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(delw 6667)


























bbb7000_kimkat1676e-II, J, K









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bbb7000_kimkat1586e-YY, Z








H, h aich feminine noun
) eighth letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e, 6 f, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z
) twelfth letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e, 8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y



This occurs at the beginning of the final syllable in derived words (1) or compound words
(1) derived: for example, in English, unwell derives from well
(2) compounded: in English, rail and way are compounded to form railway

Because of other changes (reduction of a diphthong in an independent word to a simple vowel) the original element with h may sometimes be unrecognisable

anodd (= difficult) < anawdd < n-hawdd.
This is an- (= negative prefix) + hawdd (= easy)

The letter h devoices a preceding b, d, g.
This is especially noticeable in adjectives to which the superlative suffix -haf is added, or verbs formed from adjectives by adding the suffix -hau, and -hd for forming nouns

(B + H) > P gwlyb = wet > gwlb-haf > gwlypaf = wettest;

(D + H) > T caled = hard > cald-haf > caletaf = hardest

(G + H) > C teg = fair > tg-haf > tecaf = fairest

hael: (iudd, obsolete word = lord) + (hael = generous)
<IIi-thel (= mans name) < *Uthael < Idd-hael

haf: (gorffen = end) + (haf = summer)
Gorffennaf (= July; literally (the month) (of) summers end) < Gorffnn-haf

-haf: (rhad = cheap) + (-haf = superlative ending)
rhataf (= (the) cheapest) < rhd-haf

..........(lled = wider, broader) + (-haf = superlative ending)
..........lletaf (widest, broadest) < lld-haf

..........(teg = fair, beautiful) + (-haf = superlative ending)
..........tecaf (= (the) fairest) < tg-haf

haid: asgell (= wing) + haid (= swarm)
asgellaid (obsolete, word found in the Welsh Laws = swarm of bees on the wing) < asgll-haid

harn: llwy (= spoon) + harn (= southern form of haearn = iron))
llwyarn (South Wales) (= trowel) < llwy-harn

hu: (teg = fair, beautiful) + (-hau = verbnoun ending)
tecu (= make fairer, become fairer) < teg-hu

haul: ar- (prefix = in front of) + haul (= sun)
araul (= sunny; sunny spot) < r-haul

hawdd: an- (= negative prefix) + hawdd (= easy)
annodd (= difficult) < anawdd < n-hawdd

hesg: mr (= sea) + hesg (= sedge)

moresg < mr-hesg (= sea sedge)

hir: corn (= horn) + hir (= long)
cornir (= longhorned) < crn-hir

hil: eb (= horse, an obsolete word) + hil (progeny, lineage, race)
epil (= (animals) offspring, (humans) children; originally young horses) < b-hil

hin: drwg (= bad) + hin (= weather)
drycin (= bad weather, storm) < drg-hin

(= wet, rainy) + hin (= weather)
..........gwlybin South Wales
(colloquially libin, lipin) (= wet weather, long spell of wet weather) < gwlb-hin

hir: gwddf (= neck) + hir (= long)
gyddfir (= longnecked) < gddf-hir

..........gylfin (= beak) + hir (= long)
..........gylfinir (= longbeaked) < gylfn-hir

..........main (= slim) + hir (= long)
(= maiden; literally slim and tall (person) ; also used as a proper name Meinir) < min-hir

..........oes (= leg) hir (= long)
..........coesir (= longleggd) < ces-hir

hob: hanner (= half) + (hob = pig)
hanerob (= side of bacon) < hanr-hob

hon: awr (= hour) + (hon = this)
Northern Welsh rwan (= now) < awron < wr-hon

..........nos (= night) + (hon = this)
..........noson (= evening, night; e.g. y noson honno = that night) < ns-hon
..........y waith (= this time) + (hon = this)
..........Archaic weithian (= now) < weithan < weithon < y with hon

hun: cynt (= first) + (hun = sleep)
cyntun (= nap, snooze) < cnt-hun

hwch: hesbin (= yearling lamb) + hwch (= sow)
hesbiwch, sbinwch (= young sow which has not yet produced any young) < hesbn-hwch

hyd: gŵr (= man) + hyd (= length)
gwryd (= fathom) < gwr-hyd

hyl: ar- (= intensifying prefix) + hyl (= element from the verb hel- = to hunt)
eryl (= hunt, pursuit) (obsolete word) < ar + hyl

hyn: wedi (= after) + hyn (= this)
wedyn (= afterwards)

hynt: dwfr older form of dwr (= water) + hynt (path)
dyffryn (= valley) < dfr-hynt

(carr- < car = cart) + (hynt = way)
..........cerrynt (obsolete) (= path, road)
..........carr-hynt > cerr-hynt (vowel affection, a > e caused by the y in the following syllable) > cerrynt (loss of the h)

..........eb (obsolete word = horse) + hynt (path)
..........Epynt (= mountain name, literally horse path) < b-hynt

hysb: haf (= summer) + hesb (= dry, feminine form of hysb)
Hafesb (river name, dry in summer) < Hf-hesb

(qv) (verbal suffix) > -a

(= to glean, to gather fallen grains) < llawf-ha
(llawf, old form of llaw = hand) + (-ha, suffix for forming verbs)

In some other words there is no recognisable element. The h is lost at the beginning of a final syllable, but it is seen in compounds when the syllable with h is a penultimate syllable

angau (= death) < angeu < angheu
angheuol (= deadly, lethal)

aros (= to wait) < arhos
arhosol (= permanent)

brenin (= king) < brenhin
brenhinol (= royal)

cymar (= partner, spouse) < cymhar
cymheiriad (= spouses)

cynnar (= early) < cynnhar
cynharach (= earlier)

Or the h is present in the base form, where it precedes the tonic syllable, but it is lost in derivatives, wher it no longer does so

(= empire)
-ol (suffix for forming adjectives)
*ymherodrol > ymerodrol (= imperial)


In south-east Wales, in the traditional dialect, the
h was generally absent.


(delwedd 7475)

(1) The street name Cwm-yr-wch (appearing as Cwm yr Wch) in Dynfant, Abertawe, might possibly be for Cwm yr Hwch (the) valley (of) the sow / the pig.
(2) heol (= street) is hewl / ewl
(3) haul (= sun) is houl / oul
(4) hir (= long) is hir / ir
(5) hefyd (= also, too) is hefyd / efyd, d


There are examples in Welsh of an inorganic initial h (that is, an h which was not originally part of the word but has appeared later in its history)

.....(1) cyhoedd (= public) (c|oedd > c|hoedd)

.....(2) efo (North Wales, = with) > hefo

.....(3) erwydd (word from British, with elements equivalent to ar = before, gwydd- = to see) > o erwydd > o herwydd (= because)

.....(4) eusor > heusor (obsolete) (= shepherd)

.....(5) hardd is probably in origin a form of ardd (= high)

.....(6) ogi > hogi to grind (a knife), to sharpen (a knife)

.....(7) ugain: in the numerals 21-29 ar ugain > ar hugain
Example: tri ar hugain 23 (three on twenty)

.....(8) un (= one) > hun (= oneself)

.....(9) unan (= one, + diminutive suffix -an) > hunan (= oneself)

.....(10) uwdffon > wtffon > hwtffon (porridge stick) porridge spoon, one for stirring porridge


Some words with initial h- are from British words with initial s- ( < Celtic < Indo-European)

This initial s- is to be seen in cognate words in certain other languages or preserved in words taken into English before the change s > h had taken place in early Welsh

..a/ Hafren (= river name, < Sabrn-). The s survives in the English name Severn)

..b/ halen (= salt) and heli (salt water, brine) correspond to Latin sal (= salt), and in Germanic languages: English salt, German Salz. The Greek word had initial h- (hals = salt, as in halogen, halophyte)

..c/ haul (= sun) (cf Latin sol- = sun, and hence English solar ). The Greek word had initial h- helios (= sun)

..d/ hwch (= sow) < British sukk-, and in the Germanic languages English sow, German die Sau (= sow).
(English hog is from Old Welsh, which explains the initial h-)

A similar change of s > h is to be seen in present-day southern Castilian (Andalucia): los viejos amigos (the old friends) loh viejoh amigoh

1 (not present in the modern transcription of Biblical names in the Welsh Bible, though present in English, and in earlier spelling in the Welsh Bible)

In order to indicate certain vowels in Hebrew, sometimes the consonant h (and also y and w) is used. In the case of h (which is not pronounced), the following combinations occur: ah, eh, oh

In modern practice, final h (
ה), unless vocalized, is omitted in transliteration



Manoa Micha


In older Welsh editions of the Bible the -h is used, as in English:

Y Bibl Cyssegr-lan... Argraphedig... tros y Bibl Gymdeithas Frytanaidd a Thramor... (The Holy Bible... Printed... on behalf of the British and Foreign Bible Society...) M.DCCCLXVII (1857)

Dina: A Dinah merch Leah (Genesis 34:1)

Hanna: A dwy wraig oedd iddo; enw y naill oedd Hannah, ac enw y llall Peninnah (1 Samuel 1:2)

Lea: A Dinah merch Leah (Genesis 34:1)

Manoa: A enw ef oedd Manoah (Barnwyr / Judges 13:2)

Manasse: A Joseph a alwodd enw ei gyntaf-anedig, Manasseh

Pennina: A dwy wraig oedd iddo; enw y naill oedd Hannah, ac enw y llall Peninnah (1 Samuel 1:2)

Sora: Ac yr oedd rhyw wr yn Sorah (Barnwyr / Judges 13:2)


h in derived forms

In some words an h has been lost, but reemerges in derived forms (especially plural forms and conjugated verbs)

aros (arhos) (= to wait, to stop), arhosais (= I waited), arhosol (= permanent), arhosfan (= stopping place)

(brennhin) (= king), brenhinoedd (= kings), brenhines (= queen), brenhinol (= royal)

cynnal (cynnhal) (= to support), cynhaliaeth (= sustenance)

cynnwrf (cynnhwrf) (= agitation), cynhyrfu (= agitate)

tymor (tymhor) (= season), tymhorau (= seasons), tymhorol (= seasonal)



1 verb suffix, especially in verbs with the sense of seeking or gathering (something), the suffix being added to the noun which is the material being sought or gathered

After the consonants g,b,d,f, the h devoices the consonant



blawd (= flour)
blota (= to beg for flour) < blawta < blwd-ha

cardod (= charity, alms)
cardota (= to beg for alms) < cardd-ha

(= festival of Welsh culture)
eisteddfota (= to visit eisteddfods) < eisteddfd-ha

malwod (= snails)
malwota (= to go looking for snails, to gather snails) < malwd-ha

pysgod (= fish)
pysgota (= to fish) < pysgd-ha

ŷd (= corn)
yta (= to beg for corn) < d-ha


(llawf, old form of llaw = hand) + (-ha, suffix for forming verbs)

lloffa (= to glean, to gather fallen grains) < llawf-ha


cig (= meat)
cica (= to beg for meat) < cg-ha

gwraig (= wife)
gwreica (= to seek a wife) < cardd-ha

After other consonants and after vowels as the h is lost and leaves no trace, and so it is as if the suffix is -a

adar (= birds)
adara (= to hunt birds) < adr-ha

cnau (= nuts)
cneua (= to go looking for nut, to gather nuts) < cnu-ha

(= wool)
(= to gather wool; South-east: also, to daydream) < gwln-ha

mwyar (= blackberries)

mwyara (= to go looking for blackberries, to go blackberrying, to pick blackberries) < mwyar-ha

(= graveyard, cemetery)
mynwenta (= to go looking for graveyards, to look around graveyards) < mynwnt-ha

siop (= shop)
siopa (= to go shopping) < sip-ha

1 there is
aspiration of an initial vowel certain possessive determiners
m (= my), ei (= her), ein (= our), eu (= their),
In this dictionary we mark this aspiration as h
m harian with my money, arian money
ei hanrhegion her presents, anrheg present
ein hallweddi our keys allwedd key
eu hanifeiliaid their animals, anifail animal


obsolete exclamation - calling attention

Sant Ioan 8:10 Ar Iesu wedi ymunioni, ac heb weled neb ond y wraig, a ddywedodd wrthi, Ha wraig, pa le y mae dy gyhuddwyr di?
When Jesus had lifted up himself, and saw none but the woman, he said unto her. Woman, where are those thine accusers?


haa masculine noun
North Wales
summer See: haf

NOTE: in North Wales the loss of final
v in monosyllables is common
(1) gof (= blacksmith) > go,
(2) cryf (= strong) > cry,
(3) pryf (= animal, insect) > pry


1 southern form of haen (= stratum, layer)
Usually spelt hn / han
See aa


1 south-eastern form of haen (= stratum, layer)
Usually spelt hn / hn
See aa / haan


HA-ka [ˡhaka]
PLURAL hacas
HA-kas [ˡhakaz, ˡhakas] feminine noun
haka = Maori war-dance
haka = kind of war-dance by New Zealand rugby players before a match

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < English < Maori


HAK-sen [ˈhaksɛn] feminine noun
HAKS [haks]
(county of Ceredigion) whore

ETYMOLOGY: (hacs = prostitutes) < English hackes (= prostitutes); addition of the feminine singulative suffix -en


had, or hadau
<HAAD, HAA-dai, -e> [hɑːd, ˡhɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] (
seeds; see hedyn


had adar
<haad AA-dar> [hɑːd ˡɑˑdar] (masculine noun)


<HAA-dhev> [ˡhɑˑɛv] masculine noun
(obsolete) home, abode, dwelling

Haddef house name in Ffordd Llanberis, Caernarfon (county of Gwynedd) (in the list of members in The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion 1961 / Part 1)

ETYMOLOGY: A variant of addef (= abode, dwelling, home.)

The initial h could be

EITHER a/ from the use of the word in a phrase such as yn ei haddef (in her home),

OR b/ an initial h which has occurred before an accented first syllable in certain words (hun, hunan = self; un ar hugain one on twenty);

OR c/ from the intensifying prefix hy- (hy-addef > haddef)

Modern Irish has adhbha (= dwelling, abode; a literary word). There is also an Old Irish form which would have given *soadhbha in modern Irish had it survived, with initial so- corresponding to Welsh hy-, and so equivalent to Welsh hy-addef


<HAD-liv> [ˡhadlɪv] masculine noun
gonorrhea, clap

ETYMOLOGY: (had = seed, semen) + soft mutation + (llif = flux, flow)


<had-LII-vol> [hadˡliˑvɔl] adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (hadlif = gonorrea) + (-ol suffix)


<HAA-di> [ˡhɑˑdɪ] verb
(verb with no object) go to seed, run to seed

(verb with no object) to seed, to sow = plant seeds

ETYMOLOGY: (had = llavors) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)
The corresponding Cornish form is hasa (= run to seed; to sow), and in Breton hada (= to seed, to sow)


<HAA-did> [ˡhɑˑdɪd] masculine noun
North Wales
seedcorn, cereal grains for planting (wheat, barley, oats)
hadyd tatws = seed potatoes

ETYMOLOGY: (had = seeds) + (yd = cereal)


<had-Ə-sol> [hadˡəsɔl] adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (had = seeds) + (-ysol = -eating);
(ys- stem of ysu = consume) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


<had-Ə-sor> [hadˡəsɔr] masculine noun
PLURAL hadysorion
<had-ə-SOR-yon> [hadəˡsɔrjɔn]
seed-eating bird

ETYMOLOGY: (had = seeds) + (-ysor = -eater, animal which eats); (ys- stem of ysu = consume) + (-or suffix for indicating a an agent; from Latin -rius, in words taken from Latin (canghellor (= chancellor) < cancellrius; afterwards used as a suffix with native words telynor = harpist)


<HEI-dhi > [ˡhəɪɪ] (berf)
1 deserve

a wnel ddaioni a haedda ddaioni (saying) whoever does good deserves good

haedda'r falwen gyrraedd pen y daith hard work deserves success (the snail deserves to reach the destination / (the) end (of) the journey)



<HEIDH-yant> [ˡhəɪjant] masculine noun
PLURAL haeddiannau
hei-dhi-A-ne [həɪɪˡanaɪ, -ɛ]

deserts, what one deserves, fitting punishment, comeuppance, just deserts, just retribution
cael eich haeddiant = get what one deserves, get ones comeuppance, get whats coming to you

due, what is deserved, recognition
rhoi ei ddyledus barch a haeddiant iddo give him the respect and recognition due to him


<HEI-arn> [ˡhəɪarn] (masculine noun)

bara wedi ei grasu ar radell haearn bread baked on a gridiron

hen heyrn scrap metal (old irons)
prynwr hen heyrn scrap merchant

haearnwerthwr ironmonger, hardware shop owner (iron seller)

ceffyl haearn iron horse (ceffyl = horse) + (haearn = iron)
..a/ (obsolete) (poetic) car
..b/ (obsolete) bicycle
..c/ (obsolete) train
..d/ andiron, fire dog


<hei-ARN-aidh, -edh> [həɪˡarnaɪ, -ɛ] (adjective)

bod ewyllys haearnaidd gan (rywun) have an iron will

anhaearnaidd non-ferrous
(an- = negative prefix) + (haearnaidd = ferrous)

metel anhaearnaidd non-ferrous metal


hei- arn -vain masculine noun
PLURAL haearnfeini
ironstone = a stone containing iron ore

ETYMOLOGY: (haearn = iron) + soft mutation + (maen = stone)


haearnwerthwr, haearnwerthwyr
hei arn WER thur, hei arn WERTH wir (masculine noun)
ironmonger, hardware shop owner


HAIL (adjective)
hael hyd at fai generous to a fault, excessively generous


haelioni hei li O ni (masculine noun)


haelionus hei li O nis (adjective)


hei- n -lhi verb
to plate (metal)

ETYMOLOGY: (haenell = coating of metal) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)


HEI ri (verb)
2 haeru cyn profi to beg the question, to beggar the question = assume that something not yet put to the test is already proved (claim before proving)


haf, hafau
HAAV, HA ve (masculine noun)

heulsaf yr haf summer solstice

Cae-haf < caer haf = ((the) field (of) the summer, summertime field)
Street name in Pentrectheral (county of Y Fflint)

4 ysgol haf summer school, summer conference


HAAV (feminine noun)
womans name (= summer)


HAA-val adj
1 like, similar; equal

hafal i similar to, equal to

Does unman yng Nghymru hafal i Bowys am fagu arweinwyr Cristnogol
There is nowhere in Wales equal to Powys for producuing (nurturing) religious leaders

2 (m) like, similarity, equal
ei hafal its equal, its like
gwerin ddiwylliedig y ddeunawfed ganrif, na fyddai moi hafal eto the cultured common people of the nineteenth century, whose like will never again be seen

3 y symbol hafal the equal sign
Robert Recorde (15101558), y Cymro o Ddinbych y Pysgod a ddyfeisiodd y symbol hafal
Robert Recorde (15101558),, the Welshman from Dinbych y Pysgod / tenby who invented the equal sign

4 Cynhafal (saints name) like a chief (cyn- = chief, hafal = similar)

5 efelychu (= imitate) < hefelychu < (hafal = like) + (-ychu verb suffix). The y of the suffix causes the preceding back vowels, both a, to be be fronted to e (vowel affection)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British > Celtic
From the same British root: Cornish HAVAL (= like), Breton HEVEL (= like)
Irish samhail (= likeness, resemblance)


haa -van feminine noun
PLURAL hafnau, hafnoedd
hav -ne, -nodh
1 port

Glanhafan street name in Solfach (Sir Benfro)

< glan yr hafan (the) side (of) the port

2 refuge, safe haven

bod yn hafan i be a haven for
Roedd Lloegr yn hafan i ffoaduriaid y pryd hynny England was a haven for refugees
England was a haven for refugees

3 hafan rhg trethi tax haven

ETYMOLOGY: variant of hafn made bisyllabic with the addition of an echo vowel in the final consonant cluster hafn > hafan,

cf dafn (= drop, raindrop) > (colloquially) dafan
ofn (= fear) > (colloquially) ofon
cefn (= back) > (colloquially) cefen


haa -van
1 house name = haven, safe haven
2 street name
..a/ Llanelli (county of Caerfyrddin)
..b/ Maesyfelin (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)


Hafan-deg HAA-van DEEG [ˡhaˑvan ˡdeː g]
house name
..a/ Maes-hafn (county of Dinbych / Denbigh) (spelt as Hafan Deg)

street name
..a/ Abercynffig (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr / Bridgend) (spelt as Hafan Deg)
..b/ Aber-dr (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (spelt as Hafan Deg)
..c/ Blaendulais (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) (spelt as Hafan Deg)
..d/ Coed-poeth (county of Wrecsam) (spelt as Hafan Deg)
..e/ Llanarthnau, Carmarthen (county of Caerfyrddin) (spelt as Hafan Deg)
..f/ Llanfair Caereinion (county of Powys) (spelt as Hafan Deg on the street sign (Google Maps, 22-03-2017)
..g Llan-sain-sir (county of Conwy) (spelt as Hafan Deg)
..h/ Maes-teg (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (spelt as Hafan Deg)
..i/ Pen-coed (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (spelt as Hafan Deg)
..j/ Tanygrisiau (county of Gwynedd) (spelt as Hafan Deg)
..k/ Treffynnon (county of Y Fflint) (spelt as Hafan Deg)
..l/ Treuddyn, Yr Wyddgrug (county of Y Fflint) (spelt as Hafan Deg)
..m/ Y Trallwng / Welshpool (Powys) (spelt as Hafan Deg)
..n/ Yr Wyddgrug (county of Y Fflint) (spelt as Hafan Deg)

ETYMOLOGY: fair haven (hafan = haven) + soft mutation + (teg = fair)


ha-VAN-va [haˡvanva] feminine noun
1 (house name) haven

ETYMOLOGY: (haven-place) (hafan = haven) + (-fa noun-forming suffix, indicating a place)


hav-A-nedh [haˡvanɛ] feminine noun
house name: summer home

ETYMOLOGY: (haf = summer) + (annedd = dwelling)


haf bach Mihangel
haav baakh mi HA ngel (masculine noun)
Indian summer (the little summer of Saint Michael) (Around Michaelmas on 29 September)


hav-dre [ˡhavdrɛv] masculine noun

1 summer farm

Hafdre Place near Bronhelem, a farm 11 miles from Tregaron and 11 miles from Abergwesyn. Described as a winter shelter for sheep in an online forum (03 April 07)

Craig yr Hafdre
on the western side of the river Tywi, above Llyn Brianne, and west of the summit of Cefn Coch and Abergwesyn (crag of Yr Hafdre)

ynysawdre (ynys Hafdre) (the) meadow (of the place called) Hafdre is now Ynysawdre (colloquially Y Snawdra) in the county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr. The meadow is the squarish piece of land east of the Llynfi river where it joins the Ogwr river. The eastern boundary of this area is a street called Terfyn Ynysawdre ((the) boundary (of) Ynysawdre)

Hafdre name of a house in at the southern end of the square in Tregaron, next to Gwestyr Talbot

ETYMOLOGY: (haf = summer) + soft mutation + (tref = trv, farm)


hav-di [ˡhavdɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL hafdai
HAV-dai [ˡhavdai]
1 summerhouse = building in a park for shade and rest

2 (native laws) summer residence in uplands
Heol Hafdy street name in Llansamlet (county of Abertawe)

3 (Bible) summer house
Amos 3:15 A mi a drawaf y gaeafdy a'r hafdy; a derfydd am y tai ifori, a bydd diben ar y teiau mawrion, medd yr ARGLWYDD.
Amos 3:15
And I will smite the winter house with the summer house; and the houses of ivory shall perish, and the great houses shall have an end, saith the LORD.

ETYMOLOGY: (haf = summer) + soft mutation + ( = house)


HAA-vesp [ˡhaˑvɛsp] feminine noun
(in the county of Powys)

...(a) Afon Hafesb = SJ1109 stream in Maldwyn (Powys).
See also Aberhafesb SH0792

...(b) Bedo Hafesb (fl. 1567-85) poet from Maldwyn (Powys).

(in the county of Gwynedd)
...(a) Bro Hafesb street name in Llandderfel (district of the Hafesb stream)
...(b) Dewi Havhesp bardic name of an englyn poet (David Roberts, 1831-1884) of Llanfor, Y Bala, who took his name from this stream near his home.

Comparison of the spelling Havhesp with the standard form Hafesb

..a/ the name has been respelt according to its etymology (it is a combination of haf + hesb, summer + dry). In such compounds the h is lost in the standard language. See the entry for h

..b/ there is an erronious p (a spelling in use in the 1800s) instead of b,

..c/ v is used instead of f. This was a spelling reform advocated in the 1800s and adopted by some writers of the period.

...(c) Nant Hafesb SH9337 = stream in the county of Gwynedd (district of Meirionnydd)

ETYMOLOGY: dry in summer, winterbourne;
Welsh Hafesb, feminine form of hafysb < haf-hysb dry in summer,
(haf = summer) + (hysb = dry)


HAV-nant [ˡhavnant]
1 (SH8046) stream in Aberconwy (county of Conwy)
2 street name in Winsh-wen, Abertawe (county of Abertawe)

ETYMOLOGY: summer stream (haf = summer) + (nant = stream)


hafod, hafodydd
[ˡhaˑvɔd, haˡvoˑdɪ] HA vod, ha VO didh (feminine noun)
summer pasture; summer dwelling at this place (in the uplands for the grazing of cattle between May and October). Sometimes it refers to lowland pasture which is unusable in the winter because it is flooded.

2 dairy

The English translation of the folk tune Hafod y Wraig Lawen listed in The Cambrian Quarterly Magazine and Celtic Repertory (1830) is given as The Merry Dames Dairy.

ETYMOLOGY: summer place (haf = summer) + soft mutation + (bod = house)

h-vod de-ka(v)
Street name (Hafod Decaf) in Y Pil (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

Originally the name of a summer farm (Hafod-deca, without the final
(SeeHAFOD and HAFOTY in Welsh Place-names / Melville Richards)

ETYMOLOGY: As the name stands, it is yr hafod decaf ((the) fairest summer-farm)

(yr definite article) + (hafod = summer farm) + soft mutation + (tecaf = prettiest, fairest; superlative form of teg = pretty, fair)

But this is the final stage of a strange transformation over the centuries, since the original form was Hafodwgan hafod Wgan ((the) summer-farm (of) Gwgan)
(hafod = summer farm) + soft mutation + (Gwgan mans name)

..1/ Hafodwgan > *Hafodwga (unusual loss of final
Loss of a final n occurs in at least one other Welsh word: cyfan (whole part, totality) > cyfa

..2/ *Hafodwga > Hafodyga (alteration of tonic vowel to the obscure vowel
u > y)

..3/ Hafodyga > *Hafodyca (in the south-east, g at the beginning of a final syllable devoices to k). It occurs in many words in south-eastern Welsh.

..4/ *Hafodyca > Hafod-deca The meaningless element dyca was adjusted to give deca (= fairest)

..5/ Hafod-deca > Hafod-decaf (the literary form of the superlative has final
v, lost in colloquial Welsh. Here it has been restored)


h-vod gai

1 place name

..a/ Blaenpennal SN6264 (county of Ceredigion)
..b/ Llanddeiniolen SH5466 (county of Gwynedd)
..c/ Llanenddwyn SH5723 (county of Gwynedd)
..d/ Llanfair Talhaearn SH9270 (county of Conwy)
..e/ Llanfair y Creuddyn SN6676 (county of Ceredigion)
..f/ Nantglyn SJ0062 (county of Dinbych)
..g/ Ysbyty-ystwyth SN7371 (county of Ceredigion)

(delwedd 7058)

ETYMOLOGY: Hafod-gau is possibly empty summer farm (There is another word cau meaning enclosed)

hafod = summer place, summer farm) + soft mutation + (cau = empty, deserted, abandoned)
(See HAFOD and HAFOTY in Welsh Place-names / Melville Richards)


HAA-vod HEI-log
1 farm in Castell-nedd ac Aberafan, west of Afon Cynffig and north of Mynyddcynffig SS8484

See Hafoteulog


h-vod laas
1 street name in Pen-coed (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (Hafod Las)

ETYMOLOGY: (yr) hafod las green summer pasture
(yr definite article) + (hafod = summer farm) + soft mutation + (glas = green [vegetation]; blue)


h-vod lon
1 sometimes in house or street names;

..a/ street name in Rhiw-las, Bangor (county of Gwynedd) (happy / merry summer farm)

ETYMOLOGY: (yr) hafod lon happy summer farm / summer pasture
(yr definite article) + (hafod = summer farm) + soft mutation + (llon = happy)


h-vod oir
Hafod-oer (SH7615) Name of a farm in Y Brithdir south-east of Dolgellau

ETYMOLOGY: yr hafod oer cold summer farm
(yr definite article) + (hafod = summer farm) + (oer = cold)

(possibly it is abandoned summer farm - in place names oer could possibly mean deserted, abandoned, as can cold in English place names).

However nearby 2km to the west is (SH7824) Waun Oer (cold moor), suggesting that maybe the area was seen as colder than other parts

(See HAFOD and HAFOTY in Welsh Place-names / Melville Richards)


1 locality in Shropshire (England)
English name: Marrington

2 locality in the district of Maldwyn (Powys)
English name: Allport

3 street name in
..a/ Tonyrefail (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)
..b/ Cwm-dr (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

ETYMOLOGY: (white(-washed) summer farm)
(hafod = summer farm ) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white)


h-vod- we -nog
See: Hafodwynog


h-vod- wei -nog
See: Hafodwynog


h-vod- u -nog
See: Hafodwynog


h-vod- u -nog
1 See: Hafodwynog


h-vod- ui -nog
Place name: summer farm abounding in lambs

(This element is sometimes found altered as -wenog / weunog / -wnnog / -wnog)
..a/ Abersychan (county of Torfaen)
..b/ Caeo (county of Caeryrddin)
..c/ Castell-nedd
..d/ Llandysiliogogo (county of Ceredigion)
..e/ Llan-giwg (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)
..f/ Llansanffrid (SN5167) (county of Ceredigon)
..g/ Lledrod (county of Ceredigion)
..h/ Melinau (county of Penfro)
..i/ Tre-lech (county of Caerfyrddin)
..j/ Uwchygarreg Hafodwnog (SH7693) 9km south of Machynlleth (district of Maldwyn, in the county of Powys) (Noted in HAFOD and HAFOTY in Welsh Place-names / Melville Richards)

ETYMOLOGY: (hafod = upland summer farm, highland summer holding) + (wynog = abundant in lambs)


1 farm in Castell-nedd ac Aberafan, west of Afon Cynffig and north of Mynyddcynffig SS8484

On the Ordnance Survey map as Hafodheulog

Coed Hafoteulog / Coed Hafodheulog
woodland east of the farm (the) wood (of) Hafoteulog / Hafodheulog

ETYMOLOGY: Hafoteulog = hafod heulog the sunny summer place

(hafod = summer place) + (heulog = sunny)

This, though, is the present meaning of the name, but it is not the original meaning, since Hafoteulog < Hafotalog < hafod halog muddy summer place

(hafod = summer place) + (halog = muddy, filthy)

It seems that the name was changed to make it a more pleasant and acceptable one.


ha-VO-ti (fm)

PLURAL hafotai
1 summer place

2 Found in place names in North Wales


Hafoty SH7969 Farm near Eglwys-bach, county of Conwy (though spelt incorrectly on the Ordnance Survey map as Hafodty) map


Hafoty-boeth SJ0749 A farm near Brynsaithmarchog (County of Dinbych) (misspelt Hafotty-boeth on the Ordnance Survey map) map


ETYMOLOGY: dwelling at the summer place (hafod = summer place) + soft mutation + (ty = house, dwelling) > hafd-dy > hafoty. Where a final -d is followed by a d which is the result of a soft mutation of t, the result is (d+d > t).

NOTE: In some place names if occurs as Foty (with the loss of the first syllable, a phenomenon very much present in Welsh)

NOTE: A feminine noun, as in Hafoty-boeth above.Since is a masculine noun, one would expect the compound to be masculine too.


hav-ren feminine noun
1 (SN8388)
Hafren o Afon Hafren =
river in central and south Wales flowing into England.
It rises in Pumlumon in the county of Powys and flows eastwards through Llanidloes and Y Trallwng (Welshpool) into England. It discharges into Mr Hafren (Severn Estuary). It is the longest river on the island of Britain (676km)
English name: Severn, River Severn

Stryd Hafren Name of a street in Y Trallwng / Welshpool (English name: Severn Street)

Ffordd Hafren Name of a street in Y Trallwng / Welshpool (English name: Severn Road)

Heol Hafren Name of a street in Caer-dydd / Cardiff (English name: Severn Road)

2 Mr Hafren (the) sea (of) Hafren estuary known at one time in English as The Severn Sea, now the Severn Estuary

3 Hafren womans name, twentieth century. From the river name

4 Savernake, the name of a forest at Kennet in Wiltshire in the west of England, most likely derives from a British name which would give *Hafrennog in modern Welsh.

The river Bedwyn was probably known as *Sabrenn- by the Britons (the same as the River Severn), from which was derived *Sabrenn-k- (that is, with the addition of the territorial suffix -k-), meaning the district of the river *Sabrenn-

5 Pont Hafren the Severn Bridge (= Pont Grog Hafren)

Pont Grog Hafren The Severn suspension bridge, from Aust (England) to Rogiet (Wales) opened in 1966

Ail Bont Hafren the second Severn Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge and viaduct opened in 1996. It is in fact four structures one after the other

Traphont Awstin / Aust Viaduct,

Pont Hafren / Severn Bridge,

Traphont Beachley / Beachley Viaduct (all in England) and

Pont Gŵy / Wye Bridge (which crosses the border).

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *sabrenn- < Celtic *sabrinn-.

The old name of Abhainn na Laoi (English: River Lee) in Corcaigh (Cork), Ireland, was Sabhrann


ha- -vrin masculine noun
summer hill

There is a street called Ffordd Hafryn in Baecolwyn (county of Conwy)

There is a street called Brohafryn in Corwen (county of Dinbych) (bro = district)
district of Hafryn, or of the summer hill

ETYMOLOGY: hafryn < hf-fryn (haf = summer) + soft mutation + (bryn = hill)


HAV wen (feminine noun)
womans name

ETYMOLOGY: `summer (haf = summer) + (suffix wen for forming female names)


HA gar (adjective)

2 Llawer hagr hygar fydd Beauty is only skin deep
(Many (an) ugly (one) (it-is) amiable that-is)
(hy- = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (car- < caru = to love)


haid, heidiau
HAID, HEID ye (feminine noun)
flock, herd; swarm

haid o blant
haid o BLANT crowd of kids

HEID yo (verb) to swarm

dod yn un haid come in a large group

5 heitgar gregarious, fond of company
1900+; heitgar < hid-gar (haid = flock, crowd) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives)


HAIDH (plural of heiddyn)

Hafod-yr-haidd SJ2138 farm in Llansanffrid Glyn Ceiriog (the) summer place (of) the barley


HA-la verb
(South) to send

2 (South) hala rhwng pobl stir up trouble between people (send between people)
Cf (North) gyrru rhwng pobl stir up trouble between people (drive / send between people)


HAA len (masculine noun)

bod fel penwaig mewn halen
(Cyfoeth o Sir Gr = wealth from the county of Caerfyrddin / H. Meurig Evans / Llafar Gwlad 55, Gwanwyn 1997)
be packed like sardines in a tin (of many people in a confined space) (be like herring in salt)

Compare the Catalan expression estar estrets com arengades be confined like herrings

3 Sayings:
Gorau un enllyn, halen The very best companage is salt


HA lio (verb)
halio ymith tow away

Maer frigd dn wedi halio ei gar ymith
The fire brigade has towed away his car

rhaff halio towrope

to masturbate


HALHT (adjective)
Plural: heilltion
salted, salty

2 (water) salty, brackish, saline = containing salt
Maen well gan y psygodyn hwn ddŵr hallt y mr na dŵr croyw nant ac afon
This fish prefers the salt water of the sea to the fresh water of a stream and a river

Daeth dagrau heilltion i lawr ei gruddiau
Salty tears rolled down (came down) her cheeks

2 pickled in brine
cabej hallt pickled cabbage

3 preserved in salt
ysgadenyn hallt, pennog hallt, penogyn hallt salt cod
cig hallt salted meat

4 (figurative) sharp, severe, grave, grievous, pungent, bitter, vitriolic

cwyno yn hallt complain bitterly
Bun cwynon hallt iddo gael cam He complained
bitterly that he had been wronged

Maen hallt gan fy nghalon ddweud fod...

It grieves me to say that (its bitter with my heart saying...)

Watcyn Fardd (John Jones, Hendy, Llanerfyl) won a three-pound prize in the Llangollen Eisteddfod of 1858 in an englyn which was an epitaph to Prince Llywelyn. The last two lines are
Marw yn Muallt, hallt fu hyn Cymru a'i phlant
Hwy oll a wylant am eu Llywelyn.
Dying in (the territory called) Buallt, this was grievous Wales and her children
They all weep for their Llywelyn

dadl hallt a fierce debate

ei dweud-hi yn hallt am rywun severely criticise somebody
ei rhoi-hi i rywun yn eitha hallt am wneud rhywbeth reprove / rebuke / scold somebody severely for doing something

cosbi rhywun yn hallt (am wneud rhywbeth) severely punish somebody for doing something

5 (of excessive price)
codi yn hallt am charge an exhorbitant price for
talu yn hallt am pay through the nose for, pay a fortune for; pay dearly for

mor hallt 'r heli very salty as salty as brine
cyn hallted heli cig moch very salty as salty as (the) brine (for salting) pork


HAA-log adjective
polluted, contaminated, defiled, corrupt

Er nad yw dy wehelyth yn byw mewn halog fyd
(Twynog: Cyfrol Goffa y diweddar T. Twynog Jeffreys, Rhymni. Dan Olygiaeth Dyfed. 1912 / tudalen 49)
Although your kindred do not live in a corrupt world

miry, muddy

place names
(1) Beilihalog (in semi-Englished spelling as Bailyhalog, name of a Congregationalist chapel in Gwenddwr, county of Powys) ((the) muddy farmyard)

(2) Plwca Halog ((the) muddy plot of land) Lost field name, Y Rhath, Caer-dydd

(3) Rhydhalog (= y rhyd halog, (the) muddy ford) farm south-east of Brynsadler ST0280 (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

NOTE: Since the combination (d + h) becomes
t in Welsh pronunciation,

Rhydhalog > Rhytalog. In some place names after a word with final -d, there is a tendency to interpret the name as though it includes a personal name Talog

..1/ Rhydtalog SJ2355 in Sir y Fflint, 1 km north-west of Wrecsam) as if it were (the) ford (of) Talog; in fact it is a reworking of Rhytalog from Rhydhalog (= filthy ford, muddy ford)

..2/ Rhytalog (= y rhyd halog, (the) muddy ford Llanarmon yn Il SJ1956 (county of Dinbych)

..3/ Coedtalog ((the) wood (of) Talog), a reforming of Coetalog < Coedhalog (= filthy wood, muddy wood) SH0510, in the district of Maldwyn in the county of Powys

place names: in some instances, replaced by heulog (= sunny) to rid the name of unpleasantness and to give it a more felicitous meaning;

Dolheulog, Aberaeron SN4562 (county of Ceredigion) (muddy meadow > sunny meadow)

(a street in the town perpetuates the name)

Hafoteulog (qv) SS8484 ( < Hafotalog < hafod halog), Margam (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) (muddy summer pasture > sunny summer pasture)

Moel Heulog, Llandderfel SH9837 (county of Gwynedd) (muddy hill > sunny hill)

Cf the English place name in Leicestershire Belgrave (marten grove, grove of martens) < Old English (meardh = marten) + (grf = grove). In the Domesday Book as Merdegrave. For the Norman invaders who settled here the first element resembled French merde (= shit), so they replaced it with the element bel- (= fair).

Y Fanhalog (Rhondda Cynon Taf)
(1) Apparently: the muddy place
(y = the) + soft mutation + (man = place) + (halog = muddy)

(2) In fact, earlier forms show it be originally Y Fanalog, southern form of Y Fanhadlog the broom place
(y = the) + soft mutation + (banhadlog = broom place)

fanhaddlog (instead of fanhadlog dd instead of standard d) > fanhalog (loss of dd)

dihalog pure, undefiled, immaculate

ETYMOLOGY: (hl = dirt, mire) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives)


halogwr, halogwyr
ha LO gur, ha LOG wir (masculine noun)
person who commits sacrilege


HAM (masculine noun)


hambwrdd, hambyrddau
HAM burdh, ham BƏR dhe (masculine noun)
tray (handboard)

NOTE: [ Olde Cheshire Dialecte.
hand-booard : a tea-tray ]


ham -dhen femen
PLURAL hamddenau
ham dhee ne
1 leisure, leisure time

cael hamdden have leisure time

cael hamdden i have the time to (do something) at your leisure

Nid wyf erioed wedi cael hamdden a chyfle i edrych yn fanwl dros Cilhaul Uchaf
Ive never had the leisure time and the opportunity to examine Cil-haul Uchaf closely

2 oriau hamdden leisure hours

gweithgareddau hamdden leisure activities (hobbies; reading, gardening, sports, music, cinema etc)

canolfan hamdden leisure centre, sports centre

ETYMOLOGY: apparently hm-dden < *hn-dden (han- = separation) + soft mutation + (den- < denu = to attract)


ha - DHEE -na
1 take it easy, relax, lounge around
dillad hamddena leisure clothes, casual clothes)

ETYMOLOGY: (hamdden = leisure) + (-a suffix for forming verbs)


1 southern form of haen (= stratum, layer)
Usually spelt (less correctly) hn
See aa / haan


h-naut feminine noun
Hinoot, Hinoolt = province in Belgium;
The French pronunciation is


hances, hancesi
HANG kes, hang KE si (feminine noun)

NOTE: [Olde Cheshire Dialecte.
hankitch : a handkerchief ]


hances boced, hancesi poced
hang kes BO ked, hang ke si PO ked (feminine noun)
pocket handkerchief


ha NEE rai, -re (masculine noun)
halves; plural of half


ha-NER-ken feminine noun
(county of Penfro) dwarf (female)

ETYMOLOGY: haner- (penult form of hanner = half) + (-cen = feminine diminutive suffix)


ha NER ko> (adjective)
1 simple (half + mind)
Usually in the reduced form nerco NER ko>

(1) (hnner + cf) becomes a single word with regular stress on the penult > hanrcof
(2) the final [v] is lost - typical in modern Welsh: hanerco
(3) the prepenult syllable is lost - very common in informal Welsh: nerco


hanercyn ha-ner-kin masculine noun
(county of Penfro) dwarf (male)

ETYMOLOGY: haner- (penult form of hanner = half) + (cyn = masculine diminutive suffix)


ha-n-reg feminine noun
PLURAL haneregau
(obsolete) half an acre
Found in field names, often in the form nereg (with loss of the pretonic first syllable, a common phenonenon in Welsh)

Hanereg field name in Llan-daf
John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw), Cardiff Records, (compiled 1889-1911) notes: The Hannereg. A close in the city of Llandaff (1755)

1755. Coroner's Inquest taken at the dwellinghouse of Philip David, innkeeper, situate in the City of Llandaff, on 30 September 1754, on view of the body of Thomas Prees late of the City of Llandaff, aforesaid, labourer, found that the deceased, on the 25th day of August then last past, in a certain close within the said City, commonly called the Hannereg, died naturally.

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh hanereg < hanereg < haner- (in trisyllables, spelling of hanner = half) + (-eg = noun-forming suffix)


hanner, PLURAL hanerau, haneri
HA ner, ha NEE rai, -re, ha NEE ri (masculine noun)

a hanner and a half (= half a previously named unit)
un stn ar ddeg a hanner eleven and a half stone
cant a hanner one hundred and fifty

a hanner in intensfying a noun
cael hwyl a hanner have a grand old time, have a really great time (get fun and (a) half)

mor fawr as big as / hanner mor fawr half as big as
cymaint as big as / hanner cymaint half as big as

5 (modifier before a verb) half-
hanner gwneud pethau do things by halves, half do things = do in an incomplete way

eu hanner
half of them
Rhowch eu hanner i mi Give me half of them (give me their half)

7 (f) half an acre, a half acre, in field names

(a feminine noun, probably because erw = acre is feminine)

John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in Cardiff Records (1889-1911),

HANER-CNAP (the half knob.) Half an acre at Canton (1713.)

HANER-FACH (the little half-acre.) A field in Canton (1713.)

[ The first interpretation (half knob) is evidently a misunderstanding of the name.
Hanner Cnap < hanner y cnap (the) half acre (of) the mound ]

Yr Hanner Fach the little half-acre ]


ha-ner-krun adjective

ETYMOLOGY: hanner (= half) + crwn (= round, circular)


hanner ffordd
ha-ner fordh
Capel Soar a saif heddiw ar seiliau ei hen gartref Tŷr Clwtwr - hanner ffordd i fynyr bryn o groesffordd Tonysguboriau i dref Llantrisant
Soar Chapel stands today on the site of his old home Tŷr Clwtwr - halfway up the hill from the Tonysguboriau crossroads to the town of Llantrisant

cwrdd rhywun hanner ffordd
meet somebody halfway, compromise

ETYMOLOGY: (the) half (of) (the) road (hanner = half) + (ffordd = road)


hanner pan
ha-ner PAN
half-baked, not quite right in the head

ETYMOLOGY: half fulled, = not done completely; (hanner = half) + (pan = fulled, the stem of the verb pannu = to full [cloth]; a verb stem may serve as a past participle in Welsh )

hanes, hanesion
HAA nes, ha NES yon (masculine noun in the North, feminine in the South)
1 history

2 story

3 Nid oedd hanes ohono There was no sign of him

4 holi hanes (rhywbeth) find out about, get an account of
Y diwrnod hwnnw aethom i Wales, Wisconsin, i holi hanes y Cymry yno
That day we went to Wales, Wisconsin, to ask about the Welsh people there


hanesydd, haneswyr
ha NE sidh, ha NES wir (masculine noun)


HAN -vod verb

Now generally hanu as a verb

hanfod o, derive (from), issue (from), stem (from), originate (in)

(family origin) be from
Mae en hanfod o deulu cyfoethog yn nhre Caerfyrddin He comes from a rich family in the town of Caerfyrddin

3 (masculine noun) yn ei hanfod in essence, essentially, in its essentials
Mae Llyfr Du Caerfyrddin yn llawysgrif farddoniaeth yn ei hanfod

The Black Book of Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen is essentially a manuscript of poetry (i.e. rather than prose)

Dyna yn ei hanfod oedd achos y gynnen rhyngddo a person y plwyf

That in essence was the cause of the dispute between him and the parish parson

ETYMOLOGY: (hn- noun now obsolete, = separation) + soft mutation + (bod = being; to be)

(The equivalent word for hn in Irish is the prefix sain- = special, specific, particular, characterisitic)


HAN-vod m
PLURAL hanfodion
essence, quintessence
yr hanfod the main point

2 sine qua non, prerequisite, essential thing

3 hanfodion needs, basic needs

yn l at yr hanfodion back to basics

ETYMOLOGY: See hanfod (verb)


han- VOO -dol adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (hanfod = essence) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


HA -na feminine noun
Hannah = mother of Samuel (First Book of Samuel Chapter 1)

Samuel-1 1:15 A Hanna a atebodd, ac a ddywedodd, Nid felly, fy arglwydd; gwraig galed arni ydwyf fi; gwin hefyd na diod gadarn yfais; eithr tywelltais fy enaid gerbron yr Arglwydd
Samuel-1 1:15 And Hannah answered and said, No, my lord, I am a woman of a sorrowful spirit: I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink, but have poured out my soul before the Lord.

In earlier versons of the Welsh-kangauge Bible spelt with a final h - Hannah

hanner, hanerau
HA ner, ha NEE rai, -re (masculine noun)
hanner cant fifty (half a hundred)


hansel HAN-sel (m)
(South Wales) gift, reward = payment to express satisfaction

2 first purchase from a seller, supposed to bring luck to the seller

Also: hansed
Often in the form ansel, ansed

ETYMOLOGY: English hansel < handsel
NOTE: [ Olde Cheshire Dialecte.
hansel : the first sale upon opening a shop or market-stall for the day. ]

hansh HANSH (f)
PLURAL hanshys
(South Wales)

hansh o afal a bite of an apple

2 mouthful

3 bite = small meal of some food
cael hansh fach o fara chaws have a snack of bread and cheese
The following Welsh words are frequently used in the western
parts of Carmarthenshire...hansh
Transactions of the Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society /
Another list of West Carmarthenshire Dialect / J H James / 20 07 1905

NOTE: [ Olde Cheshire Dialecte.
haunge : a large piece of meat, bread or other eatable - Yon gen me sich a hunge o rappit-pie, I shanna be fit for noo puddin at after.]

ETYMOLOGY: English dialect hanch (= a greedy bite)
NOTE: often in the form ansh


HANSH-ad (m)
(South Wales)
1 bite

ETYMOLOGY: (hansh-, stem of the verb hanshan = bite) + (-ad suffix for forming nouns)


HANSH-an (m)
(South Wales)
1 bite

2 (dog) maul
Dath ci trwr clawdd a dachre hanshan y defed odd yn y ca
A dog came through the hedge and began to maul the sheep in the field

ETYMOLOGY: (hansh = bite) + (-an suffix for forming verbs)


hanswm HAN-sum (adj)

The Treatment of English Borrowed Words in Colloquial Welsh / Thomas Powel / Y Cymmrodor Vol. VI 1883. / p133

The following paper is an attempt to give a general account
of the use and treatment of English words in the colloquial
Welsh of the present day. Most of the statements here made
are applicable to the whole of Welsh-speaking Wales; but
the paper treats more particularly of the dialect spoken, with
slight variations, in the Counties of Brecon, Caermarthen,
and the greater part of Cardigan.

In borrowed English words, if more than two consonants
come together, an effort is made to get rid of one of them.

1. D after n, and followed by another consonant, goes out
or is assimilated. Bambocs (bandbox), gwlfinsh (goldfinch),
hangcyff (handcuff), hanswm (handsome).

ETYMOLOGY: English handsome


hap-KHWAA-rai, -re verb

2 (masculine noun) gambling
y Ddeddf Hapchwarae The Gambling Act, The Gaming Act

ETYMOLOGY: (hap = chance) + (chwarae = to play)


hap-khwa-rei-ur masculine noun
PLURAL hapchwaraewyr
hapchwaraewyr y lteri players of the lottery

ETYMOLOGY: (hapchwarae-, stem of hapchwarae = to bet) + (-wr agent suffix, man)


hap-vas-NAA-khi verb
hapfasnachu yn y farchnad arian rhyngwladol "speculate in the international money market

ETYMOLOGY: (hap = chance) + soft mutation + (masnachu = to trade)


hap-vas-NAA-khur masculine noun
PLURAL hapfasnachwyr

Agorwyd lefelau a phyllau bychan yn yr ardal gan nifer o hapfasnachwyr o Loegr Levels and small pits were opened in the area by a number of speculators from England

ETYMOLOGY: (hapfasnach-, stem of hapfasnachu = speculate) + (-wr agent suffix, man)


HA pis (adjective)


ha PIS ruidh (masculine noun)


hard -bord masculine noun
1 hardboard

ETYMOLOGY: English hardboard (hard) + (board)
cf Welsh cardbord (= cardboard) < English cardboard


HARDH (adjective)
Ni ellid dychmygu harddach merch
A more beautiful girl could not be imagined

2 diemwnt gydar harddaf one of the most beautiful diamonds


HARDH -wikh adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (hardd = beautiful) + soft mutation + (gwych = splendid)


har-glui-dh masculine noun
form of arglwydd with the prefix h (used after m = my, ei = her, ein = our, eu = their)

Timotheus-1 6:14 Gadw ohonot y gorchymyn hyn yn ddifeius, yn ddiargyhoedd, hyd ymddangosiad ein Harlwydd Iesu Grist
Timothy-1 6:14 That thou keep this commandment without spot, unrebukeable, until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ


har-glui-dhes feminine noun
form of arglwyddes with the prefix h (used after m = my, ei = her. ein = our, eu = their)

Ysgol Ein Harglwyddes name of a school in Bangor
(the) school (of) Our Lady

NOTE: This prefix is found after
(a) ei = (her);
(b) ein (= our), ('n as in a'n = and our, etc)
(c) eu (= their), ('u as in a'u = and their, etc)
(d) 'm (= my) (a'm = and my, etc)


HAR-lekh (feminine noun)
town in the north-west


harm masculine noun
(North Wales)

1 harm = injury, damage, hurt
yn ddi-harm without harm

2 harm = moral injury, wrong
Wela i fy hun ddim harm yn y peth. I cant see any harm in it myself

Yr ydych chi a Mrs. Harris yn credu nad oes dim harm rhoi glasiad o gwrw i'r tenantiaid hefo'u cinio rhent. 'Rydw innau'n credu mae'r ddiod gref yna sydd wrth wraidd bron holl drueni y wlad yma mewn rhyw ffordd neu gilydd,
Plant y Gorthrwm / 1908 / Gwyneth Vaughan (=Anne Harriet Hughes 1852-1910)
You and Mrs Harris believe there is no harm in giving a glass f beer to the tenants with their rent dinner (= the dinner given by a landowner after the annual paymwnt of rent.) I believe that strong drink is at the root of nearly all the misery in this country in one way or another

ETYMOLOGY: English harm < Old English hearm
harm; obsolete German harm surviving in the word harmlos (= harmless, innocent, slight). The cognate word in Russian is sramot (= shame)


harn masculine noun

1 southern form of haearn (= iron)

Merthyrtudful once had a well-known landmark, until the local council in the 1960s allowed a property developer to destroy the historical central area, called y Bont Harn (pronounced locally y Bont Arn, as indeed this name would have been pronounced anywhere in the south-east, where the Welsh language lacks the [h] sound


har -nin masculine noun
(county of Caerfyrddin) = heyernin iron object


HA ri (masculine noun)
(male) Harri

From this surname is the patronymic ap Harri (son of Harri) > (ap Arri) > a coalesced form Parri, a common surname, more familiar in its English spelling of Parry.


HAI (verb)
to sow

heuir it is sown


haul, heuliau
HAIL, HEIL ye (masculine noun)
arth yr haul sun bear (Helarctos malayanus)

2 cefn haul place shaded from the sun (back (of) sun) (cefn = back) + (haul = sun)

yng nghefn haul out of the suns reach

Yr oedd yn dyddyn bychan, gwlyb, oer, creigiog, anial, yn nghefn haul, ar ochr ogleddol y llechwedd serth hwnnw a elwir Newydd Fynyddog.
It was a tiny smallholding, wet, cold, craggy, barren, out of the suns reach, on the northern side of the steep slope called Newydd Fynyddog

gwegil haul place shaded from the sun (nape (of) sun)

3 yn wyneb haul llygad goleuni in broad daylight (in (the) face (of) (the) sun (in) (the) eye (of) light)

4 codiad haul sunrise = rising of the sun over the horizon
(the) rise (of) (the) sun (codiad = rise) + (haul = sun)

Also: codiad yr haul
Gwlad y Codiad Haul The Land of the Rising Sun


hail masculine noun masculine noun
First element in certain names of houses or streets. It is an incorrect form the form of the penultimate syllable is heul-
Examples of such names followed by the correct spelling:
Haulfre > Heulfre (sunny hill)
Haulfryn > Heulfryn (sunny hill)
Haulfron > Heulfron (sunny hill)
Haulfan > Heulfan (sunny place)
Haulwen > Heulwen (sunshine)


hail -vron
sunny place
House name or street name an incorrect form. See Heulfan
Street name in Ffos-y-ffin, Aberaeron (county of Ceredigion)

ETYMOLOGY: (haul = sun) + soft mutation + (man = place)


hail -vre
sunny hill
House name or street name an incorrect form.

See Heulfre
Haulfre Terrace, Coed-poeth (county of Wrecsam)
(In Welsh, it would be simply Heulfre, or Rhestai Heulfre / Teras Heulfre)

ETYMOLOGY: (haul = sun) + soft mutation + (bre = hill)


hail -vron
sunny hill
House name or street name an incorrect form. See Heulfron
..a/ street name in Tonypandy (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (further misspelt as Haul Fron, as if two separate words)

ETYMOLOGY: (haul = sun) + soft mutation + (bron = hill)


hail -vrin
sunny hill

House name or street name an incorrect form. See Heulfryn
It is found as a street name in the following places:

..a/ Bryn, Llanelli (county of Caerfyrddin)
..b/ Brynmenyn (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (further misspelt as Haul Fryn, as if two separate words)
..c/ Caer-dydd
..d/ Clydach, Y Fenni (county of Mynwy)
..e/ Llwynbedw (county of Abertawe) (further misspelt as Haul Fryn, as if two separate words)
..f/ Mynyddcynffig (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
..g/ Pen-y-waun, Aber-dr (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)
..h/ Pontardawe (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)
..i/ Pontyberem, Llanelli, (county of Caerfyrddin)
..j/ Rhosllannerchrugog (county of Wrecsam)
..k/ Rhuthun (county of Dinbych)
..l/ Sychdyn, Yr Wyddgrug (county of Y Fflint)
..m/ Tregynwr (county of Caerfyrddin)
Also Stad Haulfryn, Llanfair, near Harlech (county of Gwynedd)

ETYMOLOGY: (haul = sun) + soft mutation + (bryn = hill)


hail -wen
House name or street name an incorrect form. See Heulwen
Street name
..a/ Cwm-dr (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)
..b/ Haulwen Road, Penpedairheol (county of Caerffili). (It would be Heol Heulwen in Welsh)
..c/ Haulwen Road, Y Cocyd (county of Abertawe). (It would be Heol Heulwen in Welsh)

ETYMOLOGY: (haul = sun) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white, shining). In modern Welsh haul is a masculine noun, but in older Welsh it was feminine


An idiosyncratic spelling of the stream name Hafesb (qv)
Dewi Havhesp bardic name of an englyn poet (David Roberts, 1831-1884) of Llanfor, Y Bala, who took his name from this stream near his home.

Comparison of the spelling Havhesp with the standard form Hafesb:

..a/ the name has been respelt according to its etymology (it is a combination of haf + hesb, summer + dry). In such compounds the h is lost in the standard language. See the entry for h.

..b/ there is an erronious p (a spelling in use in the 1800s) instead of b.

..c/ v is used instead of f. This was a spelling reform advocated in the 1800s and adopted by some writers of the period.


(SO0558) locality 2km south of Llandrindod (county of Powys)
English name: Howey

ETYMOLOGY: ?from the English name Howey


HAUDH (adjective, irregular comparison)
Comparative: haws (= easier), hawsaf (= easiest)
Colloquial forms are regularised: hawddach (= easier), hawdda (= easiest)

1 easy

2 easy; with ei

un hawdd ei dwyllo (m), un hawdd ei thwyllo (f) an easy touch, somebody easily deceived (one easy (of) his / her deceiving)

hawdd ei anghofio (m), hawdd ei hanghofio (f) easy to forget (easy its / his / her forgetting)

rhywbeth hawdd ei ddarllen something easy to read

rhywbeth hawdd ei adnabod something easy to recognise

rhywbeth hawdd ei ddefnyddio something easy to use

rhywbeth hawdd ei ddeall something easy to understand

gwell parati dogfen sydd mor hawdd ei chyfieithu ag sydd bosibl its better to prepare a document thats as easy as possible to translate

bwyd hawdd ei dreulio easily-digested food

hawdd ei weld (m), hawdd ei gweld (f) easy to see

hawdd ei drin (m), hawdd ei thrin (f) easy to treat, easy to handle, easy to manipulate

hawdd eich byd (qv)

3 Nid hawdd tynnu ml o faen You cant get blood out of a stone (it is not easy to get honey from a stone)

4 dilyn y llwybr hawsaf take the line of least resistance (follow the easiest path)

5 hawdd gwneud hi / hawdd gwneud ag e easy to deal with, easy to get on with

6 merch hawdd ei chael an easy piece, an easy lay (girl easy her getting)

7 arian hawdd easy money, money for old rope, money for jam

8 hawddamor (obsolete) (qv)

9 cael gwaith hawdd get a cushy job


hau- dha -mor masculine or feminine noun
(obsolete) good luck

Occurs in the expression Hawddamor! Good fortune! Good luck!

Used in the University of Wales graduation ceremony
Hawddamor, wrda Good luck, worthy man
Hawddamor, wreigdda Good luck, worthy woman

house name (in the list of members in The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion 1961 / Part 1)

(obsolete) farewell
canu hawddamor i say farewell to

ETYMOLOGY: (hawdd = prosperous) + (amor = fate, fortune, success)


hawdd eich byd
haudd əch biid adjective
happy, contented
comfortably off, materially well off, quite well off

ETYMOLOGY: (hawdd = easy; pleasant) + (eich = your) + (byd = world, circumstances)


haudh -vid masculine noun
comfortable circumstances, ease, happiness, prosperity

Er iechyd, hawddfyd a hedd - er urddas,
Er harddwch a mawredd,
Daw awr rhaid mynd i orwedd,
O dwrw byd i ddyfnder bedd
(tudalen 67 Englynion Beddau Dyffryn Ogwen, J Elwyn Hughes 1979)
In spite of health, ease, and peace in spite of dignity,
In spite of beuaty and greatness
The hour comes for the time to repose
From the bustle of the world to the depth of a grave

2 bod mewn hawddfyd live comfortably

ETYMOLOGY: (hawdd = easy; pleasant) + soft mutation + (byd = world; circumstances)


haudh -gar adjective
easy-going, easy to get on with, likeable, amiable


Salmau 84.1 Ir Pencerdd ar Gittith, Salm meibion Cora.
Mor hawddgar yw dy bebyll di, O Arglwydd y lluoedd!
Psalm 84:1 To the chief Musician upon Gittith, A Psalm for the sons of Korah. How amiable are thy tabernacles, O Lord of hosts!

fair, lovely

Caniad Solomon 1.5 Du ydwyf fi, ond hawddgar, merched Jrerwsalem, fel pebyll Cedar, fel llenni Solomon
Song-of-Solomon 1:5 I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, as the tents of Kedar, as the curtains of Solomon.

4 Brynhawddgar (pleasant hill) name of a street in Clydach, county of Abertawe

ETYMOLOGY: (hawdd = easy, agreeable, pleasant) + (-gar adjectival suffix)


haudh-GAA-rukh masculine noun
affability, amiability

ETYMOLOGY: (hawddgar = amiable) + (-wch suffix for forming abstract nouns)


hawl, hawliau
HAUL, HAUL-yia, -ye (feminine noun)


hawlfraint, hawlfreintiau
HAUL-vraint, haul-VREINT-ye (feminine noun)
1 copyright
tor hawlfraint
breach of copyright
cedwir pob hawlfraint all rights reserved (every copyright is kept / is being kept)
(The owner of an original work has five exclusive rights to it unless one or more of these rights are transferred to another person. These rights are adapting the work, making a copy or copies, displaying the work, performing the work in public, and publishing or otherwise distributing the work)


HAUL yo (verb)
to claim = demand something that one is entitled to

hawlio braint claim a privilege
hawlio budd-dl claim benefit, claim a benefit payment
hawlio cael gwneud rhywbeth claim the right to do something
hawlio meddiant ar rybweth claim possession of something, lay claim to something
hawlio rhywbeth gan rywun claim something from somebody
hawlio rhywbeth oddi ar rywun
claim something from somebody

2 to claim = take something from somebody as if by right
hawlio einoes rhywun
claim the life of somebody
hawlio einoes sawl un claim the lives of many people


hawlfraint, hawlfreintiau
HAUL vraint, haul VREINT ye (feminine noun)

(HAWL = right) + soft mutation + (BRAINT = privilege)


HAUS (adjective)
easier (see hawdd = easy)


hawsaf (hawsa)
HAU sa (adjective)
easiest (see hawdd = easy)


Haws dweud mynydd na mynd drosto
haus dweid -nidh naa mind dro-sto
Easier said than done, Actions speak louder than words

ETYMOLOGY: ((its) easier saying mountain than going over it) (haws = easier) + (dweud = saying, to say) + (mynydd = mountain) + (na = than) + (mynd = going, to go) + (drosto = over it)


Haws dweud na gwneud
haus dweid naa gwneid
Easier said than done (said of something which is more difficult
to do than appears at first sight), Actions speak louder than words

ETYMOLOGY: ((its) easier saying than doing)
(haws = easier) + (dweud = saying, to say) + (na = than) + (gwneud = doing, to do)

NOTE: Colloquially:
(North Wales) Haws deud na neud
(South Wales) Haws gweud na neud


1 there is aspiration of an initial vowel certain possessive determiners
m (= my), ei (= her), ein (= our), eu (= their),
In this dictionary we mark this aspiration as h
m hewinedd wirh my fingernails, ewin fingernail
ei henw her name, enw name
ein heiddo our property, eiddo property
eu hesgyrn their bones asgwrn, esgyrn bone, bones


aich EE
symbol for heliwm = helium


HEE feminine noun
he = fifth letter in the Hebrew alphabet, transliterated into the Roman alphabet as H, h


HEE-ad masculine noun
PLURAL headau
he-AA-dai, -de

ETYMOLOGY: (he-, stem of hau = to sow) + (-ad suffix for forming names)


HEEB (preposition)

(1) hebddo i
HEB dhoi (preposition) (first person singular) without me

(1) hebddon ni
HEB dho ni (preposition) (first person plural) without us

(2) hebddot ti
HEB dho ti (preposition) (second person singular) without you

(2) hebddoch chi
HEB dho khi (preposition) (second person plural) without you

(3) hebddo fe / fo
HEB dho ve / vo (preposition) (third person singular masculine) without him

(3) hebddi hi
HEB dhi hi (preposition) (third person singular feminine) without her

(3) hebddyn nhw
HEB dhi nu (HEB dhint hui) (preposition) (third person plural) without them

2 Rw i heb wybod eto pam I still dont know why (I am still without knowing why)

heb ddefnydd arno (m), heb ddefnydd arni (f) disused
lorri heb ddefnydd arni disused lorry


Ni bu ddrwg erioed heb ferch yn rhywben.

(Saying) Cherchez la femme; where there's trouble, always a woman.

(there has never been trouble without a woman at some end)


1 abbreviation y Llythyr at yr Hebreaid (The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to The Hebrews, in the New Testament)


heb- heeb
element with the meaning of speak in certain compound words
ateb to answer
dihareb proverb
ebr (eb, ebe) she says, he says
gohebu to correspond with, to write to
gwrtheb contradiction
hebu obsolete speak, say

ETYMOLOGY: related to Latin inquam (= I say)


heb air o gelwydd
heeb air oo gel -widh adverb
no kidding, honestly,

ETYMOLOGY: without a word of a lie (heb = without) + soft mutation + (gair = word) + (o = of) + soft mutation + (celwydd = a lie)


heb amharu ar eich hawliau
heeb a-MHAA-ri ar əkh HAUL-yai, -ye adverb
(law) without prejudicing ones rights

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + (amharu ar = harm) + (eich your) + (hawliau = rights, plural of hawl = right)


heb arbed unrhyw gost
heeb ar-bed in-hriu gost adv;;)
with no expense spared

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + (arbed ar = save) + (unrhyw = any) + soft mutation + (cost = cost)


heb betruso dim
heeb be- tri -so dim adverbial
without a moments hesitation, without pausing to think


heb ddagrau
heeb dha-gre adverbial
without tears = painlessly, easily

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (dagrau tears, plural of deigryn = tear)


heb dderbyn niwed
heeb dher-bin ni-wed adverbial

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (derbyn = to receive) + (niwed = harm, damage)


heb ddim dan eich ewin
heeb dhim dan əkh eu -in adjectival
clean, having nothing to hide
broke, poor, having no money

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (dim = anything, nothing) + (dan = under) + (eich = your) + (ewin = fingernail)


heb ddim help
heeb dhim help adverb
without any help

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (dim = some, any) + (help = help)


heb ddim lol
heeb dhim lol adverbial
(do something) and no nonsense

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (dim = some, any) + (lol = nonsense)


heb ddim pensen ar eich elw
heeb dhim pen-sen ar əkh e-lu adverb
without a penny to your name

ETYMOLOGY: (without any penny on your profit) (heb = without) + soft mutation + (dim = any) + (pensen = penny) + (ar = on) + (eich your) + (elw = profit)


heb ddim ysgol
heeb dhim ə-skol adjectival

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (dim = some, any) + (ysgol = school)


Heb Dduw, heb ddim. Duw a digon
heeb dhiu, heeb dhim, diu a d-gon
Without God, we have nothing. To have God is to have plenty

ETYMOLOGY: (1) (heb = without) + soft mutation + (Duw = God), heb Dduw = without God
(2) (heb = without) + soft mutation + (dim = nothing), heb ddim = without anything.
(3) (Duw = God) + (a = and) + (digon = sufficient), Duw a digon = God and enough, plenty


heb ddweud gair o gelwydd
heeb dhweid gair o g -luidh adverbial
honestly, its not a word of a lie

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (dweud = to say) + (gair = word) + (o = of) + soft mutation + (celwydd = a lie)


heb ddweud rhywbeth ar ei ben
heeb dhweid hriu-beth ar ii ben adverbial
in not so many words, without saying it outright

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (dweud = to say) + (rhywbeth = something) + (ar = on) + (ei = its) + soft mutation + (pen = head)


heb ddweud yr un gair
heeb dhweid ər iin gair adverbial
without so much as a word

ETYMOLOGY: without saying the one word (heb = without) + soft mutation + (dweud = to say) + (yr un = the one) + (gair = word)


heb drafferth yn y byd
heeb DRAA-ferth ən ə biid adverbial
with no trouble at all, effortlessly

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (trafferth = trouble) + (yn y byd = in the world, at all)


HEE-be feminine noun
Greek goddess of youth, daughter of Zews (Zeus) and Hera


heb eich ail
heeb əkh AIL adjective
unique, second to none; in a class of its own, in a class by itself (without your second)
cefais groeso heb ei ail I received a welcome that was second to none, that couldnt be equalled
cantores heb ei hail yw hi shes a singer in a class of her own


heb eich gofyn
heeb əkh GOO-vin adjectival
heb ei ofyn
, without asking for it, unsolicited, unrequested
Da cyngor gwraig heb ei ofyn (proverb) a wifes advice, though not asked for, will be good advice


heb eich tebyg
heeb əkh t -big adjectival
unique, without equal

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + (eich = your) + (tebyg similarity)


heb ei fai, heb ei eni
heeb i vai heeb i -ni
everybody makes mistakes; nobodys perfect; to err is human

Mae rhywbeth ar bawb - heb ei fai heb ei eni Everybody is less than perfect - (there is something on everybody) - everybody makes mistakes

Also: Y sawl sydd heb ei fai sydd heb ei eni ((it is) the one who-is without his fault who-is without his being-born)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the person who is) without his fault (is) without his being-born) (heb = without) + (ei = his) + soft mutation + (bai = fault), (heb = without) + (ei = his) + soft mutation + (geni = being born)


heb esgus da iawn
heeb e-skis daa yaun adverbial
without a very good excuse

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + (esgus = excuse) + (da = good) + (iawn = very)


heb ewyllys, heb allu
heeb e--lhis, heeb -lhi -
you cant because you dont want to, the only reason you cant do it is because you dont want to do it; where theres a will, theres a way (without will, without ability)

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + (ewyllys = will) + (heb = without) + soft mutation + (gallu = ability)


heb fagun llwyr, heb fagu wyr
heeb v-gin lhuir heeb v-gi uir -
saying even if youve brought up children, you havent yet known the full the process of bringing up children until youve also brought up your grandchildren (without raising completely, without raising (a) grandchild)

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (magu = bring up, rear)


heb fanylu
heeb va- -li adverb
without going into details

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (manylu = to go into detail)


heb fanylu mwy
heeb va--li mui adverb
without going into any more detail, in a nutshell


heb fawr o lwc
heeb vaur o luk adverb
without much luck (without (a) great (amount) of luck)

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (mawr = big)


heb feddwl dim drwg
heeb v-dhul dim druug adverb
without meaning any harm (without thinking anything bad)

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (meddwl = to think)


heb fentro, heb ffafr
heeb ven-tro heeb fa -var
nothing ventured, nothing gained; (of some challenge) - at least give it a try (because you might succeed) (without venturing, without favour)

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (mentro = to venture, to try)


heb flewyn ar dafod
heeb vleu-in ar d -vod adverb
without mincing words (without a hair on tongue)


heb ffys na ffwdan
heeb fəs na fu -dan adverb
with no fuss, without any fuss (without fuss or fuss / bustle)


heb fod angen
heeb vood a -ngen adverbial

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (bod = to be) + (angen = need)


heb gyfri'r gost
heeb -vrir kost adv;;)
without counting the cost (= without taking the risks into account)

ETYMOLOGY: without counting the cost (heb = without) + soft mutation + (cyfri / cyfrif = to count) + (r < yr = definite article) + soft mutation + (cost = cost)


he-blau masculine noun
county of Ceredigion
overlap (of two tiles)

overhang (of roof)

surplus, excess

Ma fen hblaw Its more than enough

hblaw rhaff slack of a rope

ETYMOLOGY: See heblw


he BLAU (preposition) apart from
in the North, often as blaw


heb na siw na miw
heeb na SIU na MIU (adverb) without a peep (out of her / him), without saying a word, explaining a thing


he-bo-ka verb
go hawking

OLOGY: (hebog = hawk) + (-ha = suffix for forming verbs) > hebg-ha > heboca


he-bok-ti masculine noun
PLURAL heboctai

mew = cage for hawks when moulting

ETYMOLOGY: hawk house
(hebog = hawk) + soft mutation + (ty = house)
> hebg-dy
> hebocty (g + d = ct)


he -bog masculine noun
PLURAL hebogau
bird hawk

ETYMOLOGY: Old English hevok; cf words in other languages meaning hawk with the same Indo-European origin - Old Norse haukr, German der Habicht (habikht), Polish kobuz; but Irish seabhac (shauk) is probably Old English hafoc
HAha-vok, borrowed at an early period when in Irish a foreign h was replaced by s

Moel Hebog (SH5646), mountain near Beddgelert (SH5948) in the county of Gwynedd.

At first sight this is hill (of the) hawk. But earlier it was Moel Hedog, from Moel Ehedog = hill (of the) bird. Since the word aderyn
a DE rin is the usual word for bird, ehedog gradually passed out of use, and the clipped form of the name (hedog) was confused with hebog. The two are completely unrelated - ehedog is derived from the verb ehedu (= to fly), a word of Celtic origin, while hebog is from Old English hafoc HAha-vok (modern English hawk)


he-b-gedh adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (hebog = hawk) + (-aidd)


hebog tramor
h-bog tra-mor masculine noun
PLURAL hebogau tramor
he-b-ge tra-mor
Falco peregrinus = peregrine falcon

ETYMOLOGY: (hebog = hawk) + (tramor = foreign, overseas)


he-b-gidh masculine noun
PLURAL hebogyddion he-bo-gədh-yon
hawker, falconer

ETYMOLOGY: (hebog = hawk) + (-ydd = agent suffix)


he-bo-gədh-yeth feminine noun

ETYMOLOGY: (hebogydd = falconer) + (-i-aeth)


hebog y gogledd
h-bog ə go-gledd masculine noun
PLURAL hebogaur gogledd
he-b-ge ə go-gledd
Falco rusticolus = gyrfalcon

ETYMOLOGY: (the) falcon (of) the north (hebog = hawk) + (y gogledd = the north)


hebog yr ehedydd
h-bog ər e-he-didh masculine noun
PLURAL hebogaur ehedydd
he-b-ger e-he-didh
Falco subbuteo = hobby

ETYMOLOGY: (the) falcon (of) the skylark (hebog = hawk) + (yr ehedydd = the lark)


heb os nac onibi
heb os naag o-nii-bai adverb
without doubt, theres no doubt, quite clearly

ETYMOLOGY: without (an) if or (an) if-it-werent (heb = without) + (os = if) + (nac = nor) + (onibi = if it werent)


he BRAIG (feminine noun, adjective)
1 (language) Hebrew


heb reswm yn y byd
heeb re-sum ən ə biid
for no reason at all

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (rheswm = reason) + (yn y byd = in the world)

heb rithyn o amheuaeth
heeb ri-thinn oo am-hei-eth adverbial
without a shadow of a doubt

ETYMOLOGY: (heb = without) + soft mutation + (rhithyn = least particle; illusion) + (o = of) + (amheuaeth = doubt)


HE brung (verb)

hebrwng i dŷei hir gartref bury (someone) (accompany someone to his long home)

Pregethwr 12:5 Ie, yr amser yr ofnant yr hyn sydd uchel, ac yr arswydant yn y ffordd, ac y blodeua y pren almon, ac y bydd y ceiliog rhedyn yn faich, ac y palla chwant; pan elo dyn i dy ei hir gartref, ar galarwyr yn myned o bob tu yn yr heol
Ecclesiastes 12:5 Also when they shall be afraid of that which is high, and fears shall be in the way, and the almond tree shall flourish, and the grasshopper shall be a burden, and desire shall fail: because man goeth to his long home, and the mourners go about the streets


heb yr un bensen ar eich elw
heeb ər iin ben-sen ar əkh e-lu adverb
without a penny to your name

ETYMOLOGY: (without any penny on your profit) (heb = without) + (yr = the) + (un = one) soft mutation + (pensen = penny) + (ar = on) + (eich your) + (elw = name)


hek-te-ru feminine noun
PLURAL hecterwau
Patagonian Welsh hectare

ETYMOLOGY: Castilian hectrea (= hectare) + influence of Welsh erw (= acre)


hed-BEIR-yant masculine noun
PLURAL hedbeiriannau
hed-beir-YA-nau, -ne
An unusual word for airplane / aeroplane. The standard word is awyren (f), awyrennau

Cwrs Rhydychen Mewn Cymraeg, Llyfr Iaith, Cyfrol Cyntaf, Rhan 2, 1934. Tudalen 82.
A ellwch chwi yrru eropln (hedbeiriant)? Can you fly (drive) an aeroplane?

ETYMOLOGY: flying engine / device (hed-, stem of hedfan = to fly) + soft mutation + (peiriant = engine, device)


HEEDH masculine noun

Bro-hedd House name in Ponciau (county of Wrecsam)
(in the list of members in The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion 1961 / Part 1) (as Bro Hedd)
land (of) peace (bro = district) + (hedd = peace)


hedh-van feminine noun
(house name) peaceful spot
House name in Cwmllynfell (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)
(in the list of members in The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion 1961 / Part 1)

ETYMOLOGY: (hedd = peace) + soft mutation + (man = place)


hedh-verkh feminine noun
PLURAL heddferched
hedh- ver-khed
literary word policewoman

ETYMOLOGY: (hedd = peace) + soft mutation + (merch = girl, woman)


hedh-geid-wad masculine noun
PLURAL heddgeidwaid
literary word policeman

ETYMOLOGY: (hedd = peace) + soft mutation + (ceidwad = keeper)


HE dhi (adverb)
(South Wales) southern form of heddiw = today.

Also heddi > eddi (loss of initial h is typical in the south)


HE dhiu (adverb) HEI dhiu
today (South - heddi / eddi; north - heiddiw)

2 Heddiw piau hi, nid yfory Dont put off until tomorrow what you can do today, Dont leave until tomorrow what you can do today


hedh -li masculine noun
PLURAL heddluoedd
hedh- l -odh
police = police force; constabulary = police force of a town, district
un o heddluoedd Cymru on of the Welsh constabularies, one of the Welsh police forces

gorsaf heddlu police station

fan heddlu (American: patrol wagon, paddy wagon)
(Englandic: police van, Black Maria
məriə )

car heddlu police car

heddlu arfog armed police

heddlu puteiniaeth vice squad (police (of) prostitution)

ETYMOLOGY: group (of) peace (hedd = peace) + soft mutation + (llu = group, host, army)

(dewl 0032) Car heddlu ar feili gorsaf reilffordd Amwythig (Lloegr) Sul 10 Awst 2003
Police car on the forecourt of the station in Amwythig (Shrewsbury, England) Sunday 10 August 2003


heddlu cudd
hedh-li kiidh masculine noun
PLURAL heddluoedd cudd
hedh-l-odh kiidh
secret police


h-dhis adjective
peaceful, pacfic, tranquil

Heddus womans name (rare)

ETYMOLOGY: (hedd = peace) + (-us = suffix for forming adjectives)


hedh-was masculine noun
PLURAL heddweision
hedh- wei-shon

ETYMOLOGY: peace servant, (hedd = peace) + soft mutation + (gwas = servant)


h-dhukh masculine noun
peace = absence of war between groups of people
ceisio heddwch sue for peace, seek an end to conflict
dod yn heddwch (subject: hi) peace - return
.....pan ddaw hin heddwch when theres peace once more, when the war is over
erfyn am heddwch sue for peace, seek an end to conflict
gwlad mewn heddwch i chymdogion a country at peace with its neighbours
lili heddwch peace lily

peace = harmony between individuals
pibell heddwch pipe of peace
byw mewn heddwch live in peace, live in harmony

peace = public order, absence of disturbances in society
cadwr heddwch keep the peace
gwneud heddwch make peace
tarfu ar yr heddwch disturb the peace
torrir heddwch disturb the peace

ynad heddwch justice of the peace = local magistrate who may issue warrants or open investigations into an offence; or may act as a judge in a court of petty sesions (where less serious criminal offences are tried)

peace = peace treaty
Heddwch Versailles Versailles Treaty

peace, tranquillity, stillness = lack of disturbance, noise
cysgu mewn heddwch sleep in peace

peace = freedom from demands, requests, orders, etc
Da chi, blant, rhowch funud o heddwch i mi
For goodness sake, children, give me a moments peace

peace of mind = untroubled mind, lack of troubling thoughts or feelings of guilt; easy conscience

(Bible) Nid oes heddwch ir rhai annuwiol Theres no peace unto the wicked.

From the sentence in:
Eseia 57:21 Ni bydd heddwch, medd fy Nuw, ir rhai annuwiol
Isaiah 57:21 There is no peace, saith my God, to the wicked.

heddwch cydwybod peace of mind (peace (of) conscience)

(Religion) peace = eternal rest
heddwch iw henaid God rest her soul (peace to her soul)
heddwch iw enaid God rest his soul
heddwch iw llwch God rest her soul (peace to her dust / mortal remains)
heddwch iw lwch God rest his soul
.....Dw in cofio mynd heibio ir capel, ar hen Owen Huws - heddwch iw lwch - yn gofyn imi ller awn i
I remember going past the chapel, and old Owen Huws - God rest his soul - asking me where I was going

greeting in the Bible: peace be unto you; cf Hebrew shalom (aleichem) = peace (be with you)

Genesis 43:19 A hwy a nesasant at y gwr oedd olygwr ar dy Joseff; ac a lefarasant wrtho wrth ddrws y ty... (43:23) Yntau a ddywedodd, Heddwch i chwi; nac ofnwch: eich Duw chwi, a Duw eich tad, a roddes i chwi drysor yn eich sachau; daeth eich arian chwi ataf fi....
Genesis 43:19 And they came near to the steward of Josephs house, and they communed with him at the door of the house,... (43:23) And he said, Peace be to you, fear not: your God, and the God of your father, hath given you treasure in your sacks: I had your money....

(Bible) in parting dos mewn heddwch - go in peace

Samuel-1 1:17 Yna yr atebodd Eli, ac a ddywedodd, Dos mewn heddwch: a Duw Israel a roddo dy ddymuniad yr hwn a ddymunaist ganddo ef
Samuel-1 1:17 Then Eli answered and said, Go in peace: and the God of Israel grant thee thy petition that thou hast asked of him.

eisteddfod ceremony the archdruid with a drawn sword asks the audience

A oes heddwch? (is there peace?) in crowning or chairing ceremony -
expecting an affirmative reply (heddwch), and then the sword is sheathed

12 tor heddwch breach of the peace

ETYMOLOGY: (hedd = peace) + (-wch = suffix)


he DHƏ khol (adjective)


he DEE gog (adj)

gwiwer hedegog
(f) gwiwerod hedegog flying squirrel
soser hedegog (f) soseri hedegog flying saucer
trychfilyn hedegog (m) trychfilod hedegog flying insect
pryf hedegog (m) pryfed hedegog (colloquial) flying insect
morgrugyn hedegog (m) morgrug hedegog flying ant

2 airborne
llygryddion hedegog airborne pollutants


HED van (verb)
to fly

Fuwch fach gota glaw neu hindda?
Os daw glaw, cwympa om llaw;
Os daw haul, hedfana!

(Weather lore)
Ladybird rain or fine weather?
If rain will come, fall from my hand
If sun will come, fly!

(The second person singular imperative is hedfan; generally in Welsh it is the same as the stem form of the verbnoun. Sometimes the stem form is the same as the verbnoun, as in the case of hedfan. But in recent times thers has been a tendency for the a found in

3 Cleren o'r domen sy'n hedfan ucha a fly from the dung heap flies highest (said of someone of lowly beginnings who rises to a very prominent position)


HEE-didh feminine noun
clipped form of ehedydd = (Alauda arvensis) skylark, with the loss of the first syllable before the accented syllable (a very common feature in spoken Welsh)
Street name in Bangor: Brynhedydd for bryn (yr) ehedydd (the) hill (of) (the) skylark (LL57 3HR)
NOTE: See: ehedydd


HEE -din masculine noun
PLURAL had, hadau
haad, HAA -de
seed = plant ovule

pip = seed of certain fruits (apple, orange, etc)

small hard fruit of certain plants (such as wheat) which resemble seeds; had yd, also hadyd seed corn, corn kept for sowing

propagative part of plants in the form of a tuber, spore, bulb; tato had seed potatoes, potato tubers kept for planting;

seed = germ, beginning, embryo, nucleus (figurative)
hedyn crefydd newydd oedd y cwlt di-sail the baseless new cult was the seed of a new religion;
hadau anghydfod the seeds of discord

an inkling, an ounce, least amount
Pe bai yna hedyn ymarferol ynddo... If he had an ounce of practical sense... (if there was a practical seed in him...)

seed; hadau carwe = caraway seeds, hadau gwair = grass seeds

seed = crystal to produce crystallization

(ni) hidio un haden = (not) care a damn (not care one seed)

South-west Wales hadyn (masculine noun), haden (feminine noun) flamboyant character, mischievous person

Bible seed = semen;

Genesis 38:9 Ac Onan a wybu nad iddo ei hun y byddair had (= teulu) ; Pan ele efe at ei wraig, yna y colle efe ei had ar y llawr, rhag rhoddi ohono had (= plant) iw frawd And Onan knew that the seed should not be his, and it came to pass, when he went in unto his brothers wife, that he spilled it on the ground, lest that he should give seed (= children) to his brother

Bible descendants, issue
had Abraham = the seed of Abraham

Salmau 25:12 Pa ŵr yw efe sydd yn ofnir ARGLWYDD? efe ai dysg ef yn y ffordd a ddewiso. 25:13 Ei enaid ef a erys mewn daioni: ai had a etifedda y ddaear.
Psalms 25:12 What man is he that feareth the LORD? him shall he teach in the way that he shall choose. 25:13 His soul shall dwell at ease; and his seed shall inherit the earth.

hau hadau gwylltion sow ones wild oats = be adventurous and promiscuous in ones youth (sow wild seeds)

gwely hadau seedbed = place where seedlings are grown before being transplanted
An alternative form in South Wales is pm hadau

comparisons: mor lluosog had mwstard (as numerous as mustard seeds)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *sat- < Celtic
From the same British root: Cornish haz = seed, had = seed.
The related Germanic root st- gave Old English sd, modern English seed, German Saat

NOTE: the singular forms are based on the plural (or more strictly speaking, collective) had (= seeds); the suffix -yn is added.

Thus, hedyn (= seed), with the normal affection of the a under the influence of the y of the suffix.

However in the south the form is hadyn in south Wales in many words the affection doesnt occur.
In some dialects in Wales also haden (a form with the feminine diminutive suffix -en) .

In addition to the plural had, there is a double plural hadau


HEE vid (adverb)
a hefyd and also...
Sometimes found incorrectly as ac hefyd

Colloquially there are clipped forme fyd, d


HEIB yo (adverb)
bwrw'r amser heibio
while away the time
troi heibio ward off
troi perygl heibio ward off danger
troi heibio ddyrnodau (rhywun) ward off (somebodys) blows


HEIK-yo verb
to hike
clwb heicio hiking club

ETYMOLOGY: English to hike; origin unknown


HEIK-yur masculine noun
PLURAL heicwyr
HEIK -wir
hiker = person who walks long distances for recreation

ETYMOLOGY: (heic-i-, stem of heicio = to hike) + (-wr, agent suffix, man)


HEI-dhen feminine noun
PLURAL haidd
barleycorn, grain of barley

2 Sin Heidden John Barleycorn, personification of malt spirits or of alcohol in general

3 gwneud clust fel hwch mewn haidd prick up your ears (make (an) ear like (a) sow in barley)

haidd perlog pearl barley

5 cae haidd barley field
Cae-haidd street name in Llanymynech (county of Powys) (Cae Haidd)

ETYMOLOGY: (heidd- penult form of haidd = barley) + (-yn suffix added to nouns to make a singular form out of a collective noun or plural noun)
Breton heizhenn (= grain of barley)


HEID yo (verb)
to flock

ETYMOLOGY: (heid- penult form of haid = flock) + (-io verbal suffix)


HEI ni (adjective)


HEIT -gar adjective
1 gregarious, fond of company

ETYMOLOGY: 1900+; heitgar < hid-gar (haid = flock, crowd) + (-gar suffix for forming adjectives, meaning fond of, cf caru = to love)


HEL (verb)
North Wales

send (in the South, the corresponding form is hala

collect, gather
hel ml ir cwch feather ones nest = make oneself comfortable financially (implies thinking only of oneself, ignoring the well-being of others) (gather honey to the hive)

hel gwynt i sachau try to do the impossible (gather wind into sacks)

in expressions meaning to go off
...a/ hel eich carcas (North Wales)
hel əkh kar-kas gather your carcass
Hel dy garcas oddi yma! = Get lost! Be off with you!

...b/ hel eich cymalau (North Wales) walk, get moving (gather your joints)

...c/ hel eich traed (gather one's feet) go away, go off
..........Rhaid imi hel nhraed I must be going, Its time for me to go

5 ymhl (rhywbeth) become involved with (something)
(ym- = reflexive prefix ) + (hel- = to send, to gather)

Colloquial forms: yml, mhel; ymhela, mela; ymhelach, ymelach, melach

<HE-la> [ˡhɛla] (verb)
to hunt
hela claps to gossip


<HEL-bil> [ˡhɛlbɪl] masculine noun
PLURAL helbulon
<hel-BII-lon> [hɛlˡbiˑlɔn]
trouble, affliction, problem

Byddai y cymydogion yn dyweud eu helbulon iddi fel plant yn siarad 'u mam
The neighbours would explain their problems to her like children talking to their mother



<HEE-ledh> [ˡheˑlɛ] (f)
PLURAL heleddau
<he-LEE-dhai, -e> [hɛˡleˑaɪ, -ɛ]
salt pit

See Yr Heledd-ddu, Yr Heledd-wen below


<HEE-ledh> [ˡheˑlɛ]
Ynysoedd Heledd (Scotland / Yr Alban) The Hebrides



<HEE-ledh> [ˡheˑlɛ] (feminine noun)
womans name


Yr Heledd-ddu
<ər HEE-ledh DHII> [ər ˡheˑlɛ ˡ] (feminine noun)
Northwich, Cheshire

(delwedd 4295)

ETYMOLOGY: the black salt pit (yr definite article) + (heledd = salt pit) + soft mutation + (du = black)


Yr Heledd-wen
<ər HEE-ledh WEN> [ər ˡheˑlɛ ˡwɛn] (feminine noun)
Northwich, Cheshire

(delwedd 4294)

ETYMOLOGY: the white salt pit

(yr definite article) + (heledd = salt pit) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white)


<HEE-len> [ˡheˑlɛn]
1 Helen (womans name)

2 variant of Elen Luyddog (Elen of the Hosts) from a noble family in Segontium (Caernarfon). She married Macsen Wledig (Magnus Maximus), born in the Iberian peninsula, who became commander of the Roman army in Britain and who in AD 383 went to Rome where he deposed Gratian and made himself Emperor, and became a Christian. It is said that Elen returned to Wales after Macsens death five years later, in AD 388.

The tale is preserved in Breuddwyd Macsen Wledig (the dream of Magnus (the) leader) , written down around 1400 and forming part of the collection of twelve medieval Welsh tales known as the Mabinogion.

3 Sarn Helen name given to several sections of Roman road e.g. a section of Roman road north and south of Y Banwen (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) Sarn Helen near Cellan, Ceredigion SN6448 Sarn Helen near Llan-y-crwys, county of Caerfyrddin SN8447


helfa <HEL-va> [ˡhɛlva] feminine noun
PLURAL helfydd
<hel-VEIDH> [hɛlˡvəɪ]
hunting ground

hunt = the finding, chasing and killing of an animal or bird

yn ystod yr helfa during the hunt

helfa lwynogod North Wales foxhunt

helfa gadnid South Wales foxhunt

helfa abwyd drag hunt, hunt in which hounds follow a trail previously marked with a object scented with aniseed dragged along the ground (hunt (of) bait)

hunt = a group organised to pursue and kill an animal or bird

Cyfarfu llawer o helfeydd ar hyd a lled Cymru rhwng y Nadolig a Dydd Calan
Many hunts met all over Wales between Christmas and New Years Day

catch, haul; amount of animals / birds / fish caught

cael helfa dda catch a good quantity, do well (hunting, fishing) (get a good hunt / catch)

helfa o bysgod a catch of fish

tri brithyllyn braf oedd ein helfa erbyn hyn
By now our catch amounted to three fine trout

Genesis 27:3 Ac yn awr cymer, atolwg, dy offer, dy gawell saethu, ath fwa, a dos allan ir maes, a hela i mi helfa
Genesis 27:3 Now therefore take, I pray thee, thy weapons, thy quiver and thy bow, and go out to the field, and take me
(some) venison;

Luc 5:4 A phan beidiodd llefaru, efe a ddywedodd wrth Simon, Gwthia ir dwfn, a bwriwch eich rhwydau am helfa
Luke 5:4 Now when he had left speaking, he said unto Simon, Launch out into the deep, and let down your nets for a draught.

activity of looking for and picking fruits ; amount of fruit picked

ar yr helfa gyntaf on the first search (for blackberries, etc)

round-up = bringing together of scattered cattle

haul = thiefs booty

Fe fun teulu ni yn ysglyfaeth ir giwed anweledig sawl tro. Radio y car ar olwyn sbr fur helfa ddiweddaraf
Our family was the target of the invisible rabble on many occasions. The car radio and a spare wheel was the latest haul

North Wales telling off, rebuke, scolding

ETYMOLOGY: (hel-, root of hel = to hunt) + (fa, noun suffix denoting an action)


helfa dafarnau
<HEL-va da-VAR-nai, -e> [ˡhɛlva daˡvarnaɪ, -ɛ] feminine noun
PLURAL helfydd tafarnau
<hel-VEIDH ta-VAR-nai, -e> [hɛlˡvəɪ taˡvarnaɪ, -ɛ]
pub crawl, the act of going from one pub after another to drink in each one
(cf go on a pub crawl - hel tafarnau, crwydro tafarnau, mynd o dafarn i dafarn)

ETYMOLOGY: (helfa = hunt) + soft mutation + (tafarnau = taverns, plural of tafarn = tavern)


helfa ddewiniaid
<HEL-va dheu-IN-yaid, -yed> [ˡhɛlva ɛʊˡɪnjaɪd, -ɛd] feminine noun
PLURAL helfydd dewiniaid
<hel-VEIDH-deu IN-yaid, -ed> [hɛlˡvəɪ dɛʊˡɪnjaɪd, -ɛd]
witch hunt, search for supposed witches in order to exterminate them and free people from the ills they are said to have caused

ETYMOLOGY: (helfa = hunt) + soft mutation + (dewiniaid = sorcerers, plural of dewin = sorcerer)


helfa drysor
<HEL-va-DRƏ-sor> [ˡhɛlva ˡdrəsɔr] feminine noun
PLURAL helfydd trysor
<hel-VEIDH TRƏ-sor> [hɛlˡvəɪ ˡtrəsɔr]
treasure hunt; a game where a treasure or prize is hidden; a seeker of the prize starts with a clue which leads him / her to a place where a there is a note with a second clue; after finding a series of clues, the seeker arrives finally at the place where the prize is hidden;
bod ar helfa drysor to be on a treasure hunt

ETYMOLOGY: (helfa = hunt) + soft mutation + (trysor = treasure)


helfa gadnid
<HEL-va gad-NOO-id> [ˡhɛlva gadˡnoˑɪd] feminine noun
PLURAL helfydd cadnid
<hel-VEIDH-kad-NOO-id> [hɛlˡvəɪ kadˡnoˑɪd]
South Wales foxhunt = the pursuit of a fox by hunters on horseback and a pack of hounds in order to kill it for the pleasure of taking part in the chase and observing the death of the fox

ETYMOLOGY: (helfa = hunt) + soft mutation + (cadnid = foxes, plural of cadno = fox)


helfa lwynogod
<HEL-va lui-NOO-god> [ˡhɛlva lʊɪˡnoˑgɔd] feminine noun
PLURAL helfydd llwynogod
<hel-VEIDH lui-NOO-god> [hɛlˡvəɪ lʊɪˡnoˑgɔd]
North Wales foxhunt = the pursuit of a fox by hunters on horseback and a pack of hounds in order to kill it for the pleasure of taking part in the chase and observing the death of the fox

ETYMOLOGY: (helfa = hunt) + soft mutation + (llwynogod = foxes, plural of llwynog = fox)


<HEL-varkh> [ˡhɛlvarx] masculine noun
PLURAL helfeirch <HEL-veirkh> [ˡhɛlvəɪrx]
(literary) hunter = horse for hunting

ETYMOLOGY: (hel-, stem of hela = to hunt) + soft mutation + (march = horse)


<hel-VE-taidh, -edh> [hɛlˡvɛtaɪ, -ɛ] adjective
Helvetian, Swiss

ETYMOLOGY: (Helfet-, root of Helfetia (= Helvetia, Switzerland)) + (-aidd, adjectival suffix)


<hel-VET-ya> [hɛlˡvɛtja] feminine noun
Helvetia [hel-vii-shə] = name of an Alpine region in Roman times corresponding to the north and western part of present-day Switzerland
Helvetia = Latin name for Switzerland (eg used on postage stamps)

ETYMOLOGY: Latin Helvet (= name of a Celtic people of south-east Gaul)


<hel-VEIDH> [hɛlˡvəɪ] plural
1 hunts; see helfa = hunt


<HEL-ger> [ˡhɛlgɛr] masculine or feminine noun
dispute, argument; fuss, bother; metathesised form of hergel (qv)

Ar l yr holl helger am golli ei waled, dyna fe yn ei ffindio yn ei siaced arall
After all the bother about losing his wallet, he found it in his other jacket

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh helger < hergel < obsolete English argle (= dispute)


<HEL-gi> [ˡhɛlgɪ] masculine noun
PLURAL helgwn
<HEL-gun> [ˡhɛlgʊn]
hunting dog, hound
haid o helgwn pack of hounds

ETYMOLOGY: (hel-, stem of hela = to hunt) + soft mutation + (ci = dog)


<HEL-gig> [ˡhɛlgɪg] masculine noun
PLURAL helgigoedd <hel-GII-goidh, -odh> [hɛlˡgiˑgɔɪ], -ɔ]

2 trwydded helgig game licence, licence to sell meat from hunting

ETYMOLOGY: (hel-, stem of hela = to hunt) + soft mutation + (cig = meat)


<HEL-gun> [ˡhɛlgʊn] plural
1 hounds, hunting dogs; see helgi = hound, hunting dog


<HEE-li> [ˡheˑlɪ] masculine noun
1 brine, salt water
bwrw heli i'r mr do something which is completely pointless (throw brine into the sea)

2 sea water, sea

Maesyrheli street name in Aberaeron (the) field (of) the sea, field next to the sea

Maes-heli < maes yr heli street name in Aberystwyth

Craigheli house name, Pont-rhyd-y-bont, Ynys Mn (Craig-heli) craig yr heli (the) rock (of) the sea, rock overlooking the sea

Hafodheli house name, Pont-rhyd-y-bont, Ynys Mn (Hafod Heli) hafod yr heli (the) summer place (of) the sea, summer place overlooking the sea

3 morfa heli salt marsh = ground which is covered with salt water from time to time and has phalocytic vegetation

4 mor hallt 'r heli very salty as salty as brine
cyn hallted heli cig moch very salty as salty as (the) brine (for salting) pork

5 pwll heli oceanarium = large aquarium for marine life

6 pwll heli brine pool, salt pool

Pwllheli (SH3735) locality in the county of Gwynedd

Llifair llanw ir man isel, y Gors, sydd rhwng Stryd Kings Head a Phentrepoeth, i roi inir pwll heli
Ar Hyd Ben Rallt / Elfed Gruffydd / Llyfrau Llafar Gwlad / Rhif 42 / Gwasg Carreg Walch, Llanrwst / 1991 / tudalen 99
The tide flowed into the low-lying spot, Y Gors (the marsh), between Kings Head Street and Pentre-poeth, to give us the pwll heli (brine pool)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh heli < British *sal < *sal (= salt, saltwater) < Celtic


HEL-yur [ˡhɛljʊr] masculine noun
PLURAL helwyr HEL-wir [ˡhɛlwɪr]
hunter, huntsman

2 Tafarn yr Heliwr tavern in Nefyn, in English the Sportsman Inn

(the) tavern (of) the hunter

ETYMOLOGY: (hel-, stem of hela = to hunt) + soft mutation + (cig = meat)


<HELHT-ni> [ˡhɛɬtnɪ] masculine noun

ETYMOLOGY: (hallt = salt) + (-ni suffix); the final
i has caused the change a > e, which is characteristic in Welsh (vowel affection)


<HELM> [hɛlm] (f)
PLURAL helmau
<HEL-mai> [ˡhɛlmaɪ]
1 helmet

Samuel-1 27:5 A helm o bres ar ei ben, a llurig emog a wisgai: a phwys y llurig oedd bum mil o siclau pres.

Samuel-1 27:5 And he had an helmet of brass upon his head, and he was armed with a coat of mail; and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of brass.

Jeremeia 46:4 Cenglwch y meirch, ac ewch arnynt; sefwch yn eich helmau, gloywch y gwaywffyn, gwisgwch y llurigau
Jeremiah 46:4 Harness the horses; and get up, ye horsemen, and stand forth with your helmets; furbish the spears, and put on the brigadines

NOTE: The modern Welsh word is helmed, helmedi / helmedau

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English helm (= helmet) < Old English.
Related to Old English helan (= to cover), German hllen (= to wrap, to shroud, to envelope)

Cf German der Helm (= helmet), Dutch helm (= helmet)


helm (helem)
<HELM, HEE-lem> [hɛlm, ˡheˑlɛm] (f)
PLURAL helmi, helmydd
<HEL-mi, HEL-midh> [ˡhɛlmɪ, ˡhɛlmɪ]

1 corn stack

2 (Ceredigion) Mae hi fel helem (said of a fat woman) Shes immense (shes like a corn stack)

3 Pencaerhelem SN9953 A farm near Cilmeri, Powys

pen caer helem (the) top / end / edge (of) Caer Helem
caer helem
(the) field (of) the corn stack


Maesyrhelem SO0875 Farm south-west of Llanbadarn Fynydd, Powys
maes yr helem (the) field (of) the corn stack

ETYMOLOGY: Probably helm (= helmet), used metaphorically.

NOTE: The Dialect of the West of England Particularly Somersetshire by James Jennings 1869. Helm. s[ubstantive] Wheat straw prepared for thatching.
(Though identical in form, the meaning of this word, noted in 1869, is not the same as that of the Welsh word; it is probably an unrelated word)

NOTE: South-east Wales helmau > elma


<HELM> [hɛlm] (f)
PLURAL helmydd, helmau
<HEL-midh, HEL-mai> [ˡhɛlmɪ, ˡhɛlmaɪ]

1 open hayshed (a shed for storing hay having no walls merely four corner posts and a roof)

ETYMOLOGY: Dialect English helm (= a shed in a field; hut)


hel merched (North Wales)
<hel MER-khed> [hɛl ˡmɛrxɛd] (verb)
be a ladies man


helo <HE-lo> [ˡhɛlɔ] (phrase)
1 hello


<HELP> [hɛlp] (masculine noun)


<HEL-pi> [ˡhɛlpɪ] (verb)
to help

2 -Allwch chi fy helpu os gwelwch yn dda?
-Galla, siŵr o fod

-Can you help me?
-Yes, certainly


helpu eich corff
/ helpuch corff
<HEL-pikh KORF> [ˡhɛlpɪx ˡkɔrf]

Yr oedd Ysgol heb fod ymhell o'r dre a'r plant yn helpu eu cyrff mewn pwcedi budron; nid oedd gan y Cyngor arian i roi 'water closet' i'r plant ond eto yn medru gwario i gael Tywysog o Sais i'r dref
Cerddi ac Atgofion Twm Bethel, T H Jones, 1976, tudalen 41
There was a school not far from the town where the children defecated in dirty buckets, the Council had no money to give the children a water closet and yet was able to spend to bring an English price to the town

ETYMOLOGY: help your body (helpu = help) + (eich = your) + (corff = body)


<he--gain, -gen> [hɛˡləgaɪn, -ɛn]
(SJ2171) locality in the county of Y Fflint, 5km south-east of Treffynnon

Local form: Lygan
<-gan> [ˡləgan] with the loss of the first syllable, and with final <ai> [aɪ] > <a> [a] , a peculiarity of the county of Y Fflint and which is more characteristic of the dialect of the north-west. The county of Y Fflint is in north-east Wales, the majority of which has <ai> [aɪ] > <e> [ɛ]
English name: Halkyn

2 a parish at this place

3 (SJ1872) Mynydd Helygain high land west of Helygain, with remains of lead mines and quarries
English name: Halkin Mountain

4 SJ2072 Pentre Helygain hamlet 1 km north-west of Helygain on the road to Treffynnon

5 Maeslygan ((the) field (of) Helygain) name of a street (Maes Lygan) in the village of Pentrehelygain
<-gan> [ˡləgan] is the local form of Helygain)

NOTE: In this part of the north-east a final
<e> [ɛ] becomes <a> [a] , as in the north-west; thus, Helygain <he--gain> [hɛˡləgaɪn] > Helygen <he--gen> [hɛˡləgɛn] > (He)lygan <(he-)-gan> [(hɛ)ˡləgan]


<he--gen> [hɛˡləgɛn] feminine noun
PLURAL helyg
<HEE-lig> [ˡheˑlɪg]
(Salix alba) willow, wilow tree
pren helyg (m) (prennau helyg) willow tree
coeden helyg (f) (coed helyg) willow tree
helygen y gwinllannoedd willow tree (willow of the plantations)

2 helygen wylofus (Salix babylonica) weeping willow, Asian willow tree with drooping branches

3 llwyn helyg willow grove, willow bed
helyglwyn willow grove, willow bed

4 Dlhelyg < dl yr helyg ((the) river-meadow (of) the willows)
Street name, Tal-y-bont, by Bangor (Gwyndd)
Also dryw'r helyg wren (of) the willow trees

5 telor yr helyg (Phylloscopus trochilus) willow warbler warbler (of) the willow trees
Also dryw'r helyg wren (of) the willow trees

6 corhelygen (corhelyg)
(Salix repens) creeping willow

dwarf hazel tree (cor- prefix = dwarf, small) + (helygen = hazel tree)

helygen Awstria
(Salix mielichhoferi)
Austrian willow

8 helygen aflymddail
(Salix retusa)
retuse-leaved willow

9 helygen amhus
(Salix ambigua)
ambiguous willow

10 helygen Apua
(Salix crataegifolia)
Apuan willow

11 helygen ariannaidd
(Salix argentea)
silky sand willow

12 helygen aur
(Salix alba var. vitellina)
golden willow

13 helygen Bbilon
(Salix babylonica)
weeping willow
See: helygen wylofus

helygen Bedford
(Salix fragilis var. russelliana)
Bedford willow
See: helygen y Dug

helygen beraroglaidd
(Salix pentandra)
bay willow (also laurel-leaved willow, sweet willow)

16 helygen br (helyg pr)
(Salix pentandra)
bay willow (also laurel-leaved willow)
See: helygen beraroglaidd

helygen borffor (helyg porffor)
(Salix daphnoides)
violet willow

18 helygen dail llus
(Salix myrsinifolia)
whortle-leaved willow (willow (of) leaves (of) bilberries)

19 helygen dail-te
(Salix phylicifolia)
Tea-leaved willow (willow (of) leaves (of) tea)

20 helygen ddu (helyg duon)
(Salix triandra)
almond willow (black willow)
See: helygen trigwryw

helygen ddu (helyg duon)
(Salix nigra) (black willow)
black willow

22 helygen drigwryw hirddail (helyg trigwryw hirddail)
(Salix triandra) almond willow
See: helygen trigwryw

helygen drigwryw (helygen trigwryw)
(Salix triandra)
almond willow, long-leaved triandrous willow, French willow (three-male willow)

24 helygen dywyll (helyg tywyll)
(Salix nigricans)
dark-leaved willow

25 helygen euraidd
(Salix alba ssp. vitellina)
golden willow (golden willow)

26 helygen fach y mynydd (helyg bach y mynydd)
(Salix arbuscula)
Mountain willow ((the) little willow (of) the upland)

27 helygen fn-ddanheddog (helyg mn-ddanheddog)
(Salix breviserrata)
finely-toothed willow

28 helygen fan-flewog (helyg man-flewog)
(Salix lapponum)
downy willow or Lapland willow
See: helygen wlanog hirddail

helygen felen (helyg melyn)
(Salix alba ssp. vitellina)
golden willow (yellow willow)
See: helygen euraidd

helygen Ffrengig
(Salix triandra)
almond willow (French willow)
See: helygen trigwryw

helygen flodeuog (helyg blodeuog)
(Chilopsis linearis)
desert willow (flowery willow)
See: helygen yr anialwch

32 helygen foel
(helyg moelion)
(Salix glabra)
hairless willow (bald / hairless willow)

33 helygen frau (helyg brau)
(Salix fragilis var fragilis)
crack willow or brittle willow (brittle willow)

34 helygen fyrtwydd
(Salix myrsinites)
whortle-leaved willow (willow (of) mulberry trees)

35 helygen gam (helyg ceimion)
(Salix matsudana)
contorted willow (bent willow)

36 helygen glec (helyg clec)
See: helygen frau (helyg brau)
(Salix fragilis var fragilis)
Crack willow (snap willow / crack willow)

helygen glustiog (helyg clustiog)
(Salix aurita)
dwarf-eared willow (eared willow)
See: helygen Grynglustiog

helygen gochlas (helyg cochlas)
(Salix purpurea)
purple willow (purple willow, reddish-blue willow)

39 helygen grynddail fwyaf (helyg crynddail mwyaf)
(Salix caprea)
goat willow

40 helygen grynglustiog
(Salix aurita)
eared willow (round-eared willow)

41 helygen Gymreig
(Salix fragilis var decipiens)
Welsh willow (Welsh willow)

helygen hirddail
(Salix calodendron)
long-leaved willow (long-leaved willow)

helygen Lagger
(Salix laggeri)
Laggers willow (willow (of) Lagger)

44 helygen las (helyg gleision)
(Salix alba var. caerulea)
Cricket-bat willow (blue willow)

helygen las (helyg gleision)
(Salix glauca)
bluish willow (blue willow)

helygen lasddeiliog (helyg glasddeiliog)
(Salix caesia)
blue-leaved willow

47 helygen leiaf (helyg lleiaf)
(Salix herbacea)
least willow or dwarf willow

helygen Llychlyn
(Salix polaris)
polar willow
See: helygen yr Arctig

helygen lusddail
(Salix myrsinifolia)
whortle-leaved willow
See: helygen dail llus

helygen lwyd (helyg llwydion)
(Salix cinerea subsp cinerea)
grey willow (grey willow)

52 helygen lwydwen (helyg llwydwynion)
(Salix elaeagnes syn. Candida)
hoary willow (greyish-white willow)

53 helygen olewydd-ddail
(Salix cinerea subsp oleifolia)
rusty willow (willow (og) olive-tree leaves))

54 helygen rwydog (helyg rhwydog)
(Salix reticulata)
net-leaved willow, netted willow (meshed willow, neted willow)

helygen sawr
(Salix pentandra)
bay willow (also laurel-leaved willow) (black (of) perfume)
See: helygen beraroglaidd

helygen sidanaidd y tywyn
See: helygen ariannaidd
(Salix argentea)
silky sand willow (silvery willow)

helygen sidanaidd
(Salix glaucoserica)
silky willow (silky willow)

58 helygen stipylog
(Salix hastata) (stipuled willow)
large-stipuled willow

helygen sur
(Salix alba ssp. vitellina)
golden willow (sour willow)

60 See: helygen euraidd
helygen wen (helyg gwynion)
(Salix alba)
White willow (white willow)

helygen werdd
(Salix x rubra)
green-leaved willow (green willow)

helygen werddlas (helyg gwyrddleision)
(Salix alba var. caerulea)
cricket-bat willow (greenish-blue willow)
See: helygen las

helygen wiail (helyg gwiail)
(Salix viminalis)
osier willow or water willow (willow (of) switches / rods)

helygen wlanog hirddail
(Salix lapponum)
downy willow (woolly long-leaved willow)

65 helygen wlanog (helyg gwlanog)
(Salix lanata)
woolly willow (woolly willow)

helygen wydn (helyg gwydn)
(Salix caprea)
goat willow (tough willow)
See: helygen grynddail fwyaf

helygen wylofus
(Salix babylonica)
weeping willow (weeping willow)

helygen wylofus euraidd
(Salix chrysocoma)
golden weeping willow (golden weeping willow)

helygen y cŵn
(Salix repens)
creeping willow (willow-tree (of) the dogs)
See: corhelygen (corhelyg)

helygen y Dug
(Salix fragilis var. russelliana)
Bedford willow (willow-tree (of) the Duke)

helygen y fydwraig
See: helygen leiaf (helyg lleiaf)
(Salix herbacea)
least willow (willow (of) the midwife)

helygen y geifr
(Salix caprea)
goat willow (willow (of) the goats)
See: helygen grynddail fwyaf

helygen y gors
(Salix discolor)
pussy willow (willow (of) the bog)

helygen y mynydd
(Salix arbuscula)
mountain willow (willow (of) the upland / the mountain)
See: helygen fach y mynydd

helygen y Pyreneau (efallai y Pirinw fuasain well ewn Cymreg, fel y maer gair yn Gatalaneg)
(Salix pyrenaica)
Pyrenean willow (willow (of) the Pyrenees)

helygen y Swistir
(Salix Helvetica)
Swiss willow (willow (of) Switzerland)

helygen yr afon
(Salix fluviatilis)
river willow (willow (of) the river)

helygen yr Alpau
(Salix hegetschweileri)
Alpine willow (willow (of) the Alps)

helygen yr anialwch
(Chilopsis linearis)
desert willow or flowering willow (willow (of) the desert)

helygen yr Arctig
(Salix polaris)
polar willow (willow (of) the Arctic)

merhelygen (merhelyg)
(Salix alba ssp. vitellina)
golden willow
See: helygen euraidd

crogi'ch telyn ar yr helyg hang your harp on the willows, stop doing some activity

rhoi'r delyn ar yr helyg stop doing some activity (put the harp on the willows)

Psalmau: 137:1 Wrth afonydd Babilon, yno ye eisteddasom, ac wylasom, pan feddyliasom am Seion. (2) Ar yr helyg o'u mewn y crogasom ein telynau.
(3) Canys yno y gofynnodd y rhai a'n caethiwasent i ni gn; a'r rhai a'n hanrheithiasai, lawenydd, gan ddywedyd, Cenwch i ni rai o ganiadau Seion.
(4) Pa fodd y canwn gerdd yr Arglwydd mewn gwlad ddieithr?
Psalms 137:1 By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, yea, we wept, when we remembered Zion. (2) We hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof.
(3) For there they that carried us away captive required of us a song; and they that wasted us required of us mirth, saying, Sing us one of the songs of Zion.
(4) How shall we sing the Lord's song in a strange land?

Un gwael iawn am lunio englyn oeddwn, ac felly rhoddais y delyn honno ar yr helyg
I was very bad at composing 'englyn' verses and so I gave that up (I hung that harp on the willows)

Occurs as an epithet in Middle Welsh Ieuan Helyg 1390

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
From the same British root: Cornish heligenn (= willow tree), Breton halegann (= willow tree),

From the same Celtic root: Irish saileach (= willow tree), Scottish seileach (= willow tree)
Manks sallagh, shellagh (= willow tree)


helynt, helyntion <HE-lint, he-LƏNT-yon> [ˡhɛlɪnt, hɛˡləntjɔn] (masculine noun)
Fe fydd hin helynt nawr! The fat is in the fire now! Therll be trouble now!

2 Dyna beth yw helynt! Were in trouble now! Were in bother now! Were in a real mess now! Were in for it now! (that is what is trouble)

3 llawer o helynt ynghylch dim a lot of fuss over nothing (a lot of trouble about nothing!)

4 Helynt ni ddaw ei hunan It never rains but it pours, Troubles never come singly (trouble never comes by itself / unaccompanied)

5 mynd i helynt get into trouble


<he-mo-FIL-ya> [hɛmɔˡfɪlja] (masculine noun)
hemophilia (Englandic: haemophilia)


<he-mo-GLOO-bin> [hɛmoˑˡglɔbɪn] (masculine noun)
hemoglobin (Englandic: haemoglobin)


<HEEN> [heːn] (adjective)

2 hen dad-cu, hen dad-cuod
<heen dad-KII, heen dad-KII-od> [heːn dadˡkiː, heː n dadˡkiˑɔd] (masculine noun) great grandfather

3 hen fam-gu, hen fam-guod
<heen vam-GII, hen-vam-GII-od> [hɛn vamˡgiː, hɛn vamˡgiˑɔd] (feminine noun) great grandmother

4 Hen Wlad fy Nhadau
<heen WLAAD və NHAA-dai> [heːn ˡwlɑːd və ˡnhadaɪ] (feminine noun) national anthem of Wales (the old land of my (fore)fathers)

5 hen ŵr
<heen UUR> [heːn ˡuːr] (masculine noun) old man

6 hen ddigon more than enough
cael hen ddigon ar have just about enough of
(get more than enough on) (cael = get) + (hen = old; more than) + soft mutation + (digon = enough) + (ar = on)

7 (amounts)
Mae hen ddigon ohoni Theres enough and to spare, Theres more than enough of it (theres old sufficiency of it)

hen ddigon more than enough

cael hen ddigon ar have just about enough of
(get more than enough on) (cael = get) + (hen = old; more than) + soft mutation + (digon = enough) + (ar = on)

8 hen yd y wlad country people, country folk (old corn (of) the countryside)

9 bod yn hen fel Adda to be as old as the hills (be old like Adam)

10 Angen a ddysg i hen redeg being in need can make people peform wonders (need teaches the old people to run)

11 hen ddihenydd old (like) death, old (like) fate; very old, as old as the hills.
(hen = old) + soft mutation + (ddihenydd = (obsolete word) end, fate) old (as) fate
In the 1588 translation of the Bible it appears in noun form - yr Hen Ddihenydd - in Daniel 7:9 as a name for God. The equivalent in the English Bible (1611) is the Ancient of Days
Daniel 7:9 Edrychais hyd oni fwriwyd i lawr y gorseddfydd, a'r Hen ddihenydd a eisteddodd: ei wisg oedd cyn wynned 'r eira, a gwallt ei ben fel gwln pur
Daniel 7:9 I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool

Mae honna'n hen ddihenydd That (joke)'s as old as the hills

12 dwyn yr hen i dalur newydd to rob Peter to pay Paul (steal the old to pay for the new)
talur hen a dwyn y newydd to rob Peter to pay Paul (pay for the old thing and steal the new thing)

13 old = former, superseded

yr hen Sir Dyfed the former county of Dyfed (abolished in 1996)

Yr Hen Orsaf districte de Llanidloes (county of Powys) (the old station)

yr Hen ysgol (house name, for former school turned into a dwelling house)

14 byw yn ddigon hen i weld (rhywbeth) live to see (something), live long enough to see (something)

Yr oedd Lewis Lewis yn byw yn y ffermdy yn ymyl y capel presennol, ond nis gwyddom iddo fyw yn ddigon hen iw weled
Lewis Lewis lived in the farmhouse next to the present chapel but we dont know if he lived long enough to see it

15 (noun) an old person (in sayings)

Angen a ddysg i hen redeg being in need can make people perform wonders ((it is) need (that) teaches (an) old (person) to run)

Anodd diddyfnu hen (it-is) hard (the) weaning (of) (an) old (person) You cant teach on old dog new tricks

16 in referring to something unpleasant, annoying

(North) Rhyw hen annwyd sy gen i
Its some cold Ive caught somewhere

Roeddech chin ddigon gwirion i fynd allan ir glaw heb got - does rhyfedd eich bod chi wedi dal yr hen annwyd ma!
You were daft eough to go out into the rain without a coat its no wonder youve caught that nasty cold

-Sut wyt ti y bore ma? Ddim wedi bwrwr hen anwyd ma to

-How are you this morning? I still havent got rid of this nasty cold


<HEE-naint> [ˡheˑnaɪnt] (masculine noun)
old age
cynilo ar gyfer eich henaint save for your old age

2 dryswch henaint senile dementia (confusion (of) old age)
dioddef o ddryswch henaint suffer from senile dementia


henaint ni ddaw ei hun
<HEE-naint ni DHAU i HIIN> [ˡheˑnaɪnt nɪ ˡaʊ ɪ ˡhiːn] (phrase)
old age is accompanied by troubles (old age does not come alone)


hendref / hendre
<HEN-drev, HEN-dre> [ˡhɛndrɛv, ˡhɛndrɛ]

PLURAL: hendrefi / hendrefydd <hen-DREE-vi, -vidh> [hɛnˡdreˑvɪ, hɛnˡdreˑvɪ] (f)
1 winter farmstead, lowland farmstead, permanent farmstead, main farmstead (contrasted with
hafod, summer place, pasture and a shelter or dwelling in the uplands)

ETYMOLOGY: old farmstead i.e. the permanent farmstead (hen = old) + soft mutation + (tref = trv, farmstead)

NOTE: hendref > hendre. Although the loss of a final f [v] in polysyllables is centuries old, the literary language maintians it. On maps howver the form is invariably hendre with no final [v]


<HEN-dre-WEN> [hɛndrɛˡwɛn] (f)
1 locality in Bangor (Gwynedd).

ETYMOLOGY: yr hendre wen the white (lowland) farmstead, possibly whitewashed (lowland) farmstead.

(hendre = lowland farmstead) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white)


<HEN-don> [ˡhɛndɔn] masculine noun
South-east Wales unploughed pasture land, old sward, old land

ETYMOLOGY: (hen = old) + soft mutation + (ton = pasture, grassland)


<hen-E-gluis> [hɛnˡɛglʊɪs] (f)
1 SH4276 village in Ynys Mn ).

ETYMOLOGY: (yr) hen eglwys the old church (hen = old) + (eglwys = church)

<he-NEIDH-yo> [hɛˡnəɪjɔ] (verb)
to get old, to age


Hen Ffordd
<heen FORDH> [heːn ˡfɔr]
1 farm name, Abergwyngregyn SH 6572 (county of Conwy), mentioned in the 1851 Census

ETYMOLOGY: yr hen ffordd the old road (yr definite article) + (hen = old) + (ffordd = road)

<HEN-fordh> [ˡhɛnfɔr] (feminine noun)
Hereford - town in England (literally old road, but in fact a Cymricisation of the English name meaning army ford).

The idea that the Welsh name Henffordd is the original name, of which Hereford is a distortion, is completely false.


<HEN-fikh> [ˡhɛnfɪx] verb
Welen sefyll rhwng y myrtwydd / Wrthrych teilwng om holl fryd / Er o ran yr wyn ei nabod / Ef uwchlaw gwrthrychaur byd / Henffych fore! / Caf ei weled fel y mae
Behold standing among the myrtle trees / the worthy object of all my desire / Though I know him but partially / over the objects of the world / Hail to the morning! / I shall be able to see him as he is
(from the hymn Cwm Rhondda)

2 henffych well obsolete hail! salve! greetings! (may you come better, i.e. welcome)

3 Henffych Fair the Hail Mary, or Ave Maria, a prayer to the Virgin Mary based on the salutations to her by

(1) the archangel Gabriel in Luke 1:28, and

(2) Elizabeth in Luke 1:42

Luc 1:28 Ar angel a ddaeth i mewn ati, ac a ddywedodd, Henffych well, yr hon a gefaist ras; yr Arglwydd sydd gyda thi: bendigaid wyt ymhlith gwragedd
Luke 1:28 And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women.

Luc 1:42 A llefain a wnaeth llef uchel, a dywedyd, Bendigedig wyt ti ymhlith gwragedd, a bendigedig yw ffrwyth dy groth di
Luke 1:42 And she spake out with a loud voice, and said, Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb

4 Henffych Fair, gyflawn o ras Hail Mary, full of grace .

5 henffych ddydd (may (the) day come), hasten the day

Daw Roberts nl! O! henffych ddydd!
Roberts is coming back! O, hasten the day!
in a poem by Geraint Goch, Glan Cunllo
(Cofiant y Tri Brawd / E Pan Jones / 1892 / t137)

ETYMOLOGY: henffych (= may you come); second person singular subjunctive of hanfod (= come), but in modern Welsh the verb is now hanu (= come, originate). Hanfod survives as a noun (= existence)


<HEN-vleu> [ˡhɛnvlɛʊ] plural
coat = old hair shed by a moulting animal
bwrw eich henflew (animal) lose its hair
Maer gath yn bwrw ei henflew The cats losing its hair
Mae'r ci yn bwrw ei henflew The dogs casting its coat

ETYMOLOGY: (hen = old) + soft mutation + (blew = hairs)


<HEN-VID> [ˡhɛnvɪd] masculine noun
ancient world
Persiar henfyd ancient Persia (Prsia (of) the ancient world)

ETYMOLOGY: (hen = old, ancient) + soft mutation + (byd = world)


<HEN-yaith> [ˡhɛnjaɪθ] feminine noun
1 an old language, a longstanding language, a native language, an original language, an autochthonous language

Os treisiodd y gelyn fy ngwlad dan ei draed
Mae heniaith y Cymry mor fyw ag erioed
(Welsh national anthem) If the enemy subjugated my country under his feet
The old language of the Welsh people is as alive as ever


<HEN-lhan> [ˡhɛnɬan] feminine noun
1 SJ0168 village in the county of Dinbych Henllan

ETYMOLOGY: old church (hen = old, ancient) + soft mutation + (llan = church) > *henlan > henllan


Henllennig Cynog
<hen-LHE-nig KƏ-nog> [hɛnˡɬɛnɪg ˡkənɔg]
1 place name; alternative name for Llangynog in the county of Mynwy (English name: St Cynogs Chapel)

ETYMOLOGY: old church of Cynog (henllennig = old church) + (Cynog = saints name) henllennig < (henllann- < henllan = old church) + (-ig diminutive suffix)

i in the final syllabe causes vowel affection in the penult sylllable a > e


<HEN-lhig> [ˡhɛnɬɪg] feminine noun
South Wales
cael yr henllug have a nightmare (get the nightmare)

ETYMOLOGY: This is very likely a variant of hunlle (= nightmare)
NOTE: cael yr henllug (standard form) > cal yr enllug (colloquial form)


<HEE-no> [ˡheˑnɔ] adverb
ar noson fel heno on a night like tonight

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh heno < henodd < henoedd < henoeth < henoith < British *se-nokti (= tonight) < *nokts (= night)
cf Latin nox, noct- (= night)

From the same British root: Breton henozh (= henoz, henoh), fenoz (= tonight);
From the same Hibernian root: Irish anocht (= tonight)


<HEN-oid> [ˡhɛnɔɪd] (masculine noun)
old people


<HEN-ri> [ˡhɛnrɪ] (masculine noun)
(male) Henry


<HEN-wan> [ˡhɛnwan] adjective
old and decrepit

ETYMOLOGY: (hen = old) + soft mutation + (gwan = weak)


yr Hen Was
<ər heen WAAS> [ər heːn ˡwɑːs] masculine noun
(North Wales) the Devil (the old lad)

ETYMOLOGY: (hen = old) + soft mutation + (gwas = boy)


<hen-WEN-did> [hɛnˡwɛndɪd] masculine noun
senility, decrepitude in old age

ETYMOLOGY: (hen = old) + soft mutation + (gwendid = feebleness)


heol, heolydd (hewl, hewlydd)
<HEE-ol, he-OO-lidh; HEUL, HEUL-idh> [ˡheˑɔl, hɛˡoˑlɪ; hɛʊl, ˡhɛʊlɪ] (feminine noun)
cynnal heol maintain a road, keep a road in good repair.

Man gwynto saith 'ewl
(South) (= Mae en / Mae hin gwyntio saith heol) It stinks to high heaven (it stinks (from) seven streets (away))

In street names, with the pattern (heol) + (soft mutation) + (personal name)
Some may be historical names; others new formations imitating these older names, since this mutation it is no longer in use with personal names in modern Welsh

..1/ Heol Fair ((the) street (of) Mary), Saint Mary Street
A street name in
....a/ Caer-dydd
....b/ Porth-cawl (county of Bro Morgannwg)

3 In street names, with the pattern (heol) + (soft mutation) + (place name)
Some may be historical names; others new formations imitating these older names, since this mutation it is no longer in use with place names in modern Welsh

..a/ Heol Dalycopa ((the) street (of) Talycopa) north of Pentre-dŵr, Llansamlet (county of Abertawe)

4 (North Wales) close, court, farmyard

In the north-east there are some place names Rhewl
yr heol > yr hewl > y rhewl

hewl is a colloquial variant; in some place names with an initial vowel, or h + initial vowel, the final r attaches itself to the following word

..a/ Rhewl (SJ1160) village on Afon Clywedog, 3km north-west of Rhuthin
Also Rhewl Rhuthun ((the place called) Rhewl (which is near) Rhuthun)

..b/ Rhewl (SJ1844) village in the county of Dinbych on the north bank of Afon Dyfrdwy 5km north-west of Llangollen
Also Rhewl Langollen ((the place called) Rhewl (which is near) Langollen)

..c/ Rhewl SJ3034 locality in Shropshire, England 5km north-east of Croesoswallt / Oswestry

..d/ Rhewl-fawr (SJ1581) localitat 3km al north-oest de Mostyn
Alternative name: Rhewl Mostyn ((the place called) Rhewl (which is near) Mostyn)

..e/ Rhewl - farm at Knolton SJ3738, (county of Wrecsam) 3 km south of Owrtyn SJ3741

Heol Uchaf farm name, Abergwyngregyn SH 6572 (county of Conwy), mentioned in the 1851 Census
yr heol uchaf the upper farmyard
(yr definite article) + (heol = farmyard) + (uchaf = upper)

Southern Welsh has ewl / hewl < heol.

Cf South Wales ewn < eon < eofn (= fearless, bold)

and in some places ews < eos (= nightingale)


heol bengaead, heolydd pengaead
<HEE-ol / HEUL ben-GEI-ad, he-OO-lidh / heu-lidh pen-GEI-ad> [ˡheˑɔl / hɛʊl bɛnˡgəɪad, hɛˡoˑlɪ / hɛʊlɪ pɛnˡgəɪad] (feminine noun)
(road with a closed end) cul-de-sac


Yr Heol Fawr
<ər HEE-ol / HEUL VAUR> [ ər heˑɔl / hɛʊl ˡvaʊr]
(street name) the High Street

Yr Heol Fawr (on signs usually without the definite article: Heol Fawr)

Heol Fawr would be the Welsh translation of various roads called Main Road in the south (in the north, Stryd Fawr would be more usual)

(Some of these roads may have been originally Heol Fawr, which was translated into English; or they may have a different earlier Welsh name; or have another existing Welsh name)
Main Road, Abercynon (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) Heol Fawr
Main Road, Aberdulais (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) Heol Fawr
Main Road, Aberogwr (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) Heol Fawr
Main Road, Bryn-coch (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) Heol Fawr
Main Road, Cil-ffriw (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) Heol Fawr
Main Road, Creuant (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) Heol Fawr
Main Road, Dyffryncellwen (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) Heol Fawr
Main Road, Gartholwg (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) Heol Fawr
Main Road, Y Gilwern (county of Blaenau Gwent) Heol Fawr
Main Road, Maesycwmer (county of Caerffili) Heol Fawr
Main Road, Pen-rhiw-ceibr (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) Heol Fawr
Main Road, Pentre-poeth (county of Caer-dydd) Heol Fawr
Main Road, Pont-rhyd-y-fen (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) Heol Fawr
Main Road, Porthysgewin (county of Mynwy) Heol Fawr
Main Road, Ton-teg (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) Heol Fawr
Main Road, Tregatwg (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) Heol Fawr
Main Road, Waterston, Aberdaugleddau (county of Penfro) Heol Fawr

Heol Fawr would also be the Welsh translation of various roads called Main Street in the south (in the north, Stryd Fawr would be more usual)

(Some of these roads may have been originally Heol Fawr, which was translated into English; or they may have a different earlier Welsh name; or have another existing Welsh name which is not officially recognised)
..1/ Main Street, Aber-gwaun (county of Penfro)
Main Street, Y Barri (county of Bro Morgannwg)
Main Street, Y Bontnewydd (county of Caerffili)
Main Street, Llangwm, Hwlffordd (county of Penfro)
Main Street, Penfro
Main Street, Solfach (county of Penfro)

ETYMOLOGY: yr heol fawr the big road
(yr = the) + (heol = road) + soft mutation + (mawr = big)


Yr Heol Felen
<ər HEE-ol / HEUL VEE-len> [ ər heˑɔl / hɛʊl ˡveˑlɛn] feminine noun
the yellow way, name of a track in Llyswyrny, Bro Morgannwg

ETYMOLOGY: (yr = definite article) + (heol = way) + soft mutation + (melen, feminine form of melyn = yellow)

NOTE: The local form would be Yr Ewl Felan (though I presently have no confirmation of this);
(1) absence of initial h, a typical feature of south-eastern Welsh;
e in a final syllable becomes a, another typcal south-eastern feature


Yr Heol Ganol
heul ga-nol
1 Heol Ganol
Street name in
..a/ Bryn-mawr (county of Blaenau Gwent)
..b/ Caerffili
..c/ Nant-y-moel (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)
..d/ Y Sarn (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

ETYMOLOGY: middle road / middle street (heol = road) + soft mutation + (canol = middle)


heol gefn, heolydd cefn
heul GE ven, heu lidh KE ven (feminine noun)
back road (minor country road)


HEE-ol GE-rig (feminine noun)
village near Merthyrtudful
ETYMOLOGY: yr heol gerrig the stone road / the road (made of) stones (heol = road) + soft mutation + (cerrig = stones, plural of garreg = stone)

NOTE: The local pronunciation would be Ewlgerrig eul-GE-rig
In south Wales generally heol has the colloquial form hewl; in south-east Wales initial h was lost, hence hewl > ewl


Heol Glyn Dŵr
heul glin DUUR
locality in Coed-poeth (county of Wrecsam) (Heol Glyndwr)

ETYMOLOGY: Glyn Dŵrs road (heol = road) + (Glyn Dŵr, = Owain Glyn Dŵr, popular name for Owain ap Gruffudd (1350-1416), leader of an uprising against the English civilian and military occupiers of Wales.
The conflict lasted for fifteen years (1400-1415).
His home was at Glyndyfrdwy, of which Glyn Dŵr is a contracted form.


Heol Goedog
heul goi-dog
1 Street name in Cefncribwr (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

ETYMOLOGY: wooded road (heol = road) + soft mutation + (coedog = wooded, sheltered by trees)
It is a Southern form of coediog (= woody, sheltered by trees; stringy) In the south the consonantal i at the beginning of the final syllable is generally lost, and so the suffix -iog > -og


Heol Hir

1 road in Caer-dydd / Cardiff

ETYMOLOGY: yr heol hir the long road (yr definite article the) + (heol = road) + (hir = long)

NOTE: The usual pronunciation is
Hewl Hir, which is how it is noted in 1756:

John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in Cardiff Records (1889-1911):

Coroner's Inquest taken at the house of Lewis Leyson, innkeeper, in the parish of Lanishan in the county aforesaid, 6 October 1755, before William Gibbon, Coroner, on view of the body of David Rees, found that the deceased, in a certain lane called Hewl hr in the parish of Lanishan, as he was riding upon a horse before a wagon and oxen, and attempting to turn into a gate, fell down from his horse and was killed.

In fact, the local pronunciaiton would have been h-less in the Welsh of the south-east: Ewl Ir

<eul IIR> [ɛʊl ˡiːr]


Heolsenni (Hewlsenni) heul ə ga-deir-lan [ˌheˑɔlˡsɛnɪ, hɛʊlˡsɛnɪ] feminine noun
SN9223 A hamlet in Powys (district of Brycheiniog). The road was an important route between the town of Aberhonddu / Brecon and the upper valley of the Tawe river and down to Abertawe / Swansea.
OGY: (the) road (crossing the river) Senni
(heol = street) + (Senni river name)

NOTE: Heol Senni on the Ordnance Survey map. As it is a habitative name, one might have expected Heolsenni.
One would expect the local pronunciation to be Hewlsenni - heol is generally the monosyllabic form hewl colloquially.

heol unffordd, heolydd unffordd
heul IN fordh, heu lidh IN fordh (feminine noun)
one-way street


Yr Heol Wen
heul wen
locality in Coed-poeth (county of Wrecsam)

ETYMOLOGY: white close, farmyard (heol = close, farmyard; road) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gwyn = white)


Heol y Bont
HEE-ol ə BONT, HEUL ə BONT [ˌheˑɔl ə ˡbɔntˌhɛʊl ə ˡbɔnt]
Street name

ETYMOLOGY: (the) road / street (of) the bridge, Bridge Street, Bridge Road

(heol = road) + (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (pont = bridge)

Heol y Cawl
HEE-ol ə KAUL, HEUL ə KAUL [ˌheˑɔl ə ˡkaʊlˌ hɛʊl ə ˡkaʊl] feminine noun

(delwedd 7406)

street or road name in the following places:
(a) Llyswyrny SS9674, county of Bro Morgannwg

(b) SS9276 Corntwn, county of Bro Morgannwg a road SS9277, SS9276, from Corntwn village SS9177 to the farm SS9276 of Corntwn (English: Corntown)

(c) Dinaspowys ST1570, county of Bro Morgannwg

(d) central Caer-dydd ST1876

John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) in Cardiff Records (1889-1911) in his entry for Heol y Cawl states: The Welsh name for Wharton Street. It means Crock-herb Street or Worten Street. It occurs, as the only name for Wharton Street, in conveyance of 1830.

In his entry for Wharton Street he notes it has also the names Heol-y-cawl (1768), Broth Lane and Porridge Lane. Speeds map of 1610 calls it Porrag Lane.

Recently, in the early 1990s, some of the English-only street nameplates in Central Caer-dydd were replaced. Some of the new nameplates were bilingual, with the Welsh name appearing under the English name. The name Heol y Cawl came back into the public eye, appearing below the English name Wharton Street.

Cawl (= cabbage, cabbages) is from Latin caulis (= stalk, cabbage).

Cawl (= broth) however is apparently from Latin coagulum (= clot, coagulation). The Welsh word cawl meaning broth has a secondary meaning of mess / disorder.

Two possibilities:
..1 (the) way / street (of) the pot-herbs, street with vegetable plots where pot-herbs were grown.
(heol = way) + (y = definite article) + (cawl = cabbages or coles or pot-herbs) .

..2/ (the) way / street (of) the broth / mess, i.e. a muddy track
(heol = way) + (y = definite article) + (cawl = broth / mess) .

Cf English mess (= untidy state) < mess (= semi-liquid food) < French (= course in a meal) < Latin mittere (= to send)

The name Heol y Cawl is possibly muddy way (cawl = mess), but it is more likely to be pot-herb way referring to plots where coles or pot-herbs grew.

If we accept that Heol y Cawl refers to pot herbs, the English names for the street in Caer-dydd / Cardiff (Broth Lane / Porrag Lane / Porridge Lane) would seem to be mistranslations, taking cawl in its sense of soup, broth.

2 Heol-y-cawl ST0087 name of a farm (Llanilltud Faerdre, county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) on the road from Gartholwg to Trefforest


Heol y Crwys
heul ə kruis feminine noun
street in Caer-dydd

NOTE: ((the) road (of the) Crwys (Bychan) (farm))
Here there were two farms - Crwys Bychan (the little Crwys farm) and Crwys Mawr (the big Crwys farm). According to John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) in Cardiff Records (1889-1911),

(1) Crwys Bychan (Little Crwys). A farmstead in the parish of Saint John, on the northern outskirts of the town, beyond Cathays. The lands were built upon and the house demolished in 1899, when the board schools were erected on the site, opposite the south-western corner of the Cemetery, at the top of Crwys Road.... Circa 1540, this was a copyhold tenement held under the Cardiff Grange of Margam Abbey.

(2) Crwys Mawr (Great Crwys). A tenement situate some distance to the east of the last, nearer Roath village. It disappeared so long ago that its position can only be guessed at.

He explains Heol y Crwys as
(3) Crwys Road - A wide thoroughfare forming a continuation of Castle Road northward, across the Rhymney Railway, to join the North Road at Pentre, Whitchurch. It takes its name from Crwys-bychan farm.


HEE-ol ə KIU, HEUL ə KIU [ˌheˑɔl ə ˡkɪʊˌhɛʊl ə ˡkɪʊ]
SS9484 village in Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr

ETYMOLOGY: Ostensibly (the) road (of) the foal (i.e. without having seen earlier forms of the name)

(heol = road) + (y = definite article) + (cyw = young of an animal; foal; chicken)

NOTE: The colloquial form of heol is hewl
heul [hɛʊl] , which in the traditional Welsh of the south-east is ewl eul [ɛʊl]

Hewl-y-cyw / Ewl-y-cyw


Heol y Gadeirlan heul ə ga-deir-lan [ˌheˑɔl / ˌhɛʊl ə gaˡdəɪrlan] feminine noun
street in Caer-dydd (road of the cathedral). English name: Cathedral Road. The road goes from the centre of the city in the direction of Llan-daf, a cathedral village formerly in the countryside outside the city and now a district of Caer-dydd.

The word cadeirlan is in fact a neologism. An alternative but unwieldy name for this road is Heol yr Eglwys Gadeiriol.

ETYMOLOGY: (heol = street) + (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (cadeirlan = cathedral)


Heol y Glyn
heul ə GLIN feminine noun
street name

(the) street (of) (the place called) Y Glyn (heol = street) + (Y Glyn = The Valley),
(the) street (of) the valley (heol = street) + (y = definite article) + (glyn = valley)


Heol y Gwynt
heul ə gwint [ˌheˑɔl / ˌhɛʊl ə ˡgwɪnt] feminine noun
street name in Castell-nedd
(The street runs north-east and south-west, and has the draught of the valley travelling along it, which thus makes the name very appropriate Neath Antiquarian Society Transactions 1937)

another name for Y Llwybr Llaethog the Milky Way (= band of light consisting of millions of faint stars)

ETYMOLOGY: (the) street (of) the wind, the windy street.
(heol = street) + (y = the) + (gwynt = wind)


Heol y Mynydd
heul ə -nidh [ˌheˑɔl / ˌhɛʊl ə ˡmənɪ] feminine noun
the road leading to the (pasture in the) upland, the road crossing over the upland

(1) road in Y Bargod ST1499 (county of Caerffili) (part of the road is marked on the map with an English translation Moorland Road)

(2) road in Garn-swllt
SN6209 (county of Abertawe)

(3) road in Aber-dr SO0002 (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

(4) road in Ystalyfera SN7608 (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)

(5) road in Bryn-coch SS7499 (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)

(6) road in Glyncorrwg SS8799 (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan)

(7) road in Cefncoedycymer SO0308 (county of Merthyrtudful)

OLOGY: (heol = street, road) + (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (mynydd = highland, upland, moorland, mountain)

NOTE: A misspelling is Heol-y-Mynydd (i.e. with hyphens), and confusingly indexed separately from Heol y Mynydd in English-language street atlases!


heul ə -nidh [ˌheˑɔl / ˌhɛʊl ə ˡmənɪ] feminine noun
hamlet SS8875 north of Sterdwn (Southerndown) (county of Bro Morgannwg)

NOTE: Habitative names are written as a single word Heolymynydd but on the Ordnance Survey map it appears as Heol-y-mynydd.
See the previous entry Heol y Mynydd


Heol yr Odyn
heul ər -din feminine noun
((the) street (of) the kiln) name of a street in Tre-lai, Caer-dydd

ETYMOLOGY: (heol = street, road) + (yr = definite article) + (odyn = kiln)


hep -ste feminine noun
SN9612 Afon Hepste = river in Brycheiniog (Powys); local form: Hepsta



her, heriau
HER, HER-ye (feminine noun)
gwneud rhywbeth ar her do something for a dare

2 herio (qv) to challenge


her-gel masculine or feminine noun
South-west Wales
dispute, argument, disagreement
fuss, bother, intense activity

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < English argle (= dispute); cf Lowlandic argle-bargle, argie-bargie, doublet from a variant of argue < French < Latin argere, frequentative form of argtre (= show, accuse); related to Latin argtus (= clear), argentum (= silver)
NOTE: also: helger


HER-yo (v)

Plaque in Tŷ-nant, county of Conwy, commemorating the action of the people of Llangwm in detaining the Ecclesiastical Commission auctioneer during the Tithe Riots

1887-1987. Yma yr heriodd gwŷr Llangwm orthrwm y Degwm 27ain Mai 1887

1887-1987. Here the people of Llangwm challenged the oppression of the Tithe 27 May 1887


her-lod masculine noun
PLURAL herlodiaid
her- lod-yed
(obsolete) lad, boy, youth
Genesis 42:22 A Reuben a'u hatebodd hwynt, gan ddywedyd, Oni ddywedais i wrthych, gan ddywedyd, Na phechwch yn erbyn yr herlod, ac ni wrandawech chwi? wele am hynny ynteu y gofynnir ei waed ef.
Genesis 42:22 And Reuben answered them, saying, Spake I not unto you, saying, Do not sin against the child; and ye would not hear? therefore, behold, also his blood is required.

ETYMOLOGY: herlod < English herlot (= servant, rascal) < Old French herlot (= rogue), of unknown origin.

In modern English it is harlot (= prostitute), which refers to females only.

Welsh has preserved the older -er- pronunciation; the modern English form harlot shows the change
er > ar which occurred in a number of other words in English, apparent in doublets such as

(1) university / varsity;
(2) clerk (American
kləərk), clerk (Englandic klaak), surname Clark klaak;
(3) Berkeley (American
Bǿərkli, Englandic Bakli)


her-loo-des feminine noun
PLURAL herlodesau, herlodesi
her-lo-de-se, -si
girl; colloquially usually with the loss of the first syllable lodes and also as ls

ETYMOLOGY: (herlod < English herlot = servant, rascal) + (-es, suffix for forming feminine nouns) < Old French herlot (= rogue) < unknown origin.

Herlot in modern English is harlot (= prostitute), which refers to females only, with the change
er > ar which occurred in a number of words in English, apparent in doublets such as
(1) university / varsity;
(2) clerk (American
kləərk), clerk (Englandic klaak), surname Clark klaak;
(3) Berkeley (American
Bǿərkli, Englandic Bakli)


hers feminine noun
PLURAL hersus
her -sis
hearse = car for carrying the dead to the burial ground
hearse = (originally) a frame over a bier for holding candles

ETYMOLOGY: English hearse < Old French herse < Latin hirpex, herpicis (= harrow, implement drawn over cropland to break and move the soil in order to destroy weeds) cf Italian erpice

NOTE: also: hrs (long vowel)


hesp adjective
1 feminine form of hysb (= dry)
2 (South Wales) da hesbion dry cows (Colloquially da esbon, d esbon)


he-spin feminine noun
PLURAL hesbinod
NOTE: Colloquially there is an clipped form of the plural sbinod (the first syllable is dropped).
South Wales hesben (with the suffix -en instead of -in)

yearling ewe (a yearling ram is hesbwrn)
Genesis 21:28 Ac Abraham a osododd saith o hesbinod or praidd wrthynt eu hunain
Genesis 21:28 And Abraham set seven ewe lambs of the flock by themselves

Lefticus 14:10 Ar wythfed dydd cymered ddau oen perffaith-gwbl, ac un hesbin flwydd berffaith-gwbl, a thair degfed ran o beilliaid, yn fwyd-offrwm, wedi ei gymysgu trwy olew, ac un log o olew
Leviticus 14:10 And on the eighth day he shall take two he lambs without blemish, and one ewe lamb of the first year without blemish, and three tenth deals of fine flour for a meat offering, mingled with oil, and one log of oil.

yearling sheep (ewe or ram)
Maent yn cadw 270 o famogiaid, 160 o sbinod a 16 o fuchod sugno
They have 270 ewes, 160 yearlings, and 16 suckling calves.

adjective (sheep) yearling, between one and two years old
Sioe ac arwerthiant yn cynnwys mamogiaid hesbin pdigri a hyrddod hesbin pdigri. Dewiswyd o blith prif ddiadelloedd yng Nghymru, yr Alban a Lloegr
Show and sale including pedigree yearling ewes and pedigree yearling rams. They have been chosen from among the leading flocks in Wales, Scotland, and England

ETYMOLOGY: (hesb, feminine form of the adjective hysb = dry; barren) + (-in suffix for forming adjectives)


he-spin feminine noun
Afon Hesbin
SJ1353 river by the village of Llanfair Dyffryn Clwyd (county of Dinbych)

ETYMOLOGY: hesbin (= yearling ewe)


he-spi-nukh feminine noun
PLURAL hesbinychod
young sow which has not yet produced any young
young sow which has only had one litter

ETYMOLOGY: hesbin-hwch (hesbin = yearling ewe) + (hwch = sow)

NOTE: Colloquially an clipped form is used (the first syllable is dropped): sbinwch, plural sbinychod


hesp-yon adjective
1 See hesb

he-spurn masculine noun
PLURAL hesbyrniaid
young ram

Numbers 7:88 A holl ychen yr aberth hedd oedd bedwar ar hugain o fustych, trigain o hyrddod, trigain io fychod, trigain o hesbyrniaid
Numeri 7:88 And all the oxen for the sacrifice of the peace offerings were twenty and four bullocks, the rams sixty, the he-goats sixty, the lambs of the first year sixty

ETYMOLOGY: probably a contraction of hesbin-wrn (hesbin = yearling ewe) + (-wrn, a suffix)


hesgen, hesg
HE sken, HESG (feminine noun)
(Carex) sedge, rush

hesg sedges, rushes

Clos yr Hesg street in Llansamlet (Abertawe) (the) close (of) the sedges, sedge close

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
From the same British root: Cornish HESKENN, Breton HESKENN
From the same Celtic root: Irish SEISC

NOTE: In the south-east this would be pronounced esgen, esg (h is mostly absent in the traditional dialect).
This would seem to be the explanation of the farm name Pant y Resk ST2095 by Aber-carn, county of Caerffili (although earlier forms of the name would need to be examined to be sure) i.e. Pant-y-resg < Pant-yr-esg < Pant-yr-hesg (the) valley / hollow (of) the sedges (pant = valley, hollow) + (yr definite article) + (hesg = sedges, rushes) Heol Pant-yr-esg

hestor, hestorau
HES tor, he-STOO-rai, -e (feminine noun)
(dry measure)


het, hetiau
HET, HET ye (feminine noun)


HE-tar (feminine noun)
(N.W: Wales) iron (for ironing clothes)

2 found in names of triangular fields - caer hetar (the) field (of) the iron,
usually as Cae Hetar

Examples in:
Pentrefelin, Amlwch



Bronronw, Cwm Cynfal

hetar < heter < English heater


heuldro, heuldroeon
<HEIL-dro, heil-DROI-on> [ˡhəɪldrɔ, həɪlˡdrɔɪɔn] (masculine noun)

ETYMOLOGY: (sun turn, solar turning-around) (heul-, tonic syllable form of haul) + soft mutation + (tro = turn)


Heulfan <HEIL-van>
(House name or street name) sunny place

There is an incorrect form Haulfan common in minor place names (in the tonic vowel, au always becomes eu)
The spelling pronuciation is <HAIL-van>