Free counter and web stats A Welsh to English Dictionary in page format 09-08-2012

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Gwefan Cymru-Catalonia
La Web de Gal
les i Catalunya
The Wales-Catalonia Website

Y Gwe-eiriadur
An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English



1853e Ein llyfr ymwelwyr / OUR GUESTBOOK

Archwiliwch y wefan hon
Adeiladwaith y wefan
Beth sydd yn newydd?

(delw 7326)




























7000_kimkat1676e.jpgI, J, K









7000_kimkat1073e.jpgPL, Q







7000_kimkat1025e.jpgU, V

7000_kimkat1731e.jpgW, X

7000_kimkat1586e.jpgY, Z






-s - 

1 plural suffix - a borrowing from English 


(1) in the plural of English loanwords, in literary Welsh and in colloquial Welsh

..1/ gini, ginis = guinea, guineas (former English coin) 

..2/ stiwdio, stiwdios = studio


(2) in the plural of English loanwords, in colloquial Welsh (the loanword usually has a Welsh plural in literary Welsh)

..1/ lori, loris = lorry, lorries (literary Welsh: lori, lorau)


(3) It also appears in native words: in some dialects, the -s may be added to an existing plural form:

..1/ corc (= cork) > cyrc > cyrcs (= corks) 

..2/ fforc (= fork) > ffyrc > ffyrcs (= forks) 


(4) gŵr = man, gwŷr = men. As a suffix, this is -wr, and the plural form is -wyr. But colloquially -wrs is common.

..1/ capelwr (= chapel-goer), capelwyr > capelwrs (= chapel-goers)

..2/ gweithiwr (= worker), gweithwyr > gweithiwrs (= workers) - in south-east Wales as gwithwrs

..3/ pregethwr (= preacher), pregethwyr > pregethwrs (= preachers)

..4/ llwythwr (= loader), llwythwyr > llwythwrs (= loaders)

..5/ pysgotwr / sgotwr (= fisherman, angler), pysgotwyr / sgotwyr > pysgotwrs / sgotwrs (= fishermen)

..6/ bradwr (= traitor), bradwyr > bradwrs (= traitors)


(5) ci = dog, cŵn = dogs. As a suffix, this is -gi, and the plural form is -gwn. But colloquially there exists:

..1/ corgi (= type of cattle dog, corgi) > corgwn > corgwns

and in imitation of this 

..2/ tyrci (= turkey) > tyrcwn > tyrcwns 


(6) After surnames not ending in s 

Mae Dafydd Wigleys y byd yma yn rhai prin

The Dafydd Wigleys of this world are infrequent 


cf -us after s: Williams, Williamsus 


(Standard Welsh has iaid for pluralising surnames which stand by themselves  y Pyweliaid the Powells)


(7) some English borrowings ending in s have been misunderstood as plural forms, and a singular has been formed by removing the s. 


Examples are 

..1/ Japan ja-pa-ni (Japanese person), 

..2/ Tshein chei-ni (Chinese person) 


A similar process occurred in English with some borrowings from other languages:


...a/ CHERRY - from a French word

cherry < cerise; 


..b/ PEA  ultimately from Greek 

pea < pease < Old English peose < Latin pisa, plural of pisum, < Greek pison


..c/ SHERRY - from a Castilian word

sherry (from Xerz sherz an older form of the name Jrez, a town in Andalusia) 




s s

enclitic before consonants and vowels, representing : 


1 nid oes there isn't > does > s

Nid oes arnaf fi ei eisiau > Does arna i ddim o'i eisiau > S arna i mo'i ishe

I don't need it ("there isn't on me its necessity") 


Nid oes gennyf ddim syniad > Does gyda fi ddim syniad > Sda fi ddim syniad

I've no idea ("there isn't with me any idea") 


Nid oes neb yma > Sneb ma

There's nobody here 


Nid oes dim yn y byd yma > Sdim byd ma

There's nothing here at all


swybod ar y ddaear theres no knowing at all (theres no knowing on the earth) 


(Sefyllfa: Maer gof ar fin dychwelyd iw efail) "Well i mi roi'r troed gora mlaen'" ebe Huw, 'swybod ar y ddaear na fydd o wedi gweld i wyn ar rwbath os bydd o acw o mlaen i. Mae o'n meddwl fod pawb yn lladron, a lleidar weiddith lleidar gynta wyddoch 

Plant y Gorthrwm / 1908 / Gwyneth Vaughan (= Anne Harriet Hughes 1852-1910)


(Situation: The smith is about to go back to his smithy) Id better put my best foot forward, said Huw. Theres no knowing whether hell take a fancy to something if hes down there before me. He thinks that everybody is a thief, but a thief is always the first to accuse others of thieving (a thief shouts thief first)


2 os = if 

Os na ddaw ef cyn hir bydd hi'n nos > Sna ddaw e cyn hir fydd hi'n nos

if he doesn't come soon it'll be dark 


3 sydd = which is 

Beth yw hwnna sydd gennyt ti? > Beth yw hwnna sydd gyda ti? > Beth yw hwnna sda ti? 

What have you got there? ("what's that with you?") 


Pwy sydd wedi gadael hwnna? > Pwy sdi gadael hwnna? Who's left that? 


4 nes = until 

Chwerthinais nes fy mod i'n dost > Chwerthinais nes bod fi'n dost > Wyrthinas sbo fi'n dost I laughed until I was sore 


5 ers < er ys since + it is, 

ers llawer dydd > slawer dydd long ago ("since it is many a day") 

ers meityn iawn > smeityn iawn for a long time ("since it is + morning + very")


6 in certain place names (colloquial forms generally, but sometimes

official forms which are original colloquial forms) the s represents the final consonant of a lost

first element ynys (= island; meadow). 


Sometimes the first y of ynys has become a definite article in the reduced name



(delw 7402)


..1/ Cwm-ynys-gou / Cwm-ynys-gau, ST2899 in the county of Torfaen (cwm = valley, cou / cau = enclosed) ("(the) valley (of the) enclosed meadow") Spoken form: Cwm-sgou 


Misspelt as Cwmynyscoy on the Ordnance Survey map


..2/ Ynysforgan SS6799 ((the) meadow (of) Morgan = mans name) (county of Abertawe); spoken form Sforgan svor-gan


..3/ Ynysgedwyn ((the) meadow (of) Cedwyn = mans name) (county of Powys); spoken form Sgedwyn


..4/ Ynysgeti SS6292 ((the) meadow (of) Ceti / Cedi = ?person's name) (county of Abertawe); spoken form and official form Y Sgeti


..5/ Ynysgynwraidd SO4520  the English name of this place in the county of Mynwy is Skenfrith, which probably represents a local Welsh form *Sgenffridd sken-fridh (Welsh was finally eliminated from this area over a century ago) from *Sgynfridd skən-vridh.


..6/ Ynyshawdre SS8983 > Y Snawdra (Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)


..7/ Ynysmeudwy SO7304 ((the) meadow (of the) hermit) (county of Abertawe); spoken form Smitw < *Smeudwy


..8/ Ynystawe SN6800 ((the) meadow (by) (the river) Tawe) (county of Abertawe); spoken form Stawe sta-we


 ..9/ Ystalyfera SN7608


Originally Ynys Tal y Fera (1582 Ynys Tal y Veran, 1604 Tir Ynystalverran, 1797 Stalyfera Issa, Ycha, Genol [source: wikipedia, Ystalyfera])


7 in certain place names (colloquial forms generally, but sometimes

official forms which are original colloquial forms) the s represents the final consonant of other lost

element, besides ynys (= meadow)


..1/ is = below

Is Cregennan > Sgrogennan (old name of Llanddoged, SH8063, county of Conwy)


..2/ llys (= court)


Llyscleddau (court by the river Cleddau) spoken form Scledde




S, s es feminine noun

1 nineteenth letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet 

...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e, 6 f,, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z


2 twenty-third letter of the twenty-eight letter Welsh alphabet

...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e, 8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 r, 22 rh, 23 s, 24 t, 25 th, 26 u, 27 w, 28 y


3 abbreviation (1) swllt = shilling (2) stn = stone, 14 pounds, 6,148 kg 


4 in referring to a shape resembling a letter S

llinell ar ffurf y llythyren S a line in the form of a letter S 




saar  saar 

1 southern form of saer (= carpenter)

Usually spelt sr / sar

See aa 




sr  sr 

1 south-eastern form of saer (= carpenter)

Usually spelt (less correctly sr / sr

See aa / saar




saath  saath

1 southern form of saeth (= arrow)

Usually spelt sth / sath 

See aa




sth  sth

1 south-eastern form of saeth (= arrow)

Usually spelt (less correctly) sth / sth




Saboth, Sabothau SAA both, sa BOO the (masculine noun)

1 tor Saboth Sabbath breaking 

cadwr Saboth keep the Sabbath day 


ar ddydd y Saboth on the Sabbath day (i.e. every Sabbath day)

Nehemeia 13:19 A phan dywyllasai pyrth Jerwsalem cyn y Saboth, yr erchais gaur dorau, ac a orchmynnais nad agorid hwynt hyd wedir Saboth: a mi a osodais rai om gweision wrth y pyrth, fel na ddelai baich i mewn ar ddydd y Saboth. 

Nehemiah 13:19 And it came to pass, that when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the sabbath, I commanded that the gates should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened till after the sabbath: and some of my servants set I at the gates, that there should no burden be brought in on the sabbath day


amharchu'r Saboth show disrespect for the Sabbath

tor Saboth Sabbath breaking

torrir Saboth break the Sabbath




sach, sachau <SAAKH, SAA-khai, -e> [sɑːx, ˡˑxaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine or feminine noun)

1 sack

2 hel gwynt i sachau try to do the impossible (gather wind into sacks)


sachaid a sackful 

sachaid o a sackful of, a sack of

sacheidiau blawd sacks of flour

sacheidiau o flawd sacks of flour



sach hesian hessian sack 

sach jiwt jute sack

sach plastig / sach blastig plastic sack 



sach tatws / sach datws potato sack 

sach gwln / sach wln wool sack


Y Sach Ŵlan the sack (of) wool. Folk tune name mentioned in The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine and Celtic Repertory (1830). English name appended: The Woolsack


sach cysgu / sach gysgu sleeping bag 


gwaelod y sach the bottom of the sack

yng ngwaelod y sach at the bottom of the sack

tin y sach the bottom of the sack

yn nhin y sach at the bottom of the sack


genaur sach the mouth of the sack

yng ngenaur sach mae cynilo blawd be sparing with flour every time and it will last longer 

((it is) in the mouth of the sack that-is (the) saving (of) flour) 




sachabwndi <sa-kha-BUN-di> [saˡxabʊndɪ] masculine noun

1 bundle 


2 shapeless mass 


3 (South-west Wales) Mae e fel sachabwndi He looks a right scruff 


ETYMOLOGY: apparently based on sachbwn (= pack, bundle, bale) 

< (sach = sack) + soft mutation + (pwn = pack, bundle) 



1 sach chi = fe fuasech chi <SA-khi> [ˡsaxɪ] (verb)

you'd be



2 sach chi = pe tasech chi <SA-khi> [ˡsaxɪ] (verb)

1 if you were




sach cysgu, sachau cysgu <saakh KƏ-ski, saa-khai, -e, KƏ-ski> [sɑːx ˡkəskɪ, sɑˑxaɪ, -ɛ, ˡkəskɪ] (masculine noun)

1 sleeping bag 

Also: (as a feminine noun) sach gysgu




sa chi <SA-khi> [ˡsaxɪ]

1 see: sech chi





1 abbreviation = Sacsoneg 




Sacsoneg <sak-SOO-neg> [sakˡsoˑnɛg] feminine noun

1 Saxon 


y Sacsoneg the Saxon language

Abbreviation: Sacs. 


ETYMOLOGY: (Sacson = Saxon) + (-eg suffix for forming a noun or adjective indicating a language or dialect)




Sadwrn <SAA-durn> [ˡˑdʊrn] (masculine noun)

1 Saturday




Sadyrnin <sa-DƏR-nin> [saˡdərnɪn] (masculine noun)

1 name of a Celtic saint




saer <SAIR> [saɪr] masculine noun

PLURAL seiri <SEI-ri> [ˡsəɪrɪ]

1 craftsman 


2 craftsman / craftswoman defined by the material with which he / she works

..1/ saer coed carpenter (often simply saer) 

..2/ saer gwyn tinman, tin worker (white craftsman, craftsman working with the white metal, tin) 

..3/ saer maen stonemason 


3 saer alone is often for saer coed = carpenter 

siop saer (South Wales: siop saar, South-east Wales: siop sr carpenters shop, workshop of a carpenter)


4 craftsman / craftswoman defined by the objects produced 

..1/ saer cadeiriau chairmaker


..2/ saer celfi (South Wales) cabinetmaker 


..3/ saer cerbydau carriage builder, coach builder; person who builds bodies of cars, lorries, railway cars (Englandic: carriages), etc 


..4/ saer cychod boat builder


..5/ saer dodrefn (North Wales) cabinetmaker 


..6/ saer troliau cartwright 


5 pensaer architect (main craftsman) 


6 saer rhydd freemason = member of a secret order founded in London in 1717 pledged to aid fellow members 


7 Saeran obsolete mans name (saer + diminutive suffix an)


ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic < Indoeuropean *sapero-

From the same British root: Cornish ser (= craftsman); the word is not found in Breton


From the same Celtic root in the Hibernian languages: Irish saor (= craftsman, carpenter, mason), Scottish saor (= craftsman, carpenter, mason). 


Occurs in the following surnames meaning son of the carpenter in the Hibernian languages: 

(1) Mac an tSaoir (Irish) (anglicised as Macateer), 

(2) Mac an t-Saoir (Scottish) (anglicised as MacIntyre) 


NOTE: in South Wales, ae > aa in many monosyllables. Hence saar (rhymes with English far away  i.e. the final r is pronounced) 


In the south-east, aa > . Hence sr (as in English hairy, share out, wear and tear) 




saer coed, seiri coed <sair KOID, SEI-ri KOID> [saɪr ˡkɔɪd, ˡsəɪrɪ ˡkɔɪd] (masculine noun)

1 carpenter




saer maen, seiri maen <sair MAIN, SEI-ri MAIN> [saɪr ˡmaɪn, ˡsəɪrɪ ˡmaɪn] (masculine noun)

1 stone mason 




saer rhydd sair trol-ye hriidh masculine noun

PLURAL seiri rhyddion sei-ri hriidh

1 freemason = member of a secret order founded in London in 1717 pledged to aid fellow members

Neuadd Seiri Rhyddion a Masonic Hall

Neuadd y Seiri Rhyddion the Masonic Hall

Cyfrinfa Seiri Rhyddion a Masonic Lodge

Cyfrinfa'r Seiri Rhyddion the Masonic Lodge 


ETYMOLOGY: (saer = craftsman) + (rhydd = free) 




saer troliau sair trol-ye masculine noun

PLURAL seiri troliau sei-ri trol-ye

1 cartwright


ETYMOLOGY: (saer = craftsman) + (troliau = carts)




saeryddiaeth rydd sei-rədh-yeth riidh 

1 Freemasonry 


ETYMOLOGY: (saeryddiaeth = masonry) + soft mutation + (rhydd = free)




..1 Saesneg SEI sneg (feminine noun)

1 English language

2 Doedd ganddi ddim Saesneg 

She couldnt speak English (there wasnt with her any English, she had no English) 




..2 Saesneg seis-neg adjective 

1 English-speaking

2 English-speaking = (territory) having English as its language


Sir Benfro Saesneg ((the) English-speaking (part of) (the) county (of) Penfro) the south of the county of Penfro, popularly known in English as Little England Beyond Wales . Here around the year 1108 the native Welsh were displaced by Flemings, who later adopted the English language. 


2 Maelor Saesneg medieval division ('cwmwd') of the country (gwlad) of Powys 

(the part of the district called) Maelor (which is) English-speaking / inhabited by English people / follows English law and customs




Saesnes, Saesnesau SEI snes, sei SNE se (feminine noun)

1 Englishwoman

2 anglicised Welshwoman




Saeson SEI son (plural noun)

1 Englishmen, English people (literally Saxons). Plural of Sais (qv)


y Saeson the English, the Engish people 




saeth, saethau SAITH, SEI the (feminine noun)

1 arrow = missile shot from a bow 

gollwng saeth loose an arrow, let off an arrow 


2 cyn sythed  saeth as straight as an arrow, as straight as a ramrod 

mor gymwys  saeth as straight as an arrow, as straight as a ramrod

mor union  saeth as straight as an arrow, as straight as a ramrod

yn syth fel saeth as straight as an arrow, as straight as a ramrod 




saethwriaeth sei- thur -yeth feminine noun

1 marksmanship

2 saethwriaeth  reiffl riflery, marksmanship with a rifle


ETYMOLOGY: (saethwr = person who shoots, marksman) + (-i-aeth suffix)




sa fe SA ve (verb)

1 see: se fe




saffari sa-f-ri masculine or feminine noun 

PLURAL saffarau sa-fa-r-e

1 safari = hunting expedition 

mynd ar saffari to go on safari, to safari

siwt saffari safari suit 


ETYMOLOGY: < English safari < Swahili safari (= journey) < Arabic safariiya < safara (= to travel) 




saffrwm sa -frum masculine noun

1 (plant) saffron = type of crocus with purple flowers 

2 (flavouring) saffron 

3 (dye) saffron 

4 lliw saffrwm saffron (in describing the colour of something); bright yellow ((the) colour (of) saffron) 


ETYMOLOGY: English saffron < medieval Latin safrn-um (= saffron) < Arabic za'farn (= saffron) 


Cf Arabic asfar (= yellow) (> Urdu asfar = yellow) 


NOTE: also with a final n, as saffrwn 




saf saav masculine noun

1 (in compound forms) standing, standpoint 

heulsaf solstice 

gorsaf station




safadwy  sa- va -dui 

1 still, firm, standing, fixed

gwyliau safadwy a symudol fixed and moveable feasts 


ETYMOLOGY: (saf- stem of sefyll = stand, be situated) + (-adwy adjectival suffix equivalent to English -able)




safle, safleoedd SAV-le, sav-LEE-oidh, -odh (masculine noun)

1 site

2 safle lansio launching pad




safn, safnau SAA-van, SAV-nai, -e (feminine noun)

1 mouth of an animal

2 safn angau the jaws of death ((the) mouth (of) death)

3 ravine




safon, safonau SAA-von, sa-VOO-nai, -e (masculine noun)

1 level, standard




safoni sa-v-ni verb

1 standardise, make standard 


ETYMOLOGY: (safon = standard) + (-i suffix for forming verbs)




safri  sav -ri feminine noun

1 savory / savoury (Satureja hortensis)

safri fach (Satureja hortensis) 


ETYMOLOGY: English savoury < French savour (= savoured) < savourer (= to savour) < Latin sapor (= taste) < sapere (= to taste) 

The herb is sarriette in modern French




sa hi SA hi (verb)

1 see: se hi




saif saiv verb

1 it stands, it is standing (third person present-future indicative of sefyll = to stand) 


Salmau 24:3 Pwy a esgyn i fynydd yr ARGLWYDD? a phwy a saif yn ei le sanctaidd ef? 

Psalms 24:3 Who shall ascend into the hill of the LORD? or who shall stand in his holy place?


Daniel 2:44 Ac yn nyddiau y brenhinoedd hyn, y cyfyd Duw y nefoedd frenhiniaeth, yr hon ni ddistrywir byth: a'r frenhiniaeth ni adewir i bobl eraill; ond hi a faluria ac a dreulia yr holl freniniaethau hyn, a hi a saif yn dragwydd.

Daniel 2:44 And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever. 


Pwy a saif gyda ni? Who will stand with us? (= who will take our side in the fight / dispute / battle?; wholl take our side?) 


3 stands = it is situated 

Saif hen blasdy y Pritshardiaid, sef y Collena, yn nhghanol maesydd eang gwyrddion, ar war Tonyrefail. 

The old mansion of the Prichards, the Collena, stands in the middle of wide green fields, above Tonyrefail




saig SAIG feminine noun

PLURAL seigiau SEIG-yai, -ye


Diminutive form: seigen SEIG-en

1 a dish of food


saig o fwyd a plate of food


Hebreiaid 12:16 Na bu un puteiniwr, neu halogedig, megis Esau, yr hwn am un saig o fwyd a werthodd ei enedigaeth-fraint

Hebrews 12:16 Lest there be any fornicator, or profane person, as Esau, who for one morsel of meat sold his birthright.


2 course in meal


3 meal, feast


4 (South-east) seigen, sigan a lump of butter


5 (South-west) saig and seigen a little pile of cow-dung


ar ei saig (obsolete) at dinner with him, having dinner with him


ar saig y brenin (obsolete) at dinner with the king, having dinner with the king 






sail sail  feminine noun

PLURAL seiliau seil -ye

1 basis = foundation 


2 seiliau = foundations of a house 

gosod seiliau bloc swydfydd put down the foundations for a block of flats 


3 seiliau site of an old house 

Capel Soar a saif heddiw ar seiliau ei hen gartref Tŷr Clwtwr - hanner ffordd i fynyr bryn o groesffordd Tonysguboriau i dref Llantrisant

Soar Chapel stands today on the site of his old home Tŷr Clwtwr - halfway up the hill from the Tonysguboriau crossroads to the town of Llantrisant 


4 gosail runner of a sledge

(go- prefix = under) + (sail = base) 


5 di-sail groundless, without any basis in fact, false 

honiad si-sail groundless assertion, groundless accusation 

son di-sail unfounded rumours 

(di- privative prefix, without) + (sail = foundation, basis)


ETYMOLOGY: British < Latin *solia < solea (= sandal), related to solum (= ground) 




sain, seiniau SAIN, SEIN ye (masculine noun)

1 sound = auditory effect 


2 sound (relayed mechanically) 

sain ddeialu dialling tone, sound showing a line is clear


3 volume, loudness 

codir sain turn up the sound / the volume

rheolydd sain sound control, knob etc for raising and lowering the volume on a radio, etc 

Colloquially: bwlyn sain (North Wales), nobyn sain (South Wales)


4 sustem sain public address system 


5 clychsain chime

(clych ə = penult form of clych i = bells) + (sain = sound)




sain sain  prefix

1 (place names) saint (before the name of a saint, usually in newer dedications with non-Celtic saints) 

Llan-sain-sir / Sain Nicolas / Sain Pedr / Sain Pedrog / Sain Pŷr / Sain Silian / Sain Siorys / Sain Tathan / Sain Tomos 


ETYMOLOGY: See saint 




Sain Dunwyd sain di -nuid 

1 (SS9368) locality in the county of Bro Morgannwg (South-east Wales) 

English name: Saint Donat's 


2 a parish at this place 

(1961) Population: 60, Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 7%

(1971) Population: 435, Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 2%




Sain Ffagan sain fa-gan 

1 (ST1277) locality in the county of Caer-dydd 

English name: St. Fagans 


2 a parish at this place 

(1961) Population: 251, Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 13%

(1971) Population: 1,050, Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 11% 

3 short for: Amgueddfa Werin Cymru, (the Museum of Welsh Life (formerly Welsh Folk Museum), which is situated here ) 

Staff newydd Sain Ffagan the new staff in the Sain Ffagan museum 


4 Agueddfa Werin Cymru, the Museum of Welsh Life (formerly Welsh Folk Museum), which is situated here 




Sain Ffred sain freed feminine noun 

1 SM8010 church and locality in the county of Penfro 

2 a parish at this place 


ETYMOLOGY: form of Sant Braid = saint Brd 

NOTE: Since Ffred is a monosyllable, with a single final consonant d