06-04-2017 A Welsh to English Dictionary in page format

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bbb7000_kimkat1580e-A A


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bbb7000_kimkat1039e-B B

bbb7000_kimkat1735e-BR BR

bbb7000_kimkat1018e-C C

bbb7000_kimkat1071e-CE CE

bbb7000_kimkat1675e-CI CI


bbb7000_kimkat1040e_CR CR


bbb7000_kimkat1075e_CY CY

bbb7000_kimkat1020e-D D

bbb7000_kimkat1674e-DI DI

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bbb7000_kimkat1021e_G G


bbb7000_kimkat1042e_GW GW


bbb7000_kimkat2902e-GWI GWI



bbb7000_kimkat1676e-I I, J, K

bbb7000_kimkat1865e-L L

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bbb7000_kimkat1677e-MI MI


bbb7000_kimkat1047e_N N


bbb7000_kimkat1600e-O O

bbb7000_kimkat1023e_P P

bbb7000_kimkat1073e-PL PL, Q

bbb7000_kimkat1026e_R R

bbb7000_kimkat1070e-S S

bbb7000_kimkat1024e_T T


bbb7000_kimkat1076e-TR TR


bbb7000_kimkat1025e_U U, V

bbb7000_kimkat1731e-W W, X

bbb7000_kimkat1586e-Y Y, Z




-s -
1 plural suffix - a borrowing from English
(1) in the plural of English loanwords, in literary Welsh and in colloquial Welsh
..1/ gini, ginis = guinea, guineas (former English coin)
..2/ stiwdio, stiwdios = studio
(2) in the plural of English loanwords, in colloquial Welsh (the loanword usually has a Welsh plural in literary Welsh)
..1/ lori, loris = lorry, lorries (literary Welsh: lori, lorïau)
(3) It also appears in native words: in some dialects, the -s may be added to an existing plural form:
..1/ corc (= cork) > cyrc > cyrcs (= corks)
..2/ fforc (= fork) > ffyrc > ffyrcs (= forks)
(4) gŵr = man, gwŷr = men. As a suffix, this is -wr, and the plural form is -wyr. But colloquially -wrs is common.
..1/ capelwr (= chapel-goer), capelwyr > capelwrs (= chapel-goers)
..2/ ffarmwr (= farmer), ffarmwyr > ffarmwrs (= farmers)
..3/ gweithiwr (= worker), gweithwyr > gweithiwrs (= workers) - in south-east Wales as gwithwrs
..4/ pregethwr (= preacher), pregethwyr > pregethwrs (= preachers)
..5/ llwythwr (= loader), llwythwyr > llwythwrs (= loaders)
..6/ pysgotwr / sgotwr (= fisherman, angler), pysgotwyr / sgotwyr > pysgotwrs / sgotwrs (= fishermen)
..7/ bradwr (= traitor), bradwyr > bradwrs (= traitors)
(5) ci = dog, cŵn = dogs. As a suffix, this is -gi, and the plural form is -gwn. But colloquially there exists:
..1/ corgi (= type of cattle dog, corgi) > corgwn > corgwns
and in imitation of this
..2/ tyrci (= turkey) > tyrcwn > tyrcwns
(6) After surnames not ending in –s
Mae Dafydd Wigleys y byd yma yn rhai prin
The Dafydd Wigleys of this world are infrequent
cf -us after –s: Williams, Williamsus
(Standard Welsh has –iaid for pluralising surnames which stand by themselves – y Pyweliaid the Powells)
(7) some English borrowings ending in ‘s’ have been misunderstood as plural forms, and a singular has been formed by removing the –s.
Examples are
..1/ Japaní ‹ja-pa-ni (Japanese person),
..2/ Tsheiní ‹chei-ni (Chinese person)
A similar process occurred in English with some borrowings from other languages:
...a/ CHERRY - from a French word
cherry < cerise;
..b/ PEA – ultimately from Greek
pea < pease < Old English peose < Latin pisa, plural of pisum, < Greek pison
..c/ SHERRY - from a Castilian word
sherry (from Xeréz ‹sheréz› an older form of the name Jérez, a town in Andalusia)
s s
enclitic before consonants and vowels, representing :
1 nid oes there isn't > does > s
Nid oes arnaf fi ei eisiau > Does arna i ddim o'i eisiau > ’S arna i mo'i ishe
I don't need it ("there isn't on me its necessity")
Nid oes gennyf ddim syniad > Does gyda fi ddim syniad > ’Sda fi ddim syniad
I've no idea ("there isn't with me any idea")
Nid oes neb yma > ’Sneb ma
There's nobody here
Nid oes dim yn y byd yma > ’Sdim byd ma
There's nothing here at all
’swybod ar y ddaear there’s no knowing at all (“there’s no knowing on the earth”)
(Sefyllfa: Mae’r gof ar fin dychwelyd i’w efail) "Well i mi roi'r troed gora mlaen'" ebe Huw, 'swybod ar y ddaear na fydd o wedi gweld i wyn ar rwbath os bydd o acw o mlaen i. Mae o'n meddwl fod pawb yn lladron, a lleidar weiddith lleidar gynta wyddoch
Plant y Gorthrwm / 1908 / Gwyneth Vaughan (= Anne Harriet Hughes 1852-1910)
(Situation: The smith is about to go back to his smithy) “I’d better put my best foot forward,” said Huw. There’s no knowing whether he’ll take a fancy to something if he’s down there before me. He thinks that everybody is a thief, but a thief is always the first to accuse others of thieving (“a thief shouts thief first”)
2 os = if
Os na ddaw ef cyn hir bydd hi'n nos > ’Sna ddaw e cyn hir fydd hi'n nos
if he doesn't come soon it'll be dark
3 sydd = which is
Beth yw hwnna sydd gennyt ti? > Beth yw hwnna sydd gyda ti? > Beth yw hwnna sda ti?
What have you got there? ("what's that with you?")
Pwy sydd wedi gadael hwnna? > Pwy sdi gadael hwnna? Who's left that?
4 nes = until
Chwerthinais nes fy mod i'n dost > Chwerthinais nes bod fi'n dost > Wyrthinas sbo fi'n dost I laughed until I was sore
5 ers < er ys since + it is,
ers llawer dydd > slawer dydd long ago ("since it is many a day")
ers meityn iawn > smeityn iawn for a long time ("since it is + morning + very")
6 in certain place names (colloquial forms generally, but sometimes
official forms which are original colloquial forms) the s represents the final consonant of a lost
first element ynys (= island; meadow).
Sometimes the first y of ynys has become a definite article in the reduced name
(delwedd 7402)
..1/ Cwm-ynys-gou / Cwm-ynys-gau, ST2899 in the county of Torfaen (cwm = valley, cou / cau = enclosed) ("(the) valley (of the) enclosed meadow") Spoken form: Cwm-sgou
Misspelt as Cwmynyscoy on the Ordnance Survey map
..2/ Ynysforgan SS6799 (“(the) meadow (of) Morgan = man’s name”) (county of Abertawe); spoken form Sforgan <SVOR-gan> [ˡsvɔrgan]
..3/ Ynysgedwyn (“(the) meadow (of) Cedwyn = man’s name”) (county of Powys); spoken form Sgedwyn
..4/ Ynysgeti SS6292 (“(the) meadow (of) Ceti / Cedi” = ?person's name) (county of Abertawe); spoken form and official form Y Sgeti
..5/ Ynysgynwraidd SO4520 the English name of this place in the county of Mynwy is Skenfrith, which probably represents a local Welsh form *Sgenffridd sken-fridh› (Welsh was finally eliminated from this area over a century ago) from *Sgynfridd skən-vridh›.
..6/ Ynyshawdre SS8983 > Y Snawdra (Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
..7/ Ynysmeudwy SO7304 (“(the) meadow (of the) hermit”) (county of Abertawe); spoken form Smitw < *Smeudwy
..8/ Ynystawe SN6800 (“(the) meadow (by) (the river) Tawe”) (county of Abertawe); spoken form Stawe sta-we›
 ..9/ Ystalyfera SN7608
Originally Ynys Tal y Fera (1582 Ynys Tal y Veran, 1604 Tir Ynystalverran, 1797 Stalyfera Issa, Ycha, Genol [source: wikipedia, “Ystalyfera”])
7 in certain place names (colloquial forms generally, but sometimes official forms which are original colloquial forms) the s represents the final consonant of other lost
element, besides ynys (= meadow)
..1/ is = below
Is Cregennan > Sgrogennan (old name of Llanddoged, SH8063, county of Conwy)
..2/ llys (= court)
Llyscleddau (“court by the river Cleddau”) spoken form Scledde
S, s es feminine noun
1 nineteenth letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e, 6 f,, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z
2 twenty-third letter of the twenty-eight letter Welsh alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e, 8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 r, 22 rh, 23 s, 24 t, 25 th, 26 u, 27 w, 28 y
3 abbreviation (1) swllt = shilling (2) stôn = stone, 14 pounds, 6,148 kg
4 in referring to a shape resembling a letter S
llinell ar ffurf y llythyren S a line in the form of a letter S
saar saar
1 southern form of saer (= carpenter)
Usually spelt sâr / sa’r
See aa
säär säär
1 south-eastern form of saer (= carpenter)
Usually spelt (less correctly sêr / sær
See aa / saar
saath ‹ çsaath
1 southern form of saeth (= arrow)
Usually spelt sâth / sa’th
See aa
sääth ‹ çsääth
1 south-eastern form of saeth (= arrow)
Usually spelt (less correctly) sêth / sæth
Saboth, Sabothau ‹SAA both, sa BOO the› (masculine noun)
1 tor Saboth Sabbath breaking
cadw’r Saboth keep the Sabbath day
ar ddydd y Saboth on the Sabbath day (i.e. every Sabbath day)
Nehemeia 13:19 A phan dywyllasai pyrth Jerwsalem cyn y Saboth, yr erchais gau’r dorau, ac a orchmynnais nad agorid hwynt hyd wedi’r Saboth: a mi a osodais rai o’m gweision wrth y pyrth, fel na ddelai baich i mewn ar ddydd y Saboth.
Nehemiah 13:19 And it came to pass, that when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the sabbath, I commanded that the gates should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened till after the sabbath: and some of my servants set I at the gates, that there should no burden be brought in on the sabbath day
amharchu'r Saboth show disrespect for the Sabbath
tor Saboth Sabbath breaking
torri’r Saboth break the Sabbath
sach, sachau <SAAKH, SAA-khai, -e> [sɑːx, ˡsɑˑxaɪ, -ɛ] (masculine or feminine noun)
1 sack
2 hel gwynt i sachau try to do the impossible (“gather wind into sacks”)
sachaid a sackful
sachaid o a sackful of, a sack of
sacheidiau blawd sacks of flour
sacheidiau o flawd sacks of flour
sach hesian hessian sack
sach jiwt jute sack
sach plastig / sach blastig plastic sack
sach tatws / sach datws potato sack
sach gwlân / sach wlân wool sack
Y Sach Ŵlan “the sack (of) wool”. Folk tune name mentioned in “The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine and Celtic Repertory” (1830). English name appended: The Woolsack
sach cysgu / sach gysgu sleeping bag
gwaelod y sach the bottom of the sack
yng ngwaelod y sach at the bottom of the sack
tin y sach the bottom of the sack
yn nhin y sach at the bottom of the sack
genau’r sach the mouth of the sack
yng ngenau’r sach mae cynilo blawd be sparing with flour every time and it will last longer, if you are never wasteful from the start you will not suddenly find yourself short of something
(“(it is) in the mouth of the sack that-is (the) saving (of) flour”)
sachabwndi <sa-kha-BUN-di> [saˡxabʊndɪ] masculine noun
1 bundle
2 shapeless mass
3 (South-west Wales) Mae e fel sachabwndi He looks a right scruff
ETYMOLOGY: apparently based on sachbwn (= pack, bundle, bale)
< (sach = sack) + soft mutation + (pwn = pack, bundle)
1 sach chi = fe fuasech chi <SA-khi> [ˡsaxɪ] (verb)
you'd be
2 sach chi = pe tasech chi <SA-khi> [ˡsaxɪ] (verb)
1 if you were
sach cysgu, sachau cysgu <saakh KƏ-ski, saa-khai, -e, KƏ-ski> [sɑːx ˡkəskɪ, sɑˑxaɪ, -ɛ, ˡkəskɪ] (masculine noun)
1 sleeping bag
Also: (as a feminine noun) sach gysgu
sa chi <SA-khi> [ˡsaxɪ]
1 see: sech chi
1 abbreviation = Sacsoneg
Sacsoneg <sak-SOO-neg> [sakˡsoˑnɛg] feminine noun
1 Saxon
y Sacsoneg the Saxon language
Abbreviation: Sacs.
ETYMOLOGY: (Sacson = Saxon) + (-eg suffix for forming a noun or adjective indicating a language or dialect)
Sadwrn <SAA-durn> [ˡsɑˑdʊrn] (masculine noun)
1 Saturday
dydd Sadwrn Saturday
ddydd Sadwrn (adv) on Saturday
nos Sadwrn Saturday evening, Saturday night
nos Sadwrn (adv) on Saturday evening, on Saturday night
Sadyrnin <sa-DƏR-nin> [saˡdərnɪn] (masculine noun)
1 name of a Celtic saint
saer <SAIR> [saɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL seiri <SEI-ri> [ˡsəɪrɪ]
1 craftsman
2 craftsman / craftswoman defined by the material with which he / she works
..1/ saer coed carpenter (often simply saer)
..2/ saer gwyn tinman, tin worker (“white craftsman”, craftsman working with the white metal, tin)
..3/ saer maen stonemason
3 saer alone is often for saer coed = carpenter
siop saer (South Wales: siop saar, South-east Wales: siop säär carpenter’s shop, workshop of a carpenter)
4 craftsman / craftswoman defined by the objects produced
..1/ saer cadeiriau chairmaker
..2/ saer celfi (South Wales) cabinetmaker
..3/ saer cerbydau carriage builder, coach builder; person who builds bodies of cars, lorries, railway cars (Englandic: carriages), etc
..4/ saer cychod boat builder
..5/ saer dodrefn (North Wales) cabinetmaker
..6/ saer troliau cartwright
5 pensaer architect (‘main craftsman’)
6 saer rhydd freemason = member of a secret order founded in London in 1717 pledged to aid fellow members
7 Saeran obsolete man’s name (saer + diminutive suffix –an)
ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic < Indoeuropean *sapero-
From the same British root: Cornish ser (= craftsman); the word is not found in Breton
From the same Celtic root in the Hibernian languages: Irish saor (= craftsman, carpenter, mason), Scottish saor (= craftsman, carpenter, mason).
Occurs in the following surnames meaning “son of the carpenter” in the Hibernian languages:
(1) Mac an tSaoir (Irish) (anglicised as Macateer),
(2) Mac an t-Saoir (Scottish) (anglicised as MacIntyre)
NOTE: in South Wales, ae > aa in many monosyllables. Hence saar (rhymes with English ‘far away’ – i.e. the final ‘r’ is pronounced)
In the south-east, aa > ää. Hence säär (as in English ‘hairy’, ‘share out’, ‘wear and tear’)
saer coed, seiri coed <sair KOID, SEI-ri KOID> [saɪr ˡkɔɪd, ˡsəɪrɪ ˡkɔɪd] (masculine noun)
1 carpenter
saer maen, seiri maen <sair MAIN, SEI-ri MAIN> [saɪr ˡmaɪn, ˡsəɪrɪ ˡmaɪn] (masculine noun)
1 stone mason
saer rhydd ‹sair trol-ye hriidh masculine noun
PLURAL seiri rhyddion sei-ri hriidh
1 freemason = member of a secret order founded in London in 1717 pledged to aid fellow members
Neuadd Seiri Rhyddion a Masonic Hall
Neuadd y Seiri Rhyddion the Masonic Hall
Cyfrinfa Seiri Rhyddion a Masonic Lodge
Cyfrinfa'r Seiri Rhyddion the Masonic Lodge
ETYMOLOGY: (saer = craftsman) + (rhydd = free)
saer troliau ‹sair trol-ye› masculine noun
PLURAL seiri troliau sei-ri trol-ye›
1 cartwright
ETYMOLOGY: (saer = craftsman) + (troliau = carts)
saeryddiaeth rydd ‹sei-rədh-yeth riidh
1 Freemasonry
ETYMOLOGY: (saeryddiaeth = masonry) + soft mutation + (rhydd = free)
..1 Saesneg ‹SEI sneg› (feminine noun)
1 English language
2 Doedd ganddi ddim Saesneg
She couldn’t speak English (“there wasn’t with her any English”, she had no English)
dim Saesneg no English
NOTE:  [ Olde Cheshire Dialecte.
dyn sassnach : a Welsh phrase meaning “I don’t understand” ]
..2 Saesneg seis-neg› adjective
1 English-speaking
2 English-speaking = (territory) having English as its language
Sir Benfro Saesneg (“(the) English-speaking (part of) (the) county (of) Penfro”) the south of the county of Penfro, popularly known in English as “Little England Beyond Wales” . Here around the year 1108 the native Welsh were displaced by Flemings, who later adopted the English language.
2 Maelor Saesneg medieval division (kúmmud / cwmwd) of the country (‘gwlad’) of Powys
“(the part of the district called) Maelor (which is) English-speaking”.
Map: Powys Isaf as it was on the division of Powys into two (Powys Isaf / Powys Uchaf) on the death of Madog ap Maredudd in 1160;
Powys Isaf was the part inherited by his son Gruffudd I ap Madog / Gruffudd Maelor I. The rest – Powys Uchaf - went to his cousin Owain Cyfeiliog)
(delwedd 7453)
The kántrevs of Maelor and Iâl made up Powys Isaf, which later became (with the addition of lands to the south) Powys Fadog, in north-east Wales. (In 1191, after the death of Gruffudd 1 (Gruffudd Maelor), when it was inherited by his son Madog 1 ap Gruffudd)
The kántrev of Maelor was divided into the two kúmmuds of Maelor Gymraeg and Maelor Saesneg around 1202, with Afon Dyfrdwy / the River Dee forming the boundary between them.
(delwedd 7614
Saesnes, Saesnesau ‹SEI snes, sei SNE se› (feminine noun)
1 Englishwoman
2 anglicised Welshwoman
Saeson ‹SEI son› (plural noun)
1 Englishmen, English people (literally “Saxons”). Plural of Sais (qv)
y Saeson the English, the Engish people
saeth, saethau ‹SAITH, SEI the› (feminine noun)
1 arrow = missile shot from a bow
gollwng saeth loose an arrow, let off an arrow
2 cyn sythed â saeth as straight as an arrow, as straight as a ramrod
mor gymwys â saeth as straight as an arrow, as straight as a ramrod
mor union â saeth as straight as an arrow, as straight as a ramrod
yn syth fel saeth as straight as an arrow, as straight as a ramrod
saethwriaeth ‹sei- thur -yeth› feminine noun
1 marksmanship
2 saethwriaeth â reiffl riflery, marksmanship with a rifle
ETYMOLOGY: (saethwr = person who shoots, marksman) + (-i-aeth suffix)
sa fe ‹SA ve› (verb)
1 see: se fe
saffari ‹sa--ri› masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL saffarïau ‹sa-fa--e›
1 safari = hunting expedition
mynd ar saffari to go on safari, to safari
siwt saffari safari suit
ETYMOLOGY: < English safari < Swahili safari (= journey) < Arabic safariiya < safara (= to travel)
saffrwm sa -frum› masculine noun
1 (plant) saffron = type of crocus with purple flowers
2 (flavouring) saffron
3 (dye) saffron
4 lliw saffrwm saffron (in describing the colour of something); bright yellow (“(the) colour (of) saffron”)
ETYMOLOGY: English saffron < medieval Latin safrân-um (= saffron) < Arabic za'farân (= saffron)
Cf Arabic asfar (= yellow) (> Urdu asfar = yellow)
Final n > m: botwm (= button), cotwm (= cotton), Y Trallwm (local form of the place name Y Trallwng) (Trallwm < Trallwn < Trallwng;)
NOTE: Also with a final n, as saffrwn
saf ‹saav› masculine noun
1 (in compound forms) standing, standpoint
heulsaf solstice
gorsaf station
safadwy ‹ sa- va -dui›
1 still, firm, standing, fixed
gwyliau safadwy a symudol fixed and moveable feasts
ETYMOLOGY: (saf- stem of sefyll = stand, be situated) + (-adwy adjectival suffix equivalent to English ‘-able’)
safle, safleoedd ‹SAV-le, sav-LEE-oidh, -odh› (masculine noun)
1 site
2 safle lansio launching pad
safn, safnau ‹SAA-van, SAV-nai, -e› (feminine noun)
1 mouth of an animal
2 safn angau the jaws of death (“(the) mouth (of) death”)
3 ravine
safon, safonau ‹SAA-von, sa-VOO-nai, -e› (masculine noun)
1 level, standard
safoni ‹sa--ni› verb
1 standardise, make standard
ETYMOLOGY: (safon = standard) + (-i suffix for forming verbs)
safri sav -ri› feminine noun
1 savory / savoury (Satureja hortensis)
safri fach (Satureja hortensis)
ETYMOLOGY: English savoury < French savouré (= savoured) < savourer (= to savour) < Latin sapor (= taste) < sapere (= to taste)
The herb is sarriette in modern French
sa hi ‹SA hi› (verb)
1 see: se hi
saif saiv verb
1 it stands, it is standing (third person present-future indicative of sefyll = to stand)
Salmau 24:3 Pwy a esgyn i fynydd yr ARGLWYDD? a phwy a saif yn ei le sanctaidd ef?
Psalms 24:3 Who shall ascend into the hill of the LORD? or who shall stand in his holy place?
Daniel 2:44 Ac yn nyddiau y brenhinoedd hyn, y cyfyd Duw y nefoedd frenhiniaeth, yr hon ni ddistrywir byth: a'r frenhiniaeth ni adewir i bobl eraill; ond hi a faluria ac a dreulia yr holl freniniaethau hyn, a hi a saif yn dragwydd.
Daniel 2:44 And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.
Pwy a saif gyda ni? Who will stand with us? (= who will take our side in the fight / dispute / battle?; who’ll take our side?)
3 stands = it is situated
Saif hen blasdy y Pritshardiaid, sef y Collena, yn nhghanol maesydd eang gwyrddion, ar war Tonyrefail.
The old mansion of the Prichards, the Collena, stands in the middle of wide green fields, above Tonyrefail
saig SAIG feminine noun
PLURAL seigiau SEIG-yai, -ye
Diminutive form: seigen SEIG-en
1 a dish of food
saig o fwyd a plate of food
Hebreiaid 12:16 Na bu un puteiniwr, neu halogedig, megis Esau, yr hwn am un saig o fwyd a werthodd ei enedigaeth-fraint
Hebrews 12:16 Lest there be any fornicator, or profane person, as Esau, who for one morsel of meat sold his birthright.
2 course in meal
3 meal, feast
4 (South-east) seigen, “sigan” a lump of butter
5 (South-west) saig and seigen a little pile of cow-dung
ar ei saig (obsolete) at dinner with him, having dinner with him
ar saig y brenin (obsolete) at dinner with the king, having dinner with the king
sail sail feminine noun
PLURAL seiliau seil -ye›
1 basis = foundation
2 seiliau = foundations of a house
gosod seiliau bloc swydféydd put down the foundations for a block of flats
3 seiliau site of an old house
Capel Soar a saif heddiw ar seiliau ei hen gartref Tŷ’r Clwtwr - hanner ffordd i fyny’r bryn o groesffordd Tonysguboriau i dref Llantrisant
Soar Chapel stands today on the site of his old home Tŷ’r Clwtwr - halfway up the hill from the Tonysguboriau crossroads to the town of Llantrisant
4 gosail runner of a sledge
(go- prefix = under) + (sail = base)
5 di-sail groundless, without any basis in fact, false
honiad si-sail groundless assertion, groundless accusation
sïon di-sail unfounded rumours
(di- privative prefix, “without”) + (sail = foundation, basis)
ETYMOLOGY: British < Latin *solia < solea (= sandal), related to solum (= ground)
sain, seiniau ‹SAIN, SEIN ye› (masculine noun)
1 sound = auditory effect
2 sound (relayed mechanically)
sain ddeialu dialling tone, sound showing a line is clear
3 volume, loudness
codi’r sain turn up the sound / the volume
rheolydd sain sound control, knob etc for raising and lowering the volume on a radio, etc
Colloquially: bwlyn sain (North Wales), nobyn sain (South Wales)
4 sustem sain public address system
5 clychsain chime
(clych ‹ə› = penult form of clych ‹i› = bells) + (sain = sound)
6 Sain-y-gog SH4172 Name of a house in Capel-mawr, Ynys Môn
“(the) sound (of) the cuckoo”. Misspelt as “Sain-y-Gôg” on the Ordnance Survey map (there should be no capitalisation in a compound name; and no circumflex is required to indicate the long “o”)
sain sain prefix
1 (place names) saint (before the name of a saint, usually in newer dedications with non-Celtic saints)
Llan-sain-siôr / Sain Nicolas / Sain Pedr / Sain Pedrog / Sain Pŷr / Sain Silian / Sain Siorys / Sain Tathan / Sain Tomos
ETYMOLOGY: See saint
Sain Dunwyd ‹sain di -nuid›
1 (SS9368) locality in the county of Bro Morgannwg (South-east Wales)
English name: Saint Donat's
2 a parish at this place
(1961) Population: 60, Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 7%
(1971) Population: 435, Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 2%
Sain Ffagan ‹sain fa-gan›
1 (ST1277) locality in the county of Caer-dydd
English name: St. Fagans
2 a parish at this place
(1961) Population: 251, Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 13%
(1971) Population: 1,050, Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 11%
3 short for: Amgueddfa Werin Cymru, (the Museum of Welsh Life (formerly Welsh Folk Museum), which is situated here )
Staff newydd Sain Ffagan the new staff in the Sain Ffagan museum
4 Agueddfa Werin Cymru, the Museum of Welsh Life (formerly Welsh Folk Museum), which is situated here
Sain Ffred ‹sain freed feminine noun
1 SM8010 church and locality in the county of Penfro
2 a parish at this place
ETYMOLOGY: form of Sant Braid = saint Bríd
NOTE: Since Ffred is a monosyllable, with a single final consonant “d”, according to the rules of Welsh spelling, the vowel has to be long. But as English people who have settled in the area and visitors from England pronounce the name with a short “e”, as if it were the English name “Fred” (from “Frederick”), the local authority uses a version with a circumflex on local signs – Sain Ffrêd so that English speakers may give it a more accurate pronunciation
Sain Helen ‹sain he -len›
1 locality in Abertawe
English name: Saint Helen's
2 a parish at this place
(1961) Population: 7,857, Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 13%
(1971) Population: 7,100, Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 12%
Sain Nicolas ‹sain ni- ko -las›
1 locality in la comarca de Bro Morgannwg (South-east Wales)
English name: Saint Nicholas
2 a parish at this place
(1961) Population: 315, Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 5%
(1971) Population: 335, Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 9%
Sain Pedr ‹sain pe -der›
1 (SN4120) locality in Caerfyrddin
English name: Saint Peter's
2 a parish at this place
ETYMOLOGY: (sain, form of saint = saint, before a consonant) + (Pedr = Peter)
Sain Pedrog ‹sain pe-drog ›
1 (SR9797) locality in the county of Penfro, 4km south of Penfro
English name: St. Petrox (= “saint Petrock’s”)
2 a parish at this place
ETYMOLOGY: (sain, form of saint = saint, before a consonant) + (Pedrog = saint’s name)
Sain Pŷr ‹sain piir
1 ST5190 locality in the county of Mynwy
English name: St. Pierre
Sain Silian ‹sain sil -yan›
1 (ST0976) locality in Casnewydd, 2km north-east of the city centre
English name: St. Julians
2 a parish at this place
Sain Siorys ‹sain shô-ris›
1 (ST0976) village in the county of Bro Morgannwg
English name: Saint George-super-Ely
2 a parish at this place
..1961: population: 255; proportion of Welsh-speakers: 5%
..1971: population: 260; proportion of Welsh-speakers: 4%
ETYMOLOGY: “(the church of) saint George”(sain = saint) + (Siorys = George)
saint saint m;;)
PLURAL seintiau seint -ye›
1 saint
2 (place names) saint (before the name of a saint, usually in new dedications with non-Celtic saints).
Before a vowel it remains as saint; before a consonant the final t is lost > sain
Examples with sain:
..a/ Llan-sain-siôr SH9775 locality in Conwy, near Abergele
(“(the) chruch (of) Saint George”)
(llan = church) + (sain = saint) + (Siôr = George)
English name: Saint George
..b/ Sain Nicolas locality in la comarca de Bro Morgannwg (South-east Wales)
English name: Saint Nicholas
..c/ Sain Pedr (SN4120) locality in Caerfyrddin
English name: Saint Peter's
..d/ Sain Pedrog (SR9797) locality in the county of Penfro, 4km south of Penfro
English name: St. Petrox
..e/ Sain Pŷr ST5190 localitat de la comarca de Mynwy
Nom anglès: St. Pierre
..f/ Sain Silian (ST0976) locality in Casnewydd, 2km north-east of the city centre
English name: St. Julians
..g/ Sain Siorys (ST0976) village in the county of Bro Morgannwg
English name: Saint George-super-Ely
..h/ Sain Tathan ST 0168 locality in the county of Bro Morgannwg (South-east Wales). 5km east of Llanilltud Fawr
English name (showing wrong division): Saint Athan
..g/ Sain Tomos district in Abertawe
English name: Saint Thomas
Examples with saint:
..a/ Saint Andras (ST1371) locality in the county of Bro Morgannwg (South-east Wales), by Dinaspowys
English name: Saint Andrews Major map
Also Saint Andras Leiaf parish by Dinaspowys
English name: Saint Andrews Minor
..b/ Saint Harmon (SN9872) locality in the district of Maesyfed (county of Powys)
..c/ Saint Hílari ST0173 locality in the county of Bro Morgannwg (South-east Wales). 3km south-east of Y Bont-faen map
..d/ Saint Ishel (SR9797) locality in the county of Penfro, south of Penfro
English name: St. Issells
..e/ Saint-y-brid (SS8974) locality 4km south of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr
English name: Saint Bride's Major map
Saint Andras ‹saint an -dras›
1 (ST1371) locality in the county of Bro Morgannwg (South-east Wales), by Dinaspowys
English name: Saint Andrews Major
2 a parish at this place
(1961) Population: 4.481, Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 11%
(1971) Population: 6,895, Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 6%
Saint Andras Leiaf ‹saint an –dras leia›
1 parish by al Dinaspowys
(1971) Population: 10
Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 0%
English name: Saint Andrews Minor
ETYMOLOGY: (Saint Andras) + soft mutation + (lleiaf = smallest)
Sain Tathan ‹sain ta-than ›
1 ST0168 locality in the county of Bro Morgannwg (South-east Wales). 5km east of Llanilltud Fawr
English name (showing wrong division): Saint Athan
2 a parish at this place
Saint Harmon ‹saint har -mon›
1 (SN9872) locality in the district of Maesyfed (county of Powys)
2 a parish at this place
Saint Hílari ‹saint  –la-ri›
1 ST0173 locality in the county of Bro Morgannwg (South-east Wales). 3km south-east of Y Bont-faen
2 a parish at this place
Saint Ishel ‹saint i-shel›
1 (SR9797) parish in the county of Penfro, south of Penfro
English name: St. Issells
Sain Tomos ‹sain to -mos›
1 district in Abertawe
English name: Saint Thomas
(1961) Population: 10,518; Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 7%
Saint-y-brid ‹saint ə briid
1 (SS9874) locality 4km south of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr
English name: Saint Bride's Major
2 a parish at this place
(1961) Population: 1,419; Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 13%
(1971) Population: 1,735; Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 6%
3 (ST4289) locality 4km west of Caer-went
English name: Saint Bride's Netherwent
Sais, Saeson ‹SAIS, SEI son› (masculine noun)
1 Englishman
Mae e’n siarad Cymraeg yn dda iawn o Sais He speaks very good Welsh for an Englishman
2 anglicised Welshman; Welshman unable to speak Welsh
Sais oedd eu mab nhw Their son couldn’t speak Welsh (“(it-is) (an) Englishman that-was their son”, their son was an Englishman)
Dw i ishio bod yn Sais I want to be an Englishman
troi’n Sais
Drws Yr Eglwys Weledig: Wedi Ei Agor Yn Lled y Pen, Fel y Gallo Credinwyr a Phlant Bychain Ddyfod I Mewn (1799) by Thomas Jones (1752 Yr Hafod, Ceredigion –1845 Creaton, England)
Bydd yn hawdd i’r Cymry faddau fy anwybodaeth o’r iaith gymraeg pan glywont, i mi droi’n sais, er ys agos i ugain mlynedd – Gallaf ddywedyd – Bachgen uniaith, unwaith o’wn: - Wrth deithio / Rhwng dwy-iaith, bu’m dwthwn. / Un gollais, gynta gallwn; / Un arall, yn anghall gawn.
It will be easy for the Welsh people to forgive my ignorance of the Welsh language when they hear that I became an Englishman almost twenty years ago – I can say: I was once a monolingual lad  (i.e. I spoke only Welsh); / Travelling between two languages, I was one day (“[I] have been [a] day”) / One I lost, as quickly as I could; / Another one, I got unwisely.
3 (in earlier times, when English was relatively unknown) able to speak English; bilingual in Welsh and English
Hence epithets of the type Gwilym Sais (“English-speaking William”)
It has become the surname Sayce, found especially either side of the border with England
(also spelt at various times Saise, Saies, Seyes, Seys, Cice)
At Abaty-daur / Abbey Dore in Ergyng / Archenfield (Herefordshire), there was a well-known family called Sayce (with the name Rholant Sais / Rowland Sayce appearing for many generations)
4 In place names the element Sais / Saeson is fairly frequent
..a/ Cwm y Saeson SN9377 valley south-east of Llangurig, Powys
“(the) valley (of) the Englishmen”
..b/ Esgair Saeson SN7960 ridge
esgair y Saeson “(the) ridge (of) the Englishmen” map
..c/ Graig y Saeson ST2785 “(the) rock (of) the Englishmen”
Farm south of Basaleg, county of Casnewydd / Newport
..c/ Pontrhydysaeson, Pontsaeson SN5463 near Rhosyrhafod / Cross Inn, Ceredigion
“(the) bridge (at) Rhyd y Saeson”
Rhyd y Saeson is “(the) ford (of) the Englishmen” map
..e/ Pont y Saeson “(the) bridge (of) the Englishmen”
SO5000 at Bryn y Capel / Chapel Hill, county of Mynwy
..f/ Pont y Saeson “(the) bridge (of) the Englishmen”
The Welsh name of English Bridge SJ4912 in Amwythig / Shrewsbury, England English Bridge
i.e. the bridge on the English side of the town
(Welsh Bridge SJ4812 is Pont y Cymry “(the) bridge (of) the Welshmen”) Welsh Bridge
ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Germanic
Saisgarwr ‹sais- GAA -rur› masculine noun
PLURAL Saisgarwyr ‹sais- gar -wir›
1 Anglophile, person who admires English people
2 (Wales) Welsh person who shows respect for English people but contempt for people of his or her own nationality
ETYMOLOGY: (Sais = Englishman) + soft mutation + (carwr = lover, person who loves)
Sais-gasäwr ‹sais-ga- -ur› masculine noun
PLURAL Sais-gasawyr ‹sais-ga- -wir›
1 Anglophobe, person with a hatred of English people
ETYMOLOGY: (Sais = Englishman) + soft mutation + (casäwr = hater, person who hates)
Sais-Gymro ‹sais- gəm -ro› masculine noun
PLURAL Sais-Gymry ‹sais- gəm -ri›
1 (old-fashioned) anglicised Welshman, English Welshman, Welshman ignorant of the language of his people
(The general term today is Cymro di-Gymraeg, a “Welshless Welshman”, “Welshmen without Welsh”, “non-Welsh-speaking Welshman”)
y Sais-Gymry the English Welsh
Wrth bob tebyg Sais, neu Sais-Gymro, yw’r gorsaf-feistr: gwelais, y dydd o’r blaen, fod Sais wedi ei benodi hyd yn oed i Gricieth. (Yn Eisieu - Safon Gymreig. W. Llewelyn Williams. Geninen 1906)
More than likely the station-master is an Englishman, or an English Welshman; the other day I saw that an Englishman has been appointed even in Cricieth
ETYMOLOGY: (Sais = Englishman) + soft mutation + (Cymro = Welshman)
saith ‹saith› (masculine noun)
1 seven
2 bod yn ormod saith waith o (rywbeth) i (wneud rhywbeth) be far too much of a (something) to (do something) (“be seven times too much (of something) to (do something)”)
Mae e’n ormod saith waith o fonheddwr i wneud peth felly He’s far too much a gentleman to do such a thing
saith ‹saith› (m)
1 (obsolete) saint
Saith Bedr Saint Peter
ETYMOLOGY: Welsh saith < seith < British sektî < saktî < sanktîi < Latin sanctus
NOTE: See the place names Brynsaithmarchog and Tre-saith
sâl ‹SAAL› (adjective)
1 ill, sick
collwr sâl bad loser, sore loser, person who cannot accept defeat or loss
salad, saladau ‹SAA lad, sa LAA dai, -e› (masculine noun)
1 salad
salad caws ‹saa lad KAUS› (masculine noun)
1 cheese salad
salad ffrwythau ‹saa lad FRUI the› (masculine noun)
1 fruit salad
salad ham ‹saa lad HAM› (masculine noun)
1 ham salad
salad wyau ‹saa lad UI e› (masculine noun)
1 egg salad
salâmi ‹sa LAA mi› (masculine noun)
1 salami
Salem SAA-lem›
1 Jerusalem (called Salem in Genesis 14:18 / Psalms 76:2 / Hebrews 7:1)
Genesis 14:18 Melchisedec hefyd, brenin Salem, a ddug allan fara a gwin; ac efe oedd offeiriad i DDUW goruchaf:
Genesis 14:18 And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine: and he was the priest of the most high God.
Salmau 76:1 Hynod yw DUW yn Jwda; mawr yw ei enw ef yn Israel (76:2) Ei babell hefyd sydd yn Salem, a’i drigfa yn Seion
Psalms 76:1 In Judah is God known: his name is great in Israel. (76:2)In Salem also is his tabernacle, and his dwelling place in Zion.
Hebreiaid 7:1 Canys y Melchisedec hwn, brenin Salem, offeiriad y Duw Goruchaf, yr hwn a gyfarfu ag Abraham wrth ddychwelyd o ladd y brenhinoedd, ac a’i bendithiodd ef;
Hebrews 7:1 For this Melchisedec, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed him;
2 Name of many chapels; it was understood to mean 'peace'.
Cf Hebrew “shalom aleichem” peace be to you
3 locality in Cwm Rhymni (Morgannwg Ganol)
4 (SH5456) locality in Arfon (Gwynedd) 9km south-east of Caernarfon, and about 2km north-west of Llyn Cwellyn
5 (SN6226) locality in the county of Caerfyrddin
Alternative name: Heolgaled
6 (SN6684) locality of the county of Ceredigion, 5km east of Nantafallen
7 locality in Dinefwr (Dyfed)
8 locality in Dyffryn Camwy (Patagonia)
9 street names:
..1/ Salem Penrhyn-coch (county of Ceredigion)
..2/ “Salem Place” (it would be Lle Salem / Salemfa, etc in Welsh)
Llanllechid, Bangor (county of Gwynedd)
..3/ “Salem Road” (it would be Ffordd Salem / Heol Salem in Welsh)
....a/ Coed-poeth (county of Wrecsam)
....b/ Plas-marl (county ofAbertawe)
....c/ Treforus (county ofAbertawe)
....d/ Cwmafan, Aberafan (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)
....e/ Llanelli (county of Caerfyrddin)
....f/ Sanclêr (county of Caerfyrddin)
..4/ “Salem Street” (it would be Ffordd Salem / Stryd Saelm / Heol Salem in Welsh)
....a/ Bryngwran, Caergybi (county of Môn)
....b/ Amlwch (county of Môn)
..5/ “Salem Terrace” (it would be Teras / Rhes / Rhestai / Rhestr Salem in Welsh)
....a/ Rhyd-y-foel, Abergele (county of Conwy)
....b/ Cricieth (county of Gwynedd)
....c/ Pwllheli (county of Gwynedd)
....d/ Gwaelod-y-garth (county of Caer-dydd)
....e/ Tonypandy (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)
ETYMOLOGY: second element of Jerẃsalem
Sali ‹SA li› (feminine noun)
1 Sally (diminutive of Sarah)
salm salm feminine noun
PLURAL salmau sal -me›
1 psalm = one of the 150 songs of the Book of Psalms in the Old Testament;
salmau Dafydd the psalms of David
2 psalm = one set to music; canu'r salmau sing the psalms
3 Llyfr y Salmau The Book of Psalms, the collection of 150 psalms in the Old Testament; also called Y Salmau
ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < Church Latin psalmus < Greek psalmos = music on a stringed instrument, harp music > psallein = play the harp, pluck
salmonela ‹sal-mo-ne-la› masculine noun
PLURAL salmonelâu ‹sal-mo-ne-lai
1 salmonella = bacterium which causes food poisoning, typhus, etc depending on the type
2 salmonella = poisoning by the salmonella bacteria
ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < English < New Latin (Daniel E. Salmon (1850-1914), a US veterinary surgeon)
salmydd sal-midh› masculine noun
PLURAL salmyddion, salmwyr ‹sal- mədh-yon, sal- mədh-wir›
1 psalmist, one who writes psalms
2 Y Salmydd David, traditionally regarded as the author of the psalms
3 hymn book; Y Salmydd Cymreig, "the Welsh Psalmist", a collection of 577 hymns by Roger Edwards (1811-1886) published in 1840
ETYMOLOGY: (salm = psalm) + (-ydd, suffix to indicate an agent)
salmyddiaeth ‹sal-mədh-yeth› feminine noun
1 psalmody = the art of singing psalms in a religious service
ETYMOLOGY: (salmydd = psalmist) + (-i-aeth, suffix for forming an abstract noun)
salon sa -lon› masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL salonau ‹sa--ne›
1 salon = an elegant shop for hairdressing or giving beauty treatment
2 see salon trin gwallt, salon prydferthwch, etc
ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < English salon < French salon < Italian salone < sala = hall (+ augmentive suffix -on) < Germanic; cf German Saal = hall
salon trin gwallt sa-lon triin gwalht masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL salonau trin gwallt ‹sa--ne triin gwalht
1 hairdressing salon ("salon (of) treating hair")
salon prydferthwch sa-lon prəd-ver-thukh› masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL salonau prydferthwch ‹sa--ne prəd-ver-thukh›
1 beauty salon
salw ‹SA lu› (adjective)
1 ugly (South Wales)
salwch ‹SA lukh› (masculine noun)
1 illness
Sami sa -mi› masculine noun
1 diminutive of Samwel; as in English, Sammy = diminutive of Samuel
samwn ‹SA mun› (masculine noun)
1 salmon
sanau / ’sanau ‹SAA ne› (plural noun)
1 socks; plural of hosan
sanctaidd sangk -tedh› adjective
1 holy = consecrated, dedicated to a deity (religious or formal: “hallowed”)
Y Ddinas Sanctaidd The Holy City, Jerusalem
Y Tir Sanctaidd The Holy Land, Palestine, Canaan; the land between the Mediterranean Sea and the River Jordan, the area where most events in the Bible took place
2 holy = entitled to veneration
Y Tad Sanctaidd the Pope, the Holy Father
Yr Esgobaeth Sanctaidd The Holy See (“the sacred bishopric”)
buwch sanctaidd holy cow
Y Beddrod Sanctaidd the Holy Sepulchre, the grave where the body of Jesus Christ was placed after the Crucifixion
Y Teulu Sanctaidd the Holy Family, the infant Jesus, Mary, and Joseph
3 saintly
Mae’r gweinidog yn smocio ei hen bibell cyn y bregeth, ac mae e'n drewi'r lle; dydi hyny ddim yn taro i ddyn sydd i fod yn sanctaidd yn 'i waith.
The minister smokes his pipe before the sermon and stinks the place out ; that doesn’t behove a man who is supposed to be saintly in his work
4 sacred = connected with religion (as opposed to what is secular)
cadw’r Saboth yn sanctaidd keep the Sabbath holy
sacred music
5 Christian
Yr Ymerodraath Rufeinig Sanctaidd the Holy Roman Empire, a one-thousand year old empire; European territories ruled by a German king from the time of Charlemagne in 800A.D. to 1806, when the emperor Francis II relinquished his crown
Yr YmerawdwrRufeinig Sanctaidd the Holy Roman Emperor
Y Swyddogaeth Sanctaidd (Roman Catholicism) The Holy Office, final court of appeal for Christians accused of heresy, established in 1542
Y Cynghrair Sanctaidd / Y Gynghrair Sanctaidd The Holy Alliance, document signed in 1815 by Russia, Prussia and Austria agreeing to government based on Christian principles
Yr Ynys Sanctaidd The Sacred Island, Ireland
6 Y Beibl Sanctaidd the Holy Bible
7 Y Groes Sanctaidd the Holy Cross, the Holy Rood
Eglwys y Groes Sanctaidd Holy Cross Church
(Name of a church in Llanor, Gwynedd)
8 urddau sanctaidd = holy orders, sacrament where a candidate is accepted into the Christian ministry
9 ffug-sanctaidd = sanctimonious = hypocritically pious
Excessively or hypocritically pious
10 rhyfel sanctaidd holy war
11 byw yn sanctaidd live a saintly life, live a holy life
ETYMOLOGY: (sanct = saint) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)
NOTE: santaidd (i.e., without the ‹k›) is a variant
sancteiddiol ‹ sank- teidh -yol› adjective
1 holy
y cysegr sancteiddiolaf the most holy place
Exodus 26:34 Dod hefyd y drugareddfa ac arch y dystiolaeth yn y cysegr sancteiddiolaf.
Exodus 26:34 And thou shalt put the mercy seat upon the ark of the testimony in the most holy place.
ETYMOLOGY: (sanctaeidd- < sanctaidd = holy) + (-iol, suffix for forming adjectives)
sandio sand-yo› verb
1 to sand, to sandpaper, to polish with sand, use a sander on
sandio’r drws sandpaper the door, use a sander on a door
peiriant sandio sander, sanding machine
ETYMOLOGY: (sand = sand) (-io suffix for forming verbs)
sangiad sang-iad› masculine noun
PLURAL sangiadau ‹ sang-yaa-de›
1 trampling underfoot
2 parenthesis, interpolation; insertion of a word or phrase into a sentence which breaks the structure of the sentence
sangiad cystrawen interpolation in a sentence
sangiadau naturiol ac annaturil natural and unnatural interpolations
ETYMOLOGY: (sang- stem of sengi = to trample) + (-i-ad noun-forming suffix)
sanhedrin ‹ san- he -drin› verb
1 Sanhedrin = Jewish council or court, esp the supreme council and court at Jerusalem in New Testament times, which had 71 members and dealt with judicial, religious and administrative matters
2 (figuratively) refers to any other ruling body or council (especially if it is large / poweful / self-important)
Sanhedrin BBC Cymru Board of Management of BBC Wales
Sanhedrin yr Esiteddfod Genedlaethol the Ruling Council of the National Eisteddfod
ETYMOLOGY: English sanhedrin < Hebrew < Greek sunedrion (= council) < sun- (prefix, together, with) + (hedra = seat)
1 abreviatura = Sanscrit sànscrit
Sanscrit san- -skrit› feminine noun
1 sànscrit
Abreviatura: Sans.
ETIMOLOGIA: anglès Sanskrit
sa nhw ‹SA nu› (verb)
1 see: se nhw
sa ni ‹SA ni› (verb)
see se ni
1 abbreviation = Sanscrit Sanskrit
Sanscrit san- -skrit› feminine noun
1 Sanskrit
Abbreviation: Sans.
ETYMOLOGY: English Sanskrit
sant, seintiau ‹SANT, SEINT ye› (masculine noun)
1 saint = person recognised (through a formal process of canonisation) by a church as being of especial holiness and faith
Placed before the name of the saint
Sant Iago Saint James
For women saints, the femiine form santes is used
Santes Fair Saint Mary
2 Sant Tomos o Acwin Saint Thomas Aquinas, Italian theologian and philosopher (1225-1274)
3 A Celtic missionary monk. In the names and titles of Celtic saints, sant is placed after the name
Dewi Sant Saint David
Eglwys Cenydd Sant a Sant Pedr (the Church of St Cenydd and St Peter) in Caerffili
Heol Cenydd Sant (St. Cenydd Road) in Caerffili
4 sant is used after female saints’ names too
SH3682 Eglwys Dwynwen Sant Dwynwen’s Church, Saint Dwynwen’s Church on Ynys Llanddwyn (Ynys Môn), though simply Eglwys Dwynwen would be the more correct name. See the note on santes below
NOTE: The nun’s name was Dwyn (as in the name Llanddwyn “(the) church (of) Dwyn)”).
Dwynwen is a fond name, with the addition of the suffix –wen (from gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white; pure, holy)
NOTE: santes - such forms as Eglwys Santes Melangell “(the) church (of) Saint Melangell” are clearly wrong, suggesting that she is a canonised saint of the Catholic Church.
Eglwys Santes Helen though would be correct, as she was a Catholic saint and not a saint of the Celtic Church
Even Eglwys Melangell Sant (recognising Melangell as a member of the Celtic Church) is not correct either.
It is simply Eglwys Melangell in Welsh.
3 saint = one of God’s elected few, used by Christians who believe themselves to be such a person
4 saint = a devout religious person
5 saint = a good person
6 saint = a chapel-goer or church-goer (sometimes used facietiously)
ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin sānctus (= sacred), the past participle of sancīre (= to consecrate),
(sanc- root of sancîre) + (-tus suffix for forming the past participle)
sa’r saar
1 southern form of saer (= carpenter)
Usually spelt (less correctly sâr
See aa / saar
Sara / Sarah (Lal, Lali) ‹SA ra› (feminine noun)
1 Sarah
Saran ‹SAA ran› (feminine noun)
1 female name
ETYMOLOGY: Probably (Sara = Sarah) + (-an diminutive ending for female names)
Bethan (Bèth < Elísabeth = Elizabeth),
Betsan (Betsi = Betsy < Elísabeth = Elizabeth),
Gwennan (Gwen < Gwenllian)
Megan (Meg < Margred = Margaret),
Sardis sar -dis›
1 an ancient city of Asia Minor that was capital of Lydia
Datguddiad 3:1 Ac at angel yr eglwys sydd yn Sardis, ysgrifenna; Y pethau hyn y mae’r hwn sydd â saith Ysbryd Duw â’r saith seren ganddo, yn eu dywedyd; Mi a adwaen dy weithredoedd di, oblegid y mae gennyt enw dy fod yn fyw, a marw ydwyt.            
Revelations 3:1 And unto the angel of the church in Sardis write; These things saith he that hath the seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars; I know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead.
Datguddiad 3:4 Eithr y mae gennyt ychydig enwau, ie, yn Sardis, y rhai ni halogasant eu dillad; a hwy a rodiant gyda mi mewn dillad gwynion: oblegid teilwng ydynt.  
Revelations 3:4 Thou hast a few names even in Sardis which have not defiled their garments; and they shall walk with me in white: for they are worthy.
Datguddiad 1:11 Yn dywedyd. Mi yw Alffa ac Omega, y cyntaf a’r diwethaf: a’r hyn yr wyt yn ei weled, ysgrifenna mewn llyfr, a danfon i’r saith eglwys y rhai sydd yn Asia; i Effesus, ac i Smyrna, ac i Pergamus, ac i Thyatira, ac i Sardis, a Philadelffia, a Laodicea.               
Revelations 1:11 Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last: and, What thou seest, write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus, and unto Smyrna, and unto Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and unto Sardis, and unto Philadelphia, and unto Laodicea.
2 chapel name
3 Sardis locality
..a/ SN1306 county of Penfro
..b/ SN5806 county of Caerfyrddin
4 street names
..a/ Sardis Penrhyndeudraeth county of Gwynedd)
..b/..1/ “Sardis Close”, Waunarlwydd county of Abertawe) (this would be Lle Sardis / Clos Sardis in Welsh)
..b/..2/ “Sardis Cross”, Sardis, Aberdaugleddau county of Penfro) (this would be Croes Sardis in Welsh)
..b/..3/ “Sardis Road” Pont-y-pridd county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (this would be Heol Sardis in Welsh)
sarff, seirff ‹SARF, SEIRF› (feminine noun)
1 serpent
sarhâd, sarhadau ‹sar HAAD, sar HÂ de› (masculine noun)
1 insult
2 rhoi sarhâd ym mhen anaf add insult to injury (“put an insult in the top of an injury”)
..1 sarn sarn feminine noun
PLURAL sarnau sar -ne›
1 causeway, paved way, trackway
Diarhebion 16:17 Sarn y cyfiawn yw dychwelyd oddi wrth ddrwg: y neb a gadwo ei ffordd, a geidw ei enaid.
Proverbs 16:17 The highway of the upright is to depart from evil: he that keepeth his way preserveth his soul.               
2 prehistoric trackway
3 place names (prehistoric trackway or Roman way)
Bwlchysarnau, Cefnddwysarn, Pen-y-sarn / Pen-sarn, Pont-sarn, Rhydsarnau, Y Sarnau, Sarnybryncaled, Talsarnau, Tal-y-sarn / Tal-sarn
4 causeway = geological formation resembling a man-made causeway
Sarn Gynfelyn (SN 5885) formation in the Ceredigion, in the sea in the parish of Llangynfelyn
5 stepping stones in a stream / river
Croesasom y sarn - nid oedd pont yno mwyach, dim ond rhes o gerrig i'r parc gyferbyn
We crossed over the stepping stones – there was no bridge there any more, just a row of stones to the field opposite
6 paving placed on a river bottom under a waterfall on a weir to prevent the water from forming a hole
7 litter = bracken or straw on the floor of a cowhouse or stable; bedding = straw for cattle to sleep on
8 ruin, destruction
..2 sarn sarn adjective
1 trampled
2 (figurative) trampled underfoot
Mae iaith a diwylliant Cymru yn sarn
The language and culture of Wales have been trampled underfoot
chwalu’n sarn trample underfoot
..3 Y Sarn ‹ə sarn
1 locality SH2332 by Pwllheli (county of Gwynedd)
2 locality SS9083 in the county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr
3 locality SO2090 in the district of Maldwyn (county of Powys)
4 locality SJ1179 in the county of Y Fflint, between Prestatyn and Treffynnon (county of Powys)
5 locality SJ4444 in the county of Y Fflint
ETYMOLOGY: ‘the causeway, the paved way’
Y Sarnau ‹ə sar -ne›
1 locality SN3318 in the county of Caerfyrddin
2 locality SN3150 near Llandysul (county of Ceredigion)
3 locality SH9739 in Llanfor, district of Meirionnydd near Y Bala (county of Gwynedd)
4 locality SO0232 near Aberhonddu (county of Powys)
5 locality SJ 2315 in the district of Maldwyn (county of Powys); near Cegidfa
Sarnau Uchaf place by here (uchaf = upper)
ETYMOLOGY: ‘the causeway(s), the paved way(s)’, plural of sarn
Sarn-bach ‹sarn baakh
1 SH3026 place 2km south of Aber-soch
ETYMOLOGY: y sarn bach (“the little pavement”)
(y definite article) + (sarn = paved way) + (bach = little)
In North Wales, after a feminine noun bach remains unmutated.
The expected form would be “y sarn fach”
sarnu ‹SAR-ni› (verb)
1 trample
2 destroy
..1/ sarnu’ch enw da destroy your reputation, spoil your reputation, sully your reputation
..2/ (South) sarnu’ch iechyd ruin your health
Satan ‹SA-tan› (m)
1 Satan
Sant Marc 8:33 Eithr wedi iddo droi, ac edrych ar ei ddisgyblion, efe a geryddodd Pedr, gan ddywedyd, Dos ymaith yn fy ôl i, Satan; am nad wyt yn synied y pethau sydd o Dduw, ond y pethau sydd o ddynion.
Saint Mark 8:33 But when he had turned about and looked on his disciples, he rebuked Peter, saying, Get thee behind me, Satan: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but the things that be of men.
sa’th ‹ çsaath
1 southern form of saeth (= arrow)
Usually spelt (less correctly sâth
See aa / saath
sathrfa sathr -va› feminine noun
1 trampled state
Daniel 8:13 Yna y clywais ryw sant yn llefaru, a dywedodd rhyw sant arall wrth y rhyw sant hwnnw oedd yn llefaru, Pa hyd y bydd y weledigaeth am yr offrwm gwastadol, a chamwedd anrhaith i roddi y cysegr a'r llu yn sathrfa?
Daniel 8:13 Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, How long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?
Eiseia 5:5 Ac yr awr hon mi a hysbysaf i chwi yr hyn a wnaf i’m gwinllan: tynnaf ymaith ei chae, fel y porer hi; torraf ei magwyr, fel y byddo hi yn sathrfa
Isaiah 5:5 And now go to; I will tell you what I will do to my vineyard: I will take away the hedge thereof, and it shall be eaten up; and break down the wall thereof, and it shall be trodden down:
ETYMOLOGY: (sathr- stem of the verb sathru = trample) + (-fa noun suffix denoting an action)
sa ti ‹SA ti› (verb)
1 see: se ti
sawdl, sodlau ‹SAU dəl / SAU dul, SOD le› (masculine noun)
1 heel
fel ci bach wrth sawdl ei feistr like a little dog at the heel of his owner
2 Nid ei di byth uwch bawd na sawdl
You’ll never get anywhere, you’ll never make it, you’re doomed to failure (“you won’t go higher than a toe or a heel”)
3 o'ch corun i'ch sawdl ‹oi GO rin iu SAU dəl› (phrase)
from head to toe ("from one's crown to one's heel")
4 sawdl Achil Achilles heel, weak spot (Achilles ‹Əkíliz›, a noted Greek warrior in the Trojan war and hero of Homer's Iliad. Achilles was killed by Paris, who wounded him in his heel, his vulnerable spot)
sawl ‹SAUL› (determiner)
1 how many?
2 many
ar sawl cyfrif in many respects
mewn sawl modd in many respects
sawl un ‹saul iin pronoun
1 many a one, many people
Mae sawl un wedi gwneud yr un peth Many a one has done the same thing
2 pa sawl un? how many? how many things? how many people?
(normally sawl un?, without the interrogative particle pa (= which)
Sawl un gymeri di? How much do you want? / do you take? / will you have?
ETYMOLOGY: (sawl = many) + (un = one)
saws ‹SAUS› (masculine noun)
1 sauce
2 saws Caerwrangon Worcester sauce
Sbaen ‹SPAIN› (feminine noun)
1 Spain (Greater Castile)
Sbaeneg ‹SPEI neg› (feminine noun)
1 Castilian, Spanish
Sbaenes, Sbaenesau ‹SPEI nes, spei NE se› (feminine noun)
1 Castilian woman, Spanish woman
sbaengi spein-gi› feminine noun
PLURAL sbaengwn spein-gun›
1 spaniel
2 water spaniel = a large spaniel with a curly coat used for hunting wildfowl (there are two breeds - Irish and American)
3 balch fel sbangi ("as proud as a spaniel")
4 bod fel sbangi be soaking wet ("be like (a) spaniel")
Doedd dim ochrau i'r cysgodfan bws a phan oedd yn bwrw ac yn chwythu roedden nhw fel sbangwn erbyn i'r bws gyrraedd
There were no sides to the bus shelter so when it was raining and windy they were soaking wet by the time the bus arrived
ETYMOLOGY: 'Spanish dog'; the literary form is (Sbaen- ‹sbein›, penult form of Sbaen ‹sbâin› = Spain) + soft mutation + (ci = dog); but it is possibly a reformation of sbangi from (sban-, first syllable of English spaniel) + soft mutation + (ci = dog).
English spaniel is from Old French espaigneul < Occitan espanhol < Latin Hispâniolus
NOTE: colloquial form: sbangi, sbangwn
Sbaenwr, Sbaenwyr ‹SPEI nur, SPEIN wir› (masculine noun)
1 Castilian man, Spanish man
Sbaenwyr, y ‹ə SPEIN wir› (plural noun)
1 the Castilians, the Spanish
sbag sbaag masculine noun
1 claw (of a cat)
2 sbagau (colloquially sbage, sbaga) (1) hands (2) legs
3 sbagyn o sbagen branch of a tree
ETYMOLOGY: Apparently a word of native origin, possibly related to bag ‹baag› (= claw, leg); and bach ‹baach› (= hook)
NOTE: There is also a more literary form ysbâg ‹əsbáag›
sbago sbâ-go› verb
1 scratch (eg of a cat)
ETYMOLOGY: (sbag = cat’s claw) + (-o suffix for forming verbs)
NOTE: Occurs in Cambrian English as to spag
sbagyn sbâ -gin› masculine noun
1 branch; see sbag
sbangi span-gi› masculine noun
PLURAL sbangwn span -gun›
1 spaniel: see sbaengi
sbâr ‹SBAAR› (adjective)
1 spare = in reserve for future use
sbarion ‹SBAR yon› (plural noun)
1 leftovers of food
sbectol spek -tol› feminine noun
PLURAL sbectols, sbectolau spek –tols, spek--le›
1 spectacles, glasses, specs, (USA: also eyeglasses)
cas sbectol spectacle case
ETYMOLOGY: sbectol < *sbectal < English spectacle < French < Latin spectaculum (= a show) < spectâre (= to watch, to look at) < specere (= to look at)
sbectolog spek -TOO-log› adj
 1 spectacled
arth sbectolog spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus)
ETYMOLOGY: (sbectol = spectacle) + (-og adjectival suffix)
’sbedain ‹SBEE-dain › (v)
1 clipped form of diasbedain (= resound, reverberate, ring)
Also written ’sbedan, ’sbeden to reflect more closely the actual pronunciation
Dyma ail sgrech, fwy ofnadwy na'r gynta, yn 'spedain drwy'r lle...
A second scream, more terrible than the first one, resounded through the place
’sbedan ‹SBEE-dan› (v)
1 See ’sbedain, a clipped form of diasbedain (= resound, reverberate, ring)
’sbeden ‹SBEE-den› (v)
1 See ’sbedain, a clipped form of diasbedain (= resound, reverberate, ring)
sbeisiog speis-yog› adjective
1 spicy
ETYMOLOGY: (sbeis = spice) + (-iog adjectival suffix )
sbeislyd speis -lid› adjective
1 spicy
ETYMOLOGY: (sbeis = spice) + (-lyd adjectival suffix )
sbésimen spe-si-men› masculine noun
PLURAL sbesimenau ‹sbe-si--ne›
1 specimen = tissue, blood, etc taken for making a diagnosis
cymryd sbésimen o waed take a blood sample
ETYMOLOGY: English specimen < Latin specimen (= mark, evidence) < specere (= to look)
sbinod sbi-nod› plural noun
1 aphetic form of hesbinod (i.e. minus the first syllable) = yearling sheep. See hesbin
sbinwch sbi-nukh› feminine noun
1 aphetic form of hesbinwch (i.e. minus the first syllable) = young sow.
Y Sblot ‹ə SPLOT› (feminine noun)
1 district of Caer-dydd
ETYMOLOGY: sblot (= plot of land), from an English word splat (= plot of land)
Sf SplotsLength, a field name on the Redwick 1844 Tithe Map (Casnewydd / Newport)
sboncyn spong -kin› masculine noun
PLURAL sboncynnod ‹spong--nod-wir›
1 (insect) hopper
sboncyn llyffant (Philaenus spumarius) froghopper
ETYMOLOGY: (sbonc = jump, leap) + (-yn suffix to make an agent noun)
sboner, sboners ‹SPO ner, SPO ners› (masculine noun)
1 (South Wales) boyfriend
sbort ‹SPORT› (masculine noun)
1 sport
2 mocking
Nìd testun sbort mo hyn This is no laughing matter
sbot, sbotiau ‹SPOT, SPOT ye› (masculine noun)
1 (Theatre) spotlight
Also: golau sbot, sbotolau
sbotolau ‹spot-o-le› masculine noun
PLURAL sbotoleuadau ‹spot-o-lei-â-de ›
1 (Theatre) spotlight
Also: sbot, golau sbot
ETYMOLOGY: (sbot = focus) + soft mutation + (golau = light)
sbowt spout masculine noun
PLURAL sbowtiau spout -ye›
1 spout = pipe through which a liquid emerges
sbowt y tebot the spout of the teapot (the standard form is pig y tebot)
ETYMOLOGY: English spout is apparently < Dutch < Old Norse
sbring spring masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL sbringiau, sbrings spring-ye, springs
1 spring
sbring matras mattress spring, one of the springs of a mattress (“spring (of) mattress”)
sbring soffa sofa spring, one of the springs of a sofa (“spring (of) sofa”)
sbring watsh watch spring, plural sbrings watshus watch springs
2 matras sbrings spring mattress (“mattress (of) springs”)
ETYMOLOGY: spring (= spiral) < to spring < Old English springan (= to spring, to jump);
cf German springen (= to jump), der Sprung (= the jump)
sbrint sprint masculine noun
PLURAL sbrintiau sprint –yai, -ye›
1 sprint = a short-distance race
2 sprint = running for a short distance as fast as one can, for example at the end of a long-distance race
ETYMOLOGY: English sprint < Scandinavian
sbrintio sprint verb
1 to sprint
ETYMOLOGY: (sbrint = sprint) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)
sbrintiwr sprint -yur› masculine noun
PLURAL sbrintwyr sprint -wir›
1 sprinter,
ETYMOLOGY: (sbrint-i-, stem of sbrintio = to sprint) + (-wr, agent suffix, 'man')
sbwnjlyd spunj -lid› adjective
1 spongy = like a sponge in texture – soft and compressible
ETYMOLOGY: (sbwnj = sponge) + (-lyd adjectival suffix)
sbwnsh SPUNSH-lid› [spʊnʃ]  (m?)
1 sponge
The Treatment of English Borrowed Words in Colloquial Welsh / Thomas Powel  / Y Cymmrodor Vol. VI 1883. / p132
The following paper is an attempt to give a general account
of the use and treatment of English words in the colloquial
Welsh of the present day. Most of the statements here made
are applicable to the whole of Welsh-speaking Wales; but
the paper treats more particularly of the dialect spoken, with
slight variations, in the Counties of Brecon, Caermarthen,
and the greater part of Cardigan.
(b.) G fìnal after n becomes sh: mansh (mange), plwnsh
(plunge), ffrensh, (fringe, fr. M.E. ' frange'), spwnsh (O.E.
spunge); challenge becomes shalens, by dissimilation.
sbwnjo sbun -jo› verb
1 sponge (USA: freeload = eat or drink at sb else's expense)
ETYMOLOGY: (sbwnj = sponge) + (-o suffix for forming verbs) in imitation of English to sponge (= wait around somebody in order to receive money or gain other advantages)
sbyddu sbə-dhi› verb
1 North Wales empty the water from (a boat, a pool). See disbyddu
sbydu sbə-di› verb
1 North Wales empty the water from (a boat, a pool). See disbyddu
dŵr twll sbydu bilge water (“water (of) (the) hole (of) emptying”)
’sbyty spə -ti› masculine noun
PLURAL sbytai spə -tai›
1 colloquial form of ysbyty = hospital
Bu rhaid mynd i'r ’sbyty I had to go to hospital
NOTE: See ysbyty
Y ’Sbyty ‹ə spə -ti›
1 short form for place names with Ysbyty (= hospice, inn) as the first element
In standard Welsh this would be Yr Ysbyty, but in colloquial Welsh ysbyty loses the first syllable > sbyty. With the addition of the definite article y the form Y Sbyty results
Ysbyty-ystwyth > Y ’Sbyty
Ysbyty-ifan > Y ’Sbyty
Byw yn y ’Sbyty ma fe nawr
He lives in ’Sbyty (= Ysbyty-ifan) now
NOTE: See ysbyty
1 These are usually loans from English
rafft raft < English raft < Old Norse raptr (= rafter)
sgìl skill < English skill < Old Norse skil (= distinction, difference).
sgrap scrap < English scrap < Scandinavian
sbowt spout < English spout, apparently < Dutch < Old Norse
sbrint sprint < English sprint < Scandinavian
'sdim stim
1 there isn't, etc
Sdim newid arno He’s set in his ways (“there’s no changing on him”)
ETYMOLOGY: ’sdim colloquial contraction of does dim < nid oes dim (= there isn’t)
sdi sdi
(North Wales)
1 = sydd wedi (“that is” + “after”)
Pwy syd wedi rhechu Who has farted? > Pwy sdi rhechu?
2 Sometimes so written (sdi) instead of sti
..a/ gwyddost ti you know, y’ know > wyddost ti > wsti  > sti
Dwi o ddifri 'sdi I’m serious, y’ know
..b/ a wyddost ti do you know? > wyddost ti > wsti  > sti
sti be < a wyddost ti beth do you know what? (question to highlight what will be said in a following sentence) > sti be
sebon SEE-bon› masculine noun
PLURAL sebonau ‹se-BOO-nai, -e›
1 soap
bar sebon bar of soap ("bar (of) soap")
blodyn sebon soap plant ("flower (of) soap") - plant which has parts which can be used as soap, such as the Californian Chlorogalum pomeridianum
calan sebon bar of soap ("bar (of) soap")
carreg sebon soapstone, soap earth, steatite - greasy variety of talc
chwysigen sebon soap bubble ("bubble (of) soap")
cneuen sebon soapnut Acacia concinna
fflochen sebon soap flake ("flake (of) soap")
gwaith sebon soapworks ("works (of) soap")
llestr sebon soapdish ("vessel (of) soap")
ópera sebon soap opera ("opera (of) soap")
pluen sebon soap flake ("feather / flake (of) soap")
sebon caled hard soap
sebon coch carbolic soap ("red soap")
sebon golchi household soap, soap for cleaning the house ("soap (of) washing")
sebon meddal soft soap
sebon sent toilet soap (colloquial) ("soap (of) scent")
sebon siafio shaving soap ("soap (of) shaving")
sebon ymolchi toilet soap ("soap (of) washing oneself")
sioe sebon soap opera ("show (of) soap")
swigen sebon North Wales soap bubble
2 golchi (rhywbeth) â sebon wash (something) with soap
3 bocs sebon soap box
areithiwr bocs sebon soap-box orator
4 soap, soft soap = flattery
Bydd hi'n derbyn yr holl sebon bob tro She falls for the flattery every time
Gad dy sebon! Leave off the flattery!
gwerthu sebon to softsoap, to flatter (“to sell soap”)
ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British
From the same British root: Cornish sebon (= soap), Breton saon (= soap)
Cf Latin sâpô, sâpôn|is (= soap),
Germanic *saip-: Old English sâpe > Modern English soap; German die Seife (= soap), Dutch zeep (= soap). The Germanic word is possibly from Latin.
Irish has gallúnach and sópa (this latter from English). The Welsh word is probably from Latin. The lack of a corresponding term in Irish is usually a good indicator of a word’s Latin origin (though usually if a Welsh word has a Latin origin this is easily discernible).
sebra SE-bra, ZE-bra masculine noun
PLURAL sebras, sebraod  SE-bras, ZE-bras, se-BRAA-od, ze-BRAA-od, ›
1 zebra
croesfan sebra (f), croesfannau sebra zebra crossing
Croesfan Sebra a Thwmpath (on road signs) Humped Zebra Crossing
(“zebra crossing and a hump”)
Sechareia ‹se-kha- rei -a› masculine noun
1 Zechariah ‹Zekəráiə› a Hebrew prophet around 500BC
2 Llyfr Sechareia the Book of Zechariah in the Old Testament, containing his oracles
se chi = fe fuasech chi ‹SE khi› (verb)
1 you would be
se chi = pe tasech chi ‹SE khi› (verb)
1 if you were
séciwlar se -kiu-lar› adjective
1 secular = wordly rather than religious
gwyl séciwlar = secular holiday
Gwyl seciwlar ydi'r Pasg erbyn hyn Easter is by now a secular holiday
2 secular = not connected with religion, not dealing with religion
addysg séciwlar secular education
ETYMOLOGY: English secular < French < Late Latin saeculâris < saeculum = an age
secsi sek -si› adjective
1 sexy
ETYMOLOGY: English sexy; (sex) + (-y suffix for forming adjectives)
sector sek -tor› masculine noun
PLURAL sectorau ‹ sek- to -re›
1 sector = part of an economy
y sector preifat = the private sector,
y sector cyhoeddus = the public sector,
y sector gwirfeddol = the voluntary sector (people who work on without renumeration in providing help for others)
2 sector = a portion of a society
y sector gwirfoddol the voluntary sector (= charities, etc)
3 sector = division in educational provision;
y sector Cymraeg = the Welsh-language sector, the part of educational provision through tthe medium of Welsh;
Mae llawer o rieni yn methu â chael lle i'w plant yn y sector Cymraeg
Many parents are unable to find a place for their children in the Welsh-language sector
ETYMOLOGY: English sector < Late Latin sector (= a cutter) < secâre (= to cut)
sectwr sek-tur›
PLURAL: sectwyr sekt-wir›
1 sectarian
ETYMOLOGY: (sect = sect) + (-wr = agent suffix)
also sectydd, plural sectyddion
sedd, seddau ‹seedh, SÊ dhe› (feminine noun)
1 seat = something on which a person sits (chair, saddle, etc)
sedd gadw reserved seat
Odi’r sedd ’ma’n wag? Is this seat free? Is this seat going free? Is anybody sitting in this seat?
2 sedd godi tip-up seat
3 gorsedd throne
equivalent to modern Welsh (gor- = super) + (sedd = seat)
sedila ‹se- dii -la› feminine noun
PLURAL sedilâu ‹se-di- lai
1 cedilla = small mark under a “c” before “a, o, u” or final in Catalan, Occitan, Portuguese, French to denote that it is sounded as ‹s› and not ‹k› (e.g. Catalan “enllaç” = link)
ec sedila “c cedilla”, “see cedilla”
The ç does not occur in Welsh.
ETYMOLOGY: English < Castilian cedilla (= small z) (formerly a small letter “z” written after a “c” to denote that it was a sibilant) < Older Castilian zedilla
The letter ç originated in Visigothic script, where a z was capped by a small c, but over time the c became bigger and the z became smaller, until it was known as the small z – the zedilla.
It was abolished in Castilian in the 1800s by the Royal Spanish Academy as it had become redundant.
This letter ç, that is the “cz”, represented approximately the sound [ts], and was the counterpart of the letter z [dz].
The z underneath indicated that this c was not to be pronounced as [k].
Thus cozina [dz] (= kitchen, cuisine) and caça [ts] (= hunting)
In the 1500s and 1600s both ç [ts] and z [dz] came to be pronounced the same as c [s] in the south and [θ] in the centre and north.
Now there were three symbols for the same sound [s] (c, ç, z,). It was decided to eliminate ç and use z instead, and to use c instead of z
caça > caza
cozina > cocina
zedilla > cedilla
se fe ‹SE ve› (verb)
(rapid colloquial speech)
1 = fe fuase fe he would be
2 = pe tase fe he would be
sefydlog ‹se VƏD log› (adjective)
1 settled, firm, steady
2 bod mor sefydlog â’r graig be as steady as a rock (“as the rock”)
sefydlu ‹se VƏD li› (verb)
1 establish, set up
2 arsefydlu install = put a computer program onto a computer
(ar- intensifying prefix ) + (sefydlu = establish)
sefyll ‹SE vilh› (verb)
1 stand = be standing; stand up
2 sefyll allan ‹se vilh A lhan› stand out, be prominent
3 sefyll ar osgo i (house) be at an angle to (the street, etc)
4 sefyll eich prawf am be tried for, stand trial for
5 codi (rhywbeth) yn ei sefyll put (something) upright, make (something) stand up, put (something) in a standing position
sefyll allan fel ffeir’ad mewn ffair -vilh a-lhan vel fei-rad meun fair
1 stick out like a sore thumb = be very obvious
ETYMOLOGY: “stand out like a clergyman in a fair” (sefyll allan = stand out) + (fel = com) + (ffeir’ad < ffeiriad < offeiriad = clergyman) + (mewn = in) + (ffair = fair)
sefyll allan fel llaid ar farch gwyn -vilh a-lhan vel lhaid ar varkh gwin
1 stick out like a sore thumb = be very obvious
ETYMOLOGY: “stand out like mud on a white horse” (sefyll allan = stand out) + (fel = like) + (llaid = mud) + (ar = on) + soft mutation + (march gwyn = white horse)
sefyll arholiad ‹se vilh ar HOL yad› (verb)
1 sit ('stand') an exam
sefyllfa, sefyllydd ‹se VƏLH va, se vəlh VEIDH› (feminine adjective)
1 situation
2 sefyllfa ddigynsail an unprecedented situation
sefylliwr ‹ se- vəlh -yur› masculine noun
PLURAL sefyllfwyr ‹ se- vəlh -wir›
1 loiterer, somebody who stands around doing nothing
ETYMOLOGY: (sefyll- ‹ə› stem of the verb sefyll ‹i› = to stand) + (loetr- stem of the verb loetran = to loiter) + (-i-wr suffix = man)
sefyll yn feichiau dros se-vilh ən veikh –ye dros› verb
1 to stand surety for, give security as a guarantee that an obligation will be met that will be forfeited if it is not; act as agents who will make sure that a commitment will be observed, be a guarantor, be guarantors
Mae'r Eglwys Wladol yn gosod pwys mawr ar fedydd, - dywed fod rhyw gyfnewidiad gwyrthiol yn cymeryd lle drwy'r ordinhad, a mynna gael tad a mam bedydd i sefyll yn feichiau dros y baban bach.
The state church attaches great importance to baptism – it says that a miraculous change takes place through this religious observance, and insists on having a godfather and godmother to
be guarantors for the little infant
ETYMOLOGY: (sefyll = to stand) + (yn = as) + soft mutation + (meichiau = guarantee) + (dros = for, on behalf of)
segur  gir› adjective
1 idle, lazy = without the desire to work
byw’n segur live in idleness, live idly
y cyfoethogion segur the idle rich
2 idle = at a standstill, not active
cyfnod segur idle period (in a cycle)
ffatri segur an idle factory, one standing unused
Nid yw amser ddim yn segur Time waits for no man (“time is not idle / still”)
3 idle = (machine) having the transmission disconnected
troi’n segur (also: troi’n weili) to idle
4 idle = not being used
cyfalaf segur capital lying idle
rheilffordd segur disused railway, abandoned railway
5 (person), idle = out of work
gwneud rhywun yn segur make someone redundant
6 (child) still, not moving constantly
7 South Wales (house), empty = unoccupied.
Tysegur ('empty house') is the name of a street in Castell-nedd, South Wales
(See ‘NOTE’ at the foot of the entry)
8 lazy = (river) slow-moving
tai mawrion ar lan yr afon segur big houses on the bank of the lazy river
9 partner segur
sleeping partner, business partner who does not take an active part in running the business, often one who supplies the capital for the business
10 spare (time, moment); idle (moment)
dysgu naddu pren yn ei amser segur to learn to carve wood in his spare time
pan fo awr segur gyda'r nos whenever there’s a spare hour in the evening...
ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin secûr(us) (= free from care) < sê- (= without) + (cûra = care).
(Latin secûrus has given English secure, security)
The corresponding word in Cornish is segur
NOTE: In south-east Wales, colloquially ‹b,d,g› at the beginning of the final syllable are devoiced > ‹p,t,k›. Hence segur > secur se-kir›
segura ‹se--ra› verb
1 idle about, loaf around, idle away one’s time
segura hyd yr heolydd hang around the streets
ETYMOLOGY: (segur = idle, inactive) + (-a suffix for forming verbs)
NOTE: also seguran in the south (segur + suffix -an for forming verbs indicating repeated or continuous action)
seguran ‹se--ran› verb
1 See segura
segurddyn ‹se- gir -dhin› masculine noun
PLURAL segurddynion ‹se-gir-dhən-yon›
1 idler
ETYMOLOGY: (segur = idle, inactive) + soft mutation + (dyn = man)
segurdod ‹se-gir-dod› masculine noun
1 idleness
2 leisure
3 inactivity
ETYMOLOGY: (segur = idle, inactive) + (-dod suffix for forming abstract nouns)
segurswydd ‹se- gir -suidh› feminine noun
PLURAL segurswyddi ‹se-gir- sui -dhi›
1 sinecure = job for which one is paid but which involves little or no work or responsibility
ETYMOLOGY: (segur = idle, inactive) + (swydd = work, job, office)
NOTE: also: swydd segur, segur swydd
segurwr ‹se- gi -rur› masculine noun
PLURAL segurwyr ‹se- gir -wir›
1 loafer
un o segurwyr cornel y stryd one of the people hanging around on street corners
ETYMOLOGY: (segur = idle, inactive) + (-wr suffix = ‘man’)
seguryd ‹se- -rid› masculine noun
1 sloth, indolence
ETYMOLOGY: (segur = idle, inactive) + (-yd suffix for forming abstract nouns)
seguryn ‹se- -rin› masculine noun
PLURAL segurwyr ‹se- gir -wir›
1 idler
ETYMOLOGY: (segur = idle, inactive) + (-yn suffix for forming nouns)
NOTE: The plural is that of segurwr (same meaning)
se hi ‹SE ve› (verb)
(rapid colloquial speech)
1 = fe fuase hi she would be
2 = pe tase hi she would be
seiciatryddol ‹sei ki a trə dhol› adjective
1 psychological
derbyn triniaeth seiciatryddol undergo pschychiatric treatment
ETYMOLOGY: seiciatrydd = psychiatrist + -ol = suffix for forming adjectives
seiclo ‹SEI klo› (verb)
1 to cycle
seidbord, seidbordydd ‹SEID bord, seid BOR didh› (feminine noun)
1 sideboard
seidr ‹SEI dir› (masculine noun)
1 cider
seiffon ‹SEI fon› (masculine noun)
PLURAL: seiffonau ‹sei-FON-ai, -e›
1 siphon, syphon
seiffno ‹SEIF no› (vt)
1 siphon, syphon
seiffnad ‹SEIF-nad › (masculine noun)
PLURAL: seiffonadau ‹seif-NAAD-ai, -e›
1 siphoning, syphoning
seilam sei -lam› masculine and feminine noun
PLURAL seilams sei -lams›
1 mental asylum (funny farm, loony bin)
bod yn barod i’r seilam be a mental case, be certifiable, be a lunatic, be a candidate for the lunatic asylum (“be ready for the asylum”)
2 Y Seilam specific name for a mental hospital
In the magazine Llafar Gwlad, number 73, Haf (summer) 2001:
Ysbyty Meddwl Gogledd Cymru (neu’r Seilam i bobl leol)
The North Wales Mental Hospital (or the ‘Asylum’ according to local people)
ETYMOLOGY: From the Enflish clipped form English ’sylum < asylum < Latin < Greek asulon (= refuge) <  asulos (= thing which cannot be seized), (a- negative prefix) + (sulon = right of seizure)
Th 'doctors thought he'd have to be put in a' sylum.
The Secret Garden (New York, 1911)
Frances Hodgson Burnett, 1849-1924
At last they said I was mad, an 'I went awee tae th' 'sylum yonder i' th 'town
Adrift in the Ice-Fields (New York, 1877)
Capt. Charles W[inslow] Hall (1843-1916)
the Mayor last year was Hoover, a chap that owns a lunatic 'sylum.”
The Man Who Lost Himself (New York, 1908)
Henry De Vere Stacpoole. (1863 –1951)
seiliad seil -yad› masculine noun
PLURAL seiliadau ‹seil--de›
1 founding, foundation
cyn seiliad y byd before the foundation of the world, before the world began
Effesiaid 1:4 Megis yr etholodd efe ni ynddo ef cyn seiliad y byd, fel y byddem yn sanctaidd ac yn ddifeius ger ei fron ef mewn cariad:
Ephesians According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love:
ETYMOLOGY: (seil-, stem of seilio = to base) + (-i-ad noun-forming suffix)
Seimon sei -mon› masculine noun
1 Simon
ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of English Simon sai-mən›. In the Welsh Bible the name is "Simon" < Greek "Simon" < Hebrew "Simeon" (= obedient)
Cf other names with English ‹ai› adapted into Welsh with ‹ei›
(1) Meic (= "Mike" ‹maik›)
(2) Breian (= Brian brai-ən›)
seinio ‹SEIN yo› (vreb)
1 to sound
2 seinio’r enciliad to sound the retreat
Seion sei -on› feminine noun