 mans middle name or second forename

3 Bro Elwern (the) district (of) Elwern

Ysgol Bro Elwern name of the primary school in Gwyddelwern

4 Brynelwern LL21 9DQ street name in Gwyddelwern (Bryn Elwern)


DERIVATION (1): Elwern is seemingly a ghost name, through analysing the name of Gwyddelwern as (the) grave (of) Elwern (gŵydd = tumulus, burial mound, grave) + (Elwern).

DERIVATION (2): A popular derivation is Irishmans alder swamp (Gwyddel = Irishman) + soft mutation + (gwern = alder swamp; alder trees)

DERIVATION (3): Melville Richards / Enwau Tir a Gwlad / 1998 / p.246 was inclined to see the word gwyddel (= thicket, bush, brambles) here rather than Gwyddel (= Irishman).


gwyddelwern = thicketed swampy land (gwyddel = thicket) + sofrt mutation + (gwern = alder swamp: sampy ground)

The original form of gwyddel (= thicket) is g
*yddwal (= thicket, bush), plural g*yddweli
(g*y^dd = wood, trees) + soft mutation + (an unknown element g*al or g*l) (possibly g*l = animals lair, den)

..a/ PLURAL g
*yddweli > g*yddfeli (change of w > f, a change which occurs in other words in Welsh)

..b/ g
*yddfeli > g*yddeli (loss of the f)

..c/ g
*yddeli > g*yddel (creation of a new singular form by removing the plural suffix i)


● elwir
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
gelwir =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


..1 Elwy e -lui feminine noun
Afon Elwy SJ0071 = river in north-east Wales

Llanelwy SJ0374 = town in the county of Dinbych ((the) llan or church (by the river called) Elwy)

ETYMOLOGY: possibly (el- prefix, = many) + (gwy = sinuous, winding)


..2 Elwy
e -lui feminine noun
spurious form for the river Eli in south-east Wales, sometimes used in the 1800s.

There was a belief that the wy at the end of some river names (Conwy, Dyfrdwy, Mynwy, etc), and the river name Gwy (English: River Wye) were evidence of the existence of a common noun gwy (= water).

In fact there is no such word with this meaning, but it appears in William Owen-Pughes Welsh-English dictionary (c.1803) which was popular throughout the 1800s.

There was a temptation on the part of some writers to restore this element to the end of river names.

The existence of the similar-sounding river name Elwy in north-east Wales would have seemed to confirm the correctness of the notion that lai was really Elwy.

Eu heiddo hwynt oedd y Collena, o Heol Llantrisant hyd Afon Elwy
(Hanes Tonyrefail - Atgofion am y Lle ar Hen Bobl. Thomas Morgan. 1899, Caer-dydd)
Y Collena was their property, from the Lantrisant Road to the river Elwy / Eli


Elwyn EL win
mans name


● elyn
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
gelyn =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


elyniaeth Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See g
elyniaeth =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


● elyniaethus
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
gelyniaethus =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


elynion Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
gelynion =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


E lirkh
swans; plural of alarch


emdy Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See g
emdy =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


EM lin [ˡɛmlɪn]
1 name of one of the seven kntrevs of the country of Dyfed

2 a mans name, from this district name

Castellnewydd Emlyn (Ceredigion) (the) Castellnewydd (which is in) (the kntrev of) Emlyn.
(Castellnewydd is new castle)

NOTE: Emlyn was one of the seven kntrevs of the country of Dyfed in south-west Wales. It was divided into two kmmuds Is Cuch (place) below (the river) Cuch, and Uwch Cuch (place) above (the river) Cuch.

Afon Cuch formed the boundary between the kmmuds of Emlyn Is Cuch and Emlyn Uwch Cuch. This old boundary is maintained even today, because the river Cuch separates the county of Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen from the county of Penfro / Pembroke. The river is 13 kilometres long from its source at or near Blaen Cuch to where it flows into the river Teifi at Aber Cuch.

(image adapted from a wikipedia source) (delwedd 7008)

ETYMOLOGY: The valley of the river Cuch is called Glyn Cuch. This is the origin of the kntrev name Emlyn - (district) on-either-side (of) (the) valley (of the Cuch river)

(am- prefix = around) + soft mutation + (glyn = valley)

a > e through vowel affection the influence of y in the final syllable.

(Explanation in Enwau Tir a Gwlad / Melville Richards/ 1998, page 48)


● emog
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
gemog =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


Emrys EM ris
mans name


● emwaith
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
gemwaith =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


E munt
mans name - Edmund


emyn, emynau
E min, e MI ne


● emydd
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
gemydd =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


emyn-dn, emyn-donau
E min doon, e min DO ne
hymn tune


emynydd, emynyddion
e MƏ nidh, e mə NƏDH yon


E mir
mans name


..1 -en - suffix
makes a singular noun from a collective noun or plural noun
bedw > bedwen birch > birches
brwyn > brwynen rushes > rush
celyn > celynnen hollybushes > hollybush
cwningod > cwningen rabbits > rabbit
dail > deilen leaves > leaf
ffa > ffeuen beans > bean
gwenith > gwenithen wheat > grain of wheat
gwenyn > gwenynen bees > bee
gwern > gwernen alder > alders
llygod > llygoden mice > mouse
pils > pilsen pills > pill
pys > pysen peas > pea
swits > switsen sweets > sweet
twpsod > twpsen stupid idiots (girls) > stupid idiot (girl)
tywarch / tyweirch > tywarchen turves > turf

makes a feminine noun from an adjective
blac (= English black) > blacen Black, Blackie (name of a cow)
coch > cochen red > red-haired girl
moel > moelen hornless > hornless cow

makes a diminutive form from a feminine singular noun
..a the diminutive form is nowadays the referential form (i.e. chwilen is the usual form rather than chwil)

chwil > chwilen beetle
hwyad > hwyaden duck
mwyalch > mwyalchen blackbird

b.. the base form is the referential form (i.e. diod is the usual form; dioden still has a diminutive sense)

cywen > cywennen chicken, pullet
diod > dioden drink
pl > pelen ball
punt > punten pound (money)

Cymricises a borrowing from English (though some words in this group may also be includable in preceding groups).

The sense of the diminutive form may differ from the radical form

coat > Welsh cot (= coat), coten (= beating)
pot > Welsh pot (= pot), poten (= pudding)


..2 en-
orm of the intensifying prefix an- as a result of vowel affection
(y or i in the following final syllable)

..1/ enbyd (= danger)
(an-) + soft mutation + (pyd) > *anbyd > enbyd. Obsolete Welsh pyd ( = danger), apparently from Latin puteus (= hole, well). The same word puteus has also given pydew (= well) in Welsh

..2/ enfys = (rainbow)
(an-) + soft mutation + (bys = finger); Cf Breton envez (= ring)

..3/ enllib (= calumny, libel, slander) (= an-) + soft mutation + (llib = element apparently with the sense of to catch) > *enlib > enllib (loss of the mutation)

..4/ enllyn (= something eaten with bread (eg butter, cheese, meat), something to make plain food more palatable)
(an = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (llyn = liquid) > *enlyn > enllyn (loss of the mutation)

..5/ enwyn = buttermilk
(thing which is) very white (an- = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (gwyn = white)


..3 -en
A word ending in en is feminine, if this is a suffix (see preceding entry)
But beware!

(1) ychen is a plural noun (= oxen).

The singular form is ych (m) (= ox).

This modern form ychen (colloquial and literary) is in fact more properly ychain in the literary language.

It is (ych + suffix ain) with the usual reduction ai > e in a final syllable

Note: Rhydychen (= Oxford), rather than Rhydychain. Literally (the) ford (of the) oxen. (This place name is feminine, as are all town names).
teg = fair, pretty; Rhydychen deg = fair Oxford

(2) bachgen (= boy)

(3) halen (m) (= salt) < halaen < halwyn

(4) The final en may be a segment of another word, All the following are masculine:

(a) llen (m) (= cloth)

argrafflen (= broadsheet 38 x
61 cm) (argraffu = to print),
breinlen (= charter) (braint = privilege),
brithlen (= tapestry) (brith = variegated),
hysbyslen (= playbill) (hysbysu = to advertise), etc
newyddlen (= news-sheet) (newydd = new, piece of news),
taenlen (= spreadsheet) (taenu = to spread),
taflen (= leaflet) (taflu = to throw),

(b) pren (m) (= wood, tree)
cambren gambrel; frame, horizontal pole for hanging a pig from after slaughter; butcher's tree, frame for hanging a pigs carcass, (cam = crooked, bent)
pompren (= footbridge) (though this is also a feminine noun, either because of the influence of the element pont (f) (= bridge), the final -en, or both),
tinbren (American: tailgate) (Englandic: tailboard) back board of a cart, (tin = arse, rear, back end)
crocbren (= gallows) (crogi = to hang),
ceubren (= hollow tree) (cau = hollow) etc

(c) pen (m) (= head)
deupen (= both ends) (dau = two), etc

(d) dalen (f) leaf of a book
tu (m) side

tudalen (m) leaf of a book


enaid, eneidiau
E naid, -ed, e NEID yai, -e

Maen boen enaid imi ddweud hynny It grieves me to say this (it is pain (of) soul for me saying that)

3 codi ofn am eich enaid arnoch scare the living daylights out of, scare the shit out of, put the fear of God into, frighten somebody stiff (raise fear for your soul on you)

4 (South-west) becsoch enaid be worried out of your mind (worry your soul)

5 soul = person

lle i enaid gael llonydd a place for a soul to find tranquility


● enau
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
genau =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation

enbaid en -bed masculine noun
see embyd

ETYMOLOGY: a variant of the word enbyd (= danger) (qv)


EN bid


2 intensifer enbaid o terribly

Lle imbed o waedlyd oedd Passchendale (Llafar Gwlad 36 Haf 1992)
Passchendale (battlefield in World War where a quarter of a million soldiers from the countries of Britain were killed in a single battle) was a really bloody place

NOTE: In the south-west, the form imbed < inbed, apparently the result of a metathesis of enbid / enbyd E-I > I-E


en -bid masculine noun
PLURAL enbydiau, enbydion
en- bəd ya, -yən

ETYMOLOGY: enbyd < *anbyd < (an-) + soft mutation + (pyd = danger).

Obsolete Welsh pyd is apparently from Latin puteus (= hole, well)

The same Latin word puteus has also given pydew (qv) (= well) in Welsh


eb- -di adjective
1 endanger, put in danger

ETYMOLOGY: (enbyd-
y = ə, penult form of enbyd y = i (= perill) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)


encil PLURAL encilion
EN kil, en KIL yon masculine noun
refuge, hiding-place, retreat

2 Yr Encil (the retreat)

Street name in
..a/ Pen-sarn, Abergele (county of Conwy)
..b/ Maesyfelin, Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)


en KIL yad masculine noun
seinior enciliad to sound the retreat
estyniad ac enciliad advance and retreat


en KIL va (f)
PLURAL encilfydd
en kil-VEIDH
refuge, hiding-place, retreat


encilfa haf a summer retreat


● enedigaeth
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
genedigaeth =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


enedigol e-ne- d -gol adjective

Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
genedigol = (= originating, being by birth)
Roedd yn enedigol o Langurig He was born in Llangurig
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


eneiniog e- nein -yog adjective
1 anointed

2 yr Eneiniog (masculine noun) Jesus Christ, the Messiah ("the Anointed (One)")

3 Eneiniog Duw (masculine noun) Jesus Christ ("the Anointed (One) (of) God")

ETYMOLOGY: (enein-i, stem of the verb eneinio = anoint) + (-og, suffix)


● eneteg
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geneteg =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


● enetegol
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
genetegol =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


● eneth
Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
geneth = gril
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


enethaidd Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
genethaidd = girlish
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


enethod Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
genethod =
symbol used here to indicate the absence of an initial g because of soft mutation


enetig Soft-mutated form - the radical form has initial g-.
See g
enetig =