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gwi-
1 Sometimes the g is a soft mutation of c, and the radical form of the word is with cwi-
yn gwic (= quickly) < cwic (= quick)

:_______________________________.
gwialen, gwiail <gwi-AA-len> [gwɪˡɑˑlɛn] 

PLURAL: <GWI-ail (GWI-el)> gwiail [ˡgwiˑaɪl, ˡgwiˑɛl] (f)

1
rod = long thin straight stick
y wialen the rod

2 switch = rod, cane for goading an animal

3 rod = sceptre, emblem of authority; ceremonial staff held by a monarch as a symbol of authority (USA: sceptre)

Bible, Psalm 110.2 te’rnwialen (= sceptre); (te’rn = monarch) + soft mutation + (gwialen = scpetre)

4 rod = instrument of punishment

gwialen fedw a birch; birching rod

5 rod = slender pole for fishing.

SEE gwialen bysgota, gwialen enweirio

6 penis
gwialen march (South Wales) stallion's penis
gwialen gŵr man’s penis

7
(basketwork) osier

helygen wiail (hel’g gwiail) (Salix viminalis) osier willow or water willow
8 magic wand
trawodd y dewin y garreg ā'i wialen

the sorcerer struck the stone with his wand

 

NOTE: (South-east Wales) gialen, ialen, gielin (North-west Wales) gwialam (district of Dw’for), gialam (district of Penll’n), gialen, ialen

:_______________________________. gwialen a phastwn
1 literally: rod and club, rod and staff
llywodraethu drw’ nerth gwialen a phastwn to govern / to rule by brute force (“govern through (the) strength (of) rod and club / staff”)

 

Ym more amser, wele'r brenin ar ei orsedd drw’'r unig hawl -
ei fod yn fab i'w dad, ac yn llywodraethu drw’ nerth gwialen a phastwn

t47 Seneddwr ar Dramp Rh’s J Davies 1935
At the dawn of time, (“see the king”) you have the king on his throne (“through the only right”) through a sole right – that he is the son of his father, and to ruling by brute force

 

ETYMOLOGY: (gwialen = rod) + (a = and) + spirant mutation + (pastwn = cudgel, club, staff)

 

:_______________________________.

gwialen bysgota, gwiail pysgota <gwi-AA-len bə-SKO-ta, GWII-ail pə-SKO-ta, GWII-el...> [gwɪˡɑˑlɛn bəˡskɔta, ˡgwiˑaɪl / ˡgwiˑɛl  pəˡskɔta] (f)
1 fishing rod

ETYMOLOGY: “rod (for) fishing” (gwialen = rod) + soft mutation + (pysgota = to fish, to go fishing)
:_______________________________.

gwialen ddewinio (f) <gwi-AA-len dde-WIN-yo> [gwɪˡɑˑlɛn šɛˡwinjɔ]
PLURAL: gwialenni / gwiail dewinio <gwi-a-LE-ni / GWII-ail / GWII-el de-WIN-yo > [gwɪaˡlɛnɪ / ˡgwiˑaɪl / ˡgwiˑɛl dɛˡwinjɔ)]
1 dowsing rod

ETYMOLOGY: “rod (of) fishing” (gwialen = rod) + soft mutation + (dewinio = divine, prophesy, bewitch)
:_______________________________.

gwialen dr’ll (f) <gwi-AA-len DRILH> [gwɪˡɑˑlɛn drɪɬ]
PLURAL: gwialenni / gwiail dryllau <gwi-a-LE-ni / GWII-ail / GWII-el DRŲLH-ai / DRŲLH-e> [gwɪaˡlɛnɪ / ˡgwiˑaɪl / gwiˑɛl drəɬ/ drəɬɛ]
1 ramrod

 

ETYMOLOGY: “rod (of) (a) gun”, “gunstick” (gwialen = rod) + (dr’ll = gun)

NOTE: Not in Geiriadur yr Acįdemi Gymraeg, which has ffon wthio (“stick (for) pushing”)

:_______________________________.

gwialen enweirio (f) <gwi-AA-len en-WEIR-yo> [gwɪˡɑˑlɛn ɛnˡwəirjɔ]
PLURAL: gwialenni / gwiail genweirio <gwi-a-LE-ni / GWII-ail / GWII-el gen-WEIR-yo> [gwɪaˡlɛnɪ / ˡgwiˑaɪl / gwiˑɛl gɛnˡwəirjɔ]
1 fishing rod


ETYMOLOGY: “rod (of) fishing” (gwialen = rod) + soft mutation + (genweirio = to fish (with a fishing rod))

:_______________________________.

gwialen fedw (f) (f) <gwi-AA-len VEE-dw> [gwɪˡɑˑlɛn ˡ ɑˑlɛn veˑdʊ]
PLURAL: gwialenni / gwiail bedw <gwi-a-LE-ni / GWII-ail / GWII-el BEE-du > [gwɪaˡlɛnɪ / ˡgwiˑaɪl / gwiˑɛl beˑdʊ]
1 birch rod (used in punishment)


Rhoi'r las onnen i ebol a'r wialen fedw i blent’n

Llafar Gwlad 10 1986
give the green ash (a rod from a sapling ash tree) to a colt and a birch rod to the child

(said of ways to discipline through force)

 

ETYMOLOGY: “rod (of) birch” (gwialen = rod) + soft mutation + (bedw (attributive noun) = birch; bedw (noun) = birch trees)
:_______________________________.

gwialenffust (f)  <gwi-a-LEN-fust> [gwɪaˡlɛnfɪst]
PLURAL: gwialenffustiau  <gwi-a-len-FIST-yai, -ye> [gwɪalɛnˡfɪstjaɪ / -jɛ]

1 flail = an implement used for threshing grain. It has a wooden handle to which is attached a free-swinging metal bar or wooden bar

In mid-Wales as lemffust

gwialenffust > (through apheresis) ’lenffust > (assimilation of n to the following f) lemffust

 

ETYMOLOGY: “rod + flail” (gwialen = rod) + (ffust = flail)


:_______________________________.

gwialennod (f)  <gwi-a-LEN-od> [gwɪaˡlɛnɔd]
PLURAL: gwialenodiau  <gwi-a-len-OD-yai, -ye> [gwɪalɛnˡɔdjaɪ / -jɛ]

1 switch = application of a switch, blow with a rod or cane

ETYMOLOGY: (gwialen > gwialenn- = rod) + (-od suffix indicating a blow with some implement)

:_______________________________.

gwialffust (f)  <gwi-AL-fust> [gwɪ ˡalfɪst]
PLURAL: gwialffustiau  <gwi-al-FIST-yai, -ye> [gwɪalˡfɪstjaɪ / -jɛ], gwialffustau  <gwi-al-FIST-ai, -e> [gwɪalˡfɪstaɪ / -ɛ] 1 flail = an implement used for threshing grain. It has a wooden handle to which is attached a free-swinging metal bar or wooden bar


ETYMOLOGY: “rod + flail” (gwial-, root of gwialen = rod) + (ffust = flail)    


NOTE: In South Wales as gielffust and ielffust


:_______________________________.

gwialgur (m) <gwi-AL-gir> [gwɪˡalgɪr]
PLURAL: gwialguriau  <gwi-al-GIR-yai, -ye> [gwɪalˡgɪrjaɪ / -jɛ],
1
gauntlet = military punishment, in which an offender is made to remove clothing from his torso and run between two rows of soldiers who beat him with birch rods or ropes

ETYMOLOGY: “rod + flail” (gwial-, root of gwialen = rod) + soft mutation + (cur = beating)    


:_______________________________.

gwiall (f) <GWII-alh> [gwiˑaɬ]

1 (North-east Wales - Dinb’ch, yr W’ddgrug) a local form of bw’all (= axe)


:_______________________________.

gwiall (Gal·les del North-west Wales)

1 (North-west Wales) a local form of gwaėll (= knitting needle)


:_______________________________.

gwib
<GWIIB> [ˡgwiːb] (f)

PLURAL: gwibiau  <GWIB-yai, -ye> [ˡgwɪbjaɪ / -jɛ],
1 rapid movement,
sudden movement, darting movement, dash, sprint, whizz
y wib the dash, the rapid movement

 

gwib gan medr a one-hundred meter dash, a one-hundred meter sprint



2 seren wib shooting star

 
:_______________________________.

gwibdaith <GWIB-daith> [ˡgwɪbdaɪθ] (f)
PLURAL: gwibdeithiau
<gwib-DEITH-yai, -ye> [gwɪbˡdəɪθjaɪ, -jɛ]
1 excursion, outing; short two-way trip to a place for sightseeing or relaxation
y wibdaith the excursion

Ryd’m hef’d wedi darparu gwibdaith i set “Pobl y Cwm” i ddysgw’r y Sir
We have also provided / organised / arranged a trip to the set (of the TV program / programme) “Pobl y Cwm” for learners (of Welsh) in this county

ETYMOLOGY: (gwib- = stem of gwibio = flit, dart, zoom, whoosh) + soft mutation + (taith = journey)

:_______________________________.

gwibddu (adj)
1 du
sky, swarthy

2 Gwibddu stream name, Bleddfach

:_______________________________.

gwiber <GWII-ber> [ˡgwiˑbɛr] (f)
PLURAL: gwiberod <gwi-BEE-rod> [ˡgwɪbeˑrɔd]
1 viper = poisonous snake of genus Viperae
y wiber the viper

Eseia 11:7 Y fuwch hef’d a’r arth a borant yngh’d; eu llydnod a g’dorweddant; y llew, fel yr ’ch, a bawr wellt (11:8) A’r plent’n sugno a chwer’ wrth dwll yr asb; ac ar ffau y wiber yr est’n yr hwn a ddiddyfnw’d ei law
Isaiah 11:7 And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. (11:8) And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice’ den.

2
Vipera berus viper = poisonous Northern Eurasian snake

3
scoundrel, rogue, treacherous person

coleddu gwiber yn eich mynwes nourish a viper in your bosom (= protect a person who turns out to be treacherous)

4
shrew; bad-tempered, scolding woman

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin vīpera (= viper);
Breton naer-wiber (= viper) (“(a) snake (which is a) viper”);

Cf English
[vįipə(r)] viper (= viper)
Cf English {wįivərn} wyvern (= mythological winged snake) < (wyver) + (excrescent -n); < Norman wivre < Latin vīpera

:_______________________________.


gwiberaidd
(adj)
1
viperous = pertaining to vipers
2 viperous = malignant, spiteful

:_______________________________.

gwiberl’s

1 Echiu
m vulgare, viper's bugloss, blueweed

:_______________________________.

gwibfaen <GWIB-vain> [ˡgwɪbvaɪn] (m)
PLURAL: gwibfeini <gwib-VEI-ni> [gwɪbˡvəɪnɪ]
1 meteorite

ETYMOLOGY: (gwib- = stem of gwibio = flit, dart, zoom, whoosh) + soft mutation + (maen = stone)

:_______________________________.

gwibffordd <GWIB-fordh> [ˡgwɪbforš] (f)
PLURAL: gwibff’rdd
<GWIB-firdh> [ˡgwɪbfɪrš]
1 expressway = road similar to a motorway

y wibffordd the expressway
Gwibffordd y Gogledd North Wales Expressway “(the) expressway (of) the North”

Mae rhaid creu gwibff’rdd modern rhwng y de a’r gogledd
We have to create modern expressways between the north and the south

ETYMOLOGY: (gwib- stem of gwibio = flit, dart, zoom, whoosh) + soft mutation + (ffordd = road); the word is based on English expressway

:_______________________________.

gwib-hedeg
1 flutter

:_______________________________.


gwibio
<GWIB-yo> [ˡgwɪbjɔ] (verb)
1
(vi), flit, dart, run to and fro, fly to and fro, nip, shoot (= move nimbly and quickly); career = move rapidly zoom, whoosh

Gwibiai'r adar mān drw’ frigau’r berth The little birds flitted through the branches of the hedge

2 wander, ramble

:_______________________________.


gwibiog
(adj)

1 f
litting, fleeting
2 unsettled, flighty

:_______________________________.

gwiblong (f)
PLURAL: gwiblongau
1 cruiser = warship to protect merchant ships, attack enemy ships

:_______________________________.

gwiblu
<GWIB-li> [ˡgwɪblɪ] (m)
PLURAL: gwibluoedd
<gwib-LII-oidh -odh> [gwɪbˡliˑɔɪšš] (South-east Wales)

1 vagrants, tramps
castell y gwiblu place of lodging for vagrants “(the) castle (of) the vagrants”

ETYMOLOGY: “group which gads about” (gwib- stem of gwibio = to wander, to gad about; to flit, to dart,) + soft mutation + (llu = group of people)

However, this word (which seems a very unlikely word on the face of it), appears first in William Owen Pughes Dictionary in 1800

gwiblu A band of vagrants, a strolling company,

along with

gwibli A state of wandering, or gadding. To this he adds

Castell gwibli, the castle of vagrancy, an appelation for such houses as keep beds to receive strollers of various descriptions, who would not be admitted into houses in general.

He tags this entry as Sil., that is Silurian, or south-eastern Welsh.



In fact, it probably is the place name Castell Weble (Weobly Castle) in the Gŵyr Peninsula, rather than a word gwiblu.

John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cern’w) in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911) notes a place called Crofft Castell y Gwiblu in Lecw’dd:

CROFFT-CASTELL-Y-GWIBLU "Croft Castle Gwibley" (the croft of the castle of the vagrant band.) A field in the parish of Leckwith (1760.)

In 'Addenda and corrigenda', in Volume 3 of Cardiff Records (1901) he includes the following note:

Mr. J. S. Corbett writes thus to the Archivist, under date 10 August 1901:—"In the second volume of the 'Cardiff Records,' p. 211, it is stated that a milkmaid was killed by a bull at Croft Castle Gwibley, Leckwith, in 1760. I remember being told when in the neighbourhood of the place, about 30 years ago, that bulls in the fields there were reputed to get very savage, and that a person was once killed by one there. . . . . As to Castle Gwibley itself, though there are some slight remains at the place, I do not think any building of importance is likely to have existed there. There are no records or notice of such in the Leckwith manorial documents, so far as I have observed. Weobly Castle, in Gower, was formerly called Castle Gwebley and was at one time (temp. Eliz.) owned by the Earls of Pembroke, also Lords of Leckwith; but I cannot suggest any reason for giving the name to what was probably little more than a cottage in Leckwith."

:_______________________________.

gwibwrn (m)
PLURAL: gwibyrnau
1 spinning round

pendro wibwrn (y bendro wibwrn)

gw’llt wibwrn / gw’llt wibwr

:_______________________________.

gwiced (f)
PLURAL: gwicedau
1 wicket gate

:_______________________________.

gwich <GWIIKH> [gwiːx] (f)
PLURAL: gwichiau <GWIKH-ye> [ˡgwɪxjaɪ, -ɛ]
1 (mouse) squeak
y wich the squeak

gwich fain a shrill squeak

2 (wheel) squeak, creak

ETYMOLOGY: Imitation.

Breton has gwic’h (= wailing, squeaking)

:_______________________________.

gwichal <GWII-khal> [ˡgwiˑxal] verb
South-west Wales
1
squeak

ETYMOLOGY: (gwich = squeak) + (-al suffix)

:_______________________________.

gwichen
1 See: gwi
chied’n

:_______________________________.

gwichiad <GWIKH-yad> [ˡgwɪxjad]

PLURAL: gwichiadau <gwikh-YAA-dai, -de> [gwɪxˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1 a squeak

:_______________________________.

gwichiad <GWIKH-yad> [ˡgwɪxjad] (m)

PLURAL: gwichiaid <GWIKH-yaid> [ˡgwɪxjaɪd, -jɛd]
1
periwinkle
casglu gwichiaid gather periwinkles

 
Pwllygwichiad ‹pulh-ə-GWIKH-yad› [ˌpʊɬ ə ˡgwɪxjad] “(the) pool (of) the periwinkle”, “periwinkle pool” (pwll = pool) + (y = definite article) + (gwichiad = periwinkle)
A former farm in what is now the centre of Llandudno, said to be where the Woolworth’s shop (2008-12-31) in Ffordd Most’n / Mostyn Street now is, and the area towards Rhodfa’r De / South Parade.
The farm was the birthplace of the artist Hugh Hughes (1790 – 1860, Great Malvern, England)

2 gwichiaid dish of periwinkles fried in pig lard and eggs, mixed together

3 gwichiad moch (m) gwichiaid moch (“periwinkle (of) pigs”) whelk

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic, probably based on *weik (= to fold, to turn).
Folk etymology connects the word with gwichian (= to squeak, squeal), this being the noise they are said to make when they are when plucked off a rock, or dropped live into boiling water.

:_______________________________.


gwichian <GWIKH-yan> [ˡgwɪxjan] (verb)
1 to squeak

sialc yn gwichian ar fwrdd chalk squeaking on the blackboard

Yr oedd yr hen wagen yn gwichian ei chalon hi The old wagon was squeaking merrily away

2 squeal
3 creak

4 wheeze

Roedd ei frest gaeth yn gwichian fel megin His tight chest was wheezing like a pair of bellows

NOTE: In South-east Wales: gwichal


:_______________________________.

gwichl’d (adj)

1
squeaky
esgidiau gwichl’d squeaky shoes;
llais gwichl’d squeaky voice;
olw’n wichl’d squeaky wheel

:_______________________________.

 

:_______________________________.


Gwidigadd
1 divisi
on ('cwmwd') of Cantref Mawr (Ystrad Tywi)

:_______________________________.

gwidman <GWID-man> [ˡgwɪdman] (m)
PLURAL: gwidmanod <gwid-MAA-nod> [gwɪdˡmɑˑnɔd] (South Wales)
1 widower

2 Cirsium vulgare spear thistle


NOTE: South-eastern form: gwitman


:_______________________________.

gwidw, gwidwod (South Wales) [ˡgwiˑdʊ, gwɪˡduˑɔd]
1
widow
y widw the widow

2 pisho gwidw (" widow's piss ") weak tea (or beer)

NOTE: Maldw’n / Montgomeryshire widogod (= widows)
South-east Wales: gwitw, witw

 
:_______________________________.

gwifren bigog (f)
PLURAL: gwifrau pigog

1 barbed wire

 

:______________________

gwifren-cwt-ieir
<GWI-vren-kut-YEIR> [ˡgwɪvrɛn kʊt jəɪr] (f)
1
chicken wire = wire with a hexagonal mesh (“wire (of) hen coop”)
also weiren cwt ieir

 

:_______________________________.

gwifren ddaear (f)
PLURAL: gwifrau daear
1 (Electricity) earth wire

:_______________________________.

gwifren uwch-ddaear (f)
PLURAL: gwifrau uwch-ddaear
1 overhead wire

 
:_______________________________.

gwilad
(South Wales)

gwylio
1 See:

:_______________________________.

gwilgi
(South Wales)
1 See: gweilgi

 Gwili

1 Afon Gwili= river in Caerfyrddin SN5707
Abergwili
Cwmgwili

:_______________________________.

Gwili (m)

1 man's
name
 

:_______________________________.

gwilihoban   (North Wales)

1 gallivant, chase after (women)

:_______________________________.

gwilio
(South Wales)
1 See:

gwylio
1 See:

 

:___
____________________________.

gwilni
(South Wales)
1 See:
gw’lni

:_______________________________.

Gwil’m (m)
1
man’s name = William
Short forms: Gwģl, Cwģl

2 patronymic = “(son of) Gwil’m”, with the loss of the link word ap = son (Daf’dd Gwil’m < Daf’dd ap Gwil’m)

3 surname, from the patronymic = “(descendant of) (the son of) Gwil’m” (anglicised form: Gwillim, Gwilliam, Williams)

4 in certain place names in the old genitive form (that is, with soft mutation Gwil’m > Wil’m)

..a/ Craigwil’m place name in Pen-t’rch (county of Caer-d’dd) - name of a tenenment in the year 1666 (“(the) rock (of) William”)

..b/ Rh’dwil’m (SN1124) locality in the county of Caerfyrddin at Llandysilio (“(the) ford (of) William”)

..c/ Stad Pontwil’m (“Pontwillim Estate”), Aberhonddu (county of Pow’s) (“(the) bridge (of) William”)

Nouaddwil’m (“Noyadd Wil’m”), Llangoedmor
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/447774

ETYMOLOGY: < English William (Dutch Willem, French Guillaume, German Wilhelm) (William was a name introduced by the Normans, and was popular because it was the name of a number of English monarchs (it corresponds to the modern English words will = intent, purpose, helm / helmet = protective headgear)

Nantwil’m


gwimad (South-east Wales)
1 See:
w’neb = cara

:_______________________________.

gwiman   (South-east Wales)
1 See:
gw’mon

 

:_______________________________.

gwimb’ll (m)

PLURAL: gwymbillion

1 gimlet

 

:_______________________________.

gwimon (
South-east Wales)
1 See:

gw’mon
 

:_______________________________.

gwin, gwinoedd
 [gwiːn, ˡgwnɔɪš, ˡgwnɔš] (m)
1 wine
= fermented juice of grapes (through a mixture of
grapes, water and sugar)
gwin coch red wine

gwin gw’n white wine

 

2 grapevine
gwinllan vineyard
tyfu gwin winegrowing

3 wine = fermented juice of other fruits or plants;
gwin afalau apple wine
gwin blodau coed ysgaw elderflower wine (used to treat colds or fever)
gwin blodau dant y llew (South-east Wales) dandelion wine (considered to be a blood purifier)
gwin blodau ysgawen elderflower wine (used to treat colds or fever)
gwin ceirios
(South-east Wales) cherry wine (used for recuperating after an illness)
gwin coch red wine
gwin dant y llew (South-east Wales) dandelion wine (considered to be a blood purifier)
gwin eirin bach duon
gwin eirin ysgawen elderberry wine
gwin gw’n white wine
gwin haidd barley wine = strong sweet beer
gwin mw’ar duon blackberry wine
gwin pannas (South-east Wales) parsnip wine (used for strengthening the nerves)
gwin riwbob rhubarb wine
gwin ysgaw elderberry wine

4 gwin yr hen Gymr’ (facetious) spring water (“the wine of the old Welsh people” i.e. Welsh people in olden times)

5 (attributive) wine
casgen win wine cask
potel win wine bottle

6 (attributive) like wine, pleasant, sweet, fine;
awel win,
caeod win,
cyw’dd win

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin vīnum
From the same British root: Cornish gwin, Breton
gwin



:_______________________________.

gwina (South-east Wales)

= gwyniau
1 See: gwyn = dolor

:_______________________________.

gwinab (South-east Wales)
1 See:
w’neb = cara

:_______________________________.

gwinad (South-east Wales)
1 See: gwynio = fer mal

:_______________________________.

gwinatu (South-east Wales)
1 See:
gwyniadu

:_______________________________.

gwinau ‹GWII-nai, GWII-ne› [ˡgwiˑnaɪ, -ɛ] (adj)
1 chestnut brown

2 (hair) brown
gwallt gwinau brown hair

Sometimes written gwine [GWII-ne] to represent the colloquial pronunciation

:_______________________________.

gwinbren (f)
PLURAL: gwinbrenni, gwinbrennau (South Wales)

1 tiebeam

:_______________________________.

gwindai
1 see: gwind’
:_______________________________.

gwindllas

1 windlass

:_______________________________.

gwind’ <GWIN-di> [ˡgwɪndɪ] (m)
PLURAL: gwindai <GWIN-dai> [ˡgwɪndaɪ]
1 winehouse, place where wine is stored or sold

2
Place names Pontygwind’ (county of Caerffili)

pont y gwind’ (“(the) bridge (of) the wine house”, or “bridge by the house called ‘Gwind’’”)

ETYMOLOGY: (gwin = wine) + soft mutation + (t’ = house)

:_______________________________.

gwinecon (South-east Wales)
1 See: gwynegon

:_______________________________.

gwinecu

(South-east Wales)
See: gwynegu

:_______________________________.

gwinedd <GWII-nedh> [ˡgwiˑnɛš]
1 colloquial form of ewinedd (= finger nails, toe nails, cats claws)

:_______________________________.

gwinegr (‘gwineg’) <GWII-negr, GWII-neg> [ˡgwiˑnɛgr, ˡgwiˑnɛg]
1 vinegar

:_______________________________.


gwineuedd <gwi-NEI-edh> [gwɪˡnˑɪnɛgr, ˡgwiˑnɛg]
1 brownness

:_______________________________.

gwineugoch <gwi-NEU-gokh> [gwɪˡnɛɪgɔx] adjective
1 brown
gwenith gwineugoch (South-east Wales) brown wheat

ETYMOLOGY: (gwineu-, penult form of gwinau = brown) + soft mutation + (coch = red)

:_______________________________.

gwinfa
1
winery = place for making wine

:_______________________________.

gwinfedd <GWIN-vedh> [ˡgwɪnvɛš]

1
colloquial form of ewinedd (= nail's breadth)

:_______________________________.

gwingad

(South Wales)
1 See: gwingo

:_______________________________.

gwingafn (m)
PLURAL: gwingafnau
1 winevat
Marc 12:1 Ac efe a ddechreuodd ddywedyd wrthynt ar ddamhegion. Gŵr a blannodd winllan, ac a ddododd gae o’i hamgylch, ac a gloddiodd le i’r gwingafn, ac a adeiladodd dŵr, ac a’i gosododd hi allan i lafurwyr, ac a aeth oddi cartref.
Mark 12:1 And he began to speak unto them by parables. A certain man planted a vineyard, and set an hedge about it, and digged a place for the winefat, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country.



ETYMOLOGY: (gwin = wine) + soft mutation + (cafn = vat)
:_______________________________.

gwingar adjective
1
fond of wine

Titus 1:7 Canys rhaid i esgob fod yn ddiargyhoedd, fel goruchw’liwr Duw; nid yn gynd’n, nid yn ddicllon, nid yn wingar, nid yn draw’dd, nid yn budrelwa
Titus 1:7 For a bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not selfwilled, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre

ETYMOLOGY: (gwin = wine) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, meaning ‘fond of’; cf caru = to love)

:_______________________________.

gwingar <GWING-gar> [ˡgwɪŋgar] (adj)
1 fond of wine

Titus 1:7 Canys rhaid i esgob fod yn ddiargyhoedd, fel goruchw’liwr Duw; nid yn gynd’n, nid yn ddicllon, nid yn wingar, nid yn draw’dd, nid yn budrelwa
Titus 1:7 For a bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God; not selfwilled, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre

ETYMOLOGY: (gwin = wine) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, suggesting ‘fond of’, felt to be related to caru = to love)

:_______________________________.

gwingiad (m)
1 wri
ggle, wriggling, fidgeting, writhing, flinching

NOTE: Also gwingad
:_______________________________.

gwingl’d (adj)

1
fidgety, restless

:_______________________________.

gwingo (verb)

(South Wales)

gwingad

1 (vi), wriggle, writhe
 

 
:_______________________________.

gwingo yn erb’n y symbylau

1 (Bible) (Acts 9.5) kick against the pricks
= hurt oneself by struggling in vain
Myfi ’w Iesu, yr hwn w’t ti yn ei erlid: caled ’w i ti wingo yn erb’n y symbylau

:_______________________________.

gwingwr (m)
PLURAL: gwingw’r
1 wriggler, fidgeter, etc

:_______________________________.

gwinidog <gwi-NII-dog> [gwɪˡniˑdɔg]
1 A colloquial form of gweinidog (= minister)
:_______________________________.

gwinio (South-east Wales)
1 See:
gwynio = fer mal

:_______________________________.

gwiniolen <gwin-YOO-len> [gwɪnˡjoˑlɛn] (f)
PLURAL: gwiniol <GWIN-yol> [ˡgwɪnjɔl]

1
(South Wales) Acer campestre = field maple. The Northern form is cynhowlen. The standard name is Masarnen Leiaf
y winiolen the field maple

ETYMOLOGY: Apparently this was originally gwenwialen ‘white rod’ (gwen feminine form of gw’n = white) + soft mutation + (gwialen = rod). (In 1707 and in 1753 it is noted that in south-east Wales the tree is called gwenwialen). Another possibility is that the origin of the word is gwinwialen, the first element being gwin (= wine).

:_______________________________.

gwinllan <gwin-lhan> [ˡgwɪnɬan] (f)
PLURAL: gwinllannoedd, gwinllannau <gwin-LHAN-oidh, -odh, -ai, -e> [gwɪnˡɬanɔɪš, -ɔš, -aɪ, -aɪ, -ɛ]
1 vineyard, place planted with vines
y winllan the vineyard

2
North Wales wood, brake, copse, coppice
gwinllan dew o ddrysau ger afon Dw’for
a dense bramble brake near the river Dw’for

gwinllan goed wood

Mi fuon ni’n chwarae mewn gwinllan goed gerllįw yr hen gartref
We used to play in a wood by the old home

3
plantation;
gwinllan hel’g = willow plantation

helygen y gwinllannoedd (Salix) willow (“willow of the plantations”)

See: helygen

4
Place names: Y Winllan
.....(1) Tal-y-bont (county of Ceredigion),
.....(2) Llanddeiniolen (county of Gw’nedd)

5
Y Winllan 1848-1965 Methodist youth magazine

6
chapel
Dim ond am dymor b’r, yn ifanc, y bu ef yn gweithio’n y winllan. Wedi hynn’ ni thywyllodd le o addoliad eto
He was an active member of the chapel for only a short period, when he was young. After that he never set foot ever again in a chapel.

7
said of something put into the care of another

y winllan a roddw’d i’w ofal the vineyard entrusted to his care

Cafodd gi defaid yn anrheg a bridiodd sawl pencampwr ar ōl h’n. Roedd yn falch o weld ffrw’th blynyddoedd o fridio yn deillio o’r winllan a roddw’d i’m gofal
He was given a sheep dog as a present and he bred many a champion after this. He was proud to see the fruit of years of breeding which resulted from the vineyard entrusted to his care

Sant Mathew 21.41 Hw’ a ddywedasant wrtho, Efe a ddifethas yn llw’r y dynion drwg hynn’, ac a es’d y winllan i lafurw’r eraill, y rhai a dalant iddo’r ffrw’thau yn eu hamserau
St Matthew 21.41 They say unto him, He will miserably destroy those wicked men, and will let out his vineyard unto other husbandmen, which shall render him the fruits in their seasons

Hosea
2.15 A mi a roddaf iddi ei gwinllannoedd o’r honno, a dyffr’n Achor yn ddrws gobaith
Hosea 2.15 And I will give her her vineyards from thence, and the valley of Achor for a door of hope

8
vintage = grape harvest

Job 24:6 Medant eu hŷd yn y maes; a gwinllan yr annuwiol a gasglant
Job 24:6 They reap every one his corn in the field: and they gather the vintage of the wicked.

ETYMOLOGY: (gwin = wine, vine) + soft mutation + (llan = yard) > *gwinlan > gwinllan; in some words the mutation is lost in such a combination cf English {vinyə’d} vineyard; (vine) + (yard)
 
:_______________________________.

gwinllan Naboth

1 (neighbour's possession coveted by a rich man)
1 Bren 21 : 1-10

:_______________________________.

gwinllannol <gwin-LHA-nol> [gwɪnˡɬanɔl]adjective
1
winegrowing
ardal winllannol winegrowing area

ETYMOLOGY: (gwinllann- < gwinllan = vineyard) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

gwinllannol (f)

1
winegrowing

:_______________________________.

gwinllannwr (f)
PLURAL: gwinllanw’r <gwin-lhan-wir>

1 winegrower

:_______________________________.

gwinllanol (adj)

1 winegrowing
ardal winllannol winegrowing area

ETYMOLOGY: (gwinllann- < gwinllan = vinyard) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

gwinnin
(South Wales)
1 See:

gwynn’n
 

:_______________________________.

gwinrawn
See:  gwinron’n

:_______________________________.

gwinron’n (m)
PLURAL: gwinrawn
1 grape (vitis vinifera)

 

:_______________________________.

gwinwr (m)
PLURAL: gwinw’r
1 vintner

:_______________________________.

gwinwr’f (m)
1
wine-press

:_______________________________.

gwinwydden <gwin--dhen> [ˡgwɪnwəšɛn] (f)
PLURAL: gwinw’dd <GWIN-widh> [ˡgwɪnwɪš]
1 Vitis vinifera = vine, grapevine
y winwydden the grapevine

2
gwinwydden ddu PLURAL: gwinw’dd duon Tamus communis = black bryony

3
gwinwydden w’llt PLURAL: gwinw’dd gwylltion Lonicrea Periclymemum = honeysuckle

ETYMOLOGY: (gwinw’dd = vines) + (-en singulative suffix); (gwin = wine) + soft mutation + (gwydd = trees)

:_______________________________.

gwinw’ddiaeth
(f)

1 viticulture = study of grapes

2 viticulture = grape-growing, wine making

:_______________________________.

gwinyddes
(South Wales)
VEGEU: gwniyddes

:_______________________________.

Gwion <GWII-on> [ˡgwiˑɔn]
1 man’s name

ETYMOLOGY: Eric Hamp in
Ériu 29 (1978) pp. 152-153 suggests that the Welsh name Gwion and the Irish name Fķ derive from a Celtic word which is also the origin of Old Irish fķ = poison, venom.
:_______________________________.

gwipad (South-east Wales)
1 See: gw’bed’n

:_______________________________.

gwir <GWIIR> [gwiːr] (m)

1 truth = the quality of being true
Y gwir a f’n y golau Truth will out (“the truth will demand the light”)

2 truth = something which is true

 :_______________________________.

(y) Gwir Anrhydeddus

1 Translation of the English titile “The Right Honourable” given to

a) a judge of the English Appeal Court

b) Privy Councillor 

c) certain ranks of the English nobility (count, viscount, baron)

d) the mayor of certain large cities

 
:_______________________________.

gwir (adjective)
1
true
2
ydi’n wir isn’t it / she / he? indeed it is / she is / he is
tag element after an afirmative statement, as an exclamation

Mae hi’n dda, ydi’n wir She’s good, she really is

3
(before a noun) true, genuine

Beth ’w’r wir stori am ddiflaniad syd’n ei wraig?
What’s the true story behind the sudden disappearance of his wife?

gwir angen
real necessity

Mae arnaf fi ei wir angen I really need it (“there-is on me its true need”)

Byddwn yn gwario arian ar bethau nad oedd eu gwir angen arnaf
I used to spend money on things I didn’t really need (“I spent money on things that-not there-was their true need on-me”)

4
(before an adjective) truly
Mae’n wir ddrwg gen i I’m really sorry, I’m awfully sorry, I’m truly sorry

:_______________________________.

gwir (m)
1 truth
nithio’r gwir o’r gau sort the truth from lies (“winnow the truth from the false”)

Mae’r gwir yn y cwrw
In vino veritas (“the truth is in the beer”)

Llawer gwir gorau ei gelu

Many things are best left unsaid (“many a truth best its hiding”)

Daw’r gwir ar glawr
The truth will reveal itself

Y gwir a f’n y golau Truth will out (“the ruth will demand the light”)

 


:_______________________________.

gwir (adj)
1 true

 :_______________________________.

gwira (South-east Wales)
1 See:
gw’r’f

:_______________________________.

gwir bob gair!

1
not a word of a lie!
it's only too true, never a truer word was spoken,
there's no denying it
TES-Y Beth s’'n bod arnom ni yng Ngwynedd? Mae nifer y Cymr’ Cymrįeg
yn gostwng o gyfrifiad i gyfrifiad. Estroniaid yn dylifo mewn?
Gwir bob gair. Cymr’'n dilorni eu hiaith? Peth gwirionedd yn h’n, hef’d.(:REF)(REF:)(cym:) TES-Z

 



:_______________________________.

gwireb <GWII-reb> [ˡgwiˑrɛb] (f)
PLURAL: gwirebau, gwirebion

1 truism, obvious truth, obvious fact
y wireb the truism

:_______________________________.

gwireddu <gwi-REE-dhi> [ˡgwɪreˑšɪ] (verb)

1
make (something) come true
cael ei wireddu come true

gwireddu breuddw’d realise a dream, make a dream come true
gwireddu breuddw’d realise an ambition

 

gwireddw’d yr hen broffw’doliaeth the old prophecy came true, was realised

B’dd yr henair yn cael ei wireddu: Trech gwlad nag arglw’dd
The old saying will be borne out (“will come true”) – [the people of a] country [are] mightier than a lord

 

Nid ’w'r gobeithion wedi eu gwireddu His hopes haven’t been fulfilled

 


 -

:_______________________________.

gwireiddiad (m)
PLURAL: gwireiddiadau

1 verification

:_______________________________.

gwireiddio
(verb with an object)
1 verify

:_______________________________.

gwir ei wala
1 tru
e enough, quite true

:_______________________________.

gwirfodd <GWIR-vodh> [ˡgwɪrvɔš] (m)
1 consent

2 free will
o’ch gwirfodd voluntarily, of your own free will
gwneud rhywbeth o’ch gwirfodd do something of your own free will

ETYMOLOGY: (gwir = true ) + soft mutation + (bodd = will)

:_______________________________.

gwirfoddol <gwir-VO-dhol> [gwɪrˡvoˑšɔl] (adj)
1
voluntary
= done by free choice, and not as a result of compulsion
rhodd gwirfoddol voluntary. donation

2
voluntary = freely performing a service, doing work without having been obliged to, and without expecting any payment for it
gweithiwr gwirfoddol voluntary worker

3 voluntary = (service) done without expecting payment
gwaith gwirfoddol voluntary work

 
:_______________________________.

gwirfoddoli <gwir-vo-dhoo-li> [gwɪrvɔˡšoˑlɪ] verb
1 volunteer
gwirfoddoli i wneud rh’wbeth volunteer to do something
2 volunteer = (ironic) be pressured into offering to do sth against one’s will

ETYMOLOGY: (gwirfoddol = voluntary) + (-i suffix for forming abstract nouns)

 


:_______________________________.

gwirfoddolwr <gwir-vo-DHOO-lur> [gwɪrvɔˡšoˑlʊr] (m)
PLURAL: gwirfoddolw’r <gwir-vo-DHOL-wir> [gwɪrvɔˡšɔlwɪr]
1 volunteer

2
volunteer = (ironic) person obliged to do a thing, but manipulated so that it seems that he or she has agreed willingly

ETYMOLOGY: (gwirfoddol = voluntary) + (-wr suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

gwiriad (m)
PLURAL: gwiriadau

1 verification

:_______________________________.

gwirio (verb)

VA
RIANT: gwiro
(South Wales)

1 (verb with an object)
,verify

 
:_______________________________.

gwirion <GWIR-yon> [ˡgwɪrjɔn] (m)
PLURAL: gwirioniaid <gwir-YON-yaid -yed> [gwɪrˡjɔnjd, gwɪrˡjɔnjɛd]
1 (South Wales) innocent
Gw’l y Gwirioniaid

1 gan y gwirion y ceir y gwir idiots and simpletons come up with the truth
TES-Y Fell’ d’w'r hen bennill ddim ymhéll ohoni - ac efallai wedi'r cyfan, mai gan y gwirion y ceir y gwir (:REF)Cymro 29 11 97(REF:)(cym:) TES-Z

1 (North Wales)

simple fool
VOC-Y a||0070|||a VOC-Z

:_______________________________.

gwirion (adj)

1
(South Wales) innocent
 Z

1 (North Wales) 
weak-minded, simple, daft
 
 
ETYMOLOGY: Welsh GWIRION < GWIRIAWN [GWIR + IAWN] < British
from the same British root: Breton GWIRION = true, genuine  

 

:_______________________________.

gwirion (adjective)
1
(South) innocent, naļve

2
(North) simple, idiotic

:.:

:_______________________________.

gwirion bost (North Wales) (North Wales)

1 daft as a brush

1 m’nd yn wirion bost go completely mad 
:_______________________________.

gwiriondeb (m)
 


1 (South Wales) innocence
 

:_______________________________.

gwirionedd (m) historically (f)

1 truth


2
gorau arf gwirionedd honesty is the best policy (“best weapon truth”)

 

:_______________________________.

gwirioneddol <gwir-yo-NEE-dhol> [gwɪrjɔneˑšɔl] (adj)

1 true, real

 

:_______________________________.

gwirion gall

1 da
ft in the head
 
:_______________________________.

gwirion hen (North-west Wales)

1 in one's dotage, senile
 
:_______________________________.

gwirioni
<gwi-ri-OO-ni> [gwɪrɪˡoˑnɪ] (verb) (Gal·les de Nord)

1 to dote on

Nid ’w pawb yn gwirioni yr un fath It takes all sorts to make a world (“not everybody dotes (on things) in the same way”)

 
:_______________________________.

gwirionw’llt (adj)

1
TES-Y yng nghanol ras wirionw’llt y Nadolig... yr holl siopa, yr holl wario,
yr holl baratoadau(:REF)Faner 13 12 91(REF:)(cym:) TES-Z

:_______________________________.

gwirion’n (m)
PLURAL: gwirioniaid
1 idiot, blockhead, dolt, fool, oaf, fool, cretin, numskull

ETYMOLOGY: (gwirion = stupid) + (-’n suffix to make a noun from an adjective)

:_______________________________.

gwirion’n (m)
PLURAL: gwirioniaid <gwir- yon -yed>

1 idiot, blockhead, dolt, fool, oaf, fool, cretin, numskull

 

:_______________________________.

gwirod, gwirod’dd <GWII-rod, gwi-ROO-didh> [ˡgwiˑrod, gwɪroˑdɪš] (m)
1 liquor, spirits
2
lefel wirod spirit level

-
 
:_______________________________.

gwirod (m)
PLURAL: gwirod’dd <gwi-rō-didh]

1 liquor = alcoholic liquid
 

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British
From the same British root: Cornish gwirez (= licor). Not found in Breton
Apparently related to English wort (= malt and warm water)

 
 


:_______________________________.

gwirsen (South-east Wales)
1 See:
cwirsen
??gwir y gair
how true

:_______________________________.

Gwir ’w gwir, ac fe ddal dŵr
1 “the truth is the truth, and it holds water”, there is no faulting the truth, you cannot fault the truth
 Merth’r 1894

 :_______________________________.

gwisg, gwisgoedd <GWISK, GWI-skoidh -odh> [gwɪsk, ˡgwɪskɔɪš, -ɔš] (f)
1 dress
y wisg the dress

gwisg briodas, gwisgau priodas wedding dress
gwisg nos, gwisgau nos night dress
gwisg alar, gwisgoedd galar mourning clothes
gwisg nofio swimming costume, swimming clothes
gwisg nos, gwisgoedd nos [gwɪsk ˡnoːs, ˡgwɪskɔɪš ˡnoːs] nightdress, nightgown, nightie
gwisg wen surplice; white robe worn by members of Gorsedd y Beirdd
gwenwisg surplice
gwisg ysgol school uniform
…mewn gwisg ysgol in school uniform
cuddwisg disguise ‘hide-clothing’ (cudd-, root of cuddio = to hide) + soft mutation + (gwisg = dress)
…bod mewn cuddwisg be in disguise
ffugwisg disguise ‘false-clothing’ (ffug = false, fake) + soft mutation + (gwisg = dress)
durwisg armour (dur = steel ) + soft mutation + (gwisg = clothing)
gwisg ffansi
fancy dress

Fe wneir y ddrama yng ngwisgoedd y cyfnod
The drama will be done in the dress / costumes of the period

2 husk (of cereals e.g. oats)
ceirch wedi tynnu eu gwisg dehulled oats

3 afterbirth (of animal)
y fuwch heb fwrw ei gwisg the cow (ahs not) expelled its afterbirth

4 dress = something likened to clothing

Ni fuasai unrhyw ddarlun ohono yn agos cyflawn heb sōn am ei Gymreictod. Nid gwisg mae'n roddi amdano mohono. Mae'n rhan hanfodol ac anatod o wead ei bersonoliaeth.
No picture of him would be anywhere near complete without mentioned his Welshness. It’s not a garment he wraps around himself (“it-is-not a dress he puts around himself nothing-of-it”). It’s an essential and intrinsic of the weave of his personality.

llaeswisg,
urddwisg

:_______________________________.

gwisgi <GWI-ski> (adj)
PLURAL: gwisgļon <gwi-SKI-on>

1 lively, nimble, sprightly
Gwraig dew oedd Mari’r Bont. ac eto welais i neb mor wisgi ar ei thraed
Mar’r Bont was a fat lady and yet I never saw anyone move in such a sprightly manner (“so sprightly on their feet”)

d’n gwisgi a nible man

2 (nut) ripe
cnau gwisgi nuts

NOTE: South Wales: gwishgi
 

:_______________________________.

gwisgļo
<gwi-SKII-o> [gwɪˡskiˑɔ] verb (North Wales)

1
(nut) become loose from husk

2
(nut) become ripe, be ripe

3
(nut) strip the covering from the shell, shell a nut

ETYMOLOGY: (gwisgi = ripe) + (-o suffix for forming verbs)
NOTE: also with the loss of the first syllable ‘sgļo

:_______________________________.

gwisgļo (verb) (North Wales)

1 (nut) become loose from husk

2 (nut) become ripe, be ripe

3 (nut) strip the covering from the shell, shell a nut
gwisgļo’r cnau to shell the nuts

ETYMOLOGY: (gwisgi = ripe) + (-o suffix for forming verbs)

NOTE: also with the loss of the first syllable ’sgļo

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gwisgle
1 vestry,
sacristy in church

 



 
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gwisgo <GWI-sko> [ˡgwɪskɔ] (verb)
1 (verb without an object) to get dressed; to dress
chwaeth gwisgo dress sense
bwrdd gwisgo dressing table

2
(verb with an object) put on
gwisgo eich esgidiau put on your shoes (“wear your shoes”)

3
gwisgo hosan o bob pār wear odd socks (“wear (a) sock of each pair”)

4
a gwisgo ynddo (piece of clothing) hard-wearing (“and wearing in it”)

5 bwrdd gwisgo dressing table

6 ymwisgo get dressed, dress oneself (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (gwisgo = dress oneself)

gwisgo ā phorffor dress in purple

Daniel 5:7 Gwaeddodd y brenin yn groch am ddwyn i mewn yr astronomyddion, y Caldeaid, a'r brudwyr: a llefarodd y brenin, a dywedodd wrth ddoethion Babilon, Pa ddyn bynnag a ddarlleno yr ysgrifen hon, ac a ddangoso i mi ei dehongliad, efe a wisgir ā phorffor, ac a gaiff gadwyn aur am ei wddf, a chaiff lywodraethu yn drydydd yn y deyrnas.
Daniel 5:7 The king cried aloud to bring in the astrologers, the Chaldeans, and the soothsayers. And the king spake, and said to the wise men of Babylon, Whosoever shall read this writing, and show me the interpretation thereof, shall be clothed with scarlet, and have a chain of gold about his neck, and shall be the third ruler in the kingdom

7 gwisgo'r bais a'r britshus (said of a dominant wife) be in charge, wear the trousers, wear the breeches, run the show, run the shop “wear the petticoat and the breeches” (Diarhebion Merth’r 1895)

gwisgo yn grand dress up
wedi ei gwi ll dressed up and nowhere to go

 

8 (verb with an object) wear

 
9 ymwisgo get dressed, dress oneself (ym- = reflexive prefix ) + soft mutation + (gwisgo = dress oneself)
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gwisgo belt a brźsus
1 play safe

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gwisgo ei gap
1
'wearing its cap' - said of a cloud-covered
mountain top, and considered a sign of rain
 
 
 
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@@gwiw [GWIU] [gw
gwiw <GWIU> [gwɪʊ] (adjective)
1
fitting, seemly

2
useful, profitable
nid gwiw / ’wiw it is useless, it is pointless, there’s no point

Nid gwiw wylo am yr h’n sydd ddiadfer

It’s no use crying over spilt milk (“It-is-not profitable crying for the thing which-is irrecuperable”, it is useless to cry over what cannot be restored)

Cornish gwiw (= fitting, seemly, worthy)
Breton gwiv (= lively, merry)
Irish fķu (= fitting, seemly, worthy)

Gaulish personal name Visurix (= worthy king)

From Celtic uisu- < uesu- (= good)

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gwiw (adj)

1 apt,
fitting
Iesu, fy mhrynwr gwiw

1 ni wiw i mi = a) I mustn't, I dare not b) ? I can't
fiw i chi fethu = ?you can't fail
ni wiw (Tafarnau-bach)
no conve

there's no point?
wiw sef’ll - ymlaen mae ennill (Llansanffraid)

1 gwiw gan + fod = I'm honoured to

nid gwiw it is useless, there’s no point
ni wiw it is useless, there’s no point
’wiw
it is useless, there’s no point

Sayings with ni wiw / nid gwiw

Ni wiw edr’ch dannedd march rhodd Don't look a gift horse in the mouth
"it is not fitting to check the teeth of a gift horse" beggars can't be choosers,

Nid gwiw wylo am yr hyn sydd ddiadfer It’s no use crying over spilt milk (“It is useless crying over what is irrecuperable”)
 

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gwiwer, gwiwerod ‹GWII-wer, gwi-WEE-rod › [ˡgwiˑwɛr] , [gwiˡweˑrɔd] (f)
1 squirrel
= rodent with bushy tail living in trees
y wiwer = the squirrel

2 squirrel = hoarder, 'squirrel' (of a person who hoards, since the squirrel hoards for the winter, burying nuts in different locations for retrieving at a later time)

 

3 gwiwer hedegog flying squirrel

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin VIIVERRA = ferret
from the same British root: Breton GWIŃVER

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gwiwera (verb with an object)

1 store (like a squirrel), hoard, squirrel away
 

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gwiwer goch (f)
PLURAL: gwiwerod coch / cochion <gwi-wee-rod koox, kox-jon>

1 scirius vulgaris red squirrel - the native squirrel of the island of Great Britain, threatened with extinction by the loss of its habitats to the North American squirrel, the grey squirrel
 

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gwiwer lw’d (f)
PLURAL: gwiwerod llw’d / llw’dion <gwi-wee-rod lhuid, lhuid-yon>

1 grey squirrel; an North American species introduced into the island of Great Britain which has since taken over almost all of the territory of the native red squirrel. This now survives only in a number of reduced pockets

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gwiwlan <GWIU-lan> [ˡgwɪʊlan] adj
1 fair, beautiful

Llangynw’d wiwlan wedd (1859)
Llangynw’d of fair aspect

Verse on the gravestone in Llanbadarn Fawr churchyard, Ceredigion, of John Pryse, and his mother Winifred Pryse

John Pryse…yr hwn a fu farw Medi 28ain, 1862, yn 43 ml[wydd] oed. Hefyd am Winifred Pryse… yr hon a fu farw, Medi 24ain 1864, yn 71 ml. oed. (John Pryse, who died September 18, 1862, at the age of 43. Also [in memory] of Winifred Pryse, who died September 24 1864 at the age of 71. )

.

Pob gŵr a gwraig sy'n tramwy heibio
Gwelwch lle 'ry'm ni 'n dau'n gorphwyso;
Dan faen gwiwlan dyma'n gwely
Nes delo Crist i 'n hadgyfodi.

Every man and woman who goes by
See the place [in which] we two are at rest (“we two are resting”)
Under a fine stone this is our resting place (“our bed”)
Until Christ comes to resurrect us

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gwiwlon (ad
j)

1 g
entle, kindly
TES-Y Yn Mynwent Llanllechid, ar fedd Margaret Jane Lloyd, 'merch Cadben a
Mary Lloyd, Bangor'. Bu farw Tachwedd 9, 1858, yn 3 blw’dd a chwe mis oed...
Gyfeillion gwiwlon, O gwelwch, - daethum
Drw’ daith yr anialwch,
I'm eiddil, na omeddwch
Oben’dd o lon’dd lwch(:REF)t81 Englynion Beddau Dyffr’n Ogwen, gan J Elw’n Hughes 1979(REF:)(cym:) TES-Z

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gwiwsain
(adj)
1 e
uphonious

:_______________________________.

Gwjarāt

1 Gujarat
= state in North-west India
Sanskrit: Gujara

:_______________________________.

Gwjarateg
1
Gujarati = Indic language of Gujarati

:_______________________________.

gwlad, gwled’dd ‹GWLAAD, GWLEE-didh › [gwlaːd], [ˡgwleˑdɪš]
1 country
y wlad the country
gel’n pennaf y wlad public enemy number one (“(the) main enemy (of) the country”)

2
yr hyfr’d wlad the pleasant land (= Palestine)

Daniel 8:9 Ac o un ohon’nt y daeth allan gorn bychan, ac a dyfodd yn rhagorol, tua’r deau, a thua’r dw’rain, a thua’r hyfr’d wlad.
Daniel 8:9 And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.

3
hoff wlad Duw God’s own country (“(the) favorite country (of) God”)

4
dibynwlad dependency = country dependent on another (dibyn- < dibynnu = to depend) + soft mutation + (gwlad = country)

5
gwlad eich geni the country where you were born, your home country

6
mamwlad mother country, home country = (for a person living in an adopted country) one’s country of origin
‘mother country’ (mam = mother) + soft mutation + (gwlad = country)

7
gwlad s’’n llifeirio o laeth ā mźl a land flowing with milk and honey , a place of abundance and contentment

Exodus
3:8 A mi a ddisgynnais i’w gwaredu hwy o law yr Eifftiaid, ac i’w dwyn o’r wlad honno i wlad dda a helaeth, i wlad yn llifeirio o laeth a mźl; i le y Canaaneaid, a’r Hethiaid, a’r Amoriaid, a’r Pheresiaid, yr Hefiaid hefyd, a’r Jebusiaid.
Exodus 3:8 And I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites.

Exodus
33:2 A mi a anfonaf angel o’th flaen di, ac a yrraf allan y Canaanead, yr Amoriad, a’r Hethiad, y Pheresiad, yr Hefiad, a’r Jebusiad: (33:3) I wlad yn llifeirio o laeth ā mel: oherwydd nid af fi i fyny yn dy blith; oblegid pobl wargaled wyt: rhag i mi dy ddifa ar y ffordd.
Exodus
33:2 And I will send an angel before thee; and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite: (33:3) Unto a land flowing with milk and honey: for I will not go up in the midst of thee; for thou art a stiffnecked people: lest I consume thee in the way.

8
hen ’d y wlad country people, country folk (“old corn (of) the countryside”)

9
Mae’n gywilydd gwlad It’s a downright disgrace (It’s a disgrace (of) country”)

10
gwlad eich cychwyniad your country of origin (“(the) country (of) your beginning”)

gwlad eich geni your country of birth, your country of origin (“(the) country (of) your birth”)

gwlad eich genedigaeth your country of birth, your country of origin (“(the) country (of) your birth”)

yng ngwlad fy ngenedigaeth in the land of my birth

gwlad eich gwreiddiau your country of origin (“(the) country (of) your roots”)

11 b’w ar dda’r wlad live of the fat of the land (“live on (the) good (of) the land”)

12 newid gwlad emigrate (“change country”)

13
gwlad dramor foreign country

14 m’nd i wlad y gwaddod die, kick the bucket (“go to the land of the moles”)

15 edrych y wlad see how the land lies (“check the country”)

16 llond gwlad o (“(the) fullness (of a ) country (of)” in expressing great quantity
llond gwlad o bethau da lots of good things

17 eich gwlad chi your part of the country, your part of the world

Adroddir un hanes amdano pan oedd ar ymweliad ā Llangynog, Sir Drefaldwyn. Mae yn debyg iddo amlygu i’r teulu lle yr oedd ei fod yn dyfod o Sir Aberteifi... Wedi deall brodor o ba sir oedd Mr. James, dywedodd y wraig, “Bu offeiriad o’ch gwlad chwi yn gweini yn y Llan yma am 50 mlynedd.” t52 / Y Trydydd Byr-gofiant... / John Evans, Abermeurig (1830-1917) / 1913
There’s a story told about him when he was visiting Llangynog, in the county of Trefaldwyn. Apparently he explained to the family where he was staying that he came from the county of Aberteifi... After knowing what county Mr. James was from, the woman said “There was a clergyman from your part of the world who held office in the parish church here for fifty years...”

Country names:

..a/ Gwlad Belg Belgium

gwlad Belg < gwlad y Belg
(“Belg-land”, “(the) country (of) the Belg”) (though probably based on Belg- first syllable of the English / Latin name Belgium < Belg member of the Gaulish tribe called Belgae in Latin) and so (“Belgian-land”, “(the) country (of) the Belgian”)

..b/ Gwlad Groeg Greece

gwlad Groeg < gwlad y Groeg
(“Greek-land”, “(the) country (of) the Greek man”)

..c/ Gwlad yr Iā Iceland

“(the) country (of) the ice”

..d/ Gwlad y Cymro an epithet of Wales

“(the) country (of) the Welshman”

..e/ Gwlad y Sais an epithet of England

“(the) country (of) the Englishman”

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Gwlad Byth Bythoedd ‹gwlaad bith BƏTH-oidh› [ˌgwlaːd bɪθ ˡbəθɔɪš] , (f)
1
Never-Never Land

ETYMOLOGY: “Land (of) Never Ever” (gwlad = land) + (byth bythoedd never ever)

:_______________________________.

gwladfa ‹GWLAD-va› [ˡgwladva] (f)
PLURAL: gwladfé’dd
‹gwlad-VEIDH › [gwladˡvəɪš]
1 colony = settlement of people far from their homeland who maintain ties with the country of origin
y wladfa the colony

Y Wladfa [ə ˡwladva] the Welsh settlement in Patagonia

Gwladfa Patagonia
[ˡgwladva pataˡgɔnia] the Welsh settlement in Patagonia

2
colony = people of a certain nationality living dispersed in a city but considered as a group
y wladfa Americanaidd ym Mhrāg the American colony in Prague

3
gwladfa gosb o gwladfa gosbi penal colony

4
Gwladfé’dd y Culfor
Straits Settlements = a former English colony made up of Singapore, Penang, Malacca, Labuan and other islands

ETYMOLOGY: (gwlad = country)+ (-fa noun-forming suffix, indicating a place)

:_______________________________.

Gwlad Falensia <gwlaad-va-LENS-ya> [gwlɑːd vaˡlɛnsja] (f)
1 the Valencian Country

:_______________________________.

Gwladfaol <gwlad-VAA-ol> [ˡgwladvɑˑɔl] adjective
1 Patagonian; relating to Gwladfa Patagonia, the Welsh settlement in Patagonia established in 1865

ETYMOLOGY: (Gwladfa (Patagonia) = (Patagonian) settlement) + (-ol, suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

Gwladfa Patagonia ‹GWLAD-va pa-ta-GON-ia› [ˡgwladva pataˡgɔnia]
1 the Welsh settlement in Patagonia (founded in 1865)
Normally as smply: Y Wladfa

ETYMOLOGY: (“(the) colony (of) Patagonia”)

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Gwladfäwr <gwlad-vaa-ur> [gwladˡvɑˑʊr] (m)
PLURAL: Gwladfaw’r <gwlad-VAA-wir> [gwladˡvɑˑwɪr]
1 person from Gwladfa Patagonia, the Welsh settlement in Patagonia established in 1865

ETYMOLOGY: (Gwladfa (Patagonia) = (Patagonian) settlement)  + (-wr suffix = man)

:_______________________________.

Gwlad Groeg <gwlaad-GROIG> [ˡgwlɑːd grɔɪg] (f)
1 Greece

:_______________________________.

Gwlad Hud <gwlaad-HIID> [gwlɑːd ˡhiːd]
1 Wonderland
Alys yng Ngwlad Hud Alice in Wonderland

ETYMOLOGY: (gwlad = country) + (hud = magic)

:_______________________________.

gwladol
<GWLAA-dol> [ˡgwlɑˑdɔl] adjective
1
state, public = belonging to a state

2
in the case of Wales, state = belonging to the English state
archifd’ gwladol state archive
eglw’s wladol state church
Gwasanaeth Iechyd Gwladol National Health Service (“state health service”)
incwm gwladol state income
ysgol wladol state school
ysgrifen’dd gwladol secretary of state (minister in charge of a government department)

ETYMOLOGY: (gwlad = country) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

Gwladus <GWLAA-dis> [ˡgwlɑˑdɪs] (f)
1 woman’s name; = (“ruler of a country”) .

English form - Gladys

:_______________________________.

gwladwen
<GWLAD-wen> [ˡgwladwɛn] (f)
1 heaven, paradise

2 Gwladwen woman’s name (rare)

ETYMOLOGY: “white / blessed / fair land; paradise, heaven” (gwlad = country, land) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white / blessed / fair)

NOTE: Cf gwenwlad (= heaven, paradise), with the same elements reversed

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gwladwriaeth, gwladwriaethau <gwla-DUR-yaith -yeth, gwla-dur-YEI-thai, -e> [gwlaˡdʊrjaɪθ -jɛθ, gwladʊrˡjəɪθaɪ, -ɛ] (f)
1 state
y wladwriaeth the state
gwladwriaeth ragod buffer state

:_______________________________.

Gwlad y Codiad Haul <GwLAAD ə KOD–yad HAIL> [ˡgwlɑːd ə ˡkodjad ˡhaɪl]
1
The Land of the Rising Sun

ETYMOLOGY: “(the) land (of) (the) rising (of the) sun” (gwlad = country, land) + (yr = the) + (codiad haul = (the) rising (of the) sun, sunrise)

:_______________________________.

Gwlad y Gān
<gwlaad-ə-GAAN> [ˡgwlɑːd ə ˡgɑːn] (f)
1 nickname for Wales (“The Land of Song) (from the high proportion of people literate in musical notation, and the great esteem accorded to religious congregational singing and to choral competitions, in the latter half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century)

2
Gwlad-y-gān street name in Y Myn’dd-bach, County of Abertawe

ETYMOLOGY: “(the) land (of) the song” + (gwlad = country, land) + (y = the) + soft mutation (cān = song)

:_______________________________.

Gwlad y Men’g Gwynion
gwlad-y-Menyg-Gwynion- <gwlaad ə MEE-nig GWƏN-yon> [ˡgwlɑːd ə ˡmeˑnɪg ˡgwənjɔn]
1 (“The Land of the White Gloves”) nickname for Wales, still in use - a name applied in century 1800 alluding to the comparatively low rate of crime in Wales. It was the custom to present the assize judge with a white pair of gloves when there were no cases for trial.

ETYMOLOGY: (gwlad = country) + (y definite article) + (men’g, PLURAL: of maneg = glove) + (gwynion, PLURAL: of gw’n = white)

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Gwlad yr Haf
<gwlaad ər HAAV> [ˡgwlɑːd ər ˡhɑːv]
1
Somerset, a county in south-west England, on the opposite side of Mōr Hafren (The Severn Sea, The Bristol Channel) from South-east Wales

2
‘The Summer Country’, ‘Summerland’, ‘The Land of Summer’, a name given by Iolo Morganwg to what was the original home of the Welsh people. According to Iolo, they had come to Britain under the leadership of Hu Gadarn.

Another name for this mythical homeland was Deffrobani, a metathasised form of a name in Llyfr Taliesin (The Book of Taliesin, early 1300s) ‘deproffani ynys’, taken from the Latin ‘Taprobanes insula’ mentioned by Isadore of Seville, and referring to Ceylon, said at that time to be the first home of the human race

3 “Gwlad  yr Hāf. The land of Summer. An imaginary country. If a person’s whereabouts is not known, he is said to have come from, or to have gone to, the land of the Summers. Gwlad yr Haf is the Welsh name of Somerset-shire.” (WELSH PROVERBS, TRIADS AND TRUISMS (1873-1890) collected from Llansanffrįid ym Mechain by T G Jones, Cyffin)

ETYMOLOGY: ‘(the) land (of) the summer’ (gwlad = land) + (yr definite article) + (haf = summer)



(delwedd 7461)

Yn’sw’drin = Glastonbury
:_______________________________.

Gwlad y Sais
<gwlaad ə SAIS> [ˡgwlɑːd ə ˡsaɪs] (f)
1
(literary or humorous) England (“(the) land (of) the Englishman”, the Englishman’s country)
Būm yn b’w yng Ngwlad y Sais am dros ddeng mlynedd I lived in England for over ten years

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Gwlad y Tylw’th Teg <gwaad ə -luith-TEEG> [ˡgwlɑːd ə ˡtəlʊɪθ ˡteːg]  (f)
1
Fairyland, land of the fairy folk
yng Ngwlad y Tylw’th Teg in Fairyland

ETYMOLOGY: (gwlad = country) + (y = the) + (tylw’th teg = fairies, ‘fair family’)

:_______________________________.

gwlān <GwLAAN> [gwlɑːn] (m)
PLURAL: gwlanoedd
<GWLAA-noidh -odh> [ˡgwlɑˑnɔɪš, -ɔš]
1 wool = hair of sheep used for making yarn (Scotland: oo)

2
wool = thread or yarn from the fleece of a sheep or other animals

chwalu gwlān tease or card wool

dillad gwlān “woollies”, woolen / woollen clothing, woolen / woollen clothes
dilled’n gwlān “woollie”, woolen jersey
y diwydiant gwlān the woolen / woollen industry
ffatri wlān woolen / woollen mill
lliwiedig yn y gwlān dyed in the wool = dyed before spinning into woolen yarn
MASNACH: y fasnach wlān the woolen / woollen trade
masnachwr gwlān woolen / woollen merchant, woolman
melin wlān woolen / woollen mill
nw’ddau gwlān woolen / woollen goods
olew gwlān wool oil
saim gwlān wool fat
syp’n gwlān woolpack

4
wool = a material which is light like wool

5
wool = a material which is fibrous like wool
gwlān dur steel wool

6
fluff, down = pappus, downy tuft in place of a calyx in some plants for dispersal of the seed in the breeze
gwlān ysgall thistle down (“wool (of) thistle”)
Also gwlaniach ysgall thistle down (“fluff (of) thistle”)



7
gwlān cotwm (cotton made absorbent by removal of seeds and wax, bleached and sterilized) (American: cotton, absorbent cotton) (Englandic: cotton wool)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwlān < British < Celtic *wlanā < Indo-European *wel

From the same British root: Cornish gwlan (= wool) , Breton gloan (= wool)

From the same Indo-european root:

Latin lāna (= wool) (as in English lanolin),

Greek linos;

Germanic languages: English wool, German Wolle (= wool), Old Norse ull (= wool).

The corresponding word in Latin is vellus (= fleece)

:_______________________________.


gwlanen, gwlanennau <GWLAA-nen, gwla-NE-nai, -ne> [ˡgwlɑˑnɛn, gwlaˡnɛnaɪ, -ɛ] (f)
1 flannel
y wlanen the flannel

London, 1825. Observations on some of the dialects in the West of England particularly with a glossary of words now in use there ; and poems and other pieces, exemplifying the dialect. By James Jennings, Honorary Secretary of the Metropolitan Library Institution, London.

Vlan'nin. s[ubstantive]. Flannel

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gwlaniach <GWLAN-yakh> [ˡgwlanjax] (m)
1
fine wool

2
scraps of wool

3
fluff, down = pappus, downy tuft in place of a calyx in some plants for dispersal of the seed in the breeze
gwlaniach ysgall thistle down (“fluff (of) thistle”)

3
wool waste

ETYMOLOGY: (gwlān = wool) + (-i-ach = diminutive suffix added to PLURAL: nouns or collective nouns)

:_______________________________.

gwlanog <GWLAA-nog> [ˡgwlɑˑnɔg] (adjective)
1 woolen (Englandic: woollen)

2 helygen wlanog (hel’g gwlanog) (Salix lanata) woolly willow
helygen wlanog hirddail (Salix lapponum) downy willow


:_______________________________.

gwledd <GWLEEDH> [ˡgwleːš] (f)
PLURAL: gwleddoedd
<GWLEE-dhoidh -odh> [ˡgwleˑšɔɪš -ɔš]
1 feast, banquet (colloquial: spread)
y wledd the feast

gwledd briodas wedding feast
cynnal gwledd hold a feast
rhoi gwledd give a feast, hold a feast
a splendid and abundant meal,

2 feast = exquisite enjoyment

3 spiritual feast
y wledd nefol heavenly bliss

4 gloddest (m) revelling
Arfon, Gwynedd: gwleddast gloddest is probably from < *glwddest < *gwleddest (gwledd = feast) + (-est = suffix)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwledd < British *wlid < Celtic *wlid-ā
From the same British root: Breton gloez, found in the dialect of Gwened as gloé (= banquet)
From the same Celtic root: Irish fleį
<f’l’aa> [f’l’ɑː] (=feast, festival) < fleadh;
Also the Gaulish name Vlido-riks (banquet + king)

:_______________________________.

gwledda <GWLEE-dha> [ˡgwleˑša] (verb)
1 to feast

:_______________________________.

Gwledig Prydain <GwLEE-dig PRƏ-den> [ˡgwleˑdɪg ˡprədaɪn / ˡprədɛn]
(m)
1 ruler of Brittania (head of the Roman army in the Roman province of Brittania) (See Macsen Wledig)

:_______________________________.

gwled’dd <GWLEE-didh> [ˡgwleˑdɪš]
(PLURAL: noun)
1 countries: see gwlad

:_______________________________.

gwleid’dd, gwleidyddion <GWLEI-didh, gwlei-DƏDH-yon> [ˡgwləɪdɪš, gwləɪˡdəšjɔn] (m)
1 politician

ETYMOLOGY: (gwlad = country) + (-’dd suffix) a > ei though the influence of the in the final syllable

:_______________________________.

gwleidyddiaeth <gwlei-DƏDH-yaith -yeth> [gwləɪˡdəšjaɪθ - jɛθ] (f)
1 politics

ETYMOLOGY: (gwladydd- < gwelid’dd = politician, statesman) + (-i-aeth noun suffix)

:_______________________________.

gwleidyddol <gw-lei--dhol> [gwləɪˡdƏšɔl] adjective
1 political
2 cyflawni hunanddistr’w gwleidyddol commit politicial suicide

ETYMOLOGY: (gwleid’dd = politician) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

gwli <guu-li> [ˡguˑlɪ] (f)
PLURAL: gwlis <GUU-lis> [ˡguˑlɪs]
South-east Wales
1
back lane between two terraces

Roedd y plant yn chwarae yn y gwli
The children were playing in the back lane

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwli < English gully < gullet < Middle English
golet < Old French goulet < Latin gula (= throat)

NOTE: Also: gyli
<-li> [ˡgəlɪ] from the standard English pronunciation gully
The two forms are in use in Cambrian English gwli, gyli

:_______________________________.

gwlith, gwlithoedd <GWLIITH, GWLII-thoidh -odh> [gwliːθ, ˡgwliˑθɔɪš, ˡgwliˑθɔš] (m)
1 dew

:_______________________________.

gwlithfalwen <gwlith-VAL-wen> [gwlɪθˡvalwɛn] (f)
PLURAL: gwlithfalwod <gwlith-VAL-wod> [ˡgwlɪθvalwɔd]
1 slug

ETYMOLOGY: (gwlith= dew) + soft mutation + ( malwen = snail or slug)

:_______________________________.

gwlithog <GWLI-thog> [ˡgwliˑθɔg] (adjective)
1 dewy

:_______________________________.

gwlith’n <GWLII-thin> [ˡgwliˑθɪn] (m)
1
dewdrop

:_______________________________.


gwl’b <GWLIIB> [gwliːb] (adjective)
1 wet

2
gwl’b siwps
<gwliib SHUPS> [ˡgwliːb ˡʃʊps]
sopping wet

:_______________________________.

gwlychfa <GWLəKH-va> [ˡgwləxva] f
1 soaking, drenching

cael gwlychfa get a soaking, get soaked, get drenched
cael gwlychfa at eich croen get soaked to the skin
bod yn wlychfa o chw’s be soaked in sweat, be drowning in sweat

ETYMOLOGY: (gwlych- stem of gwlychu = to soak) + (-fa noun-forming suffix, indicating an action)

NOTE: colloquial form g’lychfa / glychfa

:_______________________________.

gwlychu <GWLƏ-khi> [ˡgwləxɪ] (verb)
1 to wet
2
gwlychu pig / gwlychu’ch pig wet your whistle, have a drink (“wet your beak”)

:_______________________________.

gwm swigod <gum-SWII-god> [gʊm ˡswiˑgɔd] (m)
1
bubble gum

ETYMOLOGY: “gum (of) bubbles” (gwm = gum) + (swigod = bubbles, < yswigod, PLURAL: of yswigen (= bubble))

:_______________________________.

gwn <GUN> [gʊn] (verb)
1
(from gw’bod = to know)
I know
Wn i ddim I don’t know

2
ddim am wn i not as far as I know
Odi e wedi cael fflat new’dd? Ddim am wn i Has he got a new flat? Not as far as I know
“no, for the-thing-that I know” ddim am wn i < ddim am a wn i (ddim = not) + (am = around, for) + (a = the-thing-that) + soft mutation + (gwn i = I know, < gw’bod = to know)

3
ddim h’d y gwn i not as far as I know
“no, as-far-as that I know”) (h’d = as far as, length) + (y = preverbal particle) + (gwn i = I know, < gw’bod = to know)

:_______________________________.


gwn <GUN> [gʊn] (m)
PLURAL: gynnau <GƏ-nai, -ne> [gʊn], [ˡgənaɪ, -nɛ]

1 gun
o flaen gwn at gunpoint (“in front (of) (a ) gun”)

2
clec gwn gunshot
Dyna glec gwn A shot rang out, there was the sound of a gunshot (“See-there (the) bang (of a) gun”)

3 yn ffroen gwn at gunpoint (“in nose (of) gun”)
4
gwn dŵr PLURAL: gynnau dŵr (USA: squirt gun) (Englandic: water pistol)

5 gwn gwrth-derfysg riot gun
gwn rhag terfysg riot gun
:_______________________________.

gwnaeth <GWNAITH> [gwnaɪθ] (verb)
NOTE: Colloquially: naath (usually spelt nath)
1 made, did; third person singular of the preterite gwneud (= to do)

2 a wnaeth who did, who made; which did, which made. Gwnaeth = third person singular of the preterite gwneud (= to do)
Pa beth a wnaeth ef? > Be’ naath e? What did he do? ((“it is”) what thing that he did?”)

:_______________________________.

gwnaf <GWNAAV> [gwnɑːv]
1
I shall do
Colloquially gwnaf fi > gna i, na i

2 (used to confirm an action stated in a previous verb)
Colloquially gwnaf > gnaf

Ond os bydd rhyw air ar y meddwl i, mi deydai o’n (= mi’i deuda i o’n) ddigon rhydd a dilol, gnaf neno dyn.
Plant y Gorthrwm / 1908 / Gwyneth Vaughan (= Anne Harriet Hughes 1852-1910) t69
But if there is some word on my mind I’ll say it quite frankly and freely, by Jove I shall



:_______________________________.

gwnaiff
<GWNAIF> [gwnaɪf] (verb)
1 (she / he / it) will do, will make. Third person singular of the present-future tense of gwneud (= make / do)
cymr’d hynn’ a wnaiff e (container, receptacle) take as much as it can hold

:_______________________________.

gwndwn
<GUNdun> [ˡgʊndʊn]
(m)
1 form of gwyndwn (qv) (= layland, hay meadow)
< gwyndon (gw’n = white) + soft mutation + (ton = meadow) (The standard form gwyndwn shows a change of final o > w)

..a/ (Y) Gwndwn name of a farm SN1832 1km south of Crym’ch (county of Penfro)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=209276

……………………………………..

..b/ Penygwndwn (“(the) end (of) the meadow”)

In Blaenau Ffestiniog SH7045 (county of Gw’nedd), there are “Penygwndwn Bungalows” (which in Welsh would be Tai Penygwndwn) and “Penygwndwn Estate” (which in Welsh would be Stad Penygwndwn)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=310924 Blaenauffestiniog

……………………………………..

..c/ (Y) Gwndwn farm SN4737 north of New Inn, county of Caerfyrddin

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=213747

……………………………………..

..d/ (Y) Gwndwn farm S01623 near Y Bwlch (Brycheiniog), Pow’s

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/739388

……………………………………..

..e/ (Y) Gwndwn farm SN1740 Bridell (county of Penfro)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=216477

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..f/ (Y) Gwndwn-gw’n farm SM9027 by Pontyrhafod (county of Penfro)

(“the white meadow”)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/520739

……………………………………..

..g/ Gwndwn-wal farm SO1129 by Llanfihangel Tal-y-ll’n (county of Pow’s)

gwndwn y wal (“(the) meadow (by) the wall”)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SO1129

……………………………………..

..h/ Pengwndwn farm SN0235 by (county of Penfro)

pen y gwndwn (“(the) end / edge (of ) the meadow”)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/476779

……………………………………..

..i/ T’ngwndwn farm SN5362 by Rhosyrhafod ( “ Cross Inn ” ) SN5464 (county of Ceredigion)

t’n (= tydd’n) y gwndwn (“(the) smallholding (by) the meadow”)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN5362

……………………………………..

..j/ T’ngwndwn farm SN5973 north-east of Llanddeiniol (county of Ceredigion)

t’n (= tydd’n) y gwndwn (“(the) smallholding (by) the meadow”)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN5873



:_______________________________.

gwnźl
<GWNEEL> [gwneːl] (verb)
1 Third person singular present subjunctive form, equivalent to gwnelo
A wnźl mad, mad a ddyl’ (archaic Welsh) One good turn deserves another (“the-person-who may-do good, (it-is) good that-he deserves”)

:_______________________________.

gwnelo
<GWNEEL-o> [ˡgwneˑlɔ] (verb)
1 Third person singular present subjunctive form,

ni + bod a wnelo ddim oll ā have nothing at all to do with

Nid oedd a wnelo’r gorseddau hyn ddim oll ā’r Eisteddfod
These gorsedd (association of bards) meetings had nothing at all to do with the Eisteddfod (literary and siniging competition)

:_______________________________.

..1 gwneud
<GWNEID> [ˡgwnƏɪd] (verb)
1 (verb with an object) make = create, manufacture

2
to do
cael gan r’wun wneud rh’wbeth get somebody to do something
gwneud fel arall do otherwise

3
gwneud tro pedol
(verb) make a U turn

4
cael gwneud eich gwallt have a hair do

5
Bron na wn i beth i’w wneud I hardly know what to do

6
(money)
ARIAN: gwneud arian mawr make a fortune (“make big money”)
ELW: gwneud elw (o...) make a profit (out of...)
FFORTIWN: fortune = riches

gwneud eich ffortiwn make a fortune (“make your fortune”)

7
gwneud clust fel hwch mewn haidd
prick up your ears (“make (the) ear like (a) sow in barley”)

8
gwneud yn unol ā’ch dymuniadau comply with your wishes (“do in unison with your wishes”)

9
Gwnewch le! Make way! Gangway!

8
gwneud heddwch
make peace

9
gwneud rh’wbeth ar her do something for a dare (“do something on challenge”)

10 (in describing seasons)
gwneud gwanw’n cynnar be an early spring,
gwneud gaeaf hynod o galed be an exceptionally hard winter

11
(in certain weather expressions)
gwneud glaw trwm rain heavily
Mae’n siŵr o wneud tyw’dd eira It’s bound to snow (“it’s sure of making weather (of) snow”)

12
hanner gwneud pethau do things by halves = do in an incomplete way

13
ei wneud e do it = have sex
Mae hi’n ei wneud e fel cwningen She fucks like a bunny rabbit (“she does it like a rabbit”)
Mae hi’n ei wneud e fel dŵr She fucks like a bunny rabbit (“she does it like water”)

14
ceisio gwneud yr amhosib’ try to do the impossible

15
gwneud arw’dd ar r’wun i wneud rh’wbeth signal to somebody to do something (“make a sign on somebody to do something”)

16
gwneud (rh’wbeth) yn (rh’wbeth) change (something) into (something)
Dyma i chwi engraifft arall, sef enw’r nant a elwir yn Hawnant neu Hownant; y mae rhai o’r bobl sydd yn medru ysgrifennu yn ei gwneyd yn Hoffnant, a Blaenhoffnant a welir uwch ben drws gwesty yn y Cwm. (
Enwau Lleoedd / John Rhys/ Cymru / Cyfrol XI. RHIF 63. Hydref 15fed, 1896)
Here’s another example for you, namely the stream called
Hawnant or Hownant; some people who can write change it into Hoffnant, and Blaenhoffnant is to be seen above the door of the hotel in the valley.

17 used to emphasise a verb - I continued > “(it is) continue (that) I did”

Daeth Arfon Griffiths yn un swydd i Benmachno i chwilio amdano er mwyn ei gael i arwyddo i Dīm Pźl-droed Wrecsam. Ond gwrthod arwyddo a wnaeth, ac fe fu hynny o fantais mawr i dīm Machno.
Arfon Griffiths came specially to Penmachno i look for him to get him to sign for Wrecsam Football Team. But he refused to sign, and thsi was of great benefit for the Machno team

Sometimes omitted ; here a wnai (= that he would do, that he used to do) is understood:
Arferai Ifan yrru’r bws ysgol i Benmachno. Byddem yn tynnu arno o gefn y bws nes y byddai wedi gwylltio’n gacwn. Stopio’r bws wedyn wrth y tro i Benmachno a’n hel i ffwrdd i gerdded adref. Ifan used to drive the school bus to Penmachno. We’d mock him from the back of the bus until he was hopping mad. He’d stop the bus then at the Penmachno turn and make us get out and walk home

18
GWNEUD + noun (many of these phrases also appear in other sections in this entry – weather, money, etc)

a/
ACHWYNIAD = complaint
gwneud achw’niad ( yn erbyn)
present / lodge a complaint (against)

ARIAN = money
gwneud arian mawr make a fortune (“make big money”)
gwneud arian syd’n
get rich quick

c/
CLUST = ear
gwneud clust hwch mewn haidd
prick up your ears (“make (the) ear (of) (a) sow in barley”)

CYFIAWNDER = justice
gwneud cyfiawnder ā’r dasg rise to the occasion, be up to the job (“do justice to the task”)

d/
DRWG = harm
gwneud drwg i to harm (somebody)

e/
ELW = profit
gwneud elw (o...) make a profit (out of...)

f/
FFORTIWN: fortune = riches
gwneud eich ffortiwn make a fortune (“make your fortune”)

g/
GAEAF = winter
gwneud gaeaf hynod o galed be an exceptionally hard winter

GLAW = rain
gwneud glaw trwm rain heavily

GWANWYN = spring
gwneud gwanw’n cynnar be an early spring

h/
HEDDWCH = peace
gwneud heddwch make peace

l/
LLE = place
gwneud lle to make way
Gwnewch le! Make way! Gangway!

p/
PENYD = penance
gwneud pen’d do penance
gwneud pen’d yn y carchar do a stretch in prison, serve a prison sentence

r/
RHUTHRIAD / RHUTHRAD = rush
gwneud rhuthrad ar storm (a building), take (a building) by a violent assault (“make an incursion on”)

y/
YMDRECH = effort
gwneud ymdrech i wneud (rh’wbeth) attempt to do (something) (“make an effort...”)

YMGAIS = attempt
gwneud ymgais i wneud (rh’wbeth) attempt to do (something) (“make an attempt...”)

:_______________________________.

..2 gwneud <GWNEID> [ˡgwnƏɪd] adjective
1
artificial, invented, made-up, synthetic
lliwiad gwneud artifical colo(u)ring
lledr gwneud = synthetic leather
blod’n gwneud artificial flower
porthladd gwneud artifical harbour
sidan gwneud artificial silk

2
perl gwneud cultivated pearl, cultured pearl

3
(sentiments) false, artificial, not natural, feigned
chwerthin gwneud = feigned laughter, forced laughter
sirioldeb gwneud feigned cheerfulness

4
(word) coined, invented; not formed in a way considered usual
gair gwneud invented word
iaith wneud artificial language

5
manufactured, processed
bw’d’dd gwneud processed foods

6
maufactured, made-up, false, untrue, fictional
stori wneud a manufactured story

7 gwneud osgo m’nd make as if to go (“make (a) posture (of) going”)

8
(clock time)
Faint wnaiff hi o’r gloch, meddwch chi? What time do you reckon it is?

ETYMOLOGY: gwneud = done, made; stem of the verbnoun gwneud = to do, to make, used as a past participle

:_______________________________.

gwneud amdanoch ei hun
1 kill oneself, top oneself, do oneself in, commit suicide

ETYMOLOGY: (gwneud = do) + (amdanoch = about you, for you) + (eich hun of yourself)

:_______________________________.

gwneud diwedd arnoch eich hun
1 put an end to one’s life, commit suicide kill oneself

ETYMOLOGY: “make (an) end on yourself”) (gwneud = do, make) + (diwedd = end) + (arnoch = on you) + (eich hun of yourself)

:_______________________________.

gwneud eich diwedd chi
1 put an end to one’s life, commit suicide kill oneself

ETYMOLOGY: “make your end of you”) (gwneud = do, make) + (eich = your) + (diwedd = end) + (vos = of you)

:_______________________________.

gwneud y tro <gwneid-ə-TROO> [gwnəɪd ə ˡtroː]
1 suit, do = fit the purpose, fit the bill, be useful though not entirely adequate
gwneud y tro i’r dim do nicely

wnaiff mo’r tro it won’t do, it’s no good

Fe wnaiff y bocs ’ma’r tro yn iawn This box will do me fine

2
gwneud y tro i make do with
Bu raid i’r car hwnnw wneud y tro i mi am bedair blynedd I had to make do with that car for four years, that car had to do me for four years

Fe wnaiff hwn y tro i mi This’ll do me, this will suit my purpose

ETYMOLOGY: (gwneud = to do, to make) + (y definite article, the) + ( tro = turn)
 

 
:_______________________________.

gwnewch yr un fath ā mi
<GWNEUKH-ər-iin-VAATH-a-MII> [ˡgwnɛʊx ər iːn vɑːθ a miː] -
1
(Game) (USA: follow the leader) (Englandic: follow my leader)

ETYMOLOGY: “do the same sort as me” (gwnewch = you (PLURAL:) do) + (yr un = the same) + soft mutation + (math = sort) + (ā mi = as me)

:_______________________________.

gwniadur, gwniaduron <gun-YAA-dir, gun-ya-DII-ron> [gʊnˡjɑˑdɪr, gʊnjaˡdiˑrɔn] (masculine or (f))
1 thimble
y gwniadur / yr wniadur the thimble

:_______________________________.

gwniadwaith <gun-YAD-waith> [gʊnˡjadwaɪθ] (m)
1
sewing

:_______________________________.

gwnidog <gu-NII-dog> [gʊˡniˑdɔg]

1 A colloquial form of gweinidog (= minister)

:_______________________________.

Gwninger ‹ gu-NI-nger› [gʊˡnɪŋɛr]
1 SH5186 a farm by Capelgarmon

ETYMOLOGY: y gwninger “the rabbit warren” (y definite article) + soft mutation + (cwninger rabbit warren)
Cwninger < Middle English conynger (modern English place names as coneygar) < Old French coniniere / coniliere < Latin cunicularium < cunīculus (= rabbit)

:_______________________________.

gwnļo <gu-NII-o> [gʊˡniˑɔ]
(verb)
1
to sew

:_______________________________.

 gwobr, gwobrau (f)
1
prize
y wobr the prize

2
heavenly reward, salvation

Mathew 5:12 Byddwch lawen a hyfr’d; can’s mawr ’w eich gwobr yn y nefoedd
Matthew 2:12 Rejoice and be exceeding glad; for great is your reward in heaven

 

:_______________________________.
gworlod <GWOR-lod> [ˡgwɔrlɔd] (f)
1
(South Wales) a variant form of  gweirglodd (qv) (= hay meadow)

……………………………

Worlodyrawel (“Worlod yr Awel”)

House name in Llanddewi Ysgyryd (“(the) hay meadow (of) the breeze”, breezy hay meadow)

……………………………

Penyworlod
SO3626 Farm near Rowlestone, Herefordshire pen y worlod / pen y weirglodd “(the) end / top / head (of) the hay-meadow”

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1187649 map

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/448719 map


……………………………

Penyworlod
SO3626 Farm in Herefordshire, in Dyffryn Euas  / Ewyas Valley near Capel-y-ffin, Pow’s
http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/273211

……………………………

Penyworlod SO0840 Farm by Crucadarn, Brycheiniog, Pow’s

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/559572 map

 

……………………………

Penyworlod Farm in Llanfair ym Muallt

……………………………

Penyworlod
Farm in Y Pandy / Llanwytherin (Englished as “Llanvetherine”), Y Fenni

……………………………

Gworlod Glan y Pant

D.D. 19. Deed Poll, dated 25 January 1676-7, being a release, in consideration of ^^50, of a mortgage for £40 by way of a demise (granted on 6 February 1661-2 by Phillipp Powell late of Lanigon, co. Brecon, deceased, to George Delahay of the same place, feltmaker, of the undermentioned property for 1000 years at the yearly rent of 12s.) to Thomas Pritchard, the elder, of the parish of Clifford, co. Hereford, yeoman, and Johan his wife, the daughter and heiress of said Phillipp Powell, of the following property : — The house wherein Phillip Powell, deceased, lately dwelt, with appurtenance, together with five closes of land connnonly called Kae yr grosse, Tyr y ffa, Pedware kaver, Glan y pant, Gworlod glan y pant, containing by estimation 18 acres, and situate in the said parish of Lanigon. Witnesses : Simon Delahay, William Delahay, James Butler, William Morgan, Samuel Butler, Henry Davies.

Calendar of Deeds and Documents Volume 1, The Coleman Deeds, Francis Green, 1921

……………………………

:_______________________________.

y gŵr drwg (m)
1 the devil (“the evil man”)
2 ceirios y gŵr drwg (Atropa belladona) deadly nightshade (“(the) cherries (of) the evil man / the devil”)

:_______________________________.

gŵr, gwŷr (m)
1 man
gŵr llys courtier

2
(especially South Wales) gwŷr = inhabitants of a specified place;
gwŷr Rhymni = the people of Rhymni, the inhabitants of Rhymni
iaith gwŷr Morgannwg the dialect of the people of (the region of) Morgannwg
Campau Gwŷr Rhufain Gesta Romanorum

3 (South-east) gw’r tramor foreigners

4
gŵr neu was (qv) “man or lad” (Welsh Laws) man who is elegible to be a compurgator (testifier of a person’s innocence - from an old court procedure where an accused person is acquitted if enough people can be found who will swear to his innocence); man of distinction; (South-east Wales) gẃrnewas , gwrnewās man, youth (gŵr = man) + (neu = or) + soft mutation + (gwas = lad)

6 arwr hero (ar- intensive suffix) + soft mutation + (gŵr = man)

7 gwy^r y peisha bäch (= gwy^r y peisiau bach) (“(the) men (of) the short petticoats”, i.e. kilts)
South-east Wales name for the Highland Regiment from Scotland, used by the English government in intervening in industrial pursuits in the nineteenth century in Wales

:_______________________________.

gwr.
1
abbreviation (in a dictionary entry)
..1/ gwreiddiol original
..2/ gwreiddyn root

:_______________________________.

gwrach, gwrachod
<GWRAAKH, GWRAA-khod> [ˡgwrɑːx, ˡgwrɑˑxɔd] (f)
1 witch
y wrach the witch

:_______________________________.

gwrachen
<GWRAA-khen> [ˡgwrɑˑxɛn] (f)
1 witch
y wrachen the witch

2
siani wrachen (North Wales) centipede (“Jane (the) witch”) (Siani = Jane) + soft mutation + (gwrachen = witch)

:_______________________________.

gwragedd
<GWRAA-gedh> [ˡgwrɑˑgɛš]
(PLURAL: noun)
1 women; PLURAL: of gwraig

:_______________________________.

gwraidd, gwreiddiau
<GWRAIDH.-GWREIDH-yai, -ye> [gwraɪš, ˡgwrəɪšjaɪ, -ɛ] (m)
1 root

2
gosod y fw’ell ar wraidd y drwg
strike at the root of the evil (“place the axe on the root of the evil”)

3
gwlad eich gwreiddiau your country of origin (“(the) country (of) your roots”)

:_______________________________.

gwraig, gwragedd
<GWRAIG> <GWRAA-gedh> [ˡgwraɪg] [ˡgwrɑˑgɛš] (f)
1 woman
y wraig the woman
2
gwreig-gasäwr mysoginist, man who hates women
Also casäwr gwragedd

:_______________________________.

gwraig briod, gwragedd priod
<gwraig BRII-od, GWRA-gedh PRII-od> [ˡgwraɪg briˑod, gwra gɛš priˑɔd] (f)
1 married woman

:_______________________________.

gwrando (ar) (verb)
<GWRAN-do> [ˡgwran dɔ]
1 to listen to

:_______________________________.

gwrando’n astud
<gwran-don A-stid> (verb)

1 to listen carefully

:_______________________________.

gŵr-bonheddig, PLURAL: gwŷr-bonheddig
<guur-bo-NHEE-ddig, gwiir-NHEE-ddig>
1 gentleman
b’w fel gŵr bonheddig live the life of Riley (“live like a gentleman”)

:_______________________________.

gŵr busnes
1 busin
essman
 
ETYMOLOGY:-direct-translation-from-English-”businessman
  ”

:_______________________________.

gwrcath, gwrcathod
<GUR-kath, gur-KAA-thod> [ˡgʊrkaθ, gʊrkɑˑθɔd] (m)
1 tomcat, male cat

:_______________________________.

y gŵr drwg
<ə-guur-DRUUG> [ˡə gʊʊr drʊʊg] (m)
1 the devil (“the evil man”)
2 ceirios y gŵr drwg (Atropa belladona) deadly nightshade (“(the) cherries (of) the evil man / the devil”)

:_______________________________.

Gwrecsam
‹GWREK-sam› (f)

1 Wrexham (town in the north-east) though Wrecsam is now used in contemporary Welsh. Considered to be a pedantic spelling. In use in writing (magazines, books) in the 1800s.

ETYMOLOGY: English Wrexham > Welsh Wrecsam > Gwrecsam. Words beginning with w are generally soft mutated forms with radical gw-. An initial g was added to give it a radical form. .

:_______________________________.

gwreica
<GWREI-ka> [ˡgwrƏɪka] (verb)
1
look for a wife (especially referring to an old man)

2
cathreica (tomcat) seek a female
< cathwreica (cath = cat) + soft mutation + (gwreica = seek a wife)

ETYMOLOGY: (gwreig- < gwraig = woman) + (-ha suffix for forming verbs from nouns, usually PLURAL: nouns) > *gwréig-ha > gwreica (g-h > c)

:_______________________________.

gwreichionen
<gwreikh-YOO-nen> [ˡgwrəɪxjoˑnɛn](f)
PLURAL: gwreichion
<GWREIKH-yon> [ˡgwrəɪxjɔn]

1 spark = tiny piece of burning material which flies out from a fire, scintilla
y wreichionen the spark

2
spark = tiny piece of burning material produced by friction, as of metal hitting stone

3
spark = flash of light from an electrical discharge

4
(figurative) spark = beginning (of a movement, etc)

Agorw’d yr ysgol Gymraeg gyntaf yn 1949. Mae’r gwreichion’n a welw’d yn Llanelli dros hanner can mlynedd yn ōl yn fflam s’’n dal i losgi heddiw.
The first Welsh-language school was opened in 1949. The spark that was seen in Llanelli over fifty years ago is a flame which continues to burn to this day

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gwreichionen (gwreichion = sparks) + (-en singulative suffix) ; < gwrychion < British
from the same British root: Cornish gwrikhon = sparks, Breton gwrac’h = sparks

NOTE: There is also a masculine form gwreichion’n . Colloquially, the Englishism sbarc is used; (f), PLURAL: sbarcs

:_______________________________.

gwreiddiau
<GWREIDH-yai, -ye> [ˡgwrəɪšjaɪ, -ɛ] (PLURAL: noun)
1 roots; PLURAL: of gwreidd’n

:_______________________________.

gwreiddiol
<GWREIDH-yol> [ˡgwrəɪšjɔl] (adjective)
1
original

Abbreviation (in a dictionary entry): gwr.

2
pechod gwreiddiol original sin

:_______________________________.

gwreidd’n, gwreiddiau
<GWREI-dhin, GWREIDH-yai, -ye> [ˡgwrəɪšɪn, gwrəɪšjaɪ, -ɛ] (m)
1 root

Abbreviation (in a dictionary entry): gwr.


:_______________________________.

gwreig-gasäwr
<gwreig-ka-SAA-ur> [gwrəɪgkaˡsɑˑʊr] (m)
PLURAL: gwreig-gasäw’r
<gwreig-ka-SAA-wir>
1 mysoginist, man who hates women
[gwrəɪgkaˡsɑˑwɪr]
Also casäwr gwragedd

ETYMOLOGY: (gwreig- = prefixed form of gwraig = woman) + soft mutation + (casäwr = hater, person who hates )

:_______________________________.

gwrźng
<GWREENG> [gwreːŋ]
(m)
PLURAL: gwrengod, gwrengiaid
<GWRENG-od, GWRENG-yaid, -yed> [ˡgwrɛŋod, gwrɛŋjaɪd, -ɛd]
1 (the) common people, commoners

gŵr a bonedd high and low, people of every social condition, everybody (“commoners and gentry”).
cael eich parchu gan wreng a bonheddig be respected by all

Salmau 49:2 Yn gystal gwreng a bonheddig, cyfoethog a thlawd ynghyd
Psalm 49:2 Both low and high, rich and poor, together.

Esaia 2:9 A’r gwrźng s’dd yn ymgrymu, a’r bonheddig yn ymostwng: am hynny na faddau iddynt.
Isaiah 2:9 And the mean man boweth down, and the great man humbleth himself: therefore forgive them not.

ETYMOLOGY: gwrźng < gwreang, probably gwre’ang < *gwrieang / *gwrie’ang < *gwrieuang
“young man” (gŵr = home) + (ieuang, now ieuanc = young)

:_______________________________.

gwres
<GWREES> [gwreːs] (m)
1 heat

:_______________________________.

gwresog
<GWRE-sog> [ˡgwrɛsɔg] (adjective)
1 warm (welcome, etc)
)

:_______________________________.

gwresogi
<gwre-SOO-gi> [gwrɛˡsoˑgɪ] (verb)
1 to heat, heat up

:_______________________________.

gwresog’dd
<gwre-SOO-gidh> [ˡgwrɛsoˑgɪš] (m)
PLURAL: gwresogyddion
<gwre-so-GƏDH-yon> [gwrɛsoˡgəšjɔn]
1 heater

ETYMOLOGY: (gwresog-, stem of the verb gwresogi) + (-’dd noun suffix for indicating a device or an agent)

:_______________________________.

gwrferch
<GUR-verkh> [ˡgʊrvɛrx] (f)
PLURAL: gwrferched
<gur-VER-khed> [gʊrˡvɛrxɛd]
1 virago, amazon; mannish woman
yr wrferch the virago

ETYMOLOGY: (“man-woman”, a woman who is like a man) (gŵr = man) + soft mutation + (merch = woman)

:_______________________________.

Gwrgenau
<gur-GEE-nai> [gʊrˡgeˑnaɪ]
1 man’s name

ETYMOLOGY: Gwrgenau / Gorgenau < Gworgenau (gwor- intensifying prefix, ‘over’) + soft mutation + (cenau = cub, whelp)


:_______________________________.


gwrglo <GUR-glo> [ˡgʊrglɔ] (f)
1
(South Wales) a variant form of  gweirglodd (qv) (= hay meadow) :_______________________________.

gwrglod <GUR-glod> [ˡgʊrglɔd] (f)
1
(South Wales) a variant form of  gweirglodd (qv) (= hay meadow)
:_______________________________.

gŵr gradd <guur GRAADH> [gʊʊr ˡgrɑːš] (m)
PLURAL: gw’r gradd
<gwiir GRAADH> [gwiːr ˡgrɑːš]
1 graduate of a university

Osbert Henry Fynes-Clinton (1869-1941), mab rheithor Barlow Moor ger Didsbury, Manceinion, gŵr gradd o R’dychen, athro Ffrangeg yng Ngholeg Prifysgol Gogledd Cymru, Bangor, ac awdur “The Welsh Vocabulary of the Bangor District”(1913)
Osbert Henry Fynes-Clinton (1869-1941), son of the rector at Barlow Moor near Didsbury, Manchester, a graduate of Oxford, professor of French in University College of North Wales, Bangor and author of “The Welsh Vocabulary of the Bangor District” (1913)

ETYMOLOGY: “graduated man” (gŵr = man) + (gradd = graduated, stem used as a past participle of graddio = to graduate)

:_______________________________.

gwrhewcri
<gur-HEU-kri> [ˡgʊrhɛʊkrɪ] (m)
1
joking, jocularity
gwrhewcri a ffraethineb ymgom cyfeillion
the jocularity and wit of a conversation between friends

ETYMOLOGY:
..1/ (gwrhėwc, variant of gorhėwg = lively) + (-ri suffix).

..2/ gorhėwg (= lively)
is (gor- intensifying prefix, ‘super-’) + (ew’g = desire) > gorew’g > gorhew’g, with an intrusive ‘h’ between the two elements,
> gorhew’g / gorhewg

..3/ The word gwrhecri has an unusual form; it is possibly an imitation of gwrhydi (= bravery, courage)
This is probably (gŵr = man) + (h’dr - obsolete in modern Welsh - = brave, strong) + (-i = suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

gwrhewcru
<gur-HEU-kri> [ˡgʊrhɛʊkrɪ] verb
1
(South Wales) to joke

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrhewcr-, from the noun gwrhewcri = fun, joking) + (-u = suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.


gwrh’d
<GUR-hid> [ˡgʊrhɪd] m
PLURAL: gwrhydau
<gur-HƏ-dai, -e> [gʊrˡhədaɪ, -ɛ]
1
Variant spelling of gwr’d (=fathom)

2 Found in place names

Nant Gwr’d SO2206 nant y gwr’d “(the) stream (of) the fathom”. Possibly refers to a deep stream

Y Gwr’d SO2206 Farm north-west of Cymtyleri

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/680094 Y Gwr’d.

Formerly this was Y Gwr’d Mawr (“greater Gwr’d”), and nearby was Y Gwr’d Bach (“lesser Gwr’d”)

Tw’n Gwr’d SO2207 tw’n y Gwr’d “(the) hill (at) Gwr’d (farm)”

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/508500 map

The Ordnance Survey map spells the farm as Gwrh’d (with an ‘h’), and the hill as Tw’n Gwr’d.

ETYMOLOGY: “man length” (gwr- < gŵr = man) + (-h’d = length) > gwrh’d > gwr’d (loss of the h is usual when it is at the head of the final syllable after a consonant. See h)

NOTE: Although gwr’d is a more correct spelling, gwrh’d is accepted as a variant spelling

:_______________________________.


gwrhydau
<gur-HƏ-dai, -e> [gʊrˡhədaɪ, -ɛ]
1
PLURAL: of gwr’d (= fathom)
:_______________________________.

gwrhydri
<gur--dri> [ˡgʊrhədrɪ] (m)
1
courage, bravery, heroism

2
feat, exploit
gwneud gwrhydri show great prowess, perform a winning deed

cyflawni gwrhydri perform exploits

Yr oedd y ddau frawd wrth eu bodd gyda’r gwaith o yrru’r ychain i farchnadoedd Lloegr. Dychwelent adref gan ymffrostio yn y gwrhydri a fyddent wedi ei gyflawni ar eu taith.
The two brothers loved the work of driving the cattle to the markets of England. The would return home boasting of their exploits (“of the prowess committed”) on their journey.

ETYMOLOGY: (1) probably (gwr = man) + (h’dr = strong, brave) + (-i = suffix for forming abstract nouns); (2) if not, it is gwrhydi < gworhydri (gwor- = intensifying prefix) + (h’dr = strong, brave) + (-i = suffix for forming abstract nouns)

:_______________________________.

gwrial
<GUR-yal> [ˡgʊrjal] (m)
1
(obsolete) battle

2
Gwrial (obsolete) man’s name (= manly bravery)
Equivalent to the Irish name Feargal, with the same Celtic origin

ETYMOLOGY: (gŵr = man) + soft mutation + (gāl = strength); gwr-ghal > gwr-ial.

The element gāl occurs as an element in other compound words
..1/ anial (= desert, desolate place) < British (*ande-gal-)
..2/ arial (= passion, courage) < British (ar = in front of) + (gāl = strength)
..3/ dial (= to get revenge; (noun) revenge),
..4/ galanas (= hatred; massacre; destruction)
..5/ gel’n (= enemy)
..6/ Morial (obsolete forename) (“great boldness”) (mawr, mor- = big, great)

:_______________________________.

Gwrin
<GUU-rin> [ˡguˑrɪn] (m)
1
man’s name
2
SH7803 locality and parish in the county of Pow’s, near Machynlleth

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh Gwrin < Gwr’n < Gwr’nt < Gwrgh’nt < British; equivalent to modern Welsh (gŵr = man) + soft mutation + (g’nt = people) (from Latin gens, gent- = family; race)
:_______________________________.

gwrlod <GUR-lod> [ˡgʊrlɔd] (f)
1
(South Wales) a variant form of  gweirglodd (qv) (= hay meadow)
:_______________________________.

g
wrlodd <GUR-lodh> [ˡgʊrlɔš] (f)
1
(South Wales) a variant form of  gweirglodd (qv) (= hay meadow)

:_______________________________.

Y Gwrlodde
<ə gur-LOO-dhe> [ə ˡgʊrloˑšɛ] (m)
1 Farm SO1631, near Pengenffordd, Brycheiniog, Pow’s

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=208278

ETYMOLOGY: gwrlodd, gwrlodde, a southern form of gweirglodd,  gweirgloddau (= hay-meadow, hay-meadows).

See gweirglodd

:_______________________________.

gŵr neu was
<guur-nei-WAAS> [ˡguːr nəɪ wɑːs] (m)
PLURAL: gw’rnagweision
<GWIIR-na-GWEI-shon> [ˡgwiːr na ˡgwəiʃɔn] masculine

1
gŵr neu was (Welsh Laws) man who is elegible to be a compurgator (testifier of a person’s innocence - from an old court procedure where an accused person is acquitted if enough people can be found who will swear to his innocence); man of distinction

2
(South-east Wales) gẃrnewas , gwrnewās man, youth

PLURAL: gwrnegwishon o gwrnegwishwn ‘men, menfolk’ as a group distinct from ‘women, womenfolk’ (Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru / Dictionary of the University of Wales: in Cwm Ogwr the word is pronounced gwrnawääs)

ETYMOLOGY: “man or lad” (gŵr = man) + (neu = or) + soft mutation + (gwas = lad)

:_______________________________.

gwrogi
<gu-ROO-gi> [ˡgʊroˑgɪ] (verb)
1 gwrogi i r’wun pay homage to

ETYMOLOGY: gwrogi < gwriogi (gwriog = pertaining to a man) + (-i suffix for forming verbs)

:_______________________________.

gwrolwaith
<GWROL-waith> [ˡgwrolwaɪθ] (m)
PLURAL: gwrolweithiau
<gwrol-WEITH-yai, -ye> [gwrolˡwƏɪθjaɪ, -ɛ]
1 brave deed
wedi iddo gyflawni ei wrolwaith after doing his brave deed

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrol = valient, brave) + soft mutation + (gwaith = work)

:_______________________________.

gŵr priod, gw’r priod
<guur PRII-od, gwiir PRII-od> [guːr ˡpriˑɔd, gwiːr ˡpriˑɔd] (m)
1 married man

:_______________________________.

gwrtharwr
<gurth-AA-rur> [gʊrθˡɑˑrʊr] (m)
PLURAL: gwrtharw’r
<gurth-ar-wir> [gʊrθˡarwɪr]
1 anti-hero

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrth- prefix = contra, anti) + (arwr = hero)

:_______________________________.

gwrtharwrol
<gurth-a-RUU-rol> [gʊrθarˡuˑrɔl]adjective
1 unheroic

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrth- prefix = contra, anti) + (arwrol = heroic)

:_______________________________.

gwrthbleidiol
<gurth-BLEID-yol> [gʊrθˡbləɪdjɔl]adj)
1 opposition
grŵp gwrthbleidiol mwyaf largest opposition group
Cadeirir y pwyllgorau hyn gan Aelodau Gwrthbleidiol These committees will be chaired by opposition members

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrthbleid- < gwrthblaid = partit de l’opposició) + (-iol, suffix for forming adjectives)

:_______________________________.

gwrthbrofadw’
<gurth-bro-va-dui> [gʊrθbrɔvˡɑˑdʊɪ] adjective
1
refutable

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrthbrof-, a stem of the verb gwrthbrofi = refute) + (-adw’, suffix for forming adjectives, = ‘possible’)

:_______________________________.

gwrthbrofi
<gurth-BROO-vi> [gʊrθˡbroˑvɪ] verb
1
(verb with an object) disprove, refute
scorch a rumour??

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrth, prefix = against) + soft mutation + (profi = to prove)

:_______________________________.

gwrthdal
<GURTH-dal> [ˡgʊrθdal] (m)
PLURAL: gwrthdaliadau
<gurth-dal-YAA-dai, -e> [gʊrθdalˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1 ‘counter-payment’
galwad wrthdal
(f) galwadau gwrthdal (American: collect call) (Englandic: reversed-charge call)

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrth = counter-, against) + soft mutation + (tāl = payment)

:_______________________________.

gwrthdaro
<gurth-DAA-ro> [gʊrθˡdɑˑrɔ] verb
1
ar lw’br gwrthdaro on a collison course (“on(a) path (of) colliding”)

2
gwrthdaro collide, hit each other

3
gwrthdaro ā (rh’wbeth) collide with (something), hit (something)

4
(colours) clash (as a noun)
5
(rivals, combatants) clash
gwrthdaro rhwng aelodau teulu cyfoethog a clash between the members of a rich family

6
conflict gwrthdaro rhyngwladol international conflict

7
gwrthdrawiad
(m) gwrthdrawiadau collision, clash, etc

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrth, prefix = against) + soft mutation + (taro = hit, strike)

:_______________________________.

gwrthddalen
<gurth-DHAA-len> [gʊrθˡšɑˑlɛn] (f)
PLURAL: gwrthddalennau
<gurth-dha-LE-nai, -e> [gʊrθšaˡlɛnaɪ, -ɛ]
1 counterfoil = the part of a check kept as a record of a payment
yr wrthddalen the counterfoil

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrth = counter-, against) + soft mutation + (dalen = leaf, sheet, page)

:_______________________________.

gwrth-derfysg
<gurth-DER-visk> [gʊrθˡdɛrvɪsk] (m)
1 gwn gwrth-derfysg riot gun
dryll gwrth-derfysg riot gun

ETYMOLOGY: gwrth- = anti-, contra-, against ) + soft mutation + ( terfysg = riot)

:_______________________________.

gwrthdrawiad
<gurth-DRAU-yad> [gʊrθˡdraʊjad] (m)
PLURAL: gwrthdrawiadau
<gurth-drau-YAA-dai, -e> [gʊrθdraʊˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1
crash, collision
gwrthdrawiad penben head-on collision (“collision head (and) head”)
m’nd i wrthdrawiad ā collide with (“go to collision with”)

2
confrontation = state of conflict between adverseries

3
clash = disagreement

4
conflict = situation involving two or more parties, one of which attmpts to gain dominance
Penywaun. Y mae yr addoldy hwn yn mhlwyf Llanfihangel Llantarnam, tua haner y ffordd o’r Casnew’dd i Bontypool... Mae yr eglw’s hon, fel pob un o’r eglw’si ar gyffiniau y Cymry a’r Saeson, wedi dyoddef mesur mawr o anfantais oddiwrth felldith Babel – cymysgedd ieithoedd, er’s mw’ na deng mlynedd ar hugain. Mae y gwasanaeth yn awr yn cael ei ddw’n yn mlaen agos, os nad yn gyfan gwbl, yn yr iaith Saesonaeg. Ni fu eglw’s Penywaun ar unrh’w gyfnod o’i hanes yn lluosog iawn. Os bu rhif yr aelodau ar rai adegau yn gant, ni buont un amser uwchlaw hyn’; ac wedi cychwyniad yr achos yn Elim, a ffurfiad eglw’s Annibynol yng Nghwmbran, cyfyngw’d yn fawr ar derfynau yr achos yn Mhenywaun. Etto, gan fod poblogaeth yr ardal wedi lluosogi yn ddirfawr yn y pum’ mlynedd ar hugain diweddaf, a’u bod yn deb’g o luosogi yn fawr etto mewn blynyddau dyfydol, mae yma ddigon o faes i bob un o’r tri achos; ac y mae y rhw’str a barai gwrthdrawiad y ddw’ iaith agos wedi llw’r ddiflanu, trw’ fod yr iaith Saesonaeg bellach wedi m’nd yn unig iaith yr ardal (Rees, T & Thomas, J, 1873, Hanes Eglwysi Annibynol Cymru “History of the Independent Churches of Wales”)

Pen-y-waun. This church is in the parish of Llanfihangel Llantarnam, halfway between Casnew’dd (Newport) and Pont-y-pŵl... This church, as every one of the churches on the boundaries of the Welsh and the English, has suffered a great measure of disadvantage from the curse of Babel – a mixture of languages, for more than thirty years. The service is now carried on almost wholly – if not completely – in the English language. The church of Pen-y-waun has never been very numerous at any time in its history. If the number of members on some occasions was one hundred, they were never at any time above that; and after the commencement of the cause in Elim, and the setting up of an Independent church in Cwm-brān, the boundaries of the cause in Pen-y-waun were greatly constrained. On the other hand, since the population of the area has increased enormously in the last twenty-five years, and is likely to increase greatly again in future years, there is enough scope for each one of the three causes; and the hurdle which the clash of the two languages caused has almost disappeared completely, since the English language has now become the only language of the area.
Rees, T & Thomas, J, 1873, Hanes Eglwysi Annibynol Cymru / “History of the Independent Churches of Wales”)

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrth, prefix = against) + soft mutation + ( trawiad = impact)

:_______________________________.

gwrthdynnu
<gurth--ni> [gʊrθˡdənɪ] verb
1 gwrthdynnu sylw distract attention
gwrthdynnu’ch sylw distract your attention
gwrthdynnu sylw oddiwrth rywbeth distract attention from something

2 (verb with an object) (Physics) repel
tynnu a gwrthdynnu attract and repel

3 (verb without an object) retract

4 (verb without an object) draw back

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrth- = contra, against ) + soft mutation + ( tynnu = pull)

:_______________________________.

gwrtheb
<GUR-theb> [ˡgʊrθɛb] masculine and (f)
1
obsolete answer
y gwrtheb / yr wrtheb the answer

2
contradiction, paradox
Y mae rh’w wrtheb ryfedd yn agwedd y bobl h’n...
There’s a certain odd contradiction in the attitude of these people

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrth prefix = against) + (heb-, verb = to say)

:_______________________________.

gwrthebu
<gur-THEE-bi> [gʊrˡθeˑbɪ] verb
1
obsolete answer

2
obsolete contradict

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrtheb = answer) + (-u, suffix for forming verbs) ; there is an equivalent in Cornish gorthebi (= to answer)

:_______________________________.

gwrthfrawychiaeth
<gurth-vrau-əKH-yaith -yeth> [gʊrθvraʊˡəxjaɪθ, gʊrθvraʊˡəxjɛθ] (m)
1 antiterrorism

ETYMOLOGY: ( gwrth, prefix = against ) + soft mutation + ( brawychiaeth = terrorism)

:_______________________________.

gwrthgyferbyniad <gurth-gə-ver-BəN-yad> [ˡgʊrθgəvɛrbənjad] (m)
PLURAL: gwrthgyferbyniadau
<gurth-gəv-er-bən-YAA-de> [gʊrθgəvɛrbənˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1 contrast

ETYMOLOGY: ( gwrth, prefix = against, counter- ) + soft mutation + (cyferbyniad = contrast, comparació)

:_______________________________.

gwrthgyferbyniol
<gurth-gəv-er-BəN-yol> [gʊrθgəvɛrˡbənjɔl]adjective
1
contrasted, contrasting; showing up the difference between

2
diametrically opposite
mynd i gyfeiriad gwrthgyferbyniol i go in the opposite direction to

3 Abbreviation (in a dictionary entry): gthg. = gwrthgyferbyniol contrasting, standing in contrast

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrth- = against; counter-) + soft mutation + (cyferbyniol = opposite, contrary)

:_______________________________.

gwrthgyferbynnu (verb)
1
contrast, counterpose, compare
2 Abbreviation (in a dictionary entry): gthg. = gwrthgyferbynier compare it with..., contrast it with

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrth- = against; counter-) + soft mutation + (cyferbynnu = to contrast, to compare)

:_______________________________.
ŖŖŖ

gwrthgyferbynnu
<gurth-gə-ver--ni> [gʊrθgəvɛrˡbənɪ]

:_______________________________.

gwrthod
<GUR-thod> [ˡgʊrθɔd] (verb)
1 to refuse
2
gwrthod arddel (rh’wun / rh’wbeth) disown, repudiate

:_______________________________.

gwrthodiad, gwrthodiadau
<gur-THOD-yad, gur-thod-YAA-dai -de> [gʊrˡθɔdjad, gʊrθɔdˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (m)
1 refusal
gwrthodiad ar ei ben flat refusal (“a refusal on its head”)

:_______________________________.

gwrthsafiad
<gurth-SAV-yad> [gʊrθˡsavjad] (m)
1 resistance
gwrthsafiad goddefol passive resistance
gwrthsafiad di-drais passive resistance

:_______________________________.

gwrthsef’ll
<gurth-SEE-vilh> [gʊrθˡseˑvɪɬ] (verb)
1
(verb with an object) withstand = resist, oppose with determination, stand up to

:_______________________________.

gwrthstaen
<GURTH-stain> [ˡgʊrθstaɪn] adjective
1
stain resistant
dur gwrthstaen stainless steel

ETYMOLOGY: (gwrth- = against) + (staen = stain)

:_______________________________.

gwrthw’neb
<gurth-UI-neb> [gʊrθˡʊɪnɛb]
(m)
1 opposite
2
i’r gwrthw’neb far from it, quite the contrary

:_______________________________.

gwrthwynebiad
<gurth-ui-NEB-yad> [gʊrθʊɪˡnɛbjad] (m)
1 oppostion
cwrdd ā gwrthwynebiad run up against opposition (“meet opposition”)

 
:_______________________________.

gwrthw’neb’dd, gwrthw’nebw’r
<gurth-wi-NEE-bidh, gurth-wi-NEB-wir> [gʊrθwɪˡneˑbɪš, gʊrθwɪˡnɛbwɪr] (m)
1 opponent
2
ni + arbed dim (ar wrthwyneb’dd) not pull your punches (with an opponent) (“not + save anything on an opponent”)

:_______________________________.

gwr’ch ‹GWRIIKH› (m)
PLURAL: gwrychoedd‹GWRƏKH-oidh › (North Wales)
1 hedge

llw’d y gwr’ch hedge accentor, hedge sparrow (“brown (bird) (of) the hedge”)
plygu gwr’ch build a hedge (“fold a hedge”)
clawdd gwr’ch
hedgebank (“bank (of) hedge”)

Gwr’chbedw (“Gwr’ch Bedw”) farm name
y gwr’ch bedw “the birch hedge”, unless it is gwr’ch y bedw “(the) hedge (by) the birch trees”,

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ1048 map

2 bristles

3 hackles = hairs on a dog’s neck

4 gwr’ch root of the verb gwrychu (= to bristle), used as a past particple
ar wr’ch
1 (person) in a bad mood 2 (hair) dishevelled

5 coetr’ch (South ales) quickset hedge
coetr’ch < *coed-gh’r’ch / *coed-gh’r’ch (coed = wood) + soft mutation + (gwr’ch = hedge)

:_______________________________.

Ə gwrychu
‹GWRƏKH-i› (verb)
1 (hair of a dog) bristle, bristle up = stand

:_______________________________.


gwr’d
<GU-rid> [ˡgʊrɪd] m
PLURAL: gwrhydau
<gur-HƏ-dai, -e> [gʊrˡhədaɪ, -ɛ]
1
fathom

Yr Actau 27:28 Ac wedi iddynt blymio, hwy a’i cawsant yn ugain gwryd: ac wedi myned ychydig pellach, a phlymio drachefn, hwy a’i cawsant yn bymtheg gwryd.
Acts of the Apostles 27:28 And sounded, and found it twenty fathoms: and when they had gone a little further, they sounded again, and found it fifteen fathoms.

2 Found in place names

..a/ Nant Gwr’d SO2206 nant y gwr’d “(the) stream (of) the fathom”. Possibly refers to a deep stream

Y Gwr’d SO2206 Farm north-west of Cymtyleri

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/680094 Y Gwr’d.

Formerly this was Y Gwr’d Mawr (“greater Gwr’d”), and nearby was Y Gwr’d Bach (“lesser Gwr’d”)

Tw’n Gwr’d SO2207 tw’n y Gwr’d “(the) hill (at) Gwr’d (farm)”

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/508500 map

The Ordnance Survey map spells the farm as Gwrh’d (with an ‘h’), and the hill as Tw’n Gwr’d.

....................................................

..b/ SN7308 Y Gwr’d. A farm near Cwmllynfell (“Gwrh’d”)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/326080

SN7208 Cefn Gwr’d (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) (“Cefn Gwrh’d”)

cefn y Gwr’d “(the) ridge (by) Y Gwr’d (farm)”

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/805911 Cefn Gwr’d

....................................................

..c/ Y Gwr’d Farm south of Pentre (Pow’s) (“Gwrh’d”)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/647380 Y Gwr’d

....................................................

..d/ Y Gwr’d-mawr Farm near Treledd’d-fawr (county of Penfro)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/502587 map

....................................................

ETYMOLOGY: “man length” (gwr- < gŵr = man) + (-h’d = length) > gwrh’d > gwr’d (loss of the h is usual when it is at the head of the final syllable after a consonant. See h)

NOTE: Although gwr’d is a more correct spelling, gwrh’d is accepted as a variant spelling

:_______________________________.

Gwrygon  ‹DIN-lhe GuRƏ-gon> [ˡdɪnɬɛ ˡgwrəgɔn]
1
modern Welsh form of the name *vrikon-, the basis of the Latin name Uriconium forWroxeter. (or Viroconium Cornoviorum)

Dinlle Gwrygon ‹DIN-lhe GuRƏ-gon> [ˡdɪnɬɛ ˡgwrəgɔn] The Iron Age hillfort on The Wrekin, Shropshire. This may have been the tribal capital of the Cornovii; the Romans built the nearby town to which they gave the same name as the former hillfort.

Caerwrygon, Wroxeter ‹kair GuRƏ-gon> [kaɪrˡgwrəgɔn]

(Called Cair Guricon circa 800 AD)


(delwedd 7413)


ETYMOLOGY: Gwyrygon, from a British (personal?) name *vrikon-. 

NOTE: Dinlle Gwrygon is the name given for The Wrekin in The Welsh Academy English-Welsh Dictionary.

:_______________________________.

gwst
<GUST> [gʊst] (m)
PLURAL: gystion
<GəST-yon> [ˡgəstjɔn]
1 pain

2 in the names of many illnesses or complaints:

cymalwst gout = inflamation of the big toe from uric acid deposited in the joint (“joint pain” cymal = joint, articulation)

ergydwst concussion (“impact pain”, erg’d = blow, impact)

3 Hywst
<Hə-ust> [ˡhəʊst] (obsolete) man’s name (hy- = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + ( gwst = heat, burn; pain)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *gust (= disappear, die) < Celtic
From the same Celtic root: Irish guais (= danger)

:_______________________________.

gwta
<GU-ta> [ˡgʊta] adjective
1
Soft mutated form (c > g) of cwta = short; bob-tailed; without a tail (a) Groesgwta / Groes Gwta house name ‘the short cross’ (b) hwch ddu gwta (“sow + black + tail-less”) a black sow with no tail supposed to chase people in the dark on Nos Galan Gaeaf (Hallowe’en) (in the above names there is soft mutation of the first consonant of an adjective which follows a (f)) (c) Clipiodd ei fwstas yn gwta He cut his moustache short

NOTE: (1) cwta also has a feminine form cota; after a (f) both gwta and gota occur (iār gota = a tailless hen); (2) besides y gwta (= hare) there is also y gota (= hare)

:_______________________________.

gwter
<GU-ter> [ˡgʊtɛr]
1 soft-mutated form of cwter (f) (= stream, ditch, gutter)

:_______________________________.

Y Gwter-fawr
<ə GU–ter-VAUR> ə gʊ–tɛr ˡvaʊr]
1 former name (1800s; then usually spelt Gwter Fawr) of the village of Br’naman SN7114 (county of Caerfyrddin)
Pwll y Gwter a former coal mine here, opened in 1855 (“(the) pit (of) the gutter”)

In ‘Wild Wales’ by George Borrow (1862) the author, an Englishman of Cornish origin, recounts his trip eight years earlier in 1854. He had stopped by the a fulling mill on the Lleidiach stream and struck up a conversation in Welsh with a “decent looking man engaged in sawing a piece of wood by the roadside.”

The man mistakes him for a Northern Welshman, which Borrow does not contradict. At the close of the conversation the man asks:

Welshman: “Where are you going tonight?”

Borrow: “To Gutter Vawr”

Welshman: “Well, then, you had better not loiter, Gutter Vawr is a long way off over the mountain. It will be dark, I am afraid, long before you get to Gutter Vawr. Good evening David! I am glad to have seen you, for I have long wished to see a man from the north country. Good evening! you will find plenty of good ale at Gutter Vawr.”

ETYMOLOGY: (“the big gutter”) (y definite article) + soft mutation + (cwter = gutter) + soft mutation + (mawr = big)

:_______________________________.

gwthiad
<GUTH-yad> [ˡgʊθjad] (m)
PLURAL: gwthiadau <guth-YAA-dai -de> [gʊθˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
1 push, push, thrust
rhoi gwthiad i (r’wbeth) give (something) a push / a shove

ETYMOLOGY: (gwth-, stem of gwthio = to push) + (-i-ad noun-forming suffix)

:_______________________________.

gwthio
<GUTH-yo> [ˡgʊθjɔ] (verb)
1
to push

2
gwthio (ymosodiad) yn ei ōl repel (an attack)

3
gwthio eich pig i mewn (i r’wbeth) stick your nose into something (“push your nose...”)

:_______________________________.

Gw’
<GUI> [ˡgʊɪ] (f)
1 river name (English name: Wye)

:_______________________________.

gw’
<GUI> [gʊɪ] (m)

1
water, fluid (an invented word, not in general use)

2 river
It was used in the form -w’ as a river-name suffix
around 1800-1900.

The great number of river names ending in -w’ (Conw’, Mynw’, Elw’, Ebw’, etc) and the existence of a river with the name Gw’ led to the belief of a ‘primitive word’ gw’ meaning ‘water’. Many river names were ‘corrected’ in the last century, and the supposed suffix was ‘restored’ to names which had supposedly lost it.

Nowadays these invented forms have largely disappeared, though traces remain in minor place names (house names and street names)

..a/ Aman (river in the county of Caerfyrddin, south-west Wales) > Amanw’
Parc Amanwy, Rhydaman (is this from the name of a local poet who took the name of the river as a pseudonym?)

..b/ Ewenni (SS9177) (river in the county of Bro Morgannwg, south-east Wales) > Ewynw’

..c/ Gorci / Orci > Orchw’ (stream in the county of Rhondda Cynon Taf, south-east Wales)
There is a street called Heol Orchw’ in Treorci (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)


..d/ Llyfni (county of Gwynedd, north-west Wales) SH4852 > Llyfnwy. There is a street in Tal-y-sarn called Maesllyfnw’ “Maes Llyfnwy” (“(the) field (on the bank of the river) Llyfni”)

..e/ Llynfi (SS 8983) (river in the county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr, south-east Wales) (historically Llynfi) > Llyfnwy

..f/ Mersi > Mersw’ (River Mersey, name of the river on the estuary of which Liverpool, England is situated)

..g/ Ogwr > Ogw’ (river in the county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr, south-east Wales)

There is a street called Heol Ogw’ (“Ogw’ Street”) in Nant-y-moel (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)



(delwedd 7452)

Possible too we can include the river name “Tow’”, in Welsh Tywi. The form with ‘o’ is possibly a local form in Welsh > Towi. (The spelling Tow’ may be older than the 1800s).

South-west of Llanymddyfri (“Llandovery”) there is a house SN7432 called Glan-Tow’ (properly Glantywi, and if the ‘o’ form is a genuine Welsh form, Glantowi as a spelling of localised pronunciation)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/520948 Glantywi, “Glan-Tow’”

One famous example of –w’ is the Welsh name for the river Chubut in Patagonia - Camw’ (cam = crooked, winding) + (-w’ = water, river)

2 bachw’ bay
Not in general use. First instance in 1852. Created from (bach = bend) + soft mutation + (gw’, a word supposedly meaning “water” )

:_______________________________.

gw’ach, gw’achod
<GUI-akh, gui-AA-khod> [ˡgʊɪax, gʊɪɑˑxɔd] (f)
1 grebe (waterbird)
yr w’ach the grebe

:_______________________________.

gw’ach gorniog
<gui-akh GORN-yog> [ˡgʊɪax gornjɔg] (f)
PLURAL: gw’achog corniog
<gui-AA-khod-KORN-yog> [ˡgʊɪɑˑxod kornjɔg]
1 (Podiceps auritus) Slavonian Grebe (USA: horned grebe)

ETYMOLOGY: (“horned grebe”) (gw’ach = grebe) + (corniog = horned)

:_______________________________.


gw’bedog, gw’bedogion
<gwə-BEE-dog, gwə-be-DOG-yon> [ˡgwəbeˑdog, gwəbɛdɔgjɔn] (m)
1 (bird) flycatcher

ETYMOLOGY: (gw’bed = flies) + (-og adjectival suffix) > gw’bedog (= connected in some way to flies)

Probably from a form such as *ader’n gwybedog (“bird of-flies”)> gwybedog

:_______________________________.


gw’bed’n, gw’bed
<gwə-BEE-din, GWə-bed> [gwəˡbeˑdɪn, ˡgwəbɛd] (m)

1 gnat

2 fly

gwybed’n y tŷ / gwybed’n tŷ house fly

NOTE: south-east gwybed > gwibed > gwideb / gwitab

:_______________________________.

gw’bod
[ˡgʊɪbɔd / ˡgʊbɔd] (verb)
1 to know
NOTE:
Root: gw’-, gw’dd- (01) Present Indicative: 1 gwn, gw’ddom; 2 gw’ddost, gw’ddoch, 3 gw’r, gw’ddant Impersonal: gw’bydd’s (02) Future: 1 gw’byddaf, gw’byddwn; 2 gw’byddi, gw’byddwch, 3 gw’b’dd, gw’byddant Impersonal: gw’byddir
Colloquially, the periphrastic form is used
..1 byddaf yn gw’bod, bywddwn... 2 byddi..., byddwch... 3 b’dd..., byddant... (03) Imperfect Indicative: 1 gw’ddwn, gw’ddem; 2 gw’ddit, gw’ddech; 3 gw’ddai, gw’ddent; Impersonal: gw’ddid (04) Past Indicative: 1 gw’būm, gw’buom; 2 gw’buost, gw’buoch; 3 gw’bu, gw’buont / gw’buant; Impersonal: gw’buw’d (05) Pluperfect Indicative: 1 gw’buaswn, gw’buasem; 2 gw’buasit, gw’buasech; 3 gw’buasai, gw’buasent; Impersonal: gw’buesid (06) Present Subjunctive:
..1 gw’pw’f, gw’pom; 2 gw’p’ch, gw’poch, 3 gw’po, gw’pont Impersonal: gw’per
or alternatively
gw’byddw’f, gw’byddom; 2 gw’bydd’ch, gw’byddoch, 3 gw’byddo, gw’byddont Impersonal: gw’bydder (07) Imperfect Subjunctive
..1 gw’pwn, gw’pem; 2 gw’pit, gw’pech, 3 gw’pai, gw’pent Impersonal: gw’pid
or alternatively
gw’bydden, gw’byddem; 2 gw’byddit, gw’byddech, 3 gw’byddai, gw’byddent Impersonal: gw’byddid (08) Imperative: 1 -, gw’byddwn; 1 gw’b’dd, gw’byddwch; 3 gw’ped / gw’bydded; gw’pent / gw’byddent; Impersonal: 1 -, gw’bydder

2
’Fynnwn i ddim i neb wybod amdano
I wouldn’t want anybody to find out about it

3
gw’bod yn sicr bod...
know for a fact that...
mi wn yn sicr ei bod e wedi siarad ā hi I know for a fact that he spoke to her

4
Bron na wn i beth i’w wneud
I hardly know what to do

5
gw’bod ei h’d a’i led have somebody sized up (“know his length and his width”)

6
Rw i eto heb w’bod pam
I still don’t know why (“I am still without knowing why”)

7
rhoi gw’bod (am r’wbeth) i intimate (something) to, inform... of (something)

8
gw’byddwch fod... (imperatiu) know that, understand that

9 gw’botgar curious = keen to know
gwybotgar < gwybód-gar (gwybod = to know ) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, meaning ‘fond of’, cf caru = to love)

10 gwyddost ti you know
wyddost ti you know
Reduced to wsti, sti

11 a wyddost ti do you know?
sti be < a wyddost ti beth do you know what? (question to highlight information in the following sentence)

12 mae y cwbl yno sydd eisiau ei wybod everything you need to know is there

ETYMOLOGY: gw’bod < *gw’’fod < *gw’ddfod (gw’dd- element now obsolete = to see,to discover) + soft mutation + (bod = be, being)

From the same British root: Cornish godhvoz (= to know), Breton gouzout, gout (= to know)
gw’dd is related to

..a/ Irish fios (= knowledge)

..b/ Sanskrit veda (= knowledge), (veda = I know)

..c/ Latin vid-źre (= to see)

..d/ Greek id-ón < fid-ón

..e/ (Germanic languages) Old English witan (= to know); modern English wit (ability to use humorous ingenious language), wits (= mental ability); German wissen (= to know), Norwegian vite (= to know),

:_______________________________.

gw’bodaeth
<gui-BOO-daith -eth> [gʊɪˡboˑdaɪθ -ɛθ] (m)
1
knowledge

2
gw’bodaeth o (r’wbeth) knowledge of (something)
Mae ei gw’bodaeth o Gatalaneg o fudd mawr iddi
Her knowledge of Catalan is a great advantage for her


:_______________________________.

gw’botgar
<gui-BOT-gar> [gʊɪˡbɔtgar] adjective
1 gw’botgar curious = keen to know

ETYMOLOGY: gwybotgar < gwybód-gar (gwybod = to know ) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, meaning ‘fond of’, cf caru = to love)

:_______________________________.

gw’b’dd
<GUI-bidh> [ˡgʊɪbɪš] verb
1
know...! (second person singular imperative of gw’bod= to know)

Daniel 6:15 Yna y gwŷr hynny a ddaethant ynghyd at y brenin, ac a ddywedasant wrth y brenin, Gwybydd, frenin, mai cyfraith y Mediaid a’r Persiaid yw, na newidier un gorchymyn na deddf a osodo y brenin.
Daniel 6:15 Then these men assembled unto the king, and said unto the king, Know, O king, that the law of the Medes and Persians is, That no decree nor statute which the king establisheth may be changed.

:_______________________________.

gw’byddwch
<gui--dhukh> [gʊɪˡbəšʊx] (verb)
1
gw’byddwch fod... (imperatiu) (second person PLURAL:) know that, understand that (gw’bod = to know)

:_______________________________.


gw’ch
<GWIIKH> [gwiːx] (adjective)
1 splendid
syniad gw’ch splendid idea, brainwave (USA: brainstorm)

:_______________________________.

gwychfawr
<GWəKH-vaur> [ˡgwəxvaʊr] adjective
1 splendid
adeiladau gwychfawr splendid buildings

ETYMOLOGY: (gwych- penult form of gw’ch = splendid) + soft mutation + (mawr = gran)

:_______________________________.

gw’dd (=g’dd)
<GWIIDH> [gwiːš] adjective PLURAL: form
1
wood, trees
See gwydden (= tree)
‹GWƏ-dhen› [ˡgwəšɛn]

:_______________________________.

gw’dd (=g’dd)
<GWIIDH> [gwiːš] adjective
1 wild

2 (land) uncultivated, overgrown, wild

3 gw’thwch (m) (obsolete) wild boar (gw’dd = wild) + (hwch = pig;
modern Welsh it is a (f), meaning ‘sow’) (dd-h > th)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gw’dd (g-w’dd) < gw-w’dd < British < Celtic < Indoeuropean *wei-d

Indoeuropean *wei-d is the same root which gave Celtic *widhu > Welsh gw’dd (= tree)
Words corresponding to Welsh gw’dd (= wild) are :
Breton gouez (= wild)
Irish: fia (= deer; wilderness)

The sense development would have been (pertaining to the forest, of the wood) > (wild)
The same sequence is seen in Latin (silva = wood) > salvāticus ( = of the wood) > Old French sauvage English savage

Also Latin salvāticus ( = of the wood) > Catalan salvatge (= wild)

:_______________________________.

gŵ’dd, gw’ddau <GUIDH> [ˡgʊiš] <GUI-dhai, -e> [ˡgʊišaɪ, -ɛ] (m)
1 goose

:_______________________________.

Gw’ddel, Gw’ddelod
<GUI-dhel, gui-DHEE-lod> [ˡgʊɪšɛl, gʊɪˡšlɔd] (m)
1 Irishman

 

tri brawd o Wyddelod three Irish brothers


Cytiau Gw’ddelod
“Irishmen’s huts”. Remains of Bronze Age or Iron Age round dwellings in various places in West Wales.

The reference to Irishmen is from the popular imagination. Although there was extensive Irish settlement in coastal West Wales, and probably inland too, for hundreds of years, the huts were in existence many centuries before this.

The name is possibly due to some old (lost) tale which attributed them to Irish people, or some circumstance which connected them with the Irish settlers in these western areas.
………………………………..
Cytiau’r Gw’ddelod
SH2182 « The Irishmen’s Huts », west of Caergybi (Yn’s Mōn), between the farms of Y Tŷ-mawr and Y Gofer’dd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=344273 map

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/83150 Cytiau’r Gw’ddelod
………………………………..

Cytiau’r Gw’ddelod SH2380 « The Irishmen’s Huts », at Porth Dafarch (Yn’s Mōn)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=342471 map

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/895457 Cytiau’r Gw’ddelod
………………………………..

Cytiau’r Gw’ddelod SH2280 « The Irishmen’s Huts », north-east of Penrhosfeilw (Yn’s Mōn),

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=342472 map
………………………………..

Cytiau’r Gw’ddelod SH6145 « The Irishmen’s Huts », Nantmor, Gw’nedd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/369601
………………………………..

:_______________________________.

Gw’ddeleg
<GUI-dhel, gui-DHEE-leg> [gʊɪˡšlɛg] ((f), adjective)
1 Irish (language)

:_______________________________.

Gw’ddeles, Gw’ddelesau
<gui-DHEE-les, gui-dhe-LE-se> [gʊɪˡšlɛs, gʊɪšɛˡlɛsaɪ, gʊɪšɛˡlɛsaɪ, -ɛ]

1
(f) Irishwoman
y W’ddeles the Irishwoman

:_______________________________.

Gw’ddelig
<gui-DHEE-lig> [gʊɪˡšlɪg] (adjective)
1 Irish (people, country; not language)

:_______________________________.

gwydden
‹GWƏ-dhen› [ˡgwəšɛn] (f)
PLURAL: gwŷdd
‹gwiidh› [gwiːš]
1 obsolete tree, shrub; occurs as a final element in the names of some trees

y wydden the tree

Genesis 21:14 Yna y cododd Abrham y fore, ac a gymerodd fara, a chostrel o ddwfr, ac a’i rhoddes at Agar, gan osod ar ei hysgw’dd hi hynn’, a’r bachgen hef’d, ac efe a’i gollyngodd hi ymaith; a hi a aeth, ac a grw’drodd yn anialwch Beerseba.
(21:15) A darfu’r dwfr yn y gostel; a hi a fwriodd y bachgen dan un o’r gw’dd
Genesis 21:14
And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread, and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away: and she departed, and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba. (21:15) And the water was spent in the bottle, and she cast the child under one of the shrubs

In Archaeologia Britannica (1707) Edward Lhu’d notes: “gwydd, trees... This is still used in Caernarvonshire and Meiryonydd”

2
county of Dinb’ch hedge

3
obsolete timber, wood (material)
gwyddbw’ll (qv) = chess (but originally a different board game) (“wood-sense”)

4
gwŷdd (qv) = weaver’s loom (originally = “wooden frame”)

5
North Wales gwŷdd (qv) = plough (originally = “wooden frame”)

6
-wydden, -w’dd in some compounds, especially in names of trees or shrubs

cadwydd ‹kad-widh› brambles, bramble brake, place full of brambles (cad = intensifying prefix; this prefix is derived from cad = battle) + soft mutation + (gwydd = trees, bushes); Welsh < British. From the same British root: Cornish kazwedh, as in the Cornish place name Porthkazwedh, English “Cadgwith”)

..1/ derw’dd oak trees

..2/ ffawydden beech tree, ffaw’dd beech trees

..3/ mafonw’dd raspberry canes

..4/ marchgastanwydden horse chestnut tree, marchgastanw’dd horse chestnut trees (marchgastan = horse chestnut) + soft mutation + (gwydden = tree)

..5/ myrtwydden myrtle tree, myrtw’dd myrtle trees

..6/ pinwydden pine tree, pinw’dd pine trees

..7/ s’camorwydden
‹si-ka-mor- -dhen› [ˌsɪkamɔrˡwəšɛn] sycamore tree sycamorw’dd ‹si-ka- MOR -widh› [ˌsɪkaˡmɔrwɪš] sycamore trees

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic *widhu

Cf English wood < Old English wudu< widu, from the same Indo-European root:

From the same British root: Cornish gwedhenn, gwedh (= tree), Breton gwezenn (= tree)

In the Hibernian Celtic languages: Irish fiodh (= wood, i.e. the material)
Scottish fiodh (= wood, i.e. the material)

:_______________________________.

gw’ddfa
<GUIDH-va> [ˡgʊišva] (m)
1 (place names) tumulus, mound, hillock

Yr W’ddfa
[ər ˡʊišva] name of the highest mountain in Wales (English name: Snowdon)

Trew’ddfa
[trɛˡʊišva] place in Abertawe / Swansea
either:
tre’r w’ddfa
“(the) trźv / farmstead (by) the burial mound” (tref = trźv) + (definite article yr) + soft mutation + (gw’ddfa = burial mound)

or:
tre’r W’ddfa “(the) trźv / farmstead (by) (the place called) Yr W’ddfa (the burial mound)” (tref = trźv) + (Yr W’ddfa = the burial mound)
Yr W’ddfa (definite article yr) + soft mutation + (gw’ddfa = burial mound)

or:

tre W’ddfa “(the) trźv / farmstead (by) (the place called) Gw’ddfa ([the] burial mound)” (tref = trźv) + soft mutation + (Gw’ddfa = burial mound)

:_______________________________.

Gw’ddgrug
<GUIDH-grig> [ˡguišgrɪg]
1 locality in the county of Caerfyrddin (Dyfed) (SN4635)

ETYMOLOGY: “tumulus, mound, tomb” See the previous entry

:_______________________________.

gw’ddgrug
<GUIDH-grig> [ˡgʊišgrɪg] (m)
1 (place names) tumulus, mound, hillock

Occurs in some place names:

..a/ Cefnw’rgrug SN8196 by Aberhosan (district of Maldw’n, county of Pow’s) < cefn yr w’ddgrug “(the) hill (of) the tumulus”

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=266813 map, Cefnw’rgrug

..b/ Gw’ddgrug (SN4635) at Llanfihangel ar Arth (county of Caerfyrddin)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1176201 Gw’ddgrug

..c/ Y W’ddgrug (=Y ’ddgrug) at Madrun SH6673, near Abergwyngreg’n (county of Gw’nedd)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/151498 Madrun, map

..d/ Y W’ddgrug (=Y ’ddgrug) at Ffordun SJ2200 (district of Maldw’n, county of Pow’s)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2200 Ffordun. Map.

..e/ Yr W’ddgrug SJ2363 town in the county of Y Fflint (English name: Mold)

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2363 Yr W’ddgrug. Map.

..............................................................



(delwedd 7429)

ETYMOLOGY: gw’dd, a form of gwedd (= form, aspect, shape; face; ?tomb) + soft mutation + ( crug = tumulus, hillock)

NOTE: In some places
[ˡgwɪšgrɪg] , with the diphthong [ui] reinterpreted as semiconsonant w + [ɪ]

:_______________________________.

gw’ddoniadur
<gwi-dhon-YAA-dir> [gwɪšɔnˡjɑˑdɪr] (m)
PLURAL: gw’ddoniaduron
<gwi-dhon-ya-DII-ron> [ˡgwɪšɔnjadiˑrɔn]
1 encyclopaedia

2
bod yn w’ddoniadur ar ddw’ droed be a walking encyclopaedia (“be an encyclopedia on two feet”)

ETYMOLOGY: word coined in 1852 (gw’ddon = scholar) + (-i-adur, suffix indicating a tool or book)

:_______________________________.

gw’ddoniaeth
<gui-DHON-yaith -yeth> [gʊɪˡšɔnjaɪθ, gʊɪˡšɔnjɛθ] (f)
1 science

:_______________________________.

gw’ddonol
<gui-DHOO-nol> [gʊɪˡšoˑnɔl] (adjective)
1 scientific
2
ffug-w’ddonol pseudo-scientific

:_______________________________.

gw’ddor, gw’ddorau <GUI-dhor, gui-DHOO-re> [ˡgʊɪšɔr, gʊɪšoˑraɪ, gʊɪšoˑraɪ, -ɛ] (f)
1
alphabet; science
y wyddor the science

2 Gw’ddor T’ Domestic Science

ETYMOLOGY: The Welsh word gw’ddor is from Latin abecźdārium (= alphabet)

Latin abeced
ārium
> British *ab’kēdār-
> Early Welsh *afgwyddawr
> agwyddawr (loss of the consonant f [v] )

> agwyddor (aw reduced to o in the final syllable)
> egwyddor (a becomes e)

> gwyddor (e dropped)

The word was confused with the Welsh word of Celtic origin gw’dd- (= know, knowing, knowledge), and so the PLURAL: form (gwyddorau) can also mean ‘science’.

Egw’ddor is used in modern Welsh in the sense of ‘principle’.

:_______________________________.

gw’ddost
<GUI-dhost> [ˡgʊɪšɔst] verb
1
(from the verb gw’bod = to know) you know

Oni w’ddost ti mai trw’ wneud hynn’ yr aeth o’i gof?
Don’t you know that by doing that he went mad?

:_______________________________.

Gw’dir
<GWII-dir> [ˡgwiˑdɪr] (f)
1
name of a mansion (“plas”) in the parish of Llanrhychw’n, Gw’nedd (near Llan-rwst in the valley of the river Conw’). (The University of Wales list of place-name spellings recommends the historical form Gwedir, though it is seldom used if at all. Gw’dir is the generally used form in Welsh. On English maps the Welsh misspelling “Gw’d’r” is often found)

2
Bro Gw’dir “(the) area (of) Gw’dir”, Gw’dir Country.
There is a primary school in Llan-rwst called
Ysgol Bro Gw’dir “(the) school (of) Bro Gw’dir”

NOTE:
..a/ There is a street in Cambridge, England, named after the mansion – Gw’dir Street. Here it has acquired and English pronunciation
<GWAI-də> [ˡgwaɪdə], that is, rhyming with the English word ‘cider’.

b../
There is a Gwydir River in the northern part of the state of New South Wales, Australia

INCORRECT ETYMOLOGIES: (the real etymology at the foot of this entry)
There are websites which try to explain this name (and others), and they note that that a local ‘Welsh-speaker’ has been consulted as if this is some authentication of an offered derivation. However, the fact that somebody speaks Welsh is no guarantee of a sensible explanation any more than asking an “English-speaker” to explain the meaning of London, or Litchfield, or Dover (all British in origin in fact).

There is a fascination with place names in Welsh popular culture, and popular etymology is a part of Welsh tradition (as in the tales of the Mabinogi dating from around 1100, and the wanderngs or the Twrch Trw’th which are used to explain ‘porcine’ place names in Wales). But it is naļve to think that Welsh is a simple language and every Welsh-speaker is knowledgable enough to be able to explain every aspect of it.

The usual explanations are:

..1/ “gwy tir” “watery land”. See the entry for gw’ – this is an invented word (early 1800s) for ‘fluid’ whose meaning was later expanded to mean water in order to explain place names which contained this syllable.

If such a word were to be genuine, then one could suppose (gw’ = water) + soft mutation + (tir = land) > Gw’dir, and at least it results in the current form of the name

But apart from this, it just does not have the pattern of a Welsh place name. Dŵr / dwfr is water in Welsh, yet there is no such name in Wales as *Dyfrdir to suggest ‘watery land’.

..2/ There was also a fascination with ancient battles – which village and hamlet could resist a suggestion that an important battle took place nearby at some remote early time? Many place names have been interpreted in the light of these imaginary early battles. ‘Gwaed’ (blood) is seen to be present, or imagined to be present, in some place names. Besides battles, there are sometimes other ingenious explanatons for the presence of ‘blood’ in a place name.

Another explanation is that Gw’dir is “gwaed-dir”, supposedly “bloody land”, but in fact meaning “blood land”: (gwaed = blood) + soft mutation + (tir = land).
Unfortunately for this explanation, the combination would not result in “gwaed-dir” but “gwaetir”.

For example, the prefix c’d- (= together) and tir (= land) has resulted not in c’d-dir but cytir (= common land; a word found in place names).

Gwaetir would be pronounced <gwei-tir> [ˡgwəɪtɪr] though again it is an unlikely combination for a place name.

..3/ The third popular explanation is that it simply means ‘glass’. This in Welsh is gw’dr
<gwidr> [gwɪdr] (from British vitr-, from Latin vitr- / vitrum = glass).

Colloquially it would become disyllabic, with an echo vowel breaking up the final consonant cluster gw’d’r
<gwi-dir> [ˡgwɪdɪr]. Although Gw’dir / gw’d’r would have the same pronunciation in South Wales, in the north a distinction is still maintained between ’ and i, so it would not be the same word exactly, though close enough.

Osbert Henry Fynes-Clinton (1869-1941) notes the pronunciation of gw’dr (= glass) as gw’d’r in his Welsh Vocabulary of the Bangor District (1913).

To explain why a house should be called simply ‘glass’, a story came about that Gw’dir was the first dwelling in the district to have glazed windows.

Other valient attempts at explaining the name are also wide of the mark as one great flaw in these interpretations is that earlier forms of the name are not looked at. Other suggestions put forward are

Gwyndir “white land” (gw’n = white) + soft mutation + (tir = land),

Gwydd-dir “wild land”, (gwŷdd = wild) + soft mutation + (tir = land), and

Gwyrdir “sloping land”, “crooked land” (gŵ’r = crooked, bent, askew, slanting) + soft mutation + (tir = land).

An interesting page on the Cambridge Online website juggles with all these suggested derivations
http://www.colc.co.uk/cambridge/gwydir/name.htm

In fact the name was satisfactorily explained many decades ago.

ETYMOLOGY: ‘lowland’. The usual form of this word is godir < gwodir (gwo- prefix = under, below, lower) + soft mutation + (tir = land).

The contrasting form is gorthir < gworthir ‘upland, highland’ (gwor- prefix = on) + spirant mutation + (tir = land). (A Pocket Dictionary Welsh-English, William Richards (1861):
Gorthir, n. upper country)

Neither godir or gorthir are current Welsh words.

In the case of Gw’dir, the development from *gwodir has been different

Welsh gw’dir < gwedir < *gwadir < *gwodir (gwo- prefix = under, below, lower) + soft mutation + (tir = land).

..a/ The change gwo- to gwa- occurs in other words in Welsh (gwahardd = forbid, gwahodd = invite).

..b/ The change gwa- to gwe- occurs because of vowel affection - an or i in the following syllable causes a to become e, a usual feature of Welsh. In a manuscript from the year 1640 it can be seen that the form of the name at that time was Gwedir

Another example of gwo- > gwa- > gwe- is gwegil (= the nape of the neck)

..c/ The later change of e to y is unusual Gwedir > Gwydir, though not unique
The letter y in Welsh is ambiguous, and could represent the obscure vowel [ə], or a short or long i [i, ii], depending on its position within a word.
In Gwydir it must represent the obscure vowel
<gwə-dir> [ˡgwədɪr]..

Compare the colloquial form ynnill for ennill (= to win), or “Myrthirtidfil” for Merth’tudful – examples of the chane e > y in a tonic syllable

..d/ The change of Gwydir
<gwə-dir> [ˡgwədɪr]. > Gw’d’r <gwi-dir> [ˡgwiˑdɪr] shows a phenomenon in Welsh where the obscure Welsh after gw- in a tonic syllable tends to become i or ’
Probably the influence of common words such as gw’nt, gwyntoedd
<gwint, GWƏNT-oidh> [gwɪnt, ˡgwəntɔɪš] (= wind, winds) where colloquially the PLURAL: form gwynto’dd [ˡgwəntɔš] has become gw’nto’dd [ˡgwɪntɔš], maintaining the vowel of the singular form.

..e/ Gw’dir > Gw’d’r is either a change of the following vowel to imitate the preceding vowel (’ + i) > (’ + ’), or the influence of gw’d’r (colloquial for gw’dr = glass)

The same compound form as gw’dir (*gwodir) is found in the modern Irish word fothair (= wooded hollow; steep slope toward a precipice; mountain pasture) < (fo = under) + spirant mutation + (tir = land), and fothair is also common in Scottish place names

NOTE: The spelling Gw’d’r is preferred by the Comisiwn Coedwigaeth / Forestry Commission
Coedwig Gw’d’r Gw’dyr Forest, instead of Coedwig Gw’dir

.
:_______________________________.


gw’dn (‘gw’d’n’)
<GWIDN, GWII-din> [ˡgwɪdn, ˡgwdɪn] (adjective)
1 tough

2
helygen w’dn (hel’g gw’dn) (Salix caprea) goat willow
See: helygen grynddail fw’af

:_______________________________.


gw’dr (gw’d’r), gwydrau
<GWIDR, GWII-dir,GWƏ-drai –e, GWI-drai, -e> [ˡgwɪdr, ˡgwdɪr, ˡgwədraɪ, -ɛ, ˡgwɪdraɪ, -ɛ] (m)
1 glass

2
“chimney” = chimney of a lamp, a glass tube around flame of a lamp

:_______________________________.

gwydrach
<GWƏ-drakh / GWI-drakh> [ˡgwədrax / ˡgwɪdrax] PLURAL: noun
1
small pieces of broken glass, fragments of glass, glass fragments

ETYMOLOGY: (gwydr- < gw’dr = glass) + (-ach PLURAL: diminutive suffix)

:_______________________________.


gw’draid, gw’dreidiau
<GWƏ-draid, GWI-dred, gwə-DREID-yai, -ye> [ˡgwədraɪd, ˡgwɪdrɛd, gwəˡdrəɪdjaɪ, -ɛ] (m)
1 glassful

ETYMOLOGY: (gwydr- < gw’dr = glass) + (-aid suffix denoting capacity)

:_______________________________.

gwydrin
<GWƏ-drin> [ˡgwƏdrɪn] adjective
1 (obsolete) woad = (attribute) of woad, where woad grows

2 Yn’s W’drin Glastonbury (England) apparently “woad island”

ETYMOLOGY: (gw’dr = woad) + (-in suffix for forming adjectives)

The word gw’dr is from Latin vitrum (= glass; woad (Isatis tinctora), plant with a dye for colouring glass)

The suffix -in is found after metals (heyernin of iron, ariannin of silver, eurin of gold; and in the case of vegetation, there is derwin = abundant in oaks)

English woad < Old English waad is related to Latin vitrum (= glass)

Wikipedia 2008-11-03: Isatis tinctoria. Julius Casar
tells us (in de Bello Gallico) that the Britanni used to mark their bodies with vitrum; this has often been assumed to mean that they painted or tattoed themselves with woad. However vitrum does not translate to "woad", but probably more likely refers to a type of blue-green glass which was common at the time.

:_______________________________.

Gw’dris
<GUI-dris> [ˡgʊɪdrɪs] (f)
1
(SO5719) Goodrich, a village in England on the western bank of the river Wye (Gw’) 6km south-west of Ross-on-Wye (Y Rhosan ar W’ in Welsh); halfway between Ross and the Welsh town of Trefynw’ (“Monmouth”)

Castell Gw’dris Goodrich Castle, a ruined castle from the 1200’s

ETYMOLOGY: From the English place name “Goodrich”, from the name of the castle, in Latin

Castellum Godrici (Godric’s Castle) after Godric of Mappestone, the builder of the first castle, a timber construction, on the site. He was an English thane and landowner, and in the 1086 Domesday Book he is said to be a tenant of a certain Howel (a Welsh name, i.e. Hywel). It was possibly built in the late 1080s.

:_______________________________.


gw’droad, gw’droadau
<gwir-DROO-ad, gwir-dro-AA-de> [gwɪrˡdroˑad, gwɪrdrɔˡɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (m)
1 perversion
gwyrdroad rhywiol sexual perversion

:_______________________________.


gw’droedig
<guir-dro-EE-dig> [ˡgʊɪrdrɔeˑdɪg] (adj)
1 perverted

:_______________________________.

gw’f’n, gw’fynod
<GWI-vin, gwi-VI-nod> [ˡgwɪ vɪn, gwɪ vɪ nɔd] (m)
1 moth



:_______________________________.

gw’l
<GUIL> [ˡgʊɪl] (f)
PLURAL: gw’liau
1 festival = celebration
yr w’l the festival

2 feast-day = saint’s day festival

3 gw’liau (USA: vacation) (Englandic: holiday, vacation), break from work or study for recreation, rest or travel
gw’liau tramor holidays abroad, foreign holidays

4 cadw gw’l observe a festival

5 Y Gw’liau Christmastide

6 gw’liau (USA: vacation time) (Englandic: holidays) = part of year when normal activity stops
gw’liau tramor (USA: vacation abroad) (Englandic: foreign holidays, holidays abroad)
gw’liau ysgol (USA: school vacation) (Englandic: school holidays)

7 Gw’l, and also Prifw’l, are used to refer to the national eisteddfod; usually with the definite article. The national eisteddfod = yr W’l (“the festival”), y Brifw’l (“the main festival”)

8 obsolete vigil, watch, guard
this sense is the origin of the following expression (still in use):
cadw gw’l bentan
stay at home, not go out (“keep a fireside vigil”)

9 nosw’l eve = eve of a festival or religious feast (for fasting, praying)
Nosw’l Calan Mai Eve of May Day, Walpurgis Night (April 30) (“(the) eve (of the) calend (of) May”)
Nosw’l Galan New Year’s Eve (31 December) (“(the) eve (of the) calend”)
Nosw’l Ifan Midsummer’s Eve (23 June) (“(the) eve (of) John”)
Nosw’l Nadolig Christmas Eve (24 December) (“(the) eve (of) Christmas”)

ETYMOLOGY: gw’l < *w’l < *w’ghl < British *vigl- < Latin vķg’lia < vķgilia (= watch before a religious festival);

Also from British: Cornish goel (= feastday), Breton gouel (= feastday).

Irish féile (= feastday, festival) is also from Latin vķgilia (Lį Fhéile Pįdraig = Saint Patrick’s Day) (“(the) day (of the) festival (of) Pįdraig”)



:_______________________________.

Gw’lan (f)

1 female name
Perhaps from a poem entitled Gw’lan by Eifion Wyn (Eliseus Williams, Porthmadog; 1867-1926)
in Telynegion Maes a Mōr (1906) (“verses (of) field and sea”, i.e. land and sea)

Yn ymyl y mōr y mae caban, / By the sea there is a cabin
Un caban yn ymyl y mōr; / One (single) cabin by the sea
Ei gerrig yn llyfn ac yn wynion,
/ Its stones are smooth and white
A'r gwmon yn bźr wrth ei ddōr: / And the seaweed is sweet by the door
Ac yno mae merch elwir Gwylan —
/ And in that place there is a girl whoi is called Gw’lan
Ieuengaf a thecaf ei thad; / The youngest and the fairest (one) of her father
Gwylanod y mōr ei llateion,
/ The gulls of the sea are her love messengers
Ac erwau y mōr ei hystad / And the acres of the sea are her estate

:_______________________________.

gw’lan, gw’lannod, gw’lain
<GUI-lan, gui-LAA-nod, GUI-lain> [ˡgʊɪlan, gʊɪlɑˑnɔd, gʊɪlaɪn] (f)

Less correctly: <GWII-lan, gwi-LAA-nod, GWII-lain> [ˡgwiˑlan, gwɪlɑˑnɔd, gwɪlaɪn]
1 gull, seagull
yr w’lan the gull

(less correctly: y w’lan)


gw’lan benddu (Larus ridibundus) black-headed gull

2 Tinddu medd y frān wrth y w’lan the pot calling the kettle black (“black-arse said the crow to the seagull”)

3 place names:
Gw’lain “seagulls” name of a house in Bangor (Gw’nedd)

Yr W’lan Title of the papur bro (Welsh-language community newspaper) in Porthmadog (covering also Tremadog, Penrhyndeudraeth and Beddgelert)


Yr W’lan Name of a restaurant in Porthmadog


Closyrw’lan Street in Y Barri (Bro Morgannwg) “(the) close (of) the seagull”, “seagull close” (spelt as “Clos yr W’lan”)


Cwrtyrw’lan House in Dinb’ch y Pysgod / Tenby (Sir Benfro) “(the) court (of) the seagull”, “seagull court” (spelt as “Cwrt yr W’lan”)


Aelw’dyrw’lan House in Dinb’ch y Pysgod / Tenby (Sir Benfro) “(the) hearth (of) the seagull”, “seagull hearth” (spelt as “Aelw’d yr W’lan”)


Sŵnyrw’lan house in Y Ceinew’dd (Ceredigion) “(the) sound (of) the seagull” (spelt as “Sŵn yr W’lan”)


Graigyrw’lan Street in Caerffili “(the) rock / crag (of) the seagull”, “seagull crag” (spelt as “Graig yr W’lan”)

Craigyrw’lan house name in Cwm-y-glo, Gw’nedd (spelt as “Craig yr W’lan”)

Street name Wernyw’lan (“(the) moor (of) the seagull”) (the expected form would be gwern yr w’lan)


..a/ Llandudno, county of Conwy SH7881 (spelt as “Wern y Wylan”)

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/863426


..b/ Cricieth, county of Gw’nedd SH5083 (spelt as “Wern y Wylan”)

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH5038

 

..c/ Morfanefyn, county of Gw’nedd SH2840 (spelt as “Wern y Wylan”)

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1427465

 

..d/ Street name / hamlet east of Llanddona, Yn’s Mōn / Anglesey SH5679 (spelt as “Wern y Wylan”)

Also a  house here built by the Liberal politician Sir Harry Verney in the early 20th century.

 

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/950350

 

He was the son of Sir Edmund Verney, 3rd Baronet, who had unsuccessfully stood for election to the London Parliament for the constituency of Anglesey in 1874, and became M.P. for Buckingham (1885-1886, 1889-1891). He was a memnber of The Isle of Anglesey County Council (as well as London County Council) and was appointed chairman of the Quarter Sessions in Anglesey (1887-1890), and was a JP and Deputy Lieutenant in Anglesey.

 

Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Harry Calvert Williams Verney, 4th Baronet (1881-1974) was also a Liberal M.P. for Buckingham (1910-1018).


4 Yr W’lan
Poem by Siōn Phylip (1543-1620), Ardudwy region of Gw’nedd
Gw’lan deg ar lan dŵr / Fair seagull at the water’s edge
Lo’wblu gofl, abl o gyflwr / Of a bright-feathered breast, in rich circumstances “well-off of circumstance”

NOTE: Also an incorrect pronunciation where
<ui> has become <wi>
y w’lan, as in the street name
:_______________________________.

gw’lan y penwaig <GWI-lan-ə-PEN-waig> [ˡgwɪlan ə ˡpɛnwaɪg]
(f)
PLURAL: gw’lanod y penwaig
<gwi-LAA-nod ə PEN-waig> [gwɪˡlɑˑnod ə ˡpɛnwaɪg]
1 (Larus argentatus) herring gull

ETYMOLOGY: “(the) gull (of) the herrings” (gw’lan = gull) + (y definite article) + (penwaig, PLURAL: of pennog = herring)

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gwylanod-y-penwaig
<GWEILKH ə PEN-waig> [ˡgwəɪlx ə ˡpɛnwaɪg]

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Gw’l Ddewi <guil DHEU-i> [ˡgʊɪl ˡšɛʊɪ] (f)
1 Saint David’s Day, March 1

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gw’l ddrama, gw’liau drama
<guil DHRA-ma, guil-yai, -ye DRA-ma> [ˡgʊɪl ˡšrama, ˡgʊɪljaɪ, -ɛ ˡdrama] (f)
1 drama festival
yr w’l ddrama the drama festival

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gw’lfa <GUIL-va> [ˡgʊɪlva] (f)

PLURAL: gwyllfé’dd, gw’lfāu
<guil-VEIDH, guil-VAI> [gʊɪlˡvəɪš, ɪlˡvaɪ]
1 lookout place, viewing place, watchtower, observation post, vantage point
Yr W’lfa, y Wylfa

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Craig yr W’lfa SN6088 “(the) cliff (of) the lookout” in Y Borth, Ceredigion

Ysgol Craig yr W’lfa name of the primary school in Y Borth

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/1170421 Craig yr W’lfa

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Penyrw’lfa place in Brynffordd, county of Y Fflint “(the) top (of) Yr W’lfa”

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Trw’nyrw’lfa “(the) point / headland (of) Yr W’lfa”, or “(the) point / headland (of) the lookout”. A farm in Penmaen-mawr, county of Conw’

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Trw’n yr W’lfa SH3224 “(the) point / headland (of) Yr W’lfa”, or “(the) point / headland (of) the lookout”. By Bwlchtoc’n, Gw’nedd.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/27143

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Bronw’lfa SH4457 Farm by Llandwrog, Gw’nedd (“Bron W’lfa”)

bron yr w’lfa “(the) hill (of) Yr W’lfa”, “(the) hill (of) the lookout”.

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Bronw’lfa SJ2848 Farm (?) near Y Bers, Wrecsam (“Bronw’lfa”)

bron yr w’lfa “(the) hill (of) Yr W’lfa”, “(the) hill (of) the lookout”.

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SJ2848

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Yr W’lfa SN9497 Farm and hill in Pow’s, north-west of Carno

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN9497 map

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Yr W’lfa SN7399 Farm and hill in Pow’s, north-east of Derwen-las, by Machynlleth

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SN7399 map

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Yr W’lfa SJ0741 Hill in the county of Dinb’ch, east of Cynw’d

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=307287

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Foel W’lfa SJ1933 Hill in the county of Pow’s, east of Tregeiriog

foel yr w’lfa “(the) hill (of) Yr W’lfa”, “(the) hill (of) the lookout” (with the soft-mutated form foel unusually here, as if it were the radical form, instead of moel)

 http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/732335

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Gw’lfa SH3343 Hill west of Llithfaen, Gwynedd

http://www.geograph.org.uk/browse.php?p=309161

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Pen yr W’lfa SH3594 Headland in Yn’s Mōn

Atomfa’r W’lfa SH3593 A nuclear power station by the headland

http://www.geograph.org.uk/gridref/SH3594

2 a period of time in which a person is on the lookout for any danger that might arise

cadw gw’lfa keep watch
gw’lfa angor anchor watch
gw’lfa dan y dec watch below
prif sw’ddog y w’lfa officer of the watch

3 watch = a division of the night

gw’lfa fach dogwatch – one of two early morning watches on board a ship, from 4-6 or 6-8

ETYMOLOGY: “place of vigilance”, and “act of vigilance” (gw’l- a stem of the verb gw’lio = to watch) + (-fa suffix = place; activity)

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gw’liau <GUIL-yai, -ye> [ˡgʊɪljaɪ, -ɛ]
(PLURAL: noun)
1 holidays; see gw’l;
2 In the South, Y Gw’liau (locally Y Gwila
<ə GWII-la> [ˡgwɪla] = Christmastide, the twelve days of Christmas

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Gw’l Ifan <guil II-van> [gʊɪl ˡiˑvan] (f)
1 Midsummer’s Day (June 24); the feast of Saint John the Baptist, and a quarter day
Nosw’l Ifan Midsummer’s Eve (23 June)
Hen W’l Ifan Old Midsummer’s Day (5 July)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British
From the same British root: Cornish Gwoil Iowann (= Midsummer’s Day)
Breton Gouel Yann (= Midsummer’s Day)

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gw’lio <GWIL-yo> [ˡgwɪljɔ]
(verb)
1 to watch

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gw’ll
<GWILH> [gwɪɬ] (m)
1 darkness



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Gw’l Lafur <guil LAA-vir> [ˡgʊɪl ˡlɑˑvɪr] (f)
1 Labour Day (first of May)

ETYMOLOGY: (gw’l = feastday, holiday) + soft mutation + (llafur = labor/ labour)

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gw’llt
<GWILHT> [gwɪɬt] (adjective)
1 wild

2
Aeth yn daro gw’llt All hell broke loose, blows fell thick and fast (“it became wild hitting”)

3 as a second element in some compound words

..1 cocw’llt randy (coc = cock, penis ) + soft mutation + (gw’llt = wild, out of control)

..2/ ffrochw’llt furious, fierce, wild, broiling

sŵn y rhaeadr ffrochw’llt the sound of the broiling waterfall

ffrochw’llt < ffrychw’llt < rhychw’llt < rhyw’llt (= furious) (rhy- prefix = very, greatly, extremely; the same as the adverb rh’ = too, overly) + soft mutaiton + (gw’llt = furious).

The ‘ch’ is not easy to explain; it may be due to the influence of words such as chwyrnu (= to snarl), chw’l (= turn, rotation)

4 car gw’llt (obsolete) bicycle
In the days of long ago, when bicycles were an object of awe and wonder to the youth of Carnarvon, we never called them by any other name other than ceffyl haearn or car gwyllt
T Hudson Williams (1873-1961), University College, Bangor / Vox Populi - A Plea for the Vulgar Tongue

“wild sled” (car = sled) + (gw’llt = wild)

5 tān gw’llt firewok or fireworks

tanen w’llt
firework

NOTE: In North Wales gw’llt has a long vowel: <GWIILHT> [gwiːɬt]


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gwylltfil
<GWƏLHT-vil> [ˡgʊəltvɪl] (f)
PLURAL: gwylltfilod
[gʊəltˡviˑlɔd]

1 (Bible 1620) wild beast

Yr Efengyl yn ōl Sant Marc 1:13 Ac efe a fu yno yn y diffeithwch ddeugain niwrnod yn ei demtio gan Satan: ac yr oedd efe gyda’r gwylltfilod: a’r angylion a weiniasant iddo.

Saint Mark’s Gospel 1:13 And he was there in the wilderness forty days, tempted of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him. (gwyllt- < gw’llt = (adj) wild) + soft mutation + (mil = animal)

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gw’lmabsant
<guil-MAB-sant> [gʊɪlˡmabsant] (f)
PLURAL: gw’lmabsantau
[gʊɪlmabˡsantaɪ, -ɛ]
1 parish feastday, parish festival, parish wake = the day of the parish saint, dedication festival, celebration of the patron saint (‘feastday of the little saint’, mab = son, used here as a diminutive) (formerly a time of wild revelry and merrymaking)

yr w’lmabsant the parish feast day

2
gwel’ glabsant
makeshift bed (“bed (of) (a) parish wake”) < gwel’ gw’lmabsant

ETYMOLOGY: (gw’l = festival, celebration) + (mabsant = saint, diminutive form of the word sant through prefixing mab, literally ‘son’)

NOTE: colloquial forms: glabsant, glasbant

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gw’lmabsanta
<guil-mab-SAN-ta> [gʊɪlmabˡsanta] (verb)
1
celebrate the festival of a patron saint of a parish

2
engage in wild revelry

ETYMOLOGY: (gw’lmabsant = parish feast, parish festival, parish wake) + (-a suffix for forming verbs)

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gw’log, gw’logod
<GUI-log, gui-LO-god> [ˡgʊɪlog, gʊɪˡloˑgɔd] (f)
1
guillemot
yr w’log the guillemot

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gwyl-y-Geni-
<guil-ə-GEE-ni> [ˡgʊɪl ə geˑnɪ]

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gwyl-y-Glaniad-
<guil-ə-GLAN-yad> [ˡgʊɪl ə glanjad]

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Gw’l y Geni (f)
1
Christmas, the Nativity (“(the) festival (of) the birth”)
Mis Rhagf’r 1907 oedd hi, ar drothw’ Gw’l y Geni...
It was December 1907, just before Christmas

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Gw’l y Glaniad (f)
1
(Patagonian Welsh) anniversary of the landing of the first Welsh pioneers in Porth Madr’n, Patagonia (28 July 1865) (“festival (of) the landing”). In recent years, also celebrated on this date in Y Bala by the Patagonian Welsh who are living in Wales

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gw’mon <GUI-mon> [ˡgʊɪmɔn] (m)
1
seaweed

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gw’n (m)
PLURAL: gwyniau
1 (North Wales) desire, satisfaction, craving

gweld eich gw’n (ar rywbeth) = take a fancy to (something) (Sefyllfa: Mae’r gof ar fin dychwelyd i’w efail)

Well ‘i mi roi’r troed gora mlaen’ ebe Huw, ’swybod ar y ddaear na fydd o wedi gweld i wyn ar rwbath os bydd o acw o mlaen i. Mae o’n meddwl fod pawb yn lladron, a lleidar weiddith lleidar gynta wyddoch
Plant y Gorthrwm / 1908 / Gwyneth Vaughan (= Anne Harriet Hughes 1852-1910) (Situation: The smith is about to go back to his smithy) “I’d better put my best foot forward,” said Huw.
There’s no knowing whether he’ll take a fancy to something if he’s down there before me. He thinks that everybody is a thief, but a thief is always the first to accuse others of thieving (“a thief shouts thief first”)

ETYMOLOGY: (gw’n = white) (with the influence of gŵyn (= desire))

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Gw’n
<GWIN> [gwɪn] (m)
1 man’s name; in origin, the first element of names such as Gwynoro, Gwynlliw, etc

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gw’n 1
<GWIN> [gwɪn] (adjective)
feminine form: gwen / wen

PLURAL: form: gwynion

1
white

2
flower names
pabi gw’n (“white poppy”)
This is another name for cysgl’s or cwsgl’s (Papaver somniferum) Opium Poppy

3
white = colour of tin
saer gw’n tinman, tin worker
gof gw’n tinsmith (“white smith”)

4
(y) Maes-gw’n house name, street name ‘the white field’

5
helygen wen (hel’g gwynion) (Salix alba) white willow

6 gwen- First element in place names based on a (m) (apparently the vowel y has opened out into e, though inexplicably)

Gwenddwr (village in Powys) (dŵr = water, stream)
Gwendraeth (river in county of Caerfyrddin) (traeth = seaside beach, river beach)

7
merfog gw’n
(m), merfogiaid gw’n / gwynion (Blicca bjoerkna) silver bream

8
hyw’n white; very white, sparkling
Hyw’n = saint to whom Aberdaron parish church is dedicated (hy- = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + ( gw’n = white)

9 place names – after names of buildings (refers usually to limewash)
Hafod-wen white summer farm
Tŷ-gw’n white house

10 migw’n (North Wales) bog moss
“bog-white” migw’n < mig’w’n < mignw’n (mign = bog) + soft mutation + ( gw’n = white)

11 croenw’n white-skinned
pobl groenwyn white people (croen = skin) + soft mutation + (gwyn = white)

12 in names expressing the idea of heaven, paradise

gwladwen heaven, paradise “white / blessed / fair land” (gwlad = country, land) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white / blessed / fair )

gwenwlad heaven, paradise (the same elements reversed)

gwynfa heaven, paradise

man gw’n man draw the grass is always greener on the other side of the fence (“(there is) (a) heavenly place (in the) place yonder”)
That is, people imagine that a better place or situation than there current one exists, but usually this is wishful thinking – a new place too will have its shortcomings, new circumstances will not be as perfect as imagined

gwynfan fair place; paradise (gwynn-, penult syllable form of gw’n = white, fair) + soft mutation + (man = place)

Street name
..a/ Gwynfan Rhosllannerchrugog, county of Wrecsam
..b/ Gwynfan Nant-y-caws, county of Caerfyrddin
..c/ “Gwynfan Place”, Merthyrtudful (the Welsh name for this street would be simply “Gwynfan” as in the two examples above)

gwenfro <GWEN-vro> [ˡgwɛnvrɔ] (f) (obsolete) fair land; paradise

13 Gw’n y gwźl y frān ei ch’w
“(it is) white that the crow sees her chick”
Mothers can never believe that their offspring may be less than honourable and angelic

14 formation of adjectives
(noun) + soft mutation + (gw’n). The noun may be either masculine or feminine

pen (m) (= head)
penw’n “white-headed” white-haired, fair-haired

ael
(f) (= brow)
aelw’n “white-headed” white-haired, fair-haired



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gwyn-
<GWIN>
-(masculine-noun)-
-man’s-name;-in-origin, the-first-element-of-names-such-as-Gwynoro, Gwynlliw, etc
[ˡgwɪn]

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gwyn
<GWIIN> [gwiːn]

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gwyn-
<GWIN>
-(adjective)
-white
[ˡgwɪn]
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gwyniau
<GWəN-ye> [ˡgwənjaɪ, -ɛ]

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gwyndai
<GWIN-dai>

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gwyndeg
<GWƏN-deg> [ˡgwəndɛg]
adj

Feminine form: gwendeg