Free counter and web stats A Welsh to English Dictionary in page format  09-08-2012

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..............................0417e Geiriaduron / Dictionaries

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(delwedd 0003)






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La Web de Gal
les i Catalunya
The Wales-Catalonia Website

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An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English



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Archwiliwch y wefan hon
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(delwedd 3219)


























I, J, K









7000_kimkat1073e.jpgPL, Q







7000_kimkat1025e.jpgU, V

7000_kimkat1731e.jpgW, X

7000_kimkat1586e.jpgY, Z









I, i ii ddot feminine noun
) ninth letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e, 6 f, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z
) thirteenth letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e, 8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y


i i
1 epenthetic vowel in colloquial (Southern) pronunciations of monosyllables with the diphtong ei before a consonant cluster with final l / r. In the resulting tonic syllable the ei is usually reduced to a single vowel i
ceibr (= roof beams) > ceibir > cibir
geifr (= goats) > geifir > gifir
lleidr (= thief) > lleidir > llidir
neidr (= snake) > neidir > nidir


in comp
ound words, this could have resulted from gh, the soft-mutated initial consonant of a second element which was g in British

..1/ arial (= passion, courage) < *arghal :
(ar = in front of) + soft mutation + (gl- = force).

..2/ Gwrial (obsolete) mans name (= manly bravery) < gwr-ghal
(gŵr = man) + soft mutation + (gl = strength)
Equivalent to the Irish name Feargal

..3/ Llwydiarth (place name, grey hill) < *Llwydgharth :
(llwyd = grey) + soft mutation + (garth = hill).

..4/ miliast (= greyhound bitch) < *milghast :
(mil = animal) + soft mutation + (gast = bitch).
There is also the more regular form milast, without the i

..5/ Morien (= mans name) < *Morghen :
(mor, a reduced form of mawr = big) + soft mutation + (gen- = element equivalent to gen- in geni = to be born).
It means one who is born great (although there is the possibility that the first element is mr (= sea), and the meaning then would be born at sea, born of the sea, sea-born)

..6/ Peniarth (place name, end of the hill, headland, promotory) < *pengharth :
(pen = head) + soft mutation + (garth = hill).

The form without i (Penarth) also occurs, as Penrth (ST1871) with a shift of accent, a town in the county of Bro Morgannwg


3 i
i in sta
ndard Welsh is sometimes from an original y

..a/ Dewi David
Dewi < Dewy < Dewydd < Latin Davidus

..b/ dilin pure, fine, refined; polished
dilin < dilyn < dilyfn
(di- = intensifying prefix) soft mutation + (llyfn = llis)
Generally in the expression aur dilin fine gold

i < y in colloquial Welsh is sometimes from an original y
..a/ ydyw = is
ydi, di < ydy < ydyw


4 i
i in a t
onic vowel in spoken Welsh is sometimes from an original y in standard Welsh


The local name of Clydach SN6801, a village in the county of Abertawe, is Glitach (p. 445, Y Treigladau au Cystrawen, T. J. Morgan, 1952).


Clydach > Clitach > Glitach


(The soft mutation is explained as being the result of the names frequent occurrence in speech after the prepositions i (= to) and o (= from), and the soft-mutated form came to be regarded as the radical form - i Glitach (= to Clydach), o Glitach (= from Clydach)


In the
south-east, an i in a final syllable is sometimes a reduction of the diphthong [ai] (spelt au, ae, ai).

..a/ araul (adj) in the sunlight, facing the sun, sunny is (ar = facing) + (haul = sun)


Maesaraul sunny field; > ms aril
(maes = field) + (araul);

In the 1891 Census for Caer-dydd / Cardiff, in Enumeration Distric 7:
Pentyrch (Garth):All that part of the parish of Pentyrch in the Hamlet of Garth including Ty Vaughan, Forge, Furnace, and Level Houses, George Town, Gwaelodygarth and East End of Garth Hill, including Maesaril Houses

..c/ carrai thong; shoe lace; (in place names in South-east Wales) strip = long narrow strip of land Found as carri, with a i in the final syllable. (y Garri Wen, the white strip, etc)

..d/ cawsai (= paved way) > cawsi

Penygawsi ST5802 area of Llantrisant (Rhondda Cynon Taf) pen y gawsai (head / end / start of the paved way)


..e/ cymaint (= so much) > cymint

..f/ defaid (= sheep) > defid

..g/ eraill (= others) > erill

..h/ gefail (= smithy) > gefil

Tonyrefail (village name) (the) grassland (of) the smithy > Tonrefil

Yr Efailisaf (village name) the lower smithy > (yr) Efilisha



Loss of
the initial semi-consonant. A handful of examples exist:

Iefan > Efan (mans forename = John; this form is the origin of the forename Evan)

Iefan > (?) I-ifan > Ifan (mans forename = John)

ieuanc > iewanc > iefanc > (?) i-ifanc > ifanc (= young)
Iesu! > Esu! (exclamation = Jesus!)

iewaint > ewaint (obsolete) livley, spirited; (m) youth

Ieithon (river name) > (?) I-ithon > Ithon

Idd-hael (lord + magnaminous) > *Uthael > Ithel i-thel (= mans name)



penult i replacing penult y

In southern Welsh, an i is sometimes present colloquially instead of standard y [ə] (compare the use of w instead of standard y [ə] ). This is especially so in the county of Penfro / Pembroke

sўfi (strawberries) > sifi

(upland) > (Penfro) mini


i < ei in the penult (the penultimate syllable)

A short <I> [ɪ] or half-long <II> [iˑ] in the penult is sometimes a reduction of the diphthong ei

..1/ Cinmeirch

Llanrhaeadr yng Nghinmeirch lhan-HREI-adr əng HIN-meirkh [ɬanˡhrəɪadr əŋ ˡhɪnməɪrx],, in the county of Dinbych. SJ0863 the place called Llanrhaeadr which is the kmmud of Cinmeirch (in medieval times, Ceinmeirch).

..2/ dintir <DIN-tir> [ˡdɪntɪr] < deintur <DEIN-tir> [ˡdəɪntɪr] tenter, tenter frame; one on which cloth is stretched in order to dry without shrinking

In the town of Aberteifi there is Cnwcydintir cnwc y deintur, (the) hill (of) the tenter

..3/ gwilgi <GWIL-gi> [ˡwɪlgɪ] in the name Cefnwilgi <kevn-WIL-gi> [kɛvnˡwɪlgɪ] (= Cefn y weilgi) <kevn ə WEIL-gi> [kɛvn ə ˡwəɪlgɪ] (Y Trallwng, Powys) (hill of the torrent)

..4/ Ithon river SO0875 in Powys < Iithon < Ieithon

Llanigon <lhan-II-gon> [ɬanˡiˑgɔn] (Powys) is from Llaneigon <lhan-EI-gon> [ɬanˡəɪgɔn] (llan + saints name Eigon)

..6/ Llandilo <lhan-DII-lo> [ɬanˡdiˑlɔ] (Caerfyrddin) spelling formerly used in English for Llandeilo <lhan-DEI-lo> [ɬanˡdəɪlɔ], in fact a Welsh spelling of the local pronunciation of the town

..7/ Llanfilo A village SO1133 in Powys (church of Bilo or Beilo)

(llan = church, cell) + soft mutation + (Beilo) > Llanfeilo > Llanfilo

Misgyn <MI-skin> [ˡmɪskɪn] (spelt by the English as Miskin) is a local form of Meisgyn <MEI-skin> [ˡməɪskɪn]


the grave accent indicates a short vowel when it occurs in a long vowel environment

The i in monosyllables in Welsh with final b, -d, -g, -l, -n is long
diig anger
lhiid inflammation
piib pipe
tiin (American: ass, butt) (Englandic: arse, bum)
hiil lineage, descent

However English words with a short vowel taken into Welsh which have this same same pattern (monsyllables, final consonant g, b, d, l, n) retain the short vowel in Welsh.

Properly therefore they should be written with a grave accent to show that they do not conform to the traditional system, though this is almost never done

rg rig (of a ship)
wg wig (= hairpiece)
bb bib (of a baby)
bd bid (in an auction); also native nd (= no, not)
Bl Bill, William
bn bin
Wl Will, William
Ffl Philip


i i (preposition)

2 in phrase-prepositions denoting relative position
y tu arall i on the other side of (the other side to)
y tu arall i'r afon on the other side of the river

after verbs or verbal phrases
..1/ agor eich calon i unbosom yourself to / unburden yourself to (open your heart to)
..2/ gweddu i suit, look good on
......Maer siaced nan mynd yn dda i chi That jacket suits you, that jacket looks good on you ..3/ mynd yn dda i suit, look good on
......Maer dei nan mynd yn dda i chi That tie suits you, that tie looks good on you

(exclamations) wishing that somebody goes to, is taken to (the devil, hell, etc)

mynd ir diawl to go to Hell (go to the devil)
Cer ir diawl! Go to Hell! (go to the devil)
Fe gaiff fynd ir diawl! He can go to Hell! (he may go to the devil)
Ir diawl ag e! To Hell with him! (to the devil with him)

cyfarch gwell i to greet
cyfarch gwell iw gilydd to greet each other

sefyll ar osgo i (house) be at an angle to (the street, etc)

7 in order to
gwerthur fuwch i brynu tarw to rob Peter to pay Paul (sell the cow to buy a bull)


8 bod i (being to) to have
Bu iddo dri mab, Ifan, Dafydd a Meurig

He had three sons, Ifan (John), Dafydd (David) a Meurig (Morris)


(1) imi (i mi) (South: i fi) i MI (i VI) (preposition)
to me (South - i fi)

(1) inni (i ni) i NI (preposition)
to us

(2) i ti i TI (preposition)
to you

(2) i chi i KHI (preposition)
to you

(3) iddo fe / fo I dho ve / vo (preposition)
to him

(3) iddi hi I dhi hi (preposition)
to her

(3) iddyn nhw (literary form: iddynt hwy) I dhi nu (i dhint hui) (preposition)
to them

- i ble <i-BLEE> [ɪ ˡbleː] (interr) where to?

- i ffwrdd <i FURDH> [ɪ ˡfʊr] (adverb) away

- i mewn <i MEUN> [ɪ ˡmɛʊn] (adverb)
inside (location or motion)

- dewch / dowch i mewn <deukh, doukh i MEUN> [dɛʊx, dɔʊx ɪ ˡmɛʊn] come in

- i mewn ir dw^r <i meun ir DUUR> [ɪ mɛʊn ɪr ˡduːr]into the water


i <i> [ɪ]
a spoken form of iw (i + ei, to + his / her)
Snam llonydd i gal < nid oes llonydd iw gael Theres no peace to be had, I dont get a moments peace


ia (North Wales) <I-a> [ɪa] (phrase)
yes (north-western form of ie)


i (South Wales) <YAA> [jɑː] (masculine noun) (South)
clap i ice cube
NOTE: (North Wales has rhew)

- cloch i, clychau i <klookh YAA, klƏ-khai, -e, YAA> [kloːx ˡjɑː, kləxaɪ, -ɛ, ˡjɑː] (feminine noun) icicle


iach <YAAKH> [jɑːx] (adjective)

un iach wyt ti! you've got a nerve ("(it is) a healthy one (that) you are ")
Un iach wyt tin gofyn imi wneud hynna! Youve got some cheek asking me to do that!

awyr iach fresh air; open air (healthy air)
yn yr awyr iach in the open air
mynd i gael awyr iach go out for a breath of fresh air

<YEE-khid> [ˡjeˑxɪd]
(masculine noun) health

iach ddianaf safe and sound

6 holliach completely well, in perfect health
bod yn holliach be in sound health, fully recovered
(holl = complete) + (iach = healthy)

7 bod yn iach fel cricsyn be in rude health, be as fit as a fiddle (be healthy like a cricket)
bod fel cricsyn o iach be in rude health, be as fit as a fiddle (be like a cricket of healthy)


iachd <ya-KHAAD> [jaˡxɑːd]masculine noun
cael llwyr iachd make a full recovery
cael iachd llwyr make a full recovery
bod wedi iachd llwyr have made a full recovery

ETYMOLOGY: (iach- stem of iachu = to cure) + (-d suffix for forming abstract nouns from verbs with -u < -hu)

NOTE: South-east: iachd


iachu <ya-KHAI> [jaˡxaɪ]
to cure


iachawdwriaeth <ya-khau-DUR-yaith, -eth> [jaxaʊˡdʊrjaɪθ, -ɛθ] (feminine noun)

tarian iachawdwriaeth shield of salvation

Samuel-2 22:36 Rhoddaist hefyd i mi darian dy iachawdwriaeth; ac th fwynder y lluosogaist ti
Samuel-2 22:36 Thou hast also given me the shield of thy salvation: and thy gentleness hath made me great.


-iad <yad> [jad]
suffix for forming nouns

a) used in to denote a person of a certain nationality, formed from the name of a country; in some cases as -ad
..1/ Catalonia > Cataloniad = Catalan, Catalonian (Catalon-) + (-iad)
..2/ Llydaw > Llydawiad = Breton (Llydaw) + (-iad)
..3/ Norwy > Norwyad = Norwegian Norwy + (-ad)

dwellers of certain towns or villages; not in usual use
..1/ Bangor > Bangoriad = Bangor person, Bangorite
..2/ Corris > Corisiad = Corris person Corrisite
..3/ Tregaron > Tregaroniad <tre-ga-RON-yad> [trɛgaˡrɔnjad] Tregaron person Tregaronite

Bydd yn dda gan holl Dregaroniaid Caer-dydd ddeall y bydd cyfle i gwrdd hen gyfeillion yn yr aduniad ar gyfer cyn-ddisgyblion Ysgol Uwchradd Tregaron
All the Tregaron people in Caer-dydd will be pleased to know that there will be an opportunity to meet with old friends in the reunion for ex-pupils of Tregaron High School

c) animals

ymlusgiad, ymlusgiaid reptile

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *jat (is), *jat () < Celtic
from the same British root: Breton ad

NOTE: after certain words -iad becomes -ad


-iadau <YAA-dai, -e> [ˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]plural suffix
added to certain nouns:
addurn, addurniadau decoration
awgrym, awgrymiadau suggestion
apl, apeliadau appeal
bloedd, bloeddiadau shout
brath, brathiadau bite
bref, brefiadau bleat
cais, ceisiadau attempt, application
coll, colliadau loss
cyfarwydd, cyfarwyddiadau instruction
cyfnewid, cyfnewidiadau change
diolch, diolchiadau act of thanking
disgwyl, disgwyliadau expectation
dosbarth, dosbarthiadau class
dychymyg, dychmygiadau imagination, fancy
dychryn, dychryniadau fright
dyfis, dyfeisiadau device
fflach (-iadau) (f) newyddion news flash
llosg, llosgiadau burn
protest, protestiadau protest
tic, ticiadau tick (= sound of a clock)
tip, tipiadau tick (= sound of a clock)
tl, taliadau payment
ymchwydd, ymchwyddiadau swelling

Also to certain nouns with the suffix yn
poeryn, poeriadau globule of spit

ETYMOLOGY: combination of a singulative suffix (-iad) and the plural suffix (-au)


Iaen <YAIN> [jaɪn]feminine noun
SH9101 Afon Iaen = river in the district of Maldwyn (county of Powys) which joins the Twymyn

stream which runs into the Rhondda Fawr (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

ETYMOLOGY: iaen < ien obsolete = sheet of ice < (i = gel) + (-en = suffix)


-iaeth <yaith, -yeth> [jaɪθ, -jɛθ]suffix for forming nouns


Iago <YAA-go> [ˡjɑˑgɔ] (masculine noun)
(male name) James


Heol Sant Iago street name in Bangor (Gwynedd). English name: St. James Drive
(the) street (of) Saint James

(heol = street) + (sant = saint) + (Iago = James)


-iaid -yaid, -yed> [-jaɪd, -jɛd] feminine noun
in forming plurals of family names

(in the south as -aid, hence in South-west Wales colloquially as -ed, in South-east Wales as -id)
..1/ y Prisiartiaid the Prisiarts, (English) the Prichards
y Prysiaid the Pryses, (English) the Prices / Preeces
y Pyweliaid the Pywels, (English) the Powells

..2/ with the English form of the surname
yr Evansid (south-east) = yr Evansiaid the Evanses
ym mhlasty'r Gelli, hen gartref y Jenkinsiaid in the mansion of Y Gelli, the old home of the Jenkinses

3 names of some birds
parot, parotiaid parrot
barcut, barcutiaid
(Milvus milvus) red kite
gwennol, gwenoliaid swallow
pengwin, pengwiniaid penguin

4 names of some animals
anifail, anifeiliad animal
blaidd, bleiddiaid wolf
creadur, creaduriaid creature

iaith YAITH> [jaɪθ] feminine noun
PLURAL ieithoedd <YEI-thoidh, -oidh> [ˡjəɪθɔɪ, -ɔ]
language = system of spoken sounds to express thought

language = the language of a people

yn y ddwy iaith in the two languages; in both Welsh and English; in Welsh as well as English; in English as well as Welsh

Mae Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg wedi atgoffar Cynulliad bod yn rhaid i hwnnw gynnig gwasanaeth dwyieithog ar ei wefan. Ar wahn i deitl dwyieithog, maer cyfan bron yn uniaith Saesneg
The Welsh Language Board has reminded the Assembly (Welsh Parliament) that it must offer a bilingual service on its website - apart from a bilingual title, nearly all of it is in English

language = dialect of a person or a region
iaith Morgannwg "(the) language (of) Morgannwg", the Welsh spoken in Morgannwg
iaith y De "(the) language (of) the South", the Welsh spoken in South Wales

iaith dramor foreign language

colloquially, with the Englishism sowth
iaith y Sowth the Welsh spoken in South Wales

iaith y Gogledd "(the) language (of) the North" the Welsh spoken in North Wales
colloquially with the Englishism north
iaith y North "(the) language (of) the North"

tafodiaith (qv) <ta-VOD-yaith, -yeth> [taˡvɔdjaɪθ, -jɛθ]dialect
(tafod = tongue) + (iaith = language)

bratiaith <BRAT-yaith, -yeth> [ˡbratjaɪθ, -jɛθ]debased language; shoddy Welsh; slipshod language, especially a poor kind of Welsh heavily influenced by English
language (of) rag(s), i.e. tattered language /
raggd language
(brat = rag) + (iaith = language). Expression in use currently, originating in the nineteenth century

gweniaith flattery, smooth talk, cajolery, palaver; (archaic English: fair words)
fair / pleasing language (gwen = feminine form of gwyn = white, fair, pleasant) + (iaith)

mamiaith mother tongue, native language

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh iaith < British *yekt-i- < Celtic

From the same British root: Cornish yeth (= language), Breton yezh (= language)

A related form is Latin iocus (= joke), from which the English word joke comes


Il <YAAL> [jɑːl] (feminine noun)
A kmmud / cwmwd of the territory of Powys Fadog, in north-east Wales.


(delwedd 7210)


There are four historical parishes in Il Bryneglwys, Llandegla yn Il, Llanferres SJ1860, Llanarmon yn Il


The name Il was spelt as Yale in English, though at first this represented the same pronuniciation as the Welsh word. However, in the 1400s the English long vowel [aa] became a diphthong, todays [ei]. Hence the name Il [yaal] taken into English as Yale [yaal] eventually became Yale [yeil].


Plas yn Il SJ1749 (the) mansion in Il Mansion near Bryneglwys (county of Dinbych); the house and estate were formerly in the possession of the Yale family. (Elihu Yale, Wrecsam, of the family which founded Yale College in the USA)


The family living in Plas yn Il, in taking a fixed surname following the English custom and abandoning the native Welsh patronymic system (identifying a child by the name of the father, the fathers father and the fathers fathers father) used the name of their estate, Il, in its English form Yale.


(2008-12-01, website) It seems that the present owners of Plas yn Il have renamed the house in English, as Yale Hall.


Adapted from wikipedia Elihu Yale:


Elihu Yale (April 5, 1649, in Boston, Massachusetts - July 8, 1721, in London, England), was the first benefactor and namesake of Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, United States.


He was born in Boston, Massachusetts to David Yale (1613-1690) and Ursula Knight (1624-1698).


Elihu Yale was the grandson of Ann Lloyd (1591-1659), who remarried after the death of her first husband, Thomas Yale (1590-1619) in Chester, England. Her new husband was Governor Theophilus Eaton (1590-1657) of New Haven Colony.


Howver, when Elihu Yale was four years old, the Yale family moved to England and never returned to North America.


Yale's ancestry can be traced back to the family estate at Plas yn Il near the village of Llandegla, Denbighshire, Wales.


For 20 years, Yale was part of the British East India Company, and he became the second governor of a settlement at Madras (now Chennai), India, in 1687, after Streynsham Master.


Yale amassed a fortune in his lifetime, largely through secret contracts with Madras merchants, against the East India Company's directive. By 1692, Elihu Yale's repeated flouting of East India Company regulations and growing embarrassment at his illegal profiteering resulted in his being relieved of the post of governor.


In 1718, Cotton Mather, a New England Puritan minisiter, contacted Yale and asked for his help. Mather represented a small institution of learning that had been founded as the Collegiate School of Connecticut in 1701, and it needed money for a new building in New Haven, Connecticut.


Yale sent Mather a carton of goods that the school subsequently sold, earning them 560 pounds sterling, a substantial sum in the early 1700s. In gratitude, officials named the new building Yale; eventually the entire institution became Yale College.




(delwedd 7211)



Llanarmon yn Il SJ1956 A village six miles south of Yr Wyddgrug map, Llanarmon yn Il map, Llanarmon yn Il


Llandegla yn Il SJ1952 A village south of Llanarmon yn Il map, Llandegla yn Il


Llandysilio yn Il SJ2044 a parish and community north of Llangollen and south of Llandegla map of part of the area of Llandysilio


Blaen-il SJ1346 A farm (on map as Blaen Yale) (the) end (of) Il

Efail-blaen-il SJ1246 (on map as Efail Blaen Yale) (the smithy at Blaen-il) map Blaen-il, Efail-blaen-il


Rhiw-il farm east of Llanarmon yn Il SJ1856 (on map as Rhiw-ial) (the) hillside (of) Il map, Rhiw-il

Brwmffild a Il After the English defeated the independent rulers of Wales and it became a conquered territory and the property of the English Crown following the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284, Welsh territories near England were dismantled and given to Englishmen. The kntrevs of Il and Maelor Gymraeg, originally part of the territory of Powys Fadog, became a lordship called Bromfield and Yale (in Welsh, Brwmffild a Il).


The English king Edward I gave the territory to John Warrene, the Earl of Surrey, who was one of the Marcher Lords, feudal English lords of Norman descent living along the Welsh border. Whereas the territory had been administered by the native Welsh from Castell Dinas Brn SJ2243 overlooking Llangollen from the north-east, the Earl of Warrene built a new castle in Holt (Wrecsam) SJ4053, on the English border, on the Welsh side of the river Dyfrdwy opposite the village of Farndon SJ41554 in Cheshire. Holt


Dyffryn Il (the valley of the kmmud of Il). This seems to be a recent name, possibly a translation of a name apparently used by the English Vale of Yale. It is unusual in that dyffryn would normally be followed by the name of a river in Welsh, but Il is the name of an upland or a kmmud.


In 1980 it was decided to combine the primary school in Llandegla with that in Bryneglwys, and in 1989 the schools were given the name Ysgol Dyffryn Il (the) school (of) Dyffryn Il Eglwys Tysilio, Beryneglwys


lleuad gwŷr Il the harvest moon (the) moon (of) the people (of) (the kmmud of) Il


Adapted from wikipedia harvest moon:


The full moons of September, October and November as seen from the northern hemisphere - are well known in the folklore of the sky. All full moons rise around the time of sunset.


However, although in general the moon rises about 50 minutes later each day, as it moves in orbit around Earth, the Harvest Moon is special, because around the time of these full moons, the time difference between moonrise on successive evenings is shorter than usual.


In other words, the moon rises approximately 30 minutes later, from one night to the next, as seen from about 40 degrees N. for several evenings around the full Harvest Moons.


Thus there is no long period of darkness between sunset and moonrise around the time following these full moons.


In times past this feature of these autumn moons was said to help farmers working to bring in their crops. They could continue being productive by moonlight even after the sun had set. Hence the name Harvest Moon.


(delwedd 7209)


Ehedydd Il (the) skylark (of) Il bardic name of poet William Jones (1815-1899), born in Cefndeulin, Derwen, county of Dinbych / Denbigh, and who subsequently lived in Llandegla


Blodau Il, sef Cynyrchion Barddonol William Jones (Ehedydd Il), Wedi Eu Casglu a'u Trefnu gan y Parch. John Felix. 1898:

A volume of the poems of Ehedydd Il:

literally (the) flowers / (the) [best] poems (of) Il, namely the poetical works (poetical products) of William Jones (Ehedydd Il), collected and arranged by the Reverend John Felix


ETYMOLOGY: Related to Gaulish ial-o-, apparently = land cleared of trees, woodland glade.


GPC (Geiriadur Prifysol Cymru / The University of Wales Dictionary) gives the meaning as cultivated upland, from an earlier possible meaning in Welsh of glade, open land.

(delwedd 7222)


Nanteuil, in south-eastern France, is Gaulish nant-ial-o valley clearing,

corresponding to Welsh nant (= (older) valley; (nowadays) stream) and il (= (older) clearing; (later) cultivated upland)



Ianto <YAN-to> [ˡjantɔ] (masculine noun)
diminutive of Ifan (John)
often used as the name for a dog


ir, ieir <YAAR, YEIR> [jɑːr, jəɪr] (feminine noun)

chwarae mwgwd yr ieir play blind mans buff (play (the) blindfold (of) the hens)

mor llithrig thalcen ir as slippery as an eel as slippery as the forehead of a hen
mor wastad thalcen ir as flat as a pancake (as flat as (the) forehead (of a ) hen)

fel ir ar ben y domen (person) untidy, messy (like a hen on top of the dungheap)

fel ir ar y glaw crestfallen, down in the dumps, dejected, downhearted (like a hen in the rain / during the rain)

6 lladd yr ir a chollir cywion to kill the goose that lays the golden eggs (kill the hen and lose the chicks) to destroy a source of wealth through impatience greed, to lose everything through wanting it all at once

iard, ierdydd <YARD, YER-didh> [jard, ˡjɛrdɪ] (feminine noun)
2 iard sgrap scrap yard


iard drefnu <yard DREV-ni> [jard ˡdrɛvnɪ]feminine noun
PLURAL iardiau / ierdydd trefnu <YER-didh-TREV-ni> [ˡjɛrdɪ ˡtrɛvnɪ]
Railways marshalling yard, shunting yard; = place where goods wagons are sorted to make up goods trains

ETYMOLOGY: (iard = yard) + soft mutation + (trefnu = to order, to arrange)


iard siyntio <yard SHƏNT-yo> [jard ˡʃəntjɔ] (feminine noun)
(colloquial) marshalling yard, shunting yard


ir fach yr haf, ieir bach yr haf <yaar vaakh ər HAAV, yeir baakh ər HAAV> [jɑːr vɑːx ər ˡhɑːv, jəɪr bɑːx ər ˡhɑːv] (feminine noun)
butterfly (little hen of the summer)


ias <YAAS> [jɑːs]PLURAL iasau <YA-sai, -e> [ˡjasaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
1 thrill, thrill of excitement, thrill of anticipation

shiver, shudder
Cerddodd ias trwof A shiver went down my spine (a shudder went / walked through me)
Fe aeth rhyw ias trwof A shiver went down my spine (some (kind of) shudder went through me)


iau <YAI> [jaɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL ieuau <YEI-ai, -e> [ˡjəɪaɪ, -ɛ]
North Wales

guts = courage
does na ddim iau yno fo
(Northern Welsh for: nid oes dim iau ynddo fe < (literary Welsh) nid oes iau ynddo)
hes got no guts, hes a coward (there is no liver in him)

llid yr iau hepatitis ("infection (of) the liver")

ETYMOLOGY: iau < au
In Cornish avi (= liver), Breton avu (= liver)
In Irish ae <ee [eː] (= liver)

NOTE: In South Wales, as in Cornish and Breton, there is an intrusive <v> [v]- afu < au


iau <YAI> [jaɪ] adjective
younger, comparative form of ieuanc / ifanc
in the colloquial language, the forms

..1/ ifancach (south) and
..2/ iengach (north) are usual

Dyw en mynd ddim iau Hes not getting any younger


iau <-yai, -ye> [-jaɪ, -jɛ]
plural termination

Some examples are:
bl, biliau bill
bryn, bryniau hill
cadair, cadeiriau vhair
ffilm, ffilmiau film
gair, geiriau word
llun, lluniau picture
pris, prisiau price
rhail, rheiliau rail
sail, seiliau foundation, base
sain, seiniau sound
trol. troliau cart
tn, tuniau tin


iawn <yaun> [jaʊn] (adjective)
correct, right

2 os cofiaf yn iawn if I remember rightly
os iawn y cofiaf if I remember rightly, if my memory serves me well, if my memory's not mistaken


iawn <yaun> [jaʊn] (masculine noun)

talu iawn (i rywun)
<taa-li YAUN> [tɑˑlɪ ˡjaʊn]compensate

3 atonement
gwneud rhywbeth yn iawn am bechod do something in atonement for a sin

4 (Christianity) yr Iawn Atonement = the reconciliation of man with God through the sacrificial death of Christ
Athrawiaeth yr Iawn The Doctrine of Atonement


iawndda <YAUN-dha> [ˡjaʊna]adjective
1 very good, excellent

iawndda iach in excellent health


Shwd ych chi heddi, odi chi'n iawndda?

How are you today, are you all right?


2 so so, fair, middling

NOTE: South-east Wales as iawnda, iownda

y ffurf a glywais i ar lafar gwlad yn nwyrain Morgannwg oedd iownda

(Y Treigladau au Cystrawen, T. J. Morgan, 1952, t. 27)

the form I heard in spoken Welsh in east Glamorgan was iownda


An example of calediad the cancelling of a soft mutation. Other examples of n-dd > n-d are

cynddeiriog (raging mad) > cyndeiriog (a common colloquial form)

Llanddwyn (village name, Ynys Mn) > Llandwyn (a varant form)

cynddrwg (= so bad, as bad) > cyndrwg (South Wales)

Ieuan Ddu (= black-haired Ieuan) > Ieuan Du

Llanymddyfri > Llanddyfri > Llandyfri (town in the county of Caerfyrddin, from which form the English give the town the name Llandovery)


ETYMOLOGY: (iawn = fine, correct) + soft mutation + (da = good)


iawndal <YAUN-dal> [ˡjaʊndal] masculine noun
PLURAL iawndaliadau <yaun-dal-YAA-dai, -e> [jaʊndalˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ]
compensation, settlement

Mae dros filiwn o bunnoedd o iawndal wedi cael eu talu hyd yma i bobol gafodd eu hanafu yn y ddamwain
Over a million pounds in compensation has been paid out so far to people who were injured in the accident

iawndal i gyn-lowyr syn dioddef o broblemau anadlu
compensation for miners with (suffering from) breathing problems

iawndal am ddifrod rhyfel war damage compensation (compensation for damage (of) war)

ETYMOLOGY: (iawn = justice) + soft mutation + (tl = payment)


Iberia <i-BER-ya> [ɪˡbɛrja]feminine noun
Rhyfel Iberia The Peninsular War (1808-1814) - Portuguese, Castilians and English against the French, resulting in the defeat of the French


Iddew, Iddewon <II-dheu, i-DHEU-on> [ˡiˑɛʊ, ɪˡɛʊɔn] (masculine noun)

Jew, Jewish man

= Jewish men, Jewish people


Iddewes, Iddewesau <i-DHEU-es, i-dheu-E-sai, -e> [ɪˡɛʊɛs, ɪɛʊˡɛsaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
Jewish woman


Iddewiaeth <i-DHEU-yaith, -yeth> [ɪˡɛʊjaɪθ, -ɛθ]f
Judaism = the Jewish religion

ETYMOLOGY: (Iddew = Jew) +(-i-aeth suffix for forming nouns)


iddi II-dhi [ˡiˑɪ]
to her

Rhor papur iddi Give her the paper

iddi hi to her

iddi hithau to her, to HER



iddi nhw II-dhi nu [ˡiˑɪnʊ]
to them

(variant spelling of iddyn nhw, colloquial form of iddynt [hwy])




Iddon <II-dhon> [ˡiˑɔn]
masculine noun
mans name
NOTE: A former name of the village of Betws-y-coed was Betws Wyrion Iddon ((the) church (of the) grandsons (of) Iddon)



iddyn nhw II-dhi nu [ˡiˑɪnʊ]
to them

iddyn nhw to them

iddyn nhwthau to them, to THEM



(Colloquial form of iddynt [hwy])


(Variant spellings of iddyn nhw are iddy nhw, iddi nhw)



iddynt II-dhint [ˡiˑɪnt]
to them

iddynt hwy to them

iddynt hwythau to them, to THEM


(Colloquial Welsh iddyn nhw, sometimes spelt iddi nhw)



<I-dris> [ˡɪdrɪs]masculine noun
1 man's name (revived in the 1900s)

2 Cadair Idris (SH6913) mountain in the district of Meirionnydd (county of Gwynedd). Situated between the rivers Mawddach and Dysynni, it was on the boundary between the old kingdoms of Gwynedd and Powys. In local tradition, Idris was a giant (Idris Gawr = Idris (the) giant)
Local name: Y Gader


Idwal <ID-wal> [ˡɪdwal] (masculine noun)
mans name


ie -
semi-consonant i + vowel e


ie <I-e> [ˡɪɛ] (phrase)


iechyd YEE-khid [ˡjeˑxɪd] masculine noun
mewn llawn iechyd in fine health

Nid oedd Ann wedi bod yn ei llawn iechyd ers tro
Ann hadnt been completely well for some time

(South) sarnuch iechyd ruin your health

iechyd gwael bad health

in exclamations of surprise - (probably as a euphemism for Iesu = Jesus)
iechyd! ("health")
yr iechyd! ("the health")
iechyd annwyl! ("dear health")
iechyd y byd! (" (the) health (of) the world")
nenor iechyd! (= yn enwr iechyd) ("in the name of the health")

da eich iechyd healthy ("good your health")
gwael eich iechyd in bad health ("bad your health")

dioddef iechyd gwael
suffer from bad health

diet gwael ўn un o brif achosion iechўd gwael
a bad diet is one of the main causes of bad health

cael iechyd enjoy good health ("have health")

os caf i iechyd a byw God willing ("if I have good health and can live")

canolfan iechyd health centre

yswiriant iechyd health insurance

iechyd da YEE-khid DAA, YEE-khi(d) DAA [ˌjeˑxɪd ˡdaː, ˌjeˑxɪ(d) ˡdaː] (toast) good health!


(See separate entry below)

Swyddfa Iechyd Dynolryw The World Health Organisation (office (of) health (of) mankind)

ў gwasanaeth iechўd the health service

ў Gweithgor Iechўd a Diogelwch the Health and Safety Council

10 Sayings:
Tri enllyn iechyd: ml, ymenyn a llaeth The three companages for health are honey, butter and milk

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh (iach = healthy) + (-yd, suffix for forming nouns) < British
a > e under the influence of the y [i] in the final syllable (vowel affection)

From the same British root: Cornish yeghes (= health), Breton yeched (= health)

A related word in Irish is c (= doctor, healer) (older spelling ceadh)
It occurs in the surname hc (older spelling hcidhe), anglicised as O Hickey


iechyd cymdeithasol <YEE-khid kəm-dei-THA-sol> [ˡjeˑxɪd kəmdəɪˡθasɔl] (masculine noun)
social health


iechyd da! <YEE-khid DAA> [ˡjeˑxɪd ˡdɑː]
toast Cheers! Your good health!

yfed iechyd da rhywun drink someones health ("drink (the) good health of someone")
yfed iechyd rhywun drink someones health ("drink (the) health of someone")
yfed i iechyd rhywun drink to the health of (somebody), toast (somebody)

ETYMOLOGY: good health (iechyd = health) + (da = good)

NOTE: This is one of the few Welsh expressions known to English people, though in a somewhat distorted fashion as English-speakers are generally unable to pronounce ch [kh] [x].


They write it yacky dah / yakky dah / yaki dah or yacky dar / yakky dar / yaki dar or yacky da / yakky da / yaki da, and pronounce it YA-ki DAA [ˌjakɪ ˡdaː]

To English people it suggests the English word to yack to talk without pause. The verb yack is often used (somewhat disparagingly) in the context of a language which they do not understand they were yacking away in Chinese / Greek / Welsh, etc, to go yack, yack, yack.

Comment from an English forum (Of [sic] to Pwllheli for a short break) by an Englishman from Bolton, Lancashire 12-10-2008, 06:30 PM:

the best thing to do when the ignorant taffs go into yakky dah speak is to talk in german. this screws them up big time.

Added to which is a comment from Amlwch: Hmm, Welsh people, in Wales, speaking Welsh to each other. The very cheek of it.


There is a misconception amongst many English people that this is a form of greeting, as if hello or how are you, not realising that it is in fact a toast to a persons continued good health.


Interestingly, in Patagonia the typical Welsh phrase known by the non-Welsh speakers is bara menyn (bread and butter), said to have been used by the Tehuelche Indians when begging for food at the Welsh farms.


Iefan <YEE-van> [ˡjeˑvan]
masculine noun
form of the name Ifan (John) in the south-east of Wales

31 December 1601. John Richard Treharne of Llangattock Llingoed Co. Mon. husbandman to Thomas Morice, clerk vicar of Llangattock.
GRANT 166.13.4d Messuage in which the said John lately dwelt in Llangattock with all appurtenances and lands, also two closes or parcels of land containing
2 acres which he lately had and had bought of Richard ap Richard John Ievane situate in the parish of Llangattock Hanbury Family Papers


ETYMOLOGY: Iefan < Ieuan < British < Latin Johann-


ieir <YEIR> [jəɪr] (plural noun)
hens; plural of ir


ieithgarwch <ieith-GAA-rukh> [ɪəɪθˡgɑˑrʊx]masculine noun
love of ones native language, attachment to ones mother tongue

Mae ieithgarwch yn elfen hanfodol o wladgarwch
The love of your language is an essential part of loving ones country

love of the Welsh language

ETYMOLOGY: (ieithgar = loving ones native language) + (-wch suffix for forming nouns


ieithmon <YEITH-mon> [ˡjəɪθmɔn]masculine noun
PLURAL: ieithmyn <YEITH-min> [ˡjəɪθmɪn]

someone who knows many languages
Mae on dipyn o ieithmon Hes quite a linguist

ETYMOLOGY: (ieith- < iaith = language) + (-mon, suffix = man)


ieithoedd <YEI-thoidh, -odh> [ˡjəɪθɔɪ, -ɔ] (plural noun)
languages; plural of iaith


Ieithon <YEI-thon> [ˡjəɪθɔn]
(SO1084) Afon Ieithon river in the district of Maldwyn (county of Powys)
Rises 7km south of Y Drenewydd; flows south to Llandrindod, joins the river Gwy 2km south of Y Bontnewydd ar Wysg

The colloquial form is Ithon [II-thon] [ˡiˑθɔn]

(probably Ieithon [ˡjəiθɔn] > I-ithon [ˡjiˑθɔn]> Ithon [ˡiˑθɔn])
..a/ In Y Drenewydd (county of Powys) there is a street called Ithon
..b/ In Llandrindod (county of Powys) there is a street called Ithon Close (which would be Clos Ithon in Welsh)

(SO1084) Blaenieithon locality in Maldwyn (Powys)
((the) source (of) (the river) Ieithon)

ETYMOLOGY: Name of a deity? (ieith- < iaith = language) + (suffix on)


ieithydd <YEI-thidh> [ˡjəɪθɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL: ieithyddion, ieithwyr <yei-THƏDH-yon,-YEITH-wir> [jəɪˡθəjɔn, ˡjəɪθwɪr]

ETYMOLOGY: (iaith = language) + (-ydd, suffix for forming nouns)


Iestyn <YE-stin> [ˡjɛstɪn] (masculine noun)
mans name


Iesu <YE-si> [ˡjɛsɪ] (masculine noun)
Jesus Christ. Also Iesu Grist and yr Iesu

2 Rhagom Filwyr Iesu
Onward Christian Soldiers (before us, soldiers (of) Christ)

3 (North Wales) colloquially, in oaths: Iesu > Esu


Iesu Grist <YE-si GRIST> [ˡjɛsɪ ˡgrɪst]masculine noun
Jesus Christ

Iesu Grist Name given by the doctor William Price (Llantrisant, 1800-1893) to his son born in 1883 (when the doctor was 82 / 83 years old!) and who died at the age of five months in January 1884.

The use of the name of Jesus for his son was considered scandalous (though in Catholic countries it is common as a forename), even more so since William Price supposed himself to be an archdruid and hence a pagan.

He was arrested and taken to court for cremating the body of his son on a hill by Llantrisant since burial was the only permitted means of disposal of a dead body at the time.

However, the court did not consider cremation to be a crime, and from then on it became common in the countries of Britain as an alternative to burial

Mae e fel Iesu Grist bach (scornful) Hes a little goodie-goodie, Hes a little angel (hes like a little Jesus Christ)

ETYMOLOGY: (Iesu = Jesus) + soft mutation + (Crist = the Messiah)


iesin <YE-sin> [ˡjɛsɪn]adjective
(obsolete) fine, fair, handsome, beautiful
Taliesin name (= fair brow) (tl = brow)

Mor brudd ydoedd gweled prydferthwch mor iesin,
Dan lwydrew yr hydref yng nghanol yr haf.
(Marwn yr Haf / (dying in summer) Twynog / Cyfrol Goffa y diweddar T. Twynog Jeffreys, Rhymni. Dan Olygiaeth Dyfed. / Gwrecsam: Argraffwyd gan Hughes a'i Fab. 1912 t.232)
It was so sad to see such radiant beauty
Under the autumn frost in the middle of summer

(obsolete) radiant, shining

In Aberdyfi (county of Gwynedd) there is a street called Nantiesyn.
Query: Is this a modern name, Nantiesin = fair stream (with an erroneous spelling with y)?

ETYMOLOGY: Possibly ias (= heat, thrill) + (suffix -in).

The word is found as an element in a Gaulish name recorded in Latin as Iestinus

The suffix -in is found in heyernin (= made of iron), deyerin (= earthen)


Ieu <YEI> [jəɪ] (masculine noun)
familiar form of Ieuan (= John)

ETYMOLOGY: the first syllable of Ieuan

Ieuan <YEI-an> [ˡjəɪan] (masculine noun)
John, medieval form of Ifan; revived in the 1800s, firstly in bardic names

used in denoting different types of person:
..1/ Ieuan lygad y geiniog (also Ieuan llygad y geiniog) miser (John (of the) eye (of) the penny)

Colloquially Ieuan > Iewan > Iefan > (ifan)?? > Ifan, where semiconsonantal i becomes the vowel i

The form Iefan was current in south-east Wales in the 1800s

Compare ieuanc (= young) > iewanc > iefanc > (ifanc)?? > ifanc (current colloquial form)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin Iohann-


ieuanc, ieuainc <YEI-angk, YEI-aingk> [ˡjəɪaŋk, ˡjəɪaɪŋk] (adjective)

iau younger, comparative form of ieuanc / ifanc
in the colloquial language, the forms
..1/ ifancach (south) and
..2/ iengach (north) are usual

Dyw en mynd ddim iau Hes not getting any younger

Colloquially ieuanc (= young) > iewanc > iefanc >> (?ifanc) > ifanc (current colloquial form)

Compare Ieuan > Iewan > Iefan > (?ifan) > Ifan

The form Iefan was current in south-east Wales in the 1800s


ieuenctid <yei-ENGK-tid> [jəɪˡɛŋktɪd] (masculine noun)
ienctid / ienctid colloquial form


<YEI-o> [ˡjəɪɔ] (verb)
to yoke

ieuon gymharus (of a man and woman) make a good match (yoke compatibly)


Ifan <II-van> [ˡiˑvan] (masculine noun)

3 A pet form is Ifi II-vi

ETYMOLOGY: From Ieuan (= John), a medieval form now revived as a forename.

Colloquially Ieuan > Iewan > Iefan > (-ifan)?? > Ifan (where semiconsonantal i becomes the vowel i)

Also Ieuan > Iewan > Iefan > Efan (where semiconsonantal i is discarded)


Cf Northern Welsh, in oaths, Iesu (= Jesus) > Esu

The form Iefan was current in south-east Wales in the 1800s

Compare ieuanc (= young) > iewanc > iefanc > (ifanc)?? > ifanc (current colloquial form)


Ifana <i-VAA-na> [ɪˡvɑˑna] (feminine noun)
womans name. Ifan + -a


ifanc, ifainc <I-vangk, I-vengk> [ˡɪvaŋk, ˡɪvɛŋk] (adjective) (colloquial form) <YEI-angk> [ˡjəɪaŋk]

1 young

iau younger, comparative form of ieuanc / ifanc
in the colloquial language, the forms
..1/ ifancach (south) and
..2/ iengach (north) are usual

Dyw en mynd ddim iau Hes not getting any younger

ETYMOLOGY: From ieuanc (= young)

Colloquially ieuanc > iewanc > iefanc > (ifanc)?? > ifanc (current colloquial form)

Compare Ieuan > Iewan > Iefan > (ifan)?? > Ifan


i ffwrdd <i FURDH> [ɪ ˡfʊr] (adverb)


Ifor <I-vor> [ˡiˑvɔr] (masculine noun)
Ifor (Ivor)


i fyny <i VƏ-ni> [ɪ ˡvənɪ] (adverb)

Coch i fyny, teg yfory
(red up, fair tomorrow i.e. a red colour up in the sky) Red sky at night, shepherds delight; if the sky is red at sunset, tomorrow will be a fine day


ig, igion IIG, IG yon (feminine noun)


-ig ig
diminutive suffix added to nouns - now non-productive, except in literary Welsh

..1/ afon (= river), afonig (= stream)
..2/ ardd (=hill), erddig (= little hill) (as in the place names Erddig, Talerddig)
..3/ awel (= wind), awelig (= gentle breeze)
..4/ awr (= hour), orig (= short while)
..5/ bach (= little) *bachig (bachigol = diminutive, bachigyn = diminutive suffix)
..6/ cn (= can), canig (= little song)
..7/ coron (= crown), coronig (= little crown)
..8/ darn (= fragment), dernig (= small fragment)

..9/ erw (= acre, plot of land), erwig (= little piece of land)
..10/ henllan (= old church), henllennig ( = little old church)
..11/ ierig (obsolete) (= young hen, pullet), ir (= hen)
..12/ llan (= church), llennig ( = little church)
..13/ llўsўwen (= eel), llysywennig (= elver, young eel)
..14/ nofel (= novel), nofelig (= novelette)
..15/ oen (= lamb), oenig (= little lamb)
..16/ ynys (= island), ynysig (= little island)

ETYMOLOGY: -ig < British *-k


igam-ogam IIgam-OO-gam adverb
dringo igam-ogam i fyny... zigzag up..., go up (a hill, etc) zigzag
Dringodd y ceffyl igam-ogam i fynyr bryn, o dde i aswy ac o aswy i dde
The horse went up the hill zigzag, from right to left and from left to right

ETYMOLOGY: igam-ogam i gam-o-gam < i gam o gam i gam o gam (= from step to step) (i = a) + soft mutation + (cam = pas) + (i = o) + soft mutation + (cam = pas)

(1) North Wales (1) miga-moga, (2) iga-moga
(2) South Wales (1) migi-moga, (2) mingam-mongam / fingam-fongam, (3) mingi-mongam, (4) wingi-wonga, (5) gimwch-gamwch, (6) cimach-gamach
(3) South-east Wales: wicam-wocam


iglw, iglws II glu, II glus (masculine noun)


i gyd ii giid

completely; especially (noun) + (i gyd)
bod yn dyllau pryfed i gyd (wood) be riddled with insect holes

Ar yr wyneb, mae Mrs Parri yn gwrteisi i gyd
On the surface, Mrs Parri is courtesy itself

Arnat ti roedd y bai i gyd It was your fault entirely

bod yn gywilydd i gyd be thoroughly embarrassed

bod yn faw i gyd be covered in muck (be all mud)
Yn faw i gyd ma'ch dillad Your clothes are covered in muck

(South Wales): yn dosau i gyd,
(North Wales): yn blorod i gyd (face) covered in acne

yn inc i gyd inky, all inky, covered with ink

all, completely
Maer tatws yn feddal i gyd
ac yn gwynton ddrwg
The potatoes are all soft and they smell bad

complete, nothing but
Lwc i gyd oedd y cwbl It was all sheer / pure / complete luck

with superlatives, to form phrases of equative increase, equivalent to the English formula the... the... (the sooner the better)
gorau i gyd po gynta
the sooner the better

in all, in total, altogether = including everything (in giving a total at the end of a list or a series)
Pregethodd yn y bore i gleifion a staff Ysbyty Glan Clwyd, ac wedyn yn eglwysi'r Rhyl a Phrestatyn. Tair pregeth i gyd

He gave a sermon in the morning to the patients and staff of Glan Clwyd Hospital and then in the churches (chapels) at Rhyl and Prestatyn. Three sermons in all.

Yr oedd e wedi hwylio o Lerpwl i Amrica bump o weithiau i gyd
In all, he sailed from Liverpool to America five times

Nos da i gyd Good night, everybody

gwn i gyd all smiles
Roedd pawb yn wn i gyd Everybody was all smiles

Roedd ei wallt du yn twmlo dros i dalcen yn gwrle mn i gyd
His black hair tumbles over his forehead in a mass of curls (as curls all)

eto i gyd in spite of that

hynny i gyd all that

yng Nghymru i gyd in the whole of Wales

all (of something); used after a verb
Mae e'n siglo i gyd The whole thing is shaking

gorau i gyd best of all

plant i gyd all children, nothing but children

ETYMOLOGY: (i preposition = to ) + soft mutation + ( cyd = union)
NOTE: also: 'gyd after a vowel


i gyfeiriad ii gə-VEIR-yad
1 in the direction of


ar bwys yr eglwys, i gyfeiriad yr afon near the church, in hte direction of the river / as you go towards the river

ETYMOLOGY: (i preposition = to ) + soft mutation + (cyfeiriad = direction)


i lan i LAN (adverb)
(Colloquially lan, without the preposition i)
(South) up
2 (South) mynd lan rhiw go uphill


i lawr i LAUR (adverb)
(Colloquially lawr, without the preposition i)

torri (drws) i lawr break (a door) down
torri (wal) i lawr
knock down, flatten (a wall)


ildio ILD yo (verb)

(road junction) give way

eich ildioch hun surrender, give oneself up (to an enemy)


Ilid I lid (feminine noun)
womans name;
Welsh woman saint (Llanilid - place name)


Illtud ILH tid (masculine noun)
mans name;
Welsh male saint (Llanilltud - place name)




Illtyd ILH tid (masculine noun)
mans name; a traditional spelling (though unetymological) of Illtud, since the final element is tud (= people)





Illtyda ilh Tə da (feminine noun)
a female name based on Illtyd ; a traditional spelling of Illtud, (though unetymological, since the final element is tud = people)


Aber-lash, Llandybie. Jenetta Illtyda Howell (1776-1821), whose grandfather was Illtyd Evans (junior) (1723-1776), and great-grandfather Illtyd Evans (senior) (1698-1746)

Historic Ammanford Houses and their Families


ETYMOLOGY: (Illtyd- < Illtyd) + (-a suffix added to male names to form female names)

Other examples are Ifan / Ifana, Meirion / Meiriona


i maes
i MAIS (preposition)
Used in the south, replacing in most cases allan which is more typical of northern Welsh, and standard Welsh
The preposition i is lost, leaving maes, prounced maaas. Generally written ms, mas, and mas is the recommended form; here we favour maas for clarity. See the entry for aa

(South) rhedeg maas (North: rhedeg allan) run out

(commodity become scarce) (South) rhedeg maas (North: rhedeg allan) run out
Maer llaeth wedi rhedeg maas The milks run out

(South) rhedeg maas o rywbeth (North: rhedeg allan o rywbeth) run out of something
Ryn ni wedi rydeg maas o de Weve run out of tea (rydeg a southern colloquial form of rhedeg)


i mewn i MEUN (adv)

2 (preposition) i mewn i into
taro eich pig i mewn (i rywbeth) stick your nose into something (hit / strike your nose...)

gwthio eich pig i mewn (i rywbeth) stick your nose into something (push your nose...)

rhoich pig i mewn (i rywbeth) stick your nose into something (give / put your nose...)

Ma fa 'i big miwn i bobman He's a real busybody, Hes really nosy (hes with his beak / nose in everywhere)


i mi i MII
to me
Rhowch amser i mi feddwl Give me time to think
Gadwch i mi feddwl Let me think


impyn or un pren im-pin or iin pren
South Wales
(said of someone who is from the same family)


("a shoot from the same tree")
(impyn = shoot) + (or from the) + (un = one; same) + (pren = tree)


in (n) IN m
North-west Wales

1 inn (also occurs as ing; hence the place name Ring = Y Ring < Yr Ing

ETYMOLOGY: English inn < Old English inn < adverb in (= in, inside, in the interior)



-in IN m

1 In words of English origin, with ing in modern standard English. 
padin padding

pwdin pudding

seidin railway siding
topin topping (on food)
The g has been restored in English as the tendency was to lose it even in educated speech (huntin, shootin and fishin foermerly in aristocratic English), and dialect English continues to use forms without the final g (and so too careless speech even by educated speakers) 
Observations on some of the dialects in the West of England particularly with a glossary of words now in use there ; and poems and other pieces, exemplifying the dialect. By James Jennings, Honorary Secretary of the Metropolitan Library Institution, London. 
London, 1825. 

The g, in the present participle, is also silent. Thus, instead of loving, we have lovin; for hearing, hearin or hirin ; for singing, zingin, &c. And, generally, all words of two or more syllables, ending in our polished dialect in ing, have the g omitted in the Somersetshire pronunciation. Thus, lightning, is lightnin ; groaning, groanin ; gosling, gozlin, &c. &c.



-in -in suffix
1 in a handful of old adjectives referring to materials (mainly metals)

ariannin (literary Welsh) made of silver; silvery
(ariann- a penultimate-syllable form of arian = silver) + (-in)
The Welsh name for Argentina is this same word Ўr Ariannin a nineteenth-century coining

eurin (literary Welsh) made of gold; golden, splendid, magnificent
(eur- penultimate-syllable form of aur = gold) + (-in)


heyernin (literary Welsh) (= made of iron)
(heyern- a penultimate-syllable form of haearn = iron) + (-in)

(South-west Wales: harnin a metal object harn, southern for haern, replaces heyern-)


priddin (literary Welsh) (= earthern, made of earth)
(pridd = earth) + (-in)

2 after names of plants, as an adjective, and as a noun, place of
celynnin (= holly, made of holly) (place of holly)
(celynn- penultimate-syllable form of celyn = holly bushes) + (-in)

derwin (= oaken, made of oak) (place of oaks)
(derw- penultimate-syllable form of derw = oak trees) + (-in)


gwernin (= alder, made of alder) (place of alders)
(gwern = alder trees) + (-in)

hesgin (= sedge, made of sedge) (place of sedges)
(hesg = sedges) + (-in)


ysgewin (= elder, made of elder) (place of elder trees)
(ysgaw = elder trees) + (-in)


3 diminutive of adjectives, or used to form adjectives

gerwin (= rough) < garw (= rough)

cysefin (= original) < British *kint-sam-n-os

hesbin (= yearling ewe) (hesb, feminine form of hysb = dry, barren) + (-in suffix)


4 diminutive of nouns
cribin comb, rake (crib = comb)

gwastedin level ground, open country; Gwastedin = a medieval townland of Nantmel (Powys) (gwastad = plain, flat land; (adj) flat)

Cynin river name; from a personal name?


ETYMOLOGY: Welsh in < British *-n-os
Cf Latin -nos, Greek -nos, Sanskrit -na-h


inc ingk masculine noun
PLURAL: inciau ingk -ye

ink, liquid for writing with a pen
llestr inc inkwell = vessel for holding ink into which a pen nib is dipped
pot inc inkwell, inkpot

ink = printers ink, paste for printing

in comparisons, said of something black
fel inc like ink, as black as ink
Maer awyr fel inc The skys as black as ink
mor ddued r inc as black as ink

in expressions referring to something not yet paid for:
(Mae) arogl inc ar (rywbeth) (There is) the smell of ink on (something)
(Mae) gwynt inc ar (rywbeth) (There is) the smell of ink on (something)

yn inc i gyd inky, all inky, covered with ink

inc lliniadu drawing ink

dileu rhywbeth ag inc ink out something

8 mynd dros rywbeth ag inc ink over something, re-do pencil lines in ink

pd inc ink pad

inc India Indian ink

inc parhaol indelible ink

inc marcio
ingk MARK yo (masculine noun) marker ink

ETYMOLOGY: inc < English ink < French enque (modern French encre) < Latin encaustum < Greek enkauston (= purple ink) < enkaustos (in + burnt) < enkaein burn + in.


The element -kaustos is to be seen in English caustic






There are a number of names to be seen which are obviously incorrect usually poor translations of English names by people who do not speak Welsh or who have a poor understanding of the language. Here are some examples:


Heol Miaren (qv), Treforus (county of Abertawe / Swansea). A poor translation of English Bramble Street. It would have to be Heol y Fiaren (the) street (of) the bramble bush (heol = street) + (y definite article = the) + (miaren = bramble bush)


Llys Miaren A street in Y Rhyl. The name is not correct Welsh it is a poor translation of an English name Bramble Court. It would have to be Llys y Fiaren (the) court (of) the bramble bush (llys = court) + (y definite article = the) + (miaren = bramble bush)


india-corn kob ind-ya- korn masculine noun
1 Indian corn

2 india-corn ar y cb corn on the cob
wisgi india-corn corn whiskey
siwgwr india-corn corn sugar, dextrose
olew india-corn corn oil

ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of Englandic < American English Indian corn

NOTE: also (literary) indrawn; colloquialy also indian-corn, inja-corn, injan-corn


inc diflanedig ingk di-vla- n -dig masculine noun
invisible ink

ETYMOLOGY: (inc = ink) + (diflanedig = disappearing, disappeared)


incio ingk -yo verb
ink = cover with ink
ink = stain with ink

ETYMOLOGY: (inc = ink) + (-io = suffix for forming verbs)


inciog ingk -yog adjective
inky = covered with ink, stained with ink

ETYMOLOGY: (inc = ink) + (-iog = suffix for forming adjectives)


incil ing -kil masculine noun
PLURAL: inciliau ing-kil-ye
linen tape for decorating clothes, lace

thread hanging loose from a garment, loose thread

incil mesur measuring tape

incil glud sticky tape ("tape (of) glue")

incil coch
red tape = bureaucratic procedures

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh incil < English inkle = linen tape, possibly from Dutch enkel = single


Indiad, Indiaid IND yad, IND yed (m)
Indian (= native of India)

Indian = native American
rhandir Indiaid Americanaidd American Indian reservation = land onto which US native peoples were removed after expulsion from their traditional territories

Indiaid Cochion Red Indians, native American peoples
Indiaid Gogledd Amrica North American Indians

ar l treulio'r gaeaf gўda'r Indiaid Mandan
after spending the winter with the Mandan Indians

Rhўd ўr Indiaid (Paso de los Indios) locality in Patagonia ((the) ford (of) the Indians)

ing ING m
agony, pain, extreme pain

PLURAL: ingau, ingoedd ING-au, -e, ING-oidh, -odh

Y mae salwch y mr fel y ddannodd - nid oes neb yn cydymdeimlo chwi yn eich helynt
a'ch ing ofnadwy

Seasickness is like toothache - nobody sympathises with you in your trouble and terrible pain
t89 Seneddwr ar Dramp Rhys J Davies 1935

3 distress; anguish

Corinthiaid-2 4:8 Ym mhob peth yr ym yn gystuddiol, ond nid mewn ing; yr ydym mewn cyfyng gyngor, ond nid yn ddiobaith
Corinithians-2 4:8 We are troubled on every side, yet not distressed; we are perplexed, but not in despair


Yr oedd yn hawdd i Sin amgyffred ing calon ei chyfnither wrth ffarweilio i chartref


Y cyfaill gwir yn yr ing fe'i gwelir A friend in need is a friend indeed ("the true friend, in the anguish he is seen" - i.e. will appear when you are in an anguished situation)


emosiwn ac ing llais yr hen wraig

the emotion and distress of the old ladys voice


ETYMOLOGY: ing < yng < British < Celtic *angj-os
From the same British root: Breton enk (adjective = narrow, cramped)


ing ING m
A local form n (an inn), a word taken from English

Occurs in the place name Ring = Y Ring < Yr Ing (the inn),

Mae yn Llanfrothen dafarn adnabyddus, y "Brondanw Arms" ("Y Ring" i bobl leol) ac ysgol gynradd.

In Llanfrothen there is a well-known tavern, the Brondanw Arms (Y Ring to the local people) and a primary school
NOTE: See n

ing ING determiner
(South-west Wales)
1 my

ETYMOLOGY: ing < in < yn < fyn



-ing ING suffix
This suffix denotes 'the territory of', originally 'the descendants of'. It occurs in a number of territory names



Glwysing a territory between the river Tawe in the west and the river Wysg in the east, said to be named after King Glywys. Sometimes used as a synomym of Morgannwg, but the territory of Morgannwg also included land east of Wysg.



injen, injens IN jen, IN jens (f)
grўmuso injen soup up an engine


innau, "inne" I ne (pronoun)
I too


Ioan YO an (masculine noun) John (from the form used in the Welsh translation of the Bible, taken directly from the Greek form)


ib, ibs YOB, YOBS (masculine noun) yob


-iog yog (suffix)
suffix; see -og


-iol yol (suffix)
suffix; see -ol


Iola yo -la feminine noun
womans name (twentieth century)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh, feminisation of the name Iolo (which is a diminutive form of Iorwerth)


Iolo YO lo (masculine noun)
mans name; diminutive of Iorwerth


iolyn yo -lin masculine noun
PLURAL: iolod yo -lod
South Wales
1 idiot, fool

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh, originally a pet form of Iorwerth; the first syllable ior- with a change of consonant iol- + (-yn, diminutive suffix)


Iolo Goch yo lo GOOKH (masculine noun)
poet from Lleweni, Dyffryn Clwyd c1320-1398


on i -on masculine noun
PLURAL: onau i- -ne
ion = electrically charged particle

ETYMOLOGY: English ion < Greek ion, neutral present participle of the verb ienai (= to go)

NOTE: See oneiddio


Ionawr y -naur masculine noun
January = first month of the year

maeth Ionawr name given to snow which falls in January - ("sustenance (of) January") - a hard winter creates good growing conditions in the soil

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh Ionor < Ionawr < *Iawnawr < British < Latin Inrius < Inurius (the first month of the year named after the god Inus (Janus), who had two faces; he looked simultaneously back at the old year and forward to the new year);

From the same British root: Cornish Genver (= January), Breton genver (= January)
From the same Latin root: Irish Eanir (= January)

NOTE: Ionor is a common spoken form and the form to be expected colloquially, since words with final aw generally become o.

The form Ionawr with aw with retained is due to literary usage.

Curiously, the form Chwefrawr (= February) with aw however is not in use at all, even in literary Welsh it is always Chwefror in modern Welsh

Ionawr (y cyntaf o Ionawr)
Dydd Calan = New Years Day (day (of the) calend)
Y Calan = = New Years Day ((the) calend)

Awr fawr Calan, dwy Wyl Eilian, tair Wyl Fair (traditional saying)
big hour (on) the calend (awr fawr y Calan), two on Eilians feastday, and three on Marys feastday
that is, the day will have lengthened
(1) a full hour by New Years Day (Y Calan) on January the first, (half an hour in the morning a half an hour in the evening),
(2) two hours on Eilians feastday (Gwyl Eilian) on January the thirteenth, and
(3) three hours by Lady Day (Gwyl Fair) on February the second

Ionawr (yr ail o Ionawr)
Ionawr (y trydydd o Ionawr)
Ionawr (y pedwerydd o Ionawr)
Ionawr (y pumed o Ionawr)
Ionawr (y chweched o Ionawr)

Gwyl yr Ystwyll Twelfth Day, Epiphany (from Latin stella = star, the Star of Bethlehem which guided the Three Wise Men to the stable with the crib of Jesus)

Ionawr (y seithfed o Ionawr)
Ionawr (yr wythfed o Ionawr)
Ionawr (y nawfed o Ionawr)
Ionawr (y degfed o Ionawr)
Ionawr (yr unfed ar ddeg o Ionawr)
Ionawr (y deuddeg o Ionawr)
Ionawr (y trydydd ar ddeg o Ionawr)
Gwyl Eilian = Eilians Day (Welsh Saint)

Awr fawr Calan, dwy Wyl Eilian, tair Wyl Fair
big hour (on) the calend (awr fawr y Calan), two on Eilians feastday, and three on Marys feastday
that is, the day will have lengthened
(1) a full hour by New Years Day (Y Calan) on January the first, (half an hour in the morning a half an hour in the evening),
(2) two hours on Eilians feastday (Gwyl Eilian) on January the thirteenth, and
(3) three hours by Lady Day (Gwyl Fair) on February the second

Ionawr (y pedwerydd ar ddeg o Ionawr)
Ionawr (y pymthegfed o Ionawr)
Ionawr (yr unfed ar bymtheg o Ionawr)
Ionawr (yr ail ar bymtheg o Ionawr)
Ionawr (y deunawfed o Ionawr)
Ionawr (y pedwerydd ar bymtheg o Ionawr)
Ionawr (yr ugeinfed o Ionawr)
Ionawr (yr unfed ar hugain o Ionawr)
Ionawr (yr ail ar hugain o Ionawr)
Ionawr (y trydydd ar hugain o Ionawr)
Ionawr (y pedwerydd ar hugain o Ionawr) Noswyl Dwynwen eve of Dwynwens day
Ionawr (y pumed ar hugain o Ionawr) (1) Gwyl Santes Dwynwen feast of Dwynwen (Welsh saint, patron of lovers) (2) Gwyl Bawl = Conversion of Saint Paul
Ionawr (y chweched ar hugain o Ionawr)
Ionawr (y seithfed ar hugain o Ionawr)
Ionawr (yr wythfed ar hugain o Ionawr)
Ionawr (y nawfed ar hugain o Ionawr)
Ionawr (y degfed ar hugain o Ionawr
Ionawr (yr unfed ar ddeg ar hugain o Ionawr)

- ym mis Ionawr ə mis YOO naur (masculine noun) in January



ir YOOR masculine noun
1 lord

Yr Ir the Lord, the Lord God

drwy rad yr Ir throught the grace of the Lord


2 Iorwerth (qv) Mans name, of Welsh origin, often held to be equivalent to English Edward, though through a vague resemblance in pronunciation or appearance only.


3 Iorwen (qv) Womans name

Iorath YOO-rath masculine noun
South-east Wales form of the mans name Iorwerth (qv)

(1) forename Iorath,

(2) patronymic ab Iorath or simply Iorath (from the sixteenth century onwards the element "ap" was lost in patronymics)

(3) surname Iorath. which in English is spelt Yorath

(4) In place names:
.....(a) Llwyniorath (Llwyn Yorath) farm south of Y Betws (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (Ioraths grove)

.....(b) Moel Iorath hill north-east of Glyncorrwg (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) (Ioraths hill)

.....(c) In Yr Eglwysnewydd in Caer-dydd there are the following street names:
............(i) Caeiorath ((the) field (of) Iorath) (official name: Cae Yorath)
............(ii) Clas Iorath ((the) close (of) Iorath, Iorath Close) (official name: Clas Yorath)
............(iii) Heol Iorath (official name: Yorath Road)

ETYMOLOGY: Iorath < *Ioreth < *Iorweth < Iorwerth


Iorddonen ior-DHOO-nen feminine noun
the river Jordan

Brenhinoedd-2 5:10, 11 Ac Eliseus a anfonodd ato ef gennad, gan ddywedyd, Dos ac ymolch saith waith yn yr Iorddonen... Ond Namaan a ddigiodd, ac a aeth ymaith
Kings-2 5:10, 11 And Elisha sent a messenger unto him, saying, Go and wash in Jordan seven times... But Namaan was wroth, and went away

Gwlad yr Iorddonen Jordan (country)



Iori YO-ri masculine noun
mans name - pet form of Iorwerth

ETYMOLOGY: (Ior- first syllable of Iorwerth) + (-i diminutive suffix)


iorth yorth adjective
(obsolete) diligent, studious

ETYMOLOGY: variant of eorth (= diligent) < British < Celtic eks-ort-; stem *or- (= to rise).

Cf the Latin word oriri (= to rise, spring from), as in English origin < Latin org < oriri


iorthryn yorth-rin masculine noun
(obsolete) diligence, studiousness

Iorthryn Gwynedd pseudonym of R. D. Thomas, author of Hanes Cymry America(A History of the Welsh in America) (1872) (literally (the) Iorthryn (from) (the region of Gwynedd))

ETYMOLOGY: variant of eorthryn < ehorthryn (= diligence); (eorth, ehorth- = diligent) + soft mutation + (rhyn)


Iorwen YOR-wen (f)
womans name

NOTE: Infreqent. A modern coining (1800s? 1900s?).



..a/ lord, deity (ir = lord) + (suffix wen, used to form girls names. In older names it has the sense of white / pure / holy; soft-mutated form of gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white; pure, holy, etc)


..b/ or (Ior-, first element of the name Iorwerth) + (suffix wen) that is, a feminine counterpart to the name Iorwerth



Iorwerth YOR-werth masculine noun
mans name
...(1) Historically the English name Edward was considered to be an equivalent of Iorwerth (because of the vague resemblance in form), and in some families where Iorwerth was a traditional name Edward came to replace it

...(2) pet forms: Iori, Iolo, Iolyn, Iorws, Iocyn, Ioro

South-east Wales: Iorwerth > Iorath (qv)
...(1) forename Iorath,
...(2) patronymic (son of Iorath) ap Iorath or simply Iorath,
...(3) surname Iorath. which in English is spelt Yorath
Llwyniorath farm south of Betws (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (Ioraths grove)

ETYMOLOGY: Apparently Ir (= lord) + soft mutation + (gwerth = worth, value)


ir iir adjective
1 fresh

2 green

3 raw

4 irlaeth first milk of a cow after calving
(ir = fresh, new) + soft mutation + (llaeth = milk)

5 (verb amb objecte) anoint, oil
(ir) + (-o, suffix for forming verbs; (the first element is probably the adjective ir = new, fresh, lively, vigorous)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
From the same Celtic root: Irish r (= fresh, new), Scottish r (= new);
From the same Indoeuropean root: Latin prus (= pure, unstained)


ir ir -
to the

in certain phrases which in English do not have the definite article
mynd ir capel go to chapel
mynd ir carchar go to prison
mynd ir cwrdd go to chapel (South Wales)
mynd ir eglwys go to church
mynd ir gwely go to bed
mynd ir ysbyty go to hospital
mynd ir ysgol go to school

ETYMOLOGY: contraction of (i = to) + (yr = the)


iraid i -red masculine noun
PLURAL: ireidiau i- reid -ye
fat, grease (as globules in soup)
llygedyn o iraid globule of fat ("eyelet of fat")

lubricant; grease for oiling a mechanism or machinery

grease for polishing shoes

adjective polished
esgidiau iraid polished shoes
offer iraid polished horse harness

ETYMOLOGY: probably from ir- (stem of the verb iro = to lubricate) + (-aid, suffix)
NOTE: standard form iraid i-raid, spoken forms: ired i-red, and in the a zones (north-west, south-east), irad i-rad


ir camdwll ir kam-dulh
mynd ir camdwll (food) go down the wrong way ("go to the wrong hole")


ir clawdd ir klaudh
mynd ir clawdd (business) go bankrupt, fail ("go to the ditch")


Ir cwm rhed y cerrig, felly arian i fonheddig ir kum hreed ə ke-rig, ve-lhi ar-yan i vo-nh-dhig
(saying) Money goes where money is; The rich get all the money

ETYMOLOGY: (it is) to the valley (that) run the stones, in-the-same-way money to (a) gentleman / nobleman

(ir = to the) + (cwm = valley) + (y = that) + (rhed = runs) + (y cerrig = the stones) + (felly = thus, in the same way) + (arian = money) + (i = to) + soft mutation + (bonheddig = nobleman, one of the gentry, gentleman)


ir dim ir DIM (adverbi)
1 exactly
2 gweddi iw gilydd ir dim suit each other exactly, be a perfect match


ireidlyd i-reid-lid masculine noun

ETYMOLOGY: (ireid- < iraid = grease) + (-lyd suffix = full)


ir eithaf ir EI tha (adverbi)
1 to the extreme
2 manteisio ir eithaf ar (rywbeth) = make the most of (take advantage to the furthest on)


Irfon IR von (feminine noun)
river in the south-east


ir gwellt ir gwelht
mynd ir gwellt (business) go bankrupt, fail ("go to the grass / straw")


ir gwrthwyneb
far from it, quite the contrary


IRISH (Gaeilge)


..a/ addas (= appropriate) < Old Irish adas (= worthy, apt)

..b/ brechdan (= sandwich)

..c/ Cablyd:
dydd Iau Cablyd = Maundy Thursday, the Thursday before Good Friday.

Welsh cablyd < Old Irish caplat < Latin capitātiō (capit- stem of caput = head) + (-ātiō, -ātiōn-) (= shaving of the head) (on this day monks heads were shaved, and their feet were washed).

Cornish diyow Chambliz (= Maundy Thursday), Breton deiz iaou Gamblid (= Maundy Thursday)


Modern Irish has caplaid, in the phrases l Caplaide Maundy Day, Dardaoin Caplaide (= Maundy Thursday)

..d/ celc (= hoard, fortune) < cealg (= deceit)

..e/ Clarach place name, Ceredigion

..f/ Clydach place name, various localities in South Wales

..g/ cnwc (= hill) < cnoc (= hill)

..h/ codwm (= fall)


..i/ crintach (= miser, North Wales) is possibly < Irish crontach (= withered-up old person), nowadays in modern Irish crontachn, with the diminutive suffix n

..j/ llain (= strip of land) < lla|in (two syllables) < Old Irish ligen (= spear) (modern Irish: lighe = spear)

..k/ mantach (= gap-toothed) < mantach (= gap-toothed)

..l/ smachd (= dirty trick; rebuke) < smachd (literary Irish: rule, regulatio; rule, sway, dominion; control)

Welsh cunnog (= milking pail) corresponds to modern Irish cuinneog (= butter churn), and may be a loan from Irish

..a/ carraig (= stone) < carreg (= stone)
..b/ cregan (= little rock) < craig (= rock)
..c/ Gaeilge (= Irish) < Gwyddeleg (= Irish)
..d/ leastar
l'a-stər (= vessel, cask) < llestr (= vessel)


irlaeth ir -leth masculine noun
1 first milk of a cow after calving

ETYMOLOGY: (ir = fresh, new) + soft mutation + (llaeth = milk)


ir mymryn ir MƏM rin (adverb)
exactly (to the fragment)


iro tin mochyn tew -ro tiin m-khin teu
"grease the arse of a fat pig" = give something to somebody who doesnt really need it (give money to people already well off and so not in need of it, give food to someone well-fed when others are in more need of it)

ETYMOLOGY: (iro = to grease, to lubricate) + (tin = arse) + (mochyn = pig) + (tew = fat)


ir wal ir wal
mynd ir wal (business) go bankrupt, fail ("go to the wall")
gyrru ir wal (business) make bankrupt, cause to fail ("drive to the wall")

ETYMOLOGY: (ir = to the) + (wal = wall)


is IIS
(adjective) lower


is (preposition)
under, below
yn is ar yr afon (adverb of place) downstream, downriver

In house names and street names
Street names:
Is-myrddin (below (the hillfort called) Myrddin) Abergwili (county of Caerfyrddin) (spelt officially as Is Myrddin)

Is-y-bryn (below the hill) Trefychan (county of Caerfyrddin) (spelt officially as Is Y Bryn)

Is-y-bryniau (below the hills) Cwmllynfell (Castell-nedd ac Abertawe) (spelt officially as Is-Y-Bryniau)

Is-y-coed (below the wood)
..a/ Gwenf (county of Caer-dydd) (spelt officially as Is Y Coed)
..b/ Y Maerdy (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (spelt officially as Is-Y-Coed)

Is-y-mynydd (below the upland) Cilcain, Yr Wyddgrug (County of Y Fllint) (spelt officially as Is Y Mynydd)

Is-y-llan (below the wood) Llanddarog (county of Caerfyrddin) (spelt officially as Is-Y-Llan)

Is-y-rhos (below the moor) Caer-bont SN8011, Aber-craf (county of Powys)


-is is
1 plural termination for nouns; from English -es
Also spelt -us, -ys, although the pronuncation is i
(In the south, y = u = i and so the distintion is unimportant. In the North y = u, but they are not equivalent to i)

bocs, bocsis box (Geiriadur yr Acdemi Gymrig GYA / Welsh Academy Dictionary has bocsys)
caetsh, caethsis (GYA) cage
coetsh, coetshis coach (GYA has coets(h), coets(h)is)

cwtsh, cwtshis (m) kutsh KUTSH-is dogs kennel (GYA: cwtshis)
garej, garejis garage (GYA has garejis)
matshen, matshis match (for fire) (GYA has matsien, matsis)

orenshyn, orenshis orange (south-west) (GYA / Welsh Academy Dictionary has orenshys)


is- is prefix
is-bwyllgor sub-committee
isgtegori subcategory
isgyfandir subcontinent

2 (person, rank) sub-, vice-, under-
is-lywydd vice-president
is-olygydd sub-editor
is-reolwr under-manager
is-ysgrifennydd under-secretary

3 (place names) under, below
Isallt under the hill
Isawel under the wind / breeze
Isfryn under the hill
Isgoed under the wood
Isgraig under the crag
Islwyn under the wood

ETYMOLOGY: from the preposition is (= under), < the comparative adjective is (= lower) < isel (= low)


Is Aeron iis ei -ron
(History) name of a territorial division a kantrev (cantref, = one hundred trvs) of Ceredigion
Ceredigion Is Aeron Ceredigion below (the river) Aeron, that is, the main part of Ceredigion, where the court is, bounded by the river Aeron.
The other part is Ceredigion Uwch Aeron Ceredigion above (the river) Aeron

ETYMOLOGY: (is = below) + (Aeron = river name)


isaf I-sav (adjective)
lowest; superlative form of isel = low
Colloquially: isa I sa, and in the South isha Isha

2 yr isaf (o dau beth) the lower (of two things)


3 (in place names) corresponds to English upper

In Welsh comparisons, the superlative degree is used in comparing a pair, not the comparative form as in English. Hence farm names such as Cwm-bach Uchaf (Highest / Uppermost Cwm-bach) and Cwm-bach Isaf (Lowest / Lowermost Cwm-bach) rather than *Cwm-bach Uwch, *Cwm-bach Is (uwch = upper, is = lower)

NOTE: Colloquially isa <II-sa> [ˈisa] (in the north) and isha <II-sha> [ˈiʃa] (in the south).


In the south, an s with an i before or after becomes sh. Other examples are

mis (= month) > mish <MIISH> [miːs]

ceisio (= to try) > cisho / cisho <KII-sho> [ˈkiˑʃɔ]



The final f [v] in colloquial Welsh is omitted isaf > isa, though it is retained in the standard written language (in fact, it disappeared from the spoken language some centuries ago).


Place names are generally written in the standard written form, no matter that the local form may be pronounced slightly differently. However, in some names isa / isha are to be seen


Thsi is to be seen too with the counterpart to this word uchaf <II-khav> [ˈiˑxav] (= highest), colloquially ucha <II-kha> [ˈiˑxa] (with a couple of variants ycha <Ə-kha> [ˈəxa] and uwcha <IU-kha> [ˈɪʊxa])


isafon is- -von masculine noun
PLURAL: isafonydd is-a-v-nidh
tributary minor river flowing into a main river


isafswm i- sav -sum masculine noun
PLURAL: isafsymiau
1 minimum

yr Isafswm Cyflog Cenedlaethol the National Minimum Wage, the minimum salary which employers must pay workers in in the English state

ETYMOLOGY: (isaf = lowest) + (swm = sum, total, quantity)


Is Aled iis -led feminine noun
History neighbourhood (cwmwd) of the hundred (cantref) of Rhufoniog (in the country of Gwynedd Is Conwy)

ETYMOLOGY: "place on the other side of the river Aled" (is = lower; below) + (Aled)


Isallt I-salht
place name


SH2579 Isallt Bach, Trearddur, Ynys Mn map


Isallt SH5344 Farm in Llanfihangel y Pennant, Gwynedd map


Craig Isallt SH5344 Crag in Llanfihangel y Pennant, Gwynedd

(the crag at Isallt) Craig Isallt


Moel Isallt SH5244, Llanfihangel y Pennant, Gwynedd Moel Isallt

(the hill at Isallt)


ETYMOLOGY: "place below the hill" (is = lower; below) + (allt = hill)


Isalmaeneg ii sal MEI neg (feminine noun, adjective)
Low German


Is Artro iis AR tro (feminine noun)
(cwmwd = "neighbourhood") (in the country of Gwynedd Uwch Conwy) commote of the kantrev of Ardudw (north-west)


is-bwyllgor, is-bwyllgorau iis BUILH gor, iis builh GO re (masculine noun)


Is Cennen iis KE nin (feminine noun)
(cwmwd = "neighbourhood") (in the country of Ystrad Tywi) commote of the kantrev of Cantref Bychan (south-east)


Is Coed iis KOID (feminine noun)
(cwmwd = "neighbourhood") (in the country of Ystrad Tywi) commote (south-west) below the wood


Is Conwy iis ko -nui
1 Gwynedd Is Conwy medieval divsiion of Gwynedd

ETYMOLOGY: below (the river) Conwy / this side of the river Conwy) (is = lower; below)


Is Cregennan iis kre- ge -nan
(or Sgrogennan ) old name for Llanddoged (SH8063) (county of Conwy)


Is Cuch iis KIIKH (feminine noun)
(cwmwd = "neighbourhood") (in the country of Dyfed) commote of the kantrev of Emlyn (south-west)


Is Dulas iis DI las (feminine noun)
(cwmwd = "neighbourhood") (in the country of Gwynedd Is Conwy) commote of the kantrev of Rhos (north-west)


isel I sel (adjective)
low = not far from the ground
shilff isel a low shelf
gwely pren isel a low wooden bed

2 low = not high or tall
clawdd isel
a low bank, a low hedgebank

3 low = not far above the horizon
haul isel Ionawr the low January sun

4 low = not as high as the usual or average level
marciau isel low marks
tir isel low ground, low-lying land

5 low = (stream, river, lake, tide) less than the usual depth
Rŷn nin gyfarwydd yng Nghymru dau lanwr dydd, hynny yw, dau lanw uchel a dau lanw isel. In Wales we are accustomed to two tides a day, that is, two high tides and two low tides

am brisiau is o lawer at greatly reduced prices

cerfwedd isel bas relief, low relief

4 (voice) low =
Sybrydai rhyw eiriau rhy isel i neb o honom allu eu deall

She whispered some words in too low a voice for any of us to understand.


iseldir i-sel-dir masculine noun
PLURAL: iseldiroedd i-sel-d-rodh

ETYMOLOGY: (isel = low) + soft mutation + (tir = land)


iselder ysbryd i-sel-der ə-sprid masculine noun
North Wales
depression, feeling down, low spirits

ETYMOLOGY: lowness (of) spirit (iselder = lowness) + (ysbryd = spirit)


Iseldireg i sel DI reg (feminine noun, adjective)


Yr Iseldiroedd i sel DI rodh (plural noun)
The Netherlands


Iseldirwyr i sel DIR wir (plural noun)
Dutch people


isetholiad, isetholiadau iis e THOL yad, iis e thol YA de (masculine noun)


isffordd, isffyrdd IS fordh, IS firdh (feminine noun)
underpass (way for pedestrians under a road)


isfyd is -vid masculine noun
PLURAL: isfўdoedd is- vo -dodh
underworld (of crime)
isfyd Caer-dydd the Caer-dydd underworld

ETYMOLOGY: (is = lower, below, uner) + soft mutation + (byd = world)


isgell, isgellau I skelh, i SKE lhe (masculine noun)


isgoch is -gokh adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (is = lower, below) + soft mutation + (coch = red)


Is Gwyrfai iis GUIR ve (feminine noun)
(cwmwd = "neighbourhood") (in the country of Gwynedd Uwch Conwy) commote of the kantrev of Arfon (north-west)


isgynnyrch is--nirkh masculine noun
PLURAL: isgynhyrchion is-gə-nhərkh-yon

ETYMOLOGY: (is = lower; below) + soft mutation + (cynnyrch = product)


Islandeg i SLAN deg (feminine noun, adjective)


islaw (*islw) is LAU (preposition)

1 below
pan for tymheredd yn disgyn islaw
5C (pum gradd Celsiws) when the temperature falls / drops below 5C

2 the opposite is uwchlaw (*uwchlw) above

ETYMOLOGY: below hand (is = lower; below) + soft mutation + (llaw = hand)

islawr safon is-laur s-von adverb
bod islawr safon be below par, be below standard

ETYMOLOGY: "below the standard"


Islwyn I sluin (masculine noun)
pseudonym of the poet Wiliam Tomos 1832-1878


Islyn is-lin feminine noun
Nant Islyn SH7137 stream in Meirionnydd (county of Gwynedd)


is-lўngesydd iis lə- nge -sidh masculine noun
PLURAL is-lўngesўddion iis-lə-nge- sədh -yon
is-lyngesydd vice-admiral

ETYMOLOGY: ( is = lower, inferior) + soft mutation + (llyngesydd = admiral)


is-lywodraeth iis-lə- wo -dreth feminine noun
1 devolved government, a subgovernment within a state, with certain restricted powers which have delegated from o central government

ETYMOLOGY: (is = below; sub) + soft mutation + ( llywodraeth = government)


Is Nyfer iis NƏ ver (feminine noun)
(kmmud, commote, cwmwd = "neighbourhood")

A kmmud of the kntrev of Cemais, in the country of Dyfed (south-west Wales)



isop I-sop (m)


Cofiant Matthews, Ewenni, John James Morgan, 1922, p401

Dacwr llinos yn ymolch yn y nant, a defnyddioi hadain, fel tusw isop, a thaenellur holl gorff dwfr gln

See the linnet washing ityself in the brook, and using its wings, like a bunch of hissop, and sprinkling all the body with clean water


Exodus 12:22 A chymerwch dusw o isop, a throchwch ef yn y gwaed a fyddo yn y cawg, a rhoddwch ar gapan y drws, ac ar y ddau ystlysbost, o'r gwaed a fyddo yn y cawg; ac nac aed neb ohonoch allan o ddrws ei dŷ hyd y bore.
Exodus 12:22 And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the basin; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning.

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English hysope


isosod is- o -sod verb
sublet = rent a property, which is rented out to but not owned by oneself, to another person

ETYMOLOGY: (is = lower; under) + soft mutation + (gosod = to let)


isradd IS radh (adjective)
of lower status
cymal isradd subordinating clause


israddol is-RAA-dhol (adjective)
inferior, subordinate


Is Rhaeadr iis RHEI a dər (feminine noun)
(cwmwd = "neighbourhood") (in the country of Powys) commote of the kantrev of Swydd y Waun (north-east)



issa I-sa (adj)

1 On English-language maps, etc, a misspelling of isa, a colloquial form of isaf (= lowest; in place names, lower, nether) (In Welsh, the superlative form is used instead of the comparative form in such a context)


A Topographical Dictionary of The Dominion of Wales, Nicholas Carlisle, London (1811) in describing Llangatwg, by Castell-nedd: CADOXTON, or, LLAN CATWG, ...Church dedicated to St. Catwg.  The resident Population of this Parish, in 1801, (consisting of the Hamlets of Blaen Honddan, Coed Ffrangc, Dyffryn Clydach, Dylais Issa, Dylais Uwcha, Glynn Neath Canol, Glynn Neath Issa, Glynn Neath Uwcha, and Ynys y Mond) was 3482.  


Ty Issa, Llangollen (= Tŷ-isa lower house)



is-swyddfa bost iis suidh-va bost feminine noun
PLURAL: is-swyddfeydd post iis suidh-veidh -post
sub-post office, branch post office

ETYMOLOGY: (is = sub-, lower, lesser, inferior) + (swyddfa bost = post office)


Is Tryweryn iis trə WE rin (feminine noun)
(cwmwd = "neighbourhood") (in the country of Gwynedd Uwch Conwy) commote of the kantrev of Penllyn (north-west)


italeiddio i-tal-eidh-yo adjective
italicise = to print in italics
Myfi biaur italeiddio My italics ((it is) me that-owns the italicising)

ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of English italicise (ital-) + (-eiddio, suffix corresponding to -ise)


Ithon -thon
The colloquial form of Ieithon (qv) (probably Ieithon > Eithon > Ithon)
(SO1084) Afon Ieithon river in the district of Maldwyn (county of Powys)

..a/ In Y Drenewydd (comarca de Powys) there is a street called Ithon

..b/ In Llandrindod (county of Powys) there is a street called Ithon Close (which would be Clos Ithon in Welsh)


i ti i TII (preposition) a tu
to you


i ti i TII (verb)

Colloquial form
Alternatively spelt yt ti.

It is a reduced form of

1 yr wyt ti you are

2 a wyt ti...? are you...?

3 i ti ddim < nid wyt [ti] [ddim] you are not
4 i ti ddim < nad wyt [ti] [ddim] that you are not


This reduced verb is often dropped in colloquial speech, leaving only the pronoun

yr wyt [ti] yn iawn / i tin iawn / tin iawn youre right


a wyt [ti] yn gall? / i tin gall? / tin gall? are you all right in the head? are you daft or something? (when somebody does or says something idiotic) (literally are you wise?)


nid wyt [ti] [ddim] yn gwybod pob dim amdano > dwyt ti ddim yn gwbod pob dim amdano > i ddim gwybod.... > ti ddim yn gwybod... you dont know everything about him


y peth nad wyt [ti] [ddim] yn ei wybod yw fy mod [i]...

> y peth nad wyt ti ddim yn wbod yw mod i...

> y peth dwyt ti ddim yn wbod yw mod i...

> y peth i ti ddim yn wbod yw mod i...

> y peth ti ddim yn wbod yw mod i...

what you dont know is that I....



iudd yiidh masculine noun
(obsolete) lord

2 iudd in compound words this element was reduced to -udd in final position

Bleiddiudd > Bleiddudd man's name (obsolete) (blaidd = wolf)
Eludd > Eliudd man's name (obsolete)
Griffiudd > Gruffudd man's name (griff = griffin)
Marchiudd > Marchudd man's name (obsolete) (march = horse)
Marediudd > Maredudd man's name
> Morudd man's name (obsolete) (mr = sea)


Iwan I wan (masculine noun)
mans name, form of Ifan = John


Iwerddon i WER dhon (feminine noun)


Iwerydd i- w -ridh
Iwerydd the Atlantic, the Atlantic Ocean
y tu hwnt i Iwerydd on the other side of the Atlantic
Yr Iwerydd the Atlantic, the Atlantic Ocean
Mr Iwerydd the Atlantic, the Atlantic Ocean
traws-Iwerydd trans-Atlantic

Y Werydd Atlantic Ocean
A clipped form of Yr Iwerydd
Talywerydd (Tal-y-werydd) house name in Aber-arth (county of Ceredigion) (in the list of members in The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion 1961 / Part 1)
((the) end (of) the Atlantic, place facing the Atlantic) (tl = end; front) + (y = definite article) + (Werydd = Atlantic Ocean)

ETYMOLOGY: (Iwer- < Iwerddon = Ireland) + (suffix -ydd)


-iwr yur (suffix)
suffix = man


iwrch yurkh masculine noun
PLURAL: iyrchod, iwrchod yər khod, yur -khod
(Capreolus capreolus) roe deer (small deer with small antlers and reddish-brown summer coat)
Found in place names:

..1/ Afon Iwrch river name SH8354 in the county of Conwy, near Nebo


Above is Moel-yr-iwrch (the) hill (of) the roe deer SH8354 Moel-yr-Iwrch

..2/ Afon Iwrch river name SJ1424. Rises on Cadair Berwyn, north-east Wales, and flows south-east into the river Tanat 3km SE of Llanrhaeadr ym Mochnant (county of Dinbych) SJ1326 Afon Iwrch near Llanrhaeadr ym Mochnant

..3/ Cefn-iwrch (cefn yr iwrch, (the) hill (of) the roe deer) by Llangefni (county of Ynys Mn)

iyrches plural iyrchesod female roe deer

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic

From the same British root: Cornish iorgh (= roe deer), Breton yourc'h (= roe deer)

Gaulish: Iurca (female personal name)


J, j
jee feminine noun
) tenth letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e, 6 f, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z
) fourteenth letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e, 8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y


1 Occurs
mainly in words taken from English
jam jam
jar jar
Jac Jack
Jns, Jos Jones

in native words, dy > j
diofal > diofol > jofol negligent
dioddef > jodde suffer
diogel > jogel safe
diolch > jolch thhanks

In North Wales it is the soft mutated form of tsh, found in words taken from English
tships = chips (Standard: ysglodion)
gwerth hanner can ceiniog o jips fifty pence worth of chips

tshocled = chocolate (Standard: siocled)
darn o jocled a piece of chocolate

tshimpans chimpanzee (Standard: simpans)
gwelodd o jimpans ar y ln he saw a chimpansee on the road

In the nineteenth century there was amongst many writers a certain aversion to this letter as it was not included in the traditional Welsh alphabet. Even today one sometimes reads that the Welsh alphabet does not include the letter j, which suggests that it is not in use in Welsh.


jak masculine noun

1 In English, Jack is the pet form of John; in the same way in Welsh Jon > Jac.

"John Tomos yn mynd i briodi! Wel, mi glywas i rywun rywdro yn deyd tasa dyn yn lladd i wraig, ac yn cario'i phen hi tan i gesail y basa rhyw ddynes yn siwr o fod yn ddigon gwirion i fentro i gymryd o er y cwbwl. Braidd nad ydw'i run farn a fo wir. Mae meddwl am Jac Tomos yn cymryd arno garu neb ond y fo'i hun yn ormod i greadur i ddal.
t56 Plant y Gorthrwm / 1908 / Gwyneth Vaughan (=Anne Harriet Hughes 1852-1910)
John Tomos getting married! Well, I heard once someone say that if a man kills his wife and carries her head under his arm some woman would be bound to be daft enough to decide to take him in spite of everything. And I almost agree with him, to tell the truth. To think of Jac Tomos taking it on himslef to love someone other thn himself defies belief (is too much for a creature to hold)

2 Also nowadays an independent given name (as has happened too in English)

ETYMOLOGY: English Jack < Low German and Dutch Jackin < Jankin (Jan = John) + (-kin diminutive suffix. Cf German -chen). The final element -in was dropped in the same way as later on David > Dave, Peter > Pete. Michael > Mike, Margaret > Mag.

Or else it was associated with the French diminutive suffix -in which was then dropped from the name.
The change
ngk > k, with the loss of the nasal consonant, was a typical feature of Low German.

A second possibility is old French Jaques (modern French Jacques) < medieval Latin Jacobus < Latin Iacobus < Greek Iakobos < Hebrew Yaaqobh (= supplanter)


jael jail feminine noun
PLURAL jaels jails
South Wales

gaol, jail, prison
mynd ir jael go to jail

ETYMOLOGY: English gaol / jail < French jaiole (= cage) < vulgar Latin
*caveola < Latin cavea (= cavity, enclosure) < cavus (= hollow)

NOTE: in the north jl and rheinws


jam JAM (masculine noun)
brechdan jam, also bechdan jam bread and jam (bread and butter with jam)


James, Evan -van jeems masculine noun
(1809-1878) Composer of Hen Wlad fy Nhadau, the national anthem of Wales, in 1856 (at the age of 46/47). It is thought his son James James composed the melody (aged 22/23). Evan James (who also used the patronymic Ieuan ap Iago, the Welsh equivalent of his English official name) was born in Caerffili, but worked as a weaver in nearby Pont-ty-pridd, later owning a woolen mill and keeping a tavern.

Ysgol Evan James, name of a Welsh-language primary school in Pont-ty-pridd, commemorating the composer of the national anthem


jl jeel feminine noun
PLURAL jls jeels
North Wales
gaol, jail, prison
mynd ir jl go to jail

Stryd y Jl (street (of) the jail) name of a street in Caernarfon

ETYMOLOGY: English gaol / jail < French jaiole (= cage) < popular Latin
*caveola < Latin cavea (= cavity, enclosure)
NOTE: (1) in the south jael; (2) also rheinws in the north


jeli, jelis JE li, JE lis (masculine noun)
(North Wales) jeli llyffant frogspawn (jelly (of) frog)


Jeni JE ni (feminine noun)


Jeremeia je-rə-mei-a masculine noun
Jeremiah = born circa 650, died 585BC, Hebrew prophet. He foresaw various catastrophic events such as the fall of Assyria, the domination of Judah by Egypt and Babylon, and the fall of Jerusalem
Jeremiah regarded as a prophet of doom or an extreme pessimist;
olynwyr Jeremeia pessimists ("followers (of) Jeremiah")


jersi, jersis JER si, JER sis (masculine noun)


Jerẃsalem je-ru-sa-lem feminine noun
1 Jerusalem = the principal city of Palestine; capital of Israel since 1950

Actau 19:21 A phan gўflawnwyd ў pethau hyn, arfaethodd Paul ўn ўr ўsbryd, gwedi iddo dramwy trwy Facedonia ac Achaia, fўned i Jerwsalem; gan ddўwedyd, Gwedi imi fod ўno, rhaid imi weled Rhufain hefyd
Acts 19:21 After these things were ended, Paul purposed in the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rome.

Joel 2:32 A bўdd, ўr achubir pob un a alwo ar enw ўr ARGLWЎDD: canўs bўdd ўmwared, fel ў dўwedodd ўr ARGLWЎDD, ўm mўnўdd Seion, ac ўn Jerwsalem, ac ўn ў gweddillion a alwo ўr ARGLWЎDD.
Joel 2:32 And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the LORD shall be delivered: for in mount Zion and in Jerusalem shall be deliverance, as the LORD hath said, and in the remnant whom the LORD shall call.

Ў Jerwsalem Nefol (qv) The Heavenly Jerusalem = Heaven

Ў Jerwsalem Newydd (qv) The New Jerusalem = Heaven

Ў Jerusalem sўdd frў the Jerusalem up above = Heaven

2 Jerusalem (called Salem in Genesis 14:18 / Psalms 76:2 / Hebrews 7:1)

Genesis 14:18 Melchisedec hefyd, brenin Salem, a ddug allan fara a gwin; ac efe oedd offeiriad i DDUW goruchaf:
Genesis 14:18 And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine: and he was the priest of the most high God.

Salmau 76:1 Hynod yw DUW yn Jwda; mawr yw ei enw ef yn Israel (76:2) Ei babell hefyd sydd yn Salem, ai drigfa yn Seion
Psalms 76:1 In Judah is God known: his name is great in Israel. (76:2)In Salem also is his tabernacle, and his dwelling place in Zion.

Hebreiaid 7:1 Canys y Melchisedec hwn, brenin Salem, offeiriad y Duw Goruchaf, yr hwn a gyfarfu ag Abraham wrth ddychwelyd o ladd y brenhinoedd, ac ai bendithiodd ef;
Hebrews 7:1 For this Melchisedec, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed him;

NOTE: The name also occurs semi-translated into Welsh as Caersalem, through assuming that the first part of the name corresponded to Welsh caer (= fort; walled city); the second part was popularly supposed to be peace as in modern Hebrew shalom (= peace)


Y Jerwsalem Nefol (*Y Jerẃsalem Nefol) je-ru-sa-lem n-vol feminine noun
the Heavenly City, Heaven

Hebreiaid 12:22 Eithr chwi a ddaethoch i fўnydd Seion, ac i ddinas ў Duw byw, ў Jerwsalem nefol, ac at fўrddiwn o angўlion
Hebrews 12:22 But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels


Jerwsalem Newydd (*Jerẃsalem Newydd) je-ru-sa-lem neu-idh feminine noun
the Heavenly City, Heaven

Datguddiad 21.2 A myfi Ioan a welais y ddinas sanctaidd, Jerwsalem newydd, yn dyfod oddi wrth Duw i waered or nef, wedi ei pharatoi fel priodasferch wedi ei thrwsio iw gŵr
Revelation 21.2 And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband

Datguddiad 3:12 Yr hwn sydd yn gorchfygu, mi ai gwnaf ef yn golofn yn nheml fy Nuw i, ac allan nid efe mwyach: ac mi a ysgrifennaf arno ef enw fy Nuw i, ac enw dinas fy Nuw i, yr hon ydyw Jerwsalem newydd, yr hon sydd yn disgyn or nef oddi wrth fy Nuw i: ac mi a ysgrifennaf erno ef fy enw newydd i.
Revelation 3:12 Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God: and I will write upon him my new name.


Jesebel (*Jsebel) JE-se-bel feminine noun


Brenhinoedd-2 9:30 A phan daeth Jehu i Jesreel, Jesebel a glybu hynny, ac a golurodd ei hwyneb, ac a wisgodd yn wych am ei phen, ac a edrychodd trwy ffenestr
Kings-2 9:30 And when Jehu was come to Jezreel, Jezebel heard of it; and she painted her face, and tired her head, and looked out at a window.


jet jet feminine noun
PLURAL jetiau jet -ye

(water, gas) jet = thin powerful stream

jet = nozzle through which a jet of air or water comes

jet = jet plane
also: awyren jet
jet ymladd jet fighter

llamjet jumpjet

ETYMOLOGY: English jet (= jet plane; thin stream of water) < French jeter (= throw) < Latin jactre (= throw, frequentative form) < jacere (= throw)


jetludded jet- l -dhed masculine noun

ETYMOLOGY: (jet = jet) + soft mutation + (lludded = tiredness, weariness)


ji jii interjection
(to a horse) ji! gee up!


ji-binc, ji-bincod ji BINGK, ji BING kod (masculine noun)


jime ji -me feminine noun
1 county of Caerfyrddin chimney
See: shimnai


jn JIN (masculine noun)


jiraff (*jirff), jiraffod ji RAF, ji RA fod (masculine noun)


jiws jius masculine noun
Englishism juice (standard word: sudd)
Ymgyrch Gymraeg i hybu yfed jiws buwch
A Welsh-language campaign to promote drinking "cow juice"

ETYMOLOGY: English juice < French jus < Latin is


Job joob masculine noun
mans forename, Job

Ffўnnon Job name of a well in the town of Caerfyrddin.

Heol Ffўnnon Job street name in the town of Caerfyrddin.


jocer jo -ker masculine noun
PLURAL jocers jo -ker
joker = person who plays jokes on people

joker = card 53 in a pack, used in poker

ETYMOLOGY: English joker (= person who plays jokes on people); (to joke) + (-er agent suffix)
NOTE: north-east, south-east jocar


joscyn jos -kin masculine noun
PLURAL joscyns jos -kins
(America: hick, hayseed) (Englandic: country bumpkin, clodhopper)

ETYMOLOGY: English dialect joskin
..a/ possibly from the French given name Josquin
..b/ however it is more likely to be a variant of bumpkin (from to bump, i.e. clumsy person) with a first element similar in meaning - to joss (dialect English, = to jostle, to bump)


jwg, jygiau JUG, JƏG ye (masculine noun)


jwmper JUM per (masculine noun)


jwncet JUNG ket (masculine noun)


jygiau JƏG ye (plural noun)
jugs; see jwg


jynced jəng -ked masculine noun
PLURAL jyncedi, jyncedau jəng- ke -di, -de
junket = coagulated milk sweetened with sugar, or flavoured, and eaten as a dessert

2 A trip at public expense which is ostensibly as part of official duty but is in fact for pleasure (with this sense, originally an American expression taken into Englandic and from here into Welsh)

3 junket = intense celebration (with this sense, originally an American expression taken into Englandic and from here into Welsh)

Ar l blynyddoedd o baratoi mae drysaur Eisteddfod Genedlaethol, neur jynced blynyddol chwedl Gwilym Owen, wedi agor ar y maes yn Ninbych
After years of preparation the doors of the National Eisteddfod, or the annual junket as Gwilym Owen calls it, have opened on the field in Dinbych

ETYMOLOGY: English junket (= custard served on reeds) < junket (= basket made of reeds) < French jonquette < jonc (= reed) < Latin juncus (= reed)

NOTE: also jyncet, jwncet


jynci jəng -ki feminine noun
PLURAL jyncis, jyncod jəng kis, jəng-kii-od
junkie, drug addict

ETYMOLOGY: English junkie < junk (= heroin; rubbish)


jyngl jəng -gəl feminine noun
PLURAL jynglau jəng -gle
jungle = equitorial forest
ar batrl yn y jyngl on patrol in the jungle

jungle = dense plant growth
Maer ardd wedi mynd yn jyngl
The gardens become a jungle

jungle = chaos, anarchy
Erbyn heddiw y mae anfoes y jyngl yn tarfu ar ein tawelwch
Nowadays the immorality of the jungle disturbs our tranquillity

ETYMOLOGY: English jungle < 1700+ Hindi jangal < Sanskrit jngala (= wild place)


K, k
kee feminine noun
) eleventh letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e,
6 f, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z
) (does not appear in the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet)


kntrev A spelling we use here in English explanations for Welsh cantref (qv), which would be misprnounced by English-speakers if the Welsh spelling were used.


kmmud A spelling we use here in English explanations for Welsh cwmwd (qv), which would be mispronounced by English-speakers if the Welsh spelling were used. There is in fact an existing English term in use commote but we have preferred to use a word which more accurately represents the Welsh pronunciation


kg (abbreviation)


kw- -
Initial Latin kw- qu corresponds to Celtic kw, which has become p in the British languages (Welsh, Cornish, Breton)

Thus many Latin words with kw- have Welsh counterparts with p-

perth (= hedge), Latin quercus (= oak tree)
pwy (= who?), Latin quis (= who?)
pedwar (= four), Latin quattor (= four)
pump (= five), Latin quinque (= five)

The original p has become b when not in an initial position
Thus pobi (= to cook) < pop-, corresponding to Latin kokw- in coquere (= to cook)



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