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les i Catalunya
The Wales-Catalonia Website

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An Internet dictionary of Welsh for speakers of English



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7000_kimkat1676e.jpgI, J, K









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7000_kimkat1586e.jpgY, Z





G, g
<g> feminine noun

) seventh letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e,
6 f, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z

) tenth letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e,
8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y


soft mutation of the consonant c
ci = dog, dau gi = two dogs


A final g
[g] in Welsh names is often represented in English as [k], spelt ck, k, sometimes c
Brecknock Englished name of a former Welsh gwlad (country), and later a county (Brecknock or Brecknockshire) < Brycheiniog

Craddock English surname < Welsh Cradog (= Cradog) < Caradog

Chirk English name of Y Waun, a town in Wrecsam county. From the river name Ceiriog

Clodock a village in Herefordshire, from Clydog, a saints name. The local church is dedicated to Clydog (in older Welsh Clydawg)

Crickadarn a village in Powys, from Crucadarn (= crug cadarn, fortified hillock).

Devynnock Anglicised form of Defynnog (a village in Powys)

Llanbadoc in the county of Mynwy, over the river Wysg from Brynbuga / Usk,

(Llanbadog Fawr in Welsh) ST3799

Llangattock Anglicised form of Llangatwg (various places with this name; a southern form of Llangadog
church of Cadog) (e.g. a village SO2017 in Powys, south-west of Crucywel / Crickhowell; two places in Mynyw SO4515, SO3309)

Llangatwg is Englished in one example by Castell-nedd as Cadoxton i.e. Cadocks ton

Llangunnock English spelling for Llangynog (village in the county of Caerfyrddin)

Llanhennock English form of Llanhenwg, Sir Fynwy

Madock, Maddock English spelling of the forename / patronymic / surname Madog

Meyrick English spelling for the patronymic or surname Meurig

Mynydd Wiliam Meurig,
Cwmclydach (Rhondda Cynon Taf) > Mynydd William Meyrick
Trelleck for Tryleg trə-leg (SO5005) locality in the county of Mynwy (South-east Wales)

Tredunnock for Tredynog ST3794 (village in the county of Mynwy)


g < c

In some borrowings from English an initial c- in the English word become an initial g- in Welsh

grofft (= a croft) < English croft
grisial (= crystal) < English crystal


g < c in borrowings from English, at the end of a word

clog < English cloak
ffrg < English frock

Cf d < t (poced = pocket, ticed = ticket, etc )


1 In many modern borrowings from English, an initial g is not mutated

garej (m) garage
...i garej Twm Sin to Twm Sins garage (not *i arej Twm Sin)
geid girl guide
gm (f) game
golff (m) golf


a prosthetic g (= prefixed to ease pronunciation or regularise apparently irregular forms) occurs in some words which properly begin with a vowel; some of the forms with this initial g are now standard, but others are colloquial / dialectal.

In the case of nouns, the reason is probably that these words were confused with soft-mutated feminine forms such nouns with an initial g in the radical lose it after the definite article for example,

yr ardd (= the garden) is from gardd (= garden),
yr afr (= the goat) is from gafr (= goat), etc
(Most of the nouns in the list below are feminine)

1/ ado > gado = to leave (gado is still used colloquially, but in standard Welsh this verb has been subsumed by the unrelated verb gadael. In other words, ado acquired an initial g-, giving gado, and this verb then became confused with gadael)

2/ addo (standard Welsh) > gaddo (dialectal) = to promise

3/ agen (standard Welsh) > gagen (f) (dialectal) = gap; the form with g though could possibly be original.
In that case, dialectally
..a/ the g has been conserved, or
..b/ the g has reappeared gagen > agen > gagen

4/ alai (standard Welsh) > galai (f) (dialectal) = alley

5 / allt (standard Welsh) > gallt (f) (dialectal) (
North Wales; = hill)

6/ arddwrn (standard Welsh) > garddwrn (m) (dialectal) (= wrist)

6a/ ar l (= after). Ar causes soft mutation, so in some dialects it has been supposed that the base form of l (= track, path) is gl. Hence ar i l, ar ei l (= after him), ar i gl, ar ei gl (after her). After her should properly be ar ei hl.

7/ ellwng > gellwng (dialectal) (the standard form is gollwng) (= to release)

8/ erw
ydd > gerfydd (standard Welsh) (= by means of, holding onto)
(British ari-wid-; Celtic wid-, weid- = to see)

9/ ewin (standard Welsh) > gewin (f) (dialectal) (= fingernail, toenail, cats claw)

10/ ir (standard Welsh) > gir (f) (dialectal) (South Wales; = hen)

11/ ildio (standard Welsh) > gildio (dialectal) = to yield, to give in

12/ onest > gonest (adjective) (= honest) (gonest is the standard form)

13/ ordd (standard Welsh) > gordd (f) (= sledgehammer)

14/ Ordofigion > Gordofigion A literary society in Liverpool in the 1800s for emigrants from the North (territory of a British tribe called Ordovices by the Romans in the centuries of Roman occupation until 410 AD)

15/ wagen > gwagen (f) (gwagen formerly standard, now archaic) (= waggon)

16/ wal > gwal (f) (gwal formerly standard, now archaic) (= wall)

17/ Wrecsam > Gwrecsam (f) (Gwrecsam was used formerly in literary Welsh, now archaic) (= name of a town in North-east Wales)

18/ w
ybren (standard Welsh) > gwybren (f) (dialectal) (= sky)

19/ w
yneb (standard Welsh) > gwyneb (m) (dialectal) (= face)


Gabalfa, Y
<ə ga-BAL-va> (feminine noun)
1 district of Caer-d
ydd on the east side of the river Taf (form of Y Geubalfa = the ferrying place)
(yr = definite article) + soft mutation + (ceubalfa = ferrying place; ceubal =


<GAA-dail,-del> [ˡgɑˑdaɪl, -dɛl] (verb)
to leave = depart from a place (also: ymadael )

to leave = go away without taking

to leave = cause to remain in a certain condition
gadael (rh
ywun) fel petin farw leave somebody for dead (leave somebody as if he were dead)

gadael (ceff
yl) wrth y postyn cychwyn to leave (a horse) standing, rush ahead before the horse has even begun to move off

Adawa i mohoni yn y fan yna I shall not let it rest at that

(I will leave nothing of it in that place)

let, allow (see gadu below)

ei gadael hi rhwng rh
ywun ai gawl
let somebody stew in their own juice = leave somebody to deal unaided with the unfortunate consequences of their actions (leave it between someone and his broth)

gadael ffordd glir leave a passageway, leave room to get by
gadael (rh
ywun) ar ei faw to leave (somebody) in the lurch (on his excrement)
gadael (rh
ywun) ar y clwt to leave (somebody) in the lurch (on the patch of ground)
gadael (rh
ywun) mewn twll to leave (somebody) in the lurch (in a hole)
Maer llygod yn gadael llong ar suddo Rats desert a sinking ship (a ship on the point of sinking)

7 Gadwch i ni ei chladdu hi Lets forget about the matter, Lets drop it, Let byegones be byegones (lets bury it)

gadael iddi drop a matter

Beth am adael iddi? Why dont we drop the matter?

Gad iddi Leave it, Drop it, Drop the matter

8 gadael (rh
ywun) yn y baw leave (someone) in the lurch, let (somebody) down, leave (someone) to fend for himself (leaving someone in the dirt)

bod wedich gadael yn y baw be left in the lurch (being after your leaving in the dirt)

9 gadael i natur ddil
yn ei chwrs let nature take its course (follow its course)

gadael i natur ddil
yn ei hynt let nature take its course (follow its course)

gadael llonydd i bethau
let things take their course (leave quiet / tranquility too things)

gadael i bethau ddilyn ei hynt let things take their course

gadael i bethau fod let things take their course, leave things as they are

Stem: gadaw-

(1) Present Indicative: 1 gadawaf, gadwn; 2 gadewi, gedwch, 3 ged
y (colloquially gadawiff o gadawith), gadawant Impersonal: gadewir

(2) Future Indicative = Present Indicative:

(3) Imperfect Indicative: 1 gadwn, gadawem; 2 gadawit, gadwch; 3 gadawai, gadawent; Impersonal: gadewid

(4) Past Indicative: 1 gadewais, gadawsom; 2 gadewaist, gadawsoch; 3 gadawodd, gadawsant; Impersonal: gadaw

(5) Pluperfect Indicative: 1 gadawswn, gadawsem; 2 gadawsit, gadawsech; 3 gadawsai, gadawsent; Impersonal: gadawsid

(6) Present Subjunctive: 1 gadaw
yf, gadawom; 2 gadewych, gadawoch; 3 gadawo, gadawont; Impersonal: gadawer

(7) The Imperfect Subjunctive is the same as the Imperfect Indicative

(8)Imperative: 1 -, gadwn; 2 gad, gadwch; 3 gadawed, gadawent;
Impersonal: gadawer


<ga-dau-on> [gaˡdauɔn] plural noun
(South-west Wales)
leavings, leftovers, remains
gadawon y da hay or corn left in the manger (leavings of the cattle)

ETYMOLOGY: (gadaw-, stem of gado = to leave) + (-on = plural suffix)


Y Gadl
ys gad lis> [ə ˡgadlɪs] feminine noun

1 farm south of the
village of Llangynwyd (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr), South-east Wales. Here there is also Nant y Gadlys (the stream of Y Gadlys farm)

farm north-west of the
village of Glynogwr (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr), South-east Wales. Here there is Cwm Gadlys (the valley of the stream of Y Gadlys farm)

place in Aber-dr (county of Rhondda-Cynon-Taf) (South-east Wales) SN 9902
ys Uchaf street name in Aber-dr (uchaf = upper)
Heol y Gadl
ys street name in Aber-dr (Gadlys Road)

locality in the county of Bro Morgannwg SS 9869, 2km north-east of Llanilltud Fawr, by Llan-faes

5 farm by Llanwnda, Gwynedd SH4858. According to the link below, it is built on a medieval motte ffermdyr gadlys / the farmhouse

the fort (yr = definite article) + soft mutation + (cadl
ys = fort).

The noun cadl
ys is literally battle fort (cad <kaad> = battle) + soft mutation (+ llys <lhiis> = court).


<GAA-di> [ˡgɑˑdɪ] verb
The basic meaning of gadu is to leave (= let, allow).

This verb had an alternative termination el instead of u, hence gadel.

This later became gadael - probably a result of hypercorrection, through assuming that the final e is a reduction of the diphthong ae, since this is often the case in colloquial Welsh such as ware, a south-western form of chwarae (to play)

An unrelated verb was adaw, which with the reduction of the final diphthong -aw to the vowel o which occurred as Middle Welsh became modern Welsh resulted in ado. The stem remained a adaw-.

The verb adaw / ado means
to leave, to depart from {a place}; to leave (something) behind

Compare athro = teacher, formerly athraw, though the aw form remains in the plural athrawon (= teachers)

An initial g has been added, which can be seen in a number of other words in Welsh where it has been supposed that the initial vowel is the result of soft mutation, and that the radical form has an initial g.

The verb gadu / gadel (= allow) has over the centuries influenced the verb gadaw / gado (= depart), and the -o ending has been replaced by -el / ael.

Hence gad|o > gad|el > gad|ael (= depart).

In the standard language, the verb gadael (really gado) (stem gadaw-) (= depart)
has taken the place of gadael (really gadu) (stem gad-) (= allow).

So gadael with the stem gadaw- is now both depart and allow in standard Welsh
gadawais = I departed (from), I left behind; I allowed

However, in the colloquial language the gad- stem of gadu / gadael remains in the sense of to let, allow, permit.

gadawes = I departed (from), I left behind

gades = I allowed

gadael i (gadu i) = let, allow (somebody to do something); gad imi siarad! let me speak

Exclamation na ato Duw! God forbid! (may God not allow!, na = no, gato = may allow, Duw = God)

na ato Duw! God forbid that...

II Samuel 20:20 A Joab a atebodd ac a ddywedodd, Na ato Duw, na ato Duw, i mi na difetha na dinistrio
II Samuel 20:20 And Joab answered and said, far be it, far be it from me, that I should swallow up or destroy

Job 27:5
Na ato Duw i mi eich cyfiawnhau chwi
Job 27:5
God forbid that I should justify you

cael eich gadel yn un da am... be considered to be good at, be reckoned to be a dab hand at... (get your considering a good one for...)

South Wales gadel suppose, be given to understand
Rw in gadel ych bod chin m
ynd fory I take it youre going tomorrow

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gad- < British. From the same British root: Cornish gasa = to leave, to abandon

Present Indicative: 1 gadaf, gadwn; 2 gad, gedwch (or gadwch), 3 gad, gadant. Impersonal: gedir
Imperfect Indicative: 1 gadwn, gadem; 2 gadit, gadech; 3 gadai, gadent; Impersonal: gedid
Past Indicative: 1 gadais, gadasom; 2 gedaist, gadasoch; 3 gadodd, gadasant; Impersonal: gadw
Pluperfect Indicative: 1 gadaswn, gadasem; 2 gadasit, gadasech; 3 gadasai, gadasent; Impersonal: gadesid
Present Subjunctive: 1 gadw
yf, gadom; 2 gedych, gadoch; 3 gado, gadont; Impersonal: gader
The Imperfect Subjunctive is the same as the Imperfect Indicative
Imperative: 1 -, gadwn; 2 gad, gedwch (or gadwch); 3 gaded, gadent; Impersonal: gader

Formal Welsh has
(1) gadwch inni f
ynd, though the spoken language maintains the more traditional gedwch inni fynd, gadwch inni fynd allow us to go, lets go;
This does not effect the singular form gad which is the same for both gadu and gadael

(2) Written language gadawn iddi f
ynd, but more correctly as in colloquial Welsh gadwn iddi fynd lets let her go
Also the following imperative forms (not used colloquially)

(3) gadawed instead of gaded may he / she / it allow (for someone to....)

(4) gadawent instead of gadent may they allow (for someone to....)

(5) gadawer instead of gader may it be allowed (for someone to....)


<gEi-a> [ˡgəiav, gəia] masculine noun
PLURAL gaeafau
<gei-aa-ve> [gəiˡɑˑvaɪ, -vɛ]
winter = cold season between autumn and spring, from the winter solstice to the vernal equinox in the northern hemisphere, from mid-December, through the months of January and February, into mid-March

gaeaf ll
ym a harsh winter
heulsaf y gaeaf winter solstice
dros y gaeaf during the winter
yr gaeaf during the winter
yn y gaeaf in the winter

winter = cold season between autumn and spring, in the southern hemisphere (and hence in the Welsh settlement in Patagonia) from mid-June, through the months of July and August, and as far as mid-September

3 Celtic winter = six months between Calan Gaeaf (November 1) and Calan Mai (May 1), the period when cattle were kept in the lowlands after being brought down from the upland summer pastures

4 haf oer, gaeaf cynnes (saying) a cold winter (means) a hot summer

5 winter = the colder half of the year (in contrast to summer)

6 berfedd gaeaf in the depths of winter (perfedd = middle, centre) (adverbial phrases have soft-mutated initial consonant)

gefn gaeaf in the depths of winter (cefn = back) (adverbial phrases have soft-mutated initial consonant)

ym mhwll y gaeaf in the depths of winter (pwll = pit)
yn nhwll y gaeaf
in the depths of winter (twll = hole)
yng nghanol y gaeaf
in the middle of winter (canol = middle, centre)

chwaraeon y gaeaf, chwaraeon gaeaf winter sports, sports practised on snow and ice, such as skating, skiing

gwenith y gaeaf winter wheat, wheat sown in the autumn
gwenith gaeaf
winter wheat, wheat sown in the autumn

lle gwyliaur gaeaf
winter resort (place (of) holidays (during) the winter)

gardd aeaf winter garden - either an outside garden with evergreens, or a conservatory with flowers for winter enjoyment

winter = a period like winter - the last years of life, a period of adversity, etc
yng nghaeaf eich byw
yd in the winter of ones life

12 ffair aeaf winter fair
mynd ir ffair aeaf to go to the winter fair
Ffair Aeaf Llanelwedd Llanelwedd Winter Fair
Ffair Aeaf Ynys Mn Ynys Mn (Isle of Anglesey) Winter Fair


13 gaeaf glas, mynwent bras (= a mild winter fills the graveyards; green winter, fat graveyard)


NOTE: [ Olde Cheshire Dialecte.

grien winter : a warm winter, without much frost or snow]

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *gijam- < Celtic
From the same British root: Cornish: gwav (= winter), Breton gwav (= winter)

In Irish the cognate word is the first part (geimh-) of the word geimhreadh (= winter). The second element corresponds to Welsh rhawd (= period), so the Irish word is more or less winter season in origin.

NOTE: The standard pronunciation is with
<v> gaeaf <gei-av>, the colloquial pronunciation is without: gaea <gei-a>


<gail > [gaɪl] masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL Gaeliaid
<geil-yed> [ˡgəiljaɪd, -jɛd]

Gael, Scot = one of the Scottish Gaels, the Gaelic speakers of
Eisteddfod y Gaeliaid the Mod, the annual national gathering of the Gaels ((the) eisteddod (of) the Gaels)

..a/ English Gael (= Gaelic speaker / Scottish speaker / Irish speaker)
..b/ < Scottish Gaidheal (=Gaelic speaker / Scottish speaker / Irish speaker)
..c/ < Irish Gaidheal (= Irish speaker)
..d/ < a word in Old Welsh equivalent to modern Welsh Gw
yddel (= Irishman; apparently previously with a plural sense band of savages)
..e/ < (gw
ydd = savage, wild) + (-el suffix; cf the suffix in medel <= reaping party> < mɛdi <= to rɛap> ).


<gei-ledh> [ˡgəilaɪ, -lɛ] adjective

Scottish = of the Scottish Gaels (apart from the language, in which case the adjective is Gaeleg)

ETYMOLOGY: (Gael = Scot) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)


<geil-yed> [ˡgəiljaɪd, -jɛd] plural
Scots (Scottish-speaking Scots / Scottish-Gaelic-speaking Scots / Gaelic-speaking Scots);
ETYMOLOGY: plural of Gael. Plural suffix iaid


[ˡgəilɛg] <GEI leg> (feminine noun) (sense soft mutation)
Scottish language, Gaelic, Gallic
Yr Aeleg the Scottish language


<geil-təkht> masculine noun
The Irish-speaking area of
yw yn y Gaeltacht to live in the Gaeltacht

Also Y Fro W
yddeleg (the Irish(-language) district)

ETYMOLOGY: English < Irish Gaeltacht < previous spelling Gaedhealtacht,
(Gaedheal (now Gael) = Irish person, Irish speaker) + (-tacht suffix)


Y Gaer
gair > [ə ˡgaɪr] feminine noun
(SN9226) locality (fort) in Crai, Brycheiniog

2 (ST2986) locality in de Casnew
ydd (Gwent)
Note:The local form, typical of south-eastern Welsh, would be Y Gr
GR> [ə ˡgɛːr] (rhyming with English fair / stare/ where, etc)

If there are English spellings of this name as gare in old documents, or on old maps, this would confirm the expected pronunciation. Maybe too the local pronunciation in Casnewydd is gare. Confirmation sought.

3 (ST6390) Thornbury, a locality in England, 12 km north of Bristol

ETYMOLOGY: the fort (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (caer = fort)


Y Gaerwen
<geir-wen> feminine noun
(SH4871) locality in Yn
ys Mn

ETYMOLOGY: the white fort
..a/ (y definite article) + soft mutation + (caerwen);
..b/ caerwen is (caer = fort) + soft mutation + (gwen, feminine form of gw


<GAA-vail, GAA-vel> [ˡgɑˑvaɪl, ˡgɑˑvɛl] feminine noun
PLURAL gafaelion
< ga-veil-yon> [gaˡvəiljɔn]

1 grip, holding

o fewn gafael rhywun within reach of somebody

o fewn eu gafael within their reach, attainable

o fewn ei gafael within her reach, attainable

o fewn ei afael within his reach, attainable

cael gafael yn get hold of

cael mwy o afael yn get a better grip of / hold of


2 (South-east Wales) landholding, plot of land. Occur

gafal o dir a plot of land
Yn gafal ni
yw hwnna That plot of land is ours

In Dyffr
ynrhondda (SS8593) (a locality in the county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr, on the south side of the river Afan, 5km north-west of Maes-teg, on the road which goes down from Y Cymer to Cwmafan) there is a street named Heol yr Afael ((the) street (of) the plot of land)


NOTE: Colloquially gafel, gafal. The grapheme ae in a final syllable is [] in the standard language, e [ɛ] in the south west, mid-Wales, and the north-east, and [a] in the south-east and north-west.


<GA vel ən> (verb)
1 gafael yn / gafael ar get hold of, pick up

gafael mewn plentyn bach picking up a small child



gafar <GAA-var> (f)
Colloquial pronunciation of gafr (= nanny goat)


Corn-gafr SN2722 farm in Caerfyrddin county. Sometimes spelt as Corngafar, indicating the local pronunciation. Here is also Allt Corn-gafr.


Corn-gafr The 1881 Census for Llandrillo yn Rhos also notes a dwelling of theis name, in Llwytgoed, Dinbych.


Apparently (y) corn gafr the goat horn


<ga-ve-ni> [gaˡvɛnɪ]
Glangafenni a street in Y Fenni (misspelt as Glan Gavenny)

(the) bank (of the) Gafenni (river), Gafenni side

2 Blaengafenni SO3119 Farm south-west of Llanfihangel Crucornau (Llanvihangel Crucorney) map

3 Afon Gafenni SO3015 river in the county of Mynw

4 Abergafenni SO2914 old name of Y Fenni, a town at the confluence of the river Gafenni and the river W
ysg. The name used in English preserves the old Welsh name (though with slightly anglicised spelling Abergavenny).

The modern Welsh name Y Fenni is a truncated form of Abergafenni probably

..1/ through the loss of the pretonic syllable (*Aberfenni) and then

..2/ replacement of the first element aber by the definite article y

Most likely in these stages:

Abergafenni > Aberfenni > Abyrfenni > Y Byrfenni > Y Fenni


Abergafenni > Abyrgafenni / Abyrgyfenni > Abyrfenni > Y Byrfenni > Y Fenni

..a/ Abergafenni > Aberfenni

Loss of the pretonic syllable; as seen in other place names

Pont|rhyd|y|sae|son > Pontysaeson (loss of the pre-pretonic syllable)

Pont|-y|-ty^|-pridd > Pont-y-pridd (loss of the pretonic syllable)

Pont|ab|er|du|lais > Ponterdulais (loss of the pre-pretonic syllable)

..b/ > Aberfenni > Abyrfenni

Obscuration of the pretonic vowel

Abyrfenni > Y Byrfenni

Obscuration of the initial vowel a-, and its reinterpretation as the definite article

> Y Byrfenni > Y Fenni

Loss of the pretonic vowel

The Roman name of the place was Gobannium, a Latinisation of the river name Gobannion

ETYMOLOGY: British gobann- (*Gobannion), from the name of a smith deity.
Cf British gob- (= smith), modern Welsh gof (= smith)


<gaa-fo> verb [ˡgɑˑfɔ]
form with soft mutation of caffo = may he / she / it get, may he / she / it receive


gaf i
<gaa-vi> verb [ˡgaːv viː, ˡgɑˑvɪ]
South Wales
may I...? can I...? might I...? (= am I allowed to, do I have your permission to...?)
may I have...? can I have...? (= will you give me, will you lend me...?)
See (1) ga i and (2) the verbnoun cael


gafl (gafal)
<ga val, gaa-val> [ˡgavəl, ˡgɑˑval] feminine noun
PLURALgaflau, geifl (geifil)
<gav le, gei-vil> [ˡgavlaɪ -ɛ, ˡgəivɪl]
fork (in a tree, etc)
yr afl = the fork

yr Eifl (SH3645) the (two) forks, the two dips separating three peaks; name of a mountain in Gw

English name: The Rivals (the Welsh word having been replaced by a similar-sounding word in English; in the plural form because there are three peaks; an explanation was then invented to explain the the supposed rivalry - that this three-peaked mountain rivalled Yr Wyddfa (Snowdon) in magnificence


crotch , hollow of the thigh

(animal) space between two back legs
ch cynffon yn eich gafl dejected, miserable, unhappy, crestfallen, with your tail between your legs, cowed (with your tail in your crotch)
Also: fel ci i gynffon rhwng ei afl (like a dog with its tail in its crotch / between its legs)

sefyll 'ch gafl ar led = stand astride, stand with the legs stretched far apart
lleduch gaflau open your your legs; stand placing ones legs far apart

yn gafl hir = long-leggd man

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *gabl- < Celtic

From the same British root: Breton gavl, gaol (= crotch, fork of a tree)

From the same Celtic root: Irish gabhal (m) (= crotch, fork of a tree)

Cf the Welsh word gefel (= tongs)


<gavl-yo> verb
sit with one's legs wide apart

2 (
North Wales) copulate, fuck

ETYMOLOGY: (gafl = crotch, fork of the legs) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)


gafr, geifr
<GAA-var, GEI-vir> (feminine noun)
yr afr = the goat

mor ddi-les mes i eifr (saying) (of something inappropriate) (as useless as acorns for goats (i.e. acorns are fine for feeding pigs, but less than useless for goats)

helygen y geifr
(Salix caprea) goat willow
See: helygen grynddail fwyaf

craf y geifr (Allium ursinum) ramsons (garlic of the goats)

5 In Margam (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) there is Geifr Road, which would be Heol y Geifr in Welsh ((the) road (of) the goats, goat road)

6 Coed y Geifr name of a wood in the parish of Rowlston, Herefordshire, England
((the) wood (of) the goats)

(coed = wood) + (y = the) + (geifr = goats, plural of gafr = goat)


8 cael gwln rhywiog ar glun gafr make a silk purse out of a sows ear

(find fine wool on a goats thigh)

ni cheir gwln rhywiog ar glun gafr you cant make a silk purse out of a sows ear
(fine wool on a goats thigh is not found / is not had)


NOTE: In the south an epenthetic vowel breaks up the consonant cluster [vr]: gafar plural gifir (<geifir) <GAA var, GII-vir>

Corngafr SN2722 farm in Caerfyrddin county. Sometimes spelt as Corngafar, indicating the local pronunciation.

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *gabr- < Celtic
From the same British root: Breton gavr (= goat)
From the same Celtic root: Irish gabhair (= goat), Manks goayr (= goat)

Related to Latin aper (= boar), and Greek kapros (= goat)


gafr wanwyn GAA-var WAN-win [ˡgɑˑvar ˡwanwɪn]

PLURAL: geifr wanwyn GEI-vir GWAN-win [ˡgəɪvɪr ˡgwanwɪn]

1 nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus)

(delwedd 7082)

bod fel gafar wanwyn (South Wales) be a constant moaner, be a real moaner like a nightjar (a bird noted for its discordant cry)

ETYMOLOGY: goat (of) spring) (gafr = goat) + soft mutation + (gwanwyn = spring)

SPELLING: Gafr gaa-var is also written informally gafar, and geifr is geifir


ga i <gai> verb
may I...? can I...? might I...? (= am I allowed to, do I have your permission to...?)
may I have...? can I have...? (= will you give me, will you lend me...?)

ETYMOLOGY: colloquial form of a gaf fi
(a = interrogative particle) + soft mutation + (caf = I can) + (fi = I)
NOTE: followed by soft mutation (as with all conjugated verbs)
gweld (= to see), ga i weld? (= may I see?)

ga i is more typical of the north; in the south gaf i (with the retention of the
See the verbnoun cael


Y Gaiman
<GAI man>
village in


gair, geiriau
[gaɪr, ˡgəɪrjaɪ / ˡgəɪrjɛ] <GAIR, GEIR yai, GEIR ye> (masculine noun)

ni + dweud gair och pen
not say a word, not open ones mouth once
ni wedodd air oi ben yn ystod daith He didnt say one word during the trip (He didnt say one word from his mouth on the journey)

3 ar air neu ar weithred in word or deed, by word or by deed
Colosiaid 3:17 A pha beth bynnag a wneloch, ar air neu ar weithred, gwnewch bob peth yn enw'r Arglwydd Iesu, gan ddiolch i Dduw a'r Tad trwyddo ef.
Colossians 3:17 And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him.

mewn b
yr eiriau in short (in short words)

5 Mae ei air yn ddeddf His word is law, His word is Holy Writ

6 Ni thorrir asgwrn gan air caled Hard words break no bones (a bone is not broken by a hard word)

7 edr
ych gair mewn geiriadur look up a word in a dictionary

8 Mae un gair cystal chant imi I can take a hint (one word is as good as a hundred to me)

9 word = talk, rumour

Fe gerdodd y gair bod... The rumour went around that...
Mae'r gair ar led fod.. Word is going round that..., Word has it that...

10 gair o eglurhd (ar rywbeth) a word of explanation (of something), a clarification (of something),

Cymerodd Robert Gruffydd y Beibl, a dechreuodd ddarllen y Salm. Weithiau, ceid ef yn taflu gair o eglurhad ar ambell i adnod
Plant y Gorthrwm / 1908 / Gwyneth Vaughan (= Anne Harriet Hughes 1852-1910) t69
Robert Gruffydd took the Bible, and began to read the Psalm. At times, he was to be seen (found) throwing in (throwing) a word of explanation of an occasional verse

11 rhifair number = numeral written as a word
ail: rhifair trefnol y rhifol dau ail (second) - the ordinal number of the number dau (two)

ETYMOLOGY: (rhif = number) + soft mutation + (gair = word)

12 rhoi gair da iw gilydd speak well of one another / of each other
roeddynt yn rhoi gair da iw gilydd tra y buont byw they spoke well of one another throughout their lives


<gaal > [gaal]

yn yr hen l in ancient

Gallia (= Gaul)


<gaal > [gaal]

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *gal- < Celtic < Indo-European *gal / *ghal (= passion, strength)

(obsolete) strength
(obsolete) boldness
(obsolete) hatred

This element occurs as an element in a number of compound words
..1/ anial (= desert, desolate place) < British (*ande-gal-)
..2/ arial (= passion, courage) < British

(ar = in front of) + (gl = strength) > ar-ghal > arial
..3/ dial (= verb: to get revenge; noun: revenge),
..4/ galanas (= hatred; massacre; destruction)
..5/ gel
yn (= enemy)
..6/ Gwrial (obsolete forename) (manly strength)

(gŵr = man) + soft mutation + (gl = strength) > gwr-ghal > gwrial

Equivalent to the Irish name Feargal (Irish fear = man)
..7/ Morial (obsolete forename) (great boldness / strength)
(mawr, mor- = great) + soft mutation + (gl = strength) > mor-ghal > morial


Y Galedryd
<əga-LED-rid> (feminine noun)
name of a farm SN9366 west of Rhaeadr-gwy (misspelt on the map as Galedrhyd)

ETYMOLOGY: (the hard ford, either a ford with a firm bottom, or a ford with fast-flowing water)

(y = definite article the ) + soft mutation + (caledryd)
is (caled = hard) + soft mutation + (rhyd = ford)


<GA leg> (feminine noun)

Yr Aleg the Gaulish language

Gaul) + (-eg suffix to denote a language)


Galiseg (ga LI seg)
<ga ̍̍lisɛg> (feminine noun) (language)
Yr Aliseg the Galician language

(Galis- stem of Galisia =
Galicia) + (-eg suffix to denote a language)

<GALH> (verb)
< gallu
it can be

2 maybe
Gall nad
ywn wir Maybe its not true
(Synonyms of gall: efallai / hw
yrach / dichon)


<ga-lhav> verb
I can, I am able

Also gallaf fi; colloquially galla i, fe alla i, mi alla i, lla i

(reply) yes, I can. Colloquially galla

-Allwch chi fy helpu os gwelwch yn dda?
-Galla, siwr o fod

-Can you help me?
-Yes, certainly

ETYMOLOGY: colloquial form (that is, with the loss of the final
<v>) of gallaf (= I can)



<GA-lho> verb
it may be able to (third-person singular present subjunctive)


Drws Yr Eglwys Weledig Wedi Ei Agor Yn Lled y Pen, Fel y Gallo Credinwyr a Phlant Bychain Ddyfod I Mewn (1799) by Thomas Jones (1752-1845)

The door of the visible church opened wide so that believers and little children can come in

(delwedd 7610)




gallt, gellt
ydd <GALHT, GELH tidh> (feminine noun)
North Wales) hill
yr allt = the hill

2 (
South Wales) wood


Common in place names. See allt

ETYMOLOGY: (allt = hill) which has acquired a prsothetic g-, perhaps because the base form allt was misunderstood to be a soft-mutated form of a base form gallt


A clear example of this is the adjective gonest, from English onest (i.e. honest)


<GA lhi> (verb)
to be able

Beth all e fod? What can it be?

2 ni + gallu llai na not be able (to do) less than

Ni allai lai na methu He was doomed to failure, He was bound to fail, It was inevitable that hed fail

3 Ni ellid moi well things couldnt be better
ni ellid ddim o ei well

not + was not able [to be done] + anything + of + its + better

4 cymaint ag y gall e wneud f
ydd (gwneud rhywbeth) hell find it hard to, hell find it an effort to, hell find it a job to, hell have his work cut out to... , itll be one helluva job for him to... (itll be as much as he can do to...)

5 h
yd galla i gofio as far as I recall

6 (masculine noun) ability rhoi prawf ar allu rhywun put somebody through his paces gwneud popeth o fewn fy ngallu do everything within my ability, do everything Im capable of


galluog <ga-lhii-og> adj
1 capable
un gwir alluog fel pregethwr oedd he was truly capable as a preacher
hollalluog almighty, omnipotent

2 galluogi enable

ETYMOLOGY: (gallu = ability, capability) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives)


galluogi < ga-lhi-oo-gi> verb
1 (verb amb objecte) enable

ETIMOLOGIA: (galluog = capable) + (-i suffix for forming verbs)


<gal POON> (masculine noun)
(Patagonian Welsh) shed


<GA lu> (verb)
to call; calling

galw ar call to (= shout to)

Clywodd rhywun yn galw arno He heard somebody calling him

2 galw rh
ywbeth wrth ei enw call a spade a spade (call something by its name)

3 Galwa i ngweld i Come and see me, Call by to see me

4 to give a name to somebody

galw (rhywbeth) ar (rywun) to call somebody something

y tecil yn galw tinddu ar y crochan the pot calling the kettle black
(the kettle calling black-arse on the cooking pot, the kettle saying that the cooking pot has got a black bottom)

It is used to point out that someone who is criticising another person for having certain faults is hardly qualified to do so since he himself / she herself has these same faults

4 to address somebody

see galw ti ar

5 galw am = demand for, call for

6 o fewn galw within hailing distance (within calling)


galw < ga: lu> m
1 demand
bod llawer o alw ar be in great demand, be much sought after

Yr oedd yn bregethwr da, a llawer o alw arno Saboth ac wythnos He was a good preacher, in great demand on Sundays and the rest of the week (Sabbath and week)

bod galw am be a demand for

bod galw mawr am be great demand for, be much sought-after

mae galw mawr am.... many people want to buy....
does dim llawer o alw am lyfrau Cymreg yn y dre 'ma
there's not much demand for Welsh-language books in this town

cast y mae galw mawr amdano
yw hwn this is a cassette very much in demand a cassette there is a big demand for it is this

ETYMOLOGY: < verbnoun galw (= to call)


galwad, PLURAL galwadau
<GAL wad, gal WAA de> (feminine noun)
yr alwad = the call
Gwahoddiad a galwad ar i ddynolryw ddilyn yr Iesu y maer Dyrchafael a'r Pentecost fel ei gilydd

Both the Ascension and Pentecost are an invitation and a call to mankind to follow Jesus

2 at eich galwad at your service

3 yr alwad the final call, the summons to go to heaven
Fuasai yn sicr o fod wedi trefnu ei dŷ pan mewn iechyd ar gyfer yr alwad, pa bryd bynnag y deuai He was sure to have arranged his affairs when in health for the final call, whenever that would happen

ETYMOLOGY: (galw = call) + (-ad suffix for forming nouns)

galw ti ar
<ga-lu tii ar> -
address (someone) with the familiar form ti = thou, address as thou
Wil! Paid galw ti ar dy dad! Wil! Dont use ti with your father! Dont address your father as thou (i.e. use the more formal chi form)

ETYMOLOGY: call ti on (galw = call) + (ti = thou) + (ar = on)


<gal-we-dii-geth> feminine noun
PLURAL galwedigaethau
calling, occupation
yr alwedigaeth = the occupation

Saer oedd wrth ei alwedigaeth He was a carpenter by trade ((it was) (a) carpenter (that) he was by his trade)

ETYMOLOGY: (galwedig = adjective, origiannly a past participle, = called) + (-aeth suffix for forming nouns)


<ga-lur> masculine noun
yr <gal-wir>
caller = person making a phone call

ETYMOLOGY: (galw = to call) + (-wr agent suffix)


yn, galwyni <GAL win, gal WI ni> (feminine or masculine noun)
(4, 5 llitres) gallon
yr alw
yn / y galwyn = the gallon


Y Gamallt
<KAM-alht> kamaɬt]

1 A hill SN9372 in Glyn Gwy / the Wye valley near Sant Harmon map

ETYMOLOGY: (cam = crookd) + (allt = hill)

the crookd hill (y definite article) + soft mutation + (camallt = crookd hill)


<GAM blo> (verb)
to gamble


Y Gamer
ga-mer> feminine noun
street name in Gl
ynceiriog (county of Dinbych)

ETYMOLOGY: Possibly (that is, without having studied the history of this name) a reduced form of Y Gamerw the crookd acre, the crookd field (of an acre in area)

(y definite article) + soft mutation + (camerw = crookd acre);
(cam = crookd) + (erw = acre)

In field names, where erw is a final element in a compound word, the final -w is often lost pumer < pum erw (five acres), w
yther < wyth erw (eight acres), etc


<ga-moks> plural noun
North Wales
pranks, tricks

ETYMOLOGY: English dialect gammocks (= pranks, tricks)

NOTE: colloquially this is giamocs, with palatalization of the g
<gya-moks>. This palataization is characteristic of North-western Welsh.


<ga-mog> feminine noun
form with soft mutation of camog (= felloe)
ys y Gamog street name in the town of Dinbych (court of the felloe)


Y Gamp Lawn
<ə gamp LAUN> (feminine noun)
The Grand Slam (the feat of beating all four opponents in the Five Nations Rugby Cup games Wales versus England, Scotland, France, Ireland). Now six opponents with the incorporation of
Italy. (the full feat)

gam yn nes
<gam ən nees> adverb
a step nearer
bod gam yn nes at to be a step nearer to...

ETYMOLOGY: (cam = step) + (yn nes = nearer). There is soft mutation of the initial consonant of the phrase c > g to indicate an adverbial phrase

<GAN> (prep)
Cefais lyth
yr gan y ferch I received a letter from the girl (I received a letter with the girl)
Mae ll
yfr gan y dyn the man has a book (a book is with the man)

2 (receiving) from
yd y llyfr gan y dyn the book was bought by the man
cael gan r
ywun wneud rhywbeth get somebody to do something

3 (knowledge of a language)
Doedd ganddi ddim Saesneg she couldnt speak English (there was with her no English, she had no English)

4 quality which a person possesses
..1/ pity, compassion = feeling for sb's suffering

Does dim trugaredd iw gael ganddo She shows no mercy (theres no mercy for its having with her)
bod yn biti gennych dros... feel sorry for
bod yn biti o galon gennych dros... feel really sorry for / feel extremely sorry for
bod yn drueni gennych dros... feel sorry for
bod yn ddrwg gennych dros... feel sorry for
Maen biti gen i dros y plent
yn I feel sorry for the child

5 fawr gan (quantity; length of time)
Does ganddo fawr i fyw He hasnt got long to live

6 Mae pob b
ys yn fawd ganddo Hes clumsy with his fingers (every finger is a thumb with him)

7 in expressions indicating aim, intention, goal

bod yn fwriad genn
ych (wneud rhywbeth) intend (to do something) (to be an intention with you doing something)

bod yn nod genn
ych (wneud rhywbeth) have as ones aim (to do something)
Roedd yn nod ganddo lw
yddo His aim was to succeed

gan + i
yn = jealousy
(North) bod wenw
yn i be jealous of
Mae o wenw
yn imi Hes jealous of me

in forming linking adverbials
gan ystyried all things considered, considering the circumstances, in view of the situation

to have
ylo blewog (hairy hands)
Mae ganddo ddw
ylo blewog Hes a thief (he has hairy hands)

Doedd genn
yf ond mynd I had no option but to go (there wasnt with me but to go)

12 bod arnoch gywil
ydd o be ashamed of / about, feel ashamed of / about
(less idiomatic) bod genn
ych gywilydd o be ashamed of / about, feel ashamed of / about

13 (North)
..a/ sginti < 's gin ti < nid oes genn
yt ti you dont have
..b/ sginti...? < 's gin ti...? < a oes genn
yt ti...? do you have...?
Let them see how in their spoken Welsh the accent turns a sentence of many words into a single word of one or two syllables... e.g. a oes gennyt ti? has become sgnti
T Hudson Williams (1873-1961), University College, Bangor / Vox Populi - A Plea for the Vulgar Tongue

14 gofid gan...

Maen ofid gennym glywed bod...
Im grieved to learn that, It grieves me to hear that...

15 (simultaneous action),at the same time, while doing this

Maer ci wedi neidio ar y bwrdd eto, meddai Huw gan chwerthin The dogs jumped onto the table agian, said Huw laughing

Safodd y cin stond. 'Dere was,' ebe Huw gan aros iddo. The dog stood stock still. Come on, boy, said Huw, waiting for him

16 subsequent action
daeth yr hen frawd o Aberpennar ato, gan wasgu ei law a dyweyd...
The man from Aberpennar came up to him and shook his hand, saying...


gan hynn
y <gan HƏ ni> (adverb)
so, as a result

Methodd y rhai a ddaeth i'r orsaf i gyfarfod r Parchedig Llynfi Benjamin weld neb tebyg i bregethwr yn disgyn o'r tren pump. Dychwelasant, gan hyny, hebddo, gan ei adael dan y glaw ar y platfform oer a thywyll. The people who had come to the station to meet the Reverend Llynfi Benjamin failed to see anybody like a preacher getting off the five o clock train. So they had gone off without him, leaving him in the rain on the cold dark platform.

gan mw
yaf <gan mui-a> adverb
for the most part, in the main

ETYMOLOGY: gan y mw
yaf = with the biggest / greatest


gant y cant
<gant ə kant> adverb
a hundred per cent, completely, to the limit

Tra for brotest yn aros yn heddychlon fe ddylid cefnogir bobl ifanc yma gant y cant
So long as the protest remains peaceful these young people should be supported one hundred per cent

ETYMOLOGY: (a) hundred (of) the hundred (cant = hundred) + (y cant = the hundred); cant y cant > gant y cant (the soft mutation of the initial consonant of the first word in the phrase indicates that this is an adverbial)


yd ef <GA nuid ev> (phrase)
he / she / it was born
2 Nid ddoe y ganwyd fi I wasnt born yesterday


<GA-po> (v)


1 (South Wales) yawn

(::a)ETYMOLOGY: (gap- = aEnglsh to gape) + (-o suffix for forming a verb)

< Middle English < Scandinavian. Cf Norwegian gap (= mouth);
German gaffen (= stare)

Over time, of course, words from the same origin may undergo some semantic shifting, so that they no longer share identical meanings. Such is the case with the Yorkshire gawp (= to stare, open-mouthed). This shares an Old Norse ancestry in gapa (= to open wide the mouth) with the Norman gaupailler, there this now means "to eat gluttonously". The 'open mouth' connotation, however, remains evident. The Normandy-Yorkshire Linguistic Connection


NOTE: [ Olde Cheshire Dialecte.

gape : to yawn]


<gar> masculine noun
PLURAL garrau
garrau ceimion bandy legs

2 eistedd ar eich garrau to sit squatting down (to sit on ones haunches)

3 (South-west Wales) bod ar eich garrau to defecate, to squat down to take a shit (to be on ones haunches)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh gar (= garr) < British *gan-r
From the same British root: Cornish garr (= leg, stalk, stem), Breton garr (= leg, stalk, stem)

NOTE: Standard and northern Welsh a masculine noun (y gar = the leg); in the south it is feminine, hence yr ar


-gar suffix

follows a final t which is final d in the base word: (-d + -car) > (-d-gar) > (-t-gar)
athrotgar slanderous (athrod = slander)
brawtgar (= fraternal) (also brawdgar, hence brawdgarol = fraternal)
caniatgar fond of singing (caniad = singing)
difrotgar destructive (difrod = destruction, damage)
diotgar fond of alcohol (diod = drink)
gwaetgar bloodthirsty (gwaed = blood)
gwlatgar (= patriotic) (gwlad = country)
ybotgar curious (= keen to know) (gwybod = to know)
lladratgar thieving (lladrad = theft)

-GAR soft mutation of-CAR < British *AAK-ARO.

Its use may possibly have been influenced through its likeness to car-, the
root of caru (= to love)


<gaa-ran> masculine or feminine noun
PLURAL garanod
(Grus grus) crane = large wading bird

y garan / yr aran = the crane

Eseia 38:14 Megis garan neu wennol, fell
y trydar a wneuthum; griddfenais megis colomen; fy llygaid a ddyrchafwyd i fyny; O Arglwydd, gorthrymwyd fi; esmwyth arnaf
Isaiah 38:14 Like a crane or a swallow, so did I chatter: I did mourn as a dove: mine eyes fail with looking upward: O LORD, I am oppressed; undertake for me.

2 pig yr aran cranes bill (flower)

3 (
South Wales) yr hen garan = (expression of commiseration, used in expressing pity for someone) the poor old thing (the old crane)

4 Astronomy
Y Garan = the constellation Grus, betweeen Piscis Austrinus and
Indus south of the equator

(delwedd 7014)

5 (Place names)

.....(1) Afon Garan river (of the) crane, Gwent-in-England. This is in Herefordshire west of the river Gwy / Wye.

Here is situated Llanaran, 9km north of Trefynw
y (= Monmouth).

(llan = church) + soft mutation + (Garan river name).

The form on English-language maps is Llangarron.

The pattern (llan + river name) is not common, but an example of this is Llan-daf (Afon Taf).

.(2) Nant Garenig SN6611 by Glanaman (
county of Caerfyrddin)

(garenig is little crane caran + diminutive suffix ig)

..... (3) Nant y Garan stream of the crane, Henllan (
county of Ceredigion);

..... (4) Weungranod (= local form of gwaun y garanod moorfield of the cranes), Llanegwad (
county of Caerfyrddin)

..... (5) Gwaun y Garan field name, Llangrallo (moorfield of the crane) (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) (year 1839),

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *garan- (probably onomatopoeic in origin)
From the same British root: Cornish garan (= crane), place name Rezgaran (= ford of the crane), Anglicised form Rosegarden; Breton garan (= crane)

Indo-European imitative base *gere-2, 'to utter a hoarse cry'.

See Indo-European roots, *gere-2

Cf Greek granos (= crane)

Cf Germanic languages: English crane, German der Kranich (= crane)

NOTE: garanod (= cranes) there is also a form with loss of the first syllable > granod, granod


ys <ga-rau-is> masculine noun
Lent, Lententide. See Graw


<GARD> (masculine noun)


<gardh> feminine noun
PLURAL gerddi, garddau
<ger-dhi, gar-dhe>
garden = place for growing food plants; such a place at the back or front of a house (American: garden, yard) (Englandic: garden)
yr ardd = the garden
gardd lysiau vegetable garden (garden (of) vegetables)

gardd gegin kitchen garden, vegetable garden (garden (of) kitchen)

gardd goch North-west Wales = vegetable garden (red garden)

gardd gefn = back garden (garden (of) back) - the ground behind a house where food plants are usually grown, the front garden being used usually for decorative plants

ym mhen drawr ardd at the far end of the garden, at the bottom of the garden

ar waelod yr ardd at the bottom of the garden

2 piece of ground with ornamental plants (lawn, flowers, trees); such a place at the back or front of a house (USA: garden, yard) (Englandic: garden)

gardd ben to - roof garden, the flat roof of a building with plants (flowers and bushes) in troughs and pots (pen to = (the) top (of) (the) roof)

gardd dirlun = landscape garden, ground contoured to resemble natural landscape features, perhaps with an artificial pond or lake, and trees

gardd ffrynt (gardd y ffrynt) front garden (garden (of) front) - the ground in front a house usually with a lawn and decorative plants; food plants are usually grown in the back garden behind the house

gardd flodau = flower garden

gardd goffa = memorial garden

Gardd Goffa Aber-fan Aber-fan Memorial Garden (commemorating the tragic deaths in this village on 21 October 1967 of 116 children and 28 adults when a coal waste tip slid into the valley and engulfed Pant-glas school)

gardd gwrw beer garden (gardd) + soft mutation + (cwrw = beer)
gardd rosod rose garden (gardd) + soft mutation + (rhosod = roses, plural of rhosyn = rose)

3 clawdd yr ardd the garden wall; hedgebank around a garden
wal yr ardd the garden wall

4 garden = place with plants for public recreation
Gerddi Soffeia name of a park in the centre of Caer-d
ydd, Sophia Gardens. (Soffeia, Welsh spelling of Sophia, from the English pronunciation [səfaiə], a preserved nineteenth-century pronunciaiotn of this name

5 gerddi in street names; in imitation of or translating English names with Gardens, used in suburban developments of the 1930s in England and sometimes in Wales, and imitated in municipal housing estates after the Second World War

Gerddi Llw
ynfedw street name in Llwynfedw, Caer-dydd (officially Llwynfedw Gardens)

Gerddi Pen-y-maes street name in Treffynnon, county of Y Fflint (officially Pen y Maes Gardens)

6 North-west Wales rickyard (usually in the form gar);
in the peninsula of Ll
yn gardd yd = rickyard

7 fertile region: Gardd Cymru ((the) Garden (of) Wales), an epithet for Bro Morgannwg, the coastal lowland west of Caer-d

8 South-east Wales calf fold, field near farmhouse where calves were placed; gardda (local form of garddau) these calf folds used for shoeing oxen

9 (formerly, c1800-1900;) in titles of poetry books:
Gardd, also Gerddi = anthology ((a) garden (of poems))

10 (formerly) in titles of collections of prize-winning literary pieces submitted to an eisteddfod:
Gardd Aber-dr ((the) garden (of the) (eisteddfod) (of) Aber-dr)

11 Gardd Eden
<gardh ee-den> the Garden of Eden = place where Adam and Eve lived after the Creation and before they commited the first sin

12 craf y gerddi alls (garlic of the gardens)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < Old Norse garddr; cf Breton garzh = hedge


<gardh-ben-tre> masculine noun
PLURAL gardd-bentrefi
garden village, garden city = housing estate, usually with municipally-owned housing, with gardens and streets with trees

Gardd-bentref Gorseinon translation of Gorseinion Garden Village (in Gorseinon, county of Abertawe)

Gardd-bentref y Gilfach translation of Gilfach Garden Village (Gilfach-goch, county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

Y Gardd-bentref translation of

(1) Garden City (in Rhymni, county of Rhondda Cynon Taf),

(2) Garden City (in Pen-br
yn, Merthyrtudful, county of Merthyrtudful)

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English garden village;
(gardd = garden) + soft mutation + (pentref = village)


<gardh-dhii-nas> feminine noun
PLURAL gardd-ddinasoedd
garden city = planned town with houses with large gardens, broad tree-lined avenues, and public parks
yr ardd-ddinas = the garden city

ETYMOLOGY: translation of English garden city

(gardd = garden) + soft mutation + (dinas = city)


gardd do
roof garden
yr ardd do = the roof garden
<GAR-dho> <GARDD / garden) + soft mutation + (TO / roof)


gardd fagu < gardh vaa-gi>
feminine noun
PLURAL gerddi magu
< ger-dhi maa-gi>
1 nursery garden
yr ardd fagu = the nursery garden

ETYMOLOGY: (gardd = garden) + soft mutation + ( magu = nurture, cultivate)

Y Gardden
gar-dhen> [ə ˡgarɛn]

1 Found as a place name in South Wales and North-east Wales


(delwedd 7433)

..1/ LLANERFYL SJ0308 Name of an earthwork south of Llanerfyl


Tyddyn y Gardden (lost?) name of a farm (the smallholding at Y Gardden)

(Appears on Archives Network Wales website as a property in the parish of Llanerfyl owned by Rees Thomas (fl. 1723-1748) and his descendants) map

..2/ RHIWABON SJ2944 earthwork north-west of Rhiwabon

In English called tautologically Gardden Fort

Penygardden Farm in Rhiwabon (summit of Y Gardden)

In street names in the area:

..a/ Y Gardden, Rhiwabon (
county of Wrecsam) (on maps as simply Gardden)

..b/ There is a Gardden View, Rhiwabon (
county of Wrecsam) which would be Tremygardden / Golwgygardden in Welsh

..c/ There is a
Gardden Road, Rhosllannerchrugog (county of Wrecsam) which would be Ffordd y Gardden in Welsh

..d/ Tremygardden (the) view (of) Y Gardden) is a street name in Pen-y-cae (county of Wrecsam) (spelt as Trem Y Gardden, though the rule in Welsh is to spell settlement names and street names resembling settlement names as a single word)


..e/ Gardden Woods may be a translation of an original Coed y Gardden


..f/ Gardden Lodge was the home Edward Rowland, High Sheriff of Denbighshire, in the early 1800s


..g/ Ystd Ddiwydiannol y Gardden (Gardden Industrial Estate)

There is a house called Coedygardden (Coed y Gardden) in Trefeglwys (Pows)

(the wood at Y Gardden)


ETYMOLOGY: the fortress (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (cardden = fort)


gardd farchnad
<gardh VARKH-nad> (feminine noun)
PLURAL: gerddi marchnad

market garden
yr ardd farchnad = the market garden


gardd ffrw
ythau <gardh FRUI-the> (feminine noun) <GARDD / garden) + soft mutation + (FFRWYTHAU, plural of FFRWYTH / fruit>
fruit garden
yr ardd ffrw
ythau = the fruit garden


gardd flodau
<gardh VLO-de> (feminine noun)
flower garden
yr ardd flodau = the flower garden

GARDD / garden + soft mutation + BLODAU / flowers, plural de BLODYN / flower


gardd goch
<gardh GOOKH> (feminine noun) <GARDD / garden + soft mutation + COCH / red>
vegetable garden
yr ardd goch = the vegetable garden


gardd goffa
<gardh GO-fa> (feminine noun) <GARDD / garden + soft mutation + COFFA / commemorate>
memorial garden
yr ardd goffa = the memorial garden


<GARDH yo> (verb) (vi) (masculine noun)
to garden


gardd lin
<gardh LIIN> (feminine noun)
flax garden
yr ardd lin the flax garden

2 Place name in Pow
ys - Yr Ardd-lin <GARDD / garden + soft mutation + LLIN / flax>


gardd lysiau
<gardh LƏS-ye> (feminine noun) <GARDD / garden + soft mutation + LLYSIAU, plural of LLYSIEUYN / vegetable>
vegetable garden


<GARDH-west> (feminine noun) <GARDD / garden + soft mutation + GWEST />
garden party
yr arddwest = the garden party


<GAR dhur> (masculine noun) <GARDH wir> <GARDD / garden +-WR / man>


garddwr marchnad
<GAR dhur MARKH nad> (masculine noun) <GARDD / garden +-WR / man>
market gardener


<gar-DHUR-yeth (feminine noun) <GARDDWR / gardener +-IAETH / suffix>
gardening, horticulture


<gar-dhur-yei-thol> adjective
Cafodd ei hyfforddi yng Ngholeg Garddwriaethol Cymru yn Llaneurgain
He was trained at the Horticultural College of Wales in Llaneurgain

ETYMOLOGY: (garddwriaeth = horticulture) + (-ol = suffix)


(1) gardio
<GARD-yo> (verb) (colloquial) (vt)
to guard


(2) gardio
<GARD-yo> (verb)
to card (wool)
<GARD / comb < English CARD / card; +-IO>


gardner <GARD-ner>
(masculine noun) (colloquial; Englishism)


<GARD-no> verb
to garden


gard olw
yn <gard ol-win> masculine noun
PLURAL gardiau olwynion
<gard-ye ol-win-yon>
(American: fender) (Englandic: mudguard) part suspended over the top of a bicycle wheel to stop water and mud from being thrown up by the wheel

ETYMOLOGY: guard (of) wheel, wheel guard, (gard = guard) + (olw
yn = wheel)


gard tn (masculine noun)


<GA rej> (masculine or feminine noun) <ga RE jis>
<English GARAGE < French GARAGE < GARER / shelter < Germanic>


<GA reth> (masculine noun)
mans name


1 Deuteronomium 11:29 Bydded gan hynn
y, pan ddygo yr Arglwydd dy Dduw di i'r tir yr ydwyt yn myned iddo i'w feddiannu, roddi ohonot y fendith ar fynydd Garisim, a'r felltith ar fynydd Ebal

Deuteronomy 11:29 When the Lord your God has brought you into the land you are entering to possess, you are to proclaim on Mount Gerizim the blessings, and on Mount Ebal the curses.

2 Garizim (SH6975) Locality north-east of Llanfair Fechan, towards Penmaenan
( Probably the name of a chapel (no information to hand at present) It seems to be the name in the Welsh Bible with
<z> instead of <s> . )


<gar-mon> masculine noun
mans name (rare in the modern period; usually revived from place names which contain this element to indicate a connection with this place)

2 See the following place-names
...(1) Betwsgarmon ((the) church (of) Garmon),
...(2) Capelgarmon ((the) church (of) Garmon),
...(3) Llanarmon ((the) church (of) Garmon),
...(4) Maes Garmon ((the) (battle)field (of) Garmon)

saints name; Welsh form of Latin Germanus c378-448, bishop of Auxerre in 418
(at the age of 39-40). He visited the island of Britain in 429 (aged 50-51) with
Lupus (Welsh name - Bleiddian = little wolf) to fight the influence of Pelaganism (a doctrinal variant of Christianity condemned by Rome in 418) which held that the grace of God provided people with the possibilty of living without sinning, and so contradicted the Augustine doctrine of irresistible grace (Everyone is a sinner. God chooses who he wishes to save). In 430 (aged 51-52), at the head of an army of Christianised Britons he won a battle against pagans, at a place which came to be known as Maes Garmon ((the) (battle) field (of) Garmon). In 447 (aged 68-69) he returned to the island.

In 480, some thirty-two years after his death, a written account of the life of Germanus appeared in Latin

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh Garmon < *Garmawn < Latin Germnus (= person of the same blood).

It is a late borrowing from Latin, that is, after c400AD, the end of the British Roman period, and the change from British to early Welsh. *Gerfawn, Gerfon would have resulted if it had entered early Welsh via British rather than early Welsh directly)


<garn> feminine noun
soft mutated form of carn (= cairn, pile of stones, tomb)

It is used as a radical form in many place names (Garnfadrun, Garn-swllt, Garnyrerw, etc. In such names Carnfadrun, Carn-swllt, Carnyrerw, would be expected). See carn


Y Garn
<garn> feminine noun

1 short form for many place names with carn as the first element

..a/ Garn Fadrun
Pan fydd y Garn yn gwisgo'i chap,
Fydd fawr o hap ar dywydd
Llafar Gwlad, Gwanwyn 1985, Rhif 8

When Y Garn (Garn Fadrun) is wearing her cap

there wont be much prospect of good weather (Weather rhyme)


(SH2735) locality in the district of Dw
yfor (county of Gwynedd) west of Pwllheli
On the Ordnance Survey map the village is simply Garn (more correctly, this would be Y Garn)

..a/ Carn Fadrun is the name of the hill (
1218 feet) in the locality

..b/ the meaning is (the hill with) Carn Fadrun (on the summit)

..c/ the settlement name is Garnfadrun (with anomolous initial soft mutation) < Carnfadrun (settlement names are spelt as a single word) < Carn Fadrun

..d/ (carn = cairn, pile of stones marking a grave) + soft mutation + (Madrun female personal name from Latin Matrna)

NOTE: An older misspelt form is Garn Fadr
yn (though Madryn represents the same pronunciation as Madrun). There was possibly confusion with madryn, a by now obsolete name for a fox, a variant of madyn (= fox)


street name in Porthtywyn /
Burry Port (county of Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen)

(spelt as Garreglwyd)

ETYMOLOGY: y garreg lwyd the grey stone (y definite article) + soft mutation + (carreg = stone) + soft mutation + (llwyd = grey)

SJ2075 farm near Treffynnon, county of Y Fflint (spelt as Garreg Lydan) map

ETYMOLOGY: y garreg lwyd the grey stone (y definite article) + soft mutation + (carreg = stone) + soft mutation + (llydan = wide)


<ka-ri> feminine noun
South-east Wales) Soft mutated form of carri
See carrai (= strip, thong, shoelace)

This word occurs in place names with the meaning of strip, i.e. a long narrow piece of land (y Garri Wen, etc)


<gar-shun> masculine noun (also feminine)
PLURAL garsiynau
garrison = detachment of soldiers stationed in a place to guard a fortress

2 garrison = place where soldiers are stationed

3 Place names: Y Garsiwn, district of Machynlleth (county of Pow

Compare the town name An Gearasdan (= the garrison), or its longer form Gearasdan Inbhir Lchaidh (= the garrison at Inbhir Lchaidh) (English name: Fort William) in Scotland

(The Scottish word gearasdan is, like the Welsh word, a loan from English garrison).

4 rabble, riff-raff;
also with disrespective hen = old;
yr hen garsiwn the rabble, the riff-raff;

Gosodasant ben Llywel
yn ein Llyw Ola ar y polyn acw i fod yn destun gwawd i garsiwn Llunden ma
They put the head of Llywelyn our Last Leader on that stake over there to be an object of mockery for the riff-raff here in London

ETYMOLOGY: English garrison (= fort) < Middle English garisoun < Old French garison (= defence) < garir (= to defend) < Germanic warjan (= to defend)

Cf modern German wehren (= to defend), Bundeswehr (= the federal German army)

NOTE: Part of a group of recent loans from English with an initial g- which resists soft mutation. Thus we could expect hen garsiwn / heb garsiwn rather than *hen arsiwn / *heb arsiwn


1 garth
<garth> masculine noun
PLURAL garthau

2 it occurs as an element in these compound words:
= farmyard
lluarth (obsolete) = vegetable garden

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *gart-;
Cornish garth (= garden), Breton garzh (= enclosure);
Irish: gort (= field, orchard)

Also from the same Indoeuropean root:
..1/ Latin hortus (Catalan hort, horta = vegetable garden, orchard), and from this Latin word the English words (1) horticulture, (2) orchard (= hortus + Old English equivalent of yard);

..2/ Greek khrtos;

..3/ Germanic languages: English yard < Old English geard; cf German Garten (= garden);

Cf also Old Slavonic (from Germanic) grad (= town)

This Old Slavonic word has been employed in recent place names in
Russia: Leningrad (name of Saint Petersburg during the Soviet era). In modern Russian town is gorod.


2 garth
<GARTH> [garθ] masculine noun
PLURAL garthau
<GAR-thai, -e> garθaɪ, -ɛ]
mountain, upland

2 woodland

3 Examples of place names
a) as a single element Y Garth (see separate entry below)

b) Garth + personal name
Garthbryngi upland of Bryngi, near Aberhonddu (county of Pow
Garthgynfor upland of Cynfor, Dolgellau (county of Gwynedd)

c) as a second element
Broniarth, Cenarth, Ceniarth, Llw
ydiarth, Llwydarth, Penarth, Peniarth, Rhos-y-garth, Talgarth, Tre-garth

sometimes garth is a feminine noun: Garth-goch (= red) (Llanfor), Garth-lwyd (= grey) (Llandderfel)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *gart-; probably the same as garth = enclosure; Cornish garth


Y Garth
GARTH> [ə ˡgarθ]
name of various hills (= the hill)

..a/ Y Garth, a hill north of Caer-d
ydd whose name has given rise to the names of the villages of

(a) Gwaelod-y-garth (bottom of the Garth) (county of Caer-d
ydd), and

(b) Gartholwg (Garth view) (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (called by the English Church Village)

..b/ Y Garth SS8788, north of Pont-rhyd-y-cyff. On English-language maps marked as the tautological Garth Hill

..c/ Y Garth SO2872, west of Trefclo / Knighton, Pow
ys. On English-language maps marked as the tautological Garth Hill

..d/ Y Garth SS8790, hill east of Y Garth village SS8690, Maes-teg, Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr. On English-language maps marked as the tautological Garth Hill map map

2 name of various villages / hamlets (= the hill)

Y Garth SJ2542, east of Llangollen, Sir Ddinb
ych, map

Y Garth ST2687 village east of Rhiwderin Casnewydd / Newport

Y Garth, district of Trefclo / Knighton, Pow

Y Garth, Llangamarch, Pow

Y Garth SJ1381, hamlet by Pen-y-ffordd, county of Y Fflint map

Y Garth SH5873, Bangor

Pier y Garth Bangor Pier map

Y Garth SN6584 locality on the eastern side of Penrhyn-coch, Ceredigion llun / photo

Y Garth SS8690, district of Maes-teg, Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr

3 Y Garth: formerly, one of the two hamlets into which the parish of Llanfabon, near the town of Caerffili, was divided (the other being Gl


<garth-OO-lug> [garθˡlʊg] feminine noun
village by the Garth, a hill in the
county of Rhondda Cynon Taf.
English name:
Church Village.

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

2 street in Pen-tyrch (county of Caer-dydd) (though misspelt as if two words Garth Olwg)

In other villages by Y Garth, there are streets called Garth View. Gartholwg would be a possible translation (among other translations)

(a) in Gartholwg itself,

(b) Nantgarw,

(c) Llantrisant)

ETYMOLOGY: (= Garth view, place with a view of the Garth mountain)

(garth < Y Garth = hill name, the hill, the mountain, < garth = hill, mountain) + soft mutation + (golwg = view) .


<GAR-tre> [ˡgartrɛ] (adverb)
(colloquial form) at home


<GAR-trev> [ˡgartrɛv] (adverb)
(literary form) at home
(in colloquial Welsh, the final
<v> [v] is dropped)


<GAA-ru> [ˡgɑˑrʊ] (adjective)
dweud rhywbeth mewn llais garw say something in a rough voice, say something roughly

Nant Garw A stream name noted by John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cern
yw) 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911)
NANT-GARW (rough brook.) A brook of this name divides the parishes of Leckwith and Caerau.


<GA-seg> [ˡgasɛg] feminine noun
1 Soft mutated form of caseg (= mare)

y caseg the mare


<ga-se-TIIR> [gasɛˡtɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL gasetirau
<ga-se-TII-rai, -e> [gasɛˡtiˑraɪ, -ɛ]
gazetteer = a geographical dictionary, list of geographical names such as at the back of an atlas

Roedd yn arfer gan y Rhufeiniaid lunio rhestrau o ffyrdd yr Ymerodraeth, rhyw fath o gasetr cynnar yn enwi trefi a chaerau ac yn nodi faint o filltiroedd oedd rhyngddyn nhw. Un or gasetirau hyn ydi Itinerarium Antonini, neu Deithiadur Antonine, a luniwyd rywdro rhwng
200 a 300 Oed Crist, maen debyg. (Enwau / Bedwyr Lewis Jones / 1991 / t24)
It was a practice of the Romans to draw up lists of roads in the Empire, a sort of early gazeteer naming towns and forts and noting how many miles thre were between them. One of the gazeteers if the Itinerarium Antonini, apparently drawn up sometime between 200 and 300 AD.

ETYMOLOGY: English gazetteer < French gazetier (= person who writes for a newspaper; the gazetteer was originally for such writers) < gazette (= news-sheet) < Italian gazzetta < Venetian gazeta (= news-sheet costing one gazet - a small copper coin), possibly from
gaza (= magpie) < Latin gaius (= jay)


<GA-seg> [ˡgasɛg] feminine noun
1 an incorrect spelling of gaseg found in place-names on English-language maps or in English-language texts.

Soft mutated form of caseg (= mare)

Gwayn y Gasseg, misspelling of Gwaun y Gaseg (field name in Llanbadog (
county of Mynwy, south-east Wales) in English-language will of Sarah Hughes, Brynbuga / Usk, 1808,%20Sarah%201808.doc

Name of a former colliery company - Gwern y Gasseg Colliery Company in Coed-poeth (
county of Wrecsam). Misspelling of Gwern y Gaseg ((the) alder-marsh (of) the mare)

Maen y Gasseg, misspelling of Maen y Gaseg ((the) stone (of) the mare)

Pant-y-Gasseg, misspelling of Pantygaseg ((the) hollow (of) the mare) Locality and former coal mine by Pont-y-pŵl (county of Torfaen, south-east Wales)

Rhyd Gasseg, ford near Rhuthun (county of Dinbych), SJ112566. Misspelling of Rhyd Gaseg, from rhyd y gaseg ((the) ford (of) the mare)

Ton y Gasseg, misspelling of Ton y Gaseg ((the) pasture (of) the mare) Field name in Herefordshire, 1839 map)


<GAST> [gast] feminine noun
PLURAL geist
<GEIST> [gəɪst]
yr ast = the bitch

Note: Colloquially the soft-mutated form ast is often used as the radical form
Croesais hwnnw efo ast las dyw
yll... a honno yn ferch i Meg ast Ty-llwyd
I crossed it with a dark grey bitch, which was a daughter of Megs, the bitch from T
y-llwyd farm
(instead of: Croesais hwnnw efo gast las dyw
yll... a honno yn ferch i Meg gast Ty-llwyd)

2 bitch = disrespectful term for a woman, used by both women and men
yr hen ast iti!
you bitch!

3 gast gynhig / gast yn cynhica bitch in heat

4 South Wales
gast boeth bitch in heat (hot bitch)
gast dw
ym bitch in heat (hot bitch)
gast yn hela cwn bitch in heat (bitch (which is) hunting dogs)
gast yn cwna bitch in heat (bitch looking for a dog / dogs)
gast yn cyna bitch in heat (bitch looking for a dog / dogs)

and bleiddiast she-wolf
corgi bitch
female otter

greyhound bitch

6 gwenw
yngast jealous woman (poison + bitch)

7 clapgast or clapiast gossip (woman)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British
From the same British root: Cornish gast (= bitch), Breton gast (= bitch, whore)

NOTE: North Wales gst (in the North, in monosyllables with -st, a long vowel is normal)


<GAST> [gast]

soft-mutated form of cast (= cast)

yr unig un o gast gwreiddiol y ffilm sydd yn dal yn fyw

the only one of the original cast of the film who is still alive


<GAI> [gaɪ] (adjective)
(noun) y gau what is false
nithior gwir or gau sort the truth from lies (winnow the truth from the false)


Some word
s from Gaulish were taken into the Latin which replaced Gaulish after the subjugation of
Gaul by the Romans. The Latin of Gaul eventually became French. Some modern French words show an affinity with modern Welsh words.
Welsh baw (= dirt), French boue (= mud)
Welsh maidd (= whey), French mgue (= whey)


<GAUR> [gaʊr] adjective
Soft mutated form (c > g) of cawr (= giant)

2 Yn
ys Fach Llyffan Gawr (SN0141) promontory north of Brynhenllan. Dinas (the county of Penfro) south-west Wales
English name: Dinas

the Ynys Fach of Mighty Llyffan / Llyffan the Giant (Llyffan = mans name) + soft mutation + (cawr = giant).

ys Fach = little island (ynys = island) + soft mutation + (bach = little)


gefail (1)
<GEE-vail, GEE-vel> geˑvaɪl, ˡgeˑvɛl] feminine noun
PLURAL gefeiliau
<ge-VEIL-yai, -e> [gɛˡvəɪljaɪ, -ɛ]
yr efail the smithy
(colloquially, generally, ai in a final syllable becomes e, hence gefel, yr efel)

2 occurs in place names

..a/ Br
ynrefail SH5662 locality in the county of Gwynedd
ynyrefail < bryn refail < bryn yr efail (the) hill (of) the smithy)

..b/ Tonyrefail (the) meadow (of) the smithy

..c/ Yr Efail the smithy

Yr Efail is sometimes found as Refail / Refel (with the loss of the vowel of the first syllable, and the r taken as the initial of the following syllable)
Name of a housing estate - Refail Farm Estate in Caergybi (county of Mn) (the name would be Stad Refail in Welsh)

..d/ Yr Efail-wen the white smithy


3 yr efail arian (silver tongues) an interpretation of the plant name falerian in folk etymology
The following paper is an attempt to give a general account 
of the use and treatment of English words in the colloquial 
Welsh of the present day. Most of the statements here made 
are applicable to the whole of Welsh-speaking Wales; but 
the paper treats more particularly of the dialect spoken, with 
slight variations, in the Counties of Brecon, Caermarthen, 
and the greater part of Cardigan. 
In using many English words, the etymology of which is 
unknown to the speakers, fancy often exerts itself to fnd an 
origin for them. I can here only notice two or three by way 
of example. The popular etymology is sought sometimes in 
Enghsh, sometimes in Welsh. Thus, an "hostler" having to 
do with horses, the word is very commonly supposed to have 
been derived from the name of the animal, and pronounced 
accordingly, horsler. Again, among gatherers of "simples" I 
have often heard the plant-name "horehound" transformed 
into yr O rownd (the round O); and I have known the same 
ingenious fancy more poetically resolve the herb "valerian" 

into yr efail arian (the silver tongs).

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic
Cf gof (= smith)
From the same British root: Breton govel (= smithy, forge), Cornish govel (= smithy, forge)

The expected from in Welsh would be *gofail rather than gefail, with an o, as in Cornish and Breton; and the same vowel as in gof (= smith), but it appears that the first vowel changed in imitation of the word gefel (= tongs).

This is of course a tool associated with a smithy; however, in spite of the similarity of gefel (= tongs) to *gofail (= smithy) the former is not related to gof (= smith), it has a different origin, being related to Welsh gafl (= crotch, fork of the legs, place where the legs join the trunk of the body)


gefail (2)
<GEE-vel> geˑvɛl] feminine noun
Hypercorrect form of gefel (= tongs) through supposing that the final e is a colloquial reduction of final ai and not an original e (the reduction of the diphthong ai in a final syllable to e is usual along a south-west-north-east axis in spoken Welsh), thus making it the same as gefail (= smithy), which colloquially is pronounced gefel.

However, gefail (= smithy) is related to gof (= smith), whereas gefel (= tongs) is related to gafl (= crotch, fork of the legs)


<ge-VEIL-yai, -e> [gɛˡvəɪljaɪ, -ɛ]
plural of gefail (= smithy)

2 usual plural form of gefel (= tongs, pincers)


<gee-vel> feminine noun
PLURAL gefeiliau, gefeilau, gefelau, gefelydd, gefeilion
<ge-VEIL-yai, -ye, ge-VEI-lai, -e, ge-VEE-lai, -e, ge-VEE-lidh, ge-VEIL-yon> [gɛˡvəɪljaɪ, -ɛ, gɛˡvəɪlaɪ, -ɛ, gɛˡveˑlaɪ, -ɛ, gɛˡveˑlɪ, gɛˡvəɪljɔn]
tongs, pair of tongs
yr efel the tongues, the pair of tongs
A hypercorrect form is gefail (qv)

2 gefel fain forceps

3 gefel siwgr sugar tongs, for picking up sugar cubes

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British
From the same British root: Cornish (gevel =tongs), Breton gevel (= tongs)
The word gefel is related to Welsh gafl (= fork; crotch)


gefel bedoli
<GEE-vel be-DOO-li> geˑvɛl bɛˡdoˑlɪ] feminine noun
PLURAL gefeiliau pedoli
<ge-VEIL-yai, -ye, pe-DOO-li> [gɛˡvəɪljaɪ, -ɛ, pɛˡdoˑlɪ]
pincers, tongs used in making horseshoes, cmiths tongs
gafael ym mraich rh
ywun fel gefel bedoli grip someones arm tight (like a smiths tongs)

ETYMOLOGY: (gefel = tongs) + soft mutation + (pedoli = to shoe (a horse))


gefel dn
<GEE-vel DAAN> geˑvɛl ˡdɑːn] feminine noun
PLURAL gefeiliau tn
<ge-VEIL-yai, -ye, TAAN> [gɛˡvəɪljaɪ, -ɛ, ˡtɑːn]
fire tongs

ETYMOLOGY: (gefel = tongs) + soft mutation + (tn = fire)


gefel eni
<GEE-vel EE-ni> geˑvɛl ˡnɪ] feminine noun
PLURAL gefeiliau geni
<ge-VEIL-yai, -ye, GEE-ni> [gɛˡvəɪljaɪ, -ɛ, ˡgeˑnɪ]
( Obstetrics) forceps

ETYMOLOGY: (pincers (of) teeth) (gefel = tongs) + soft mutation + (geni = be born)


gefel fach
<GEE-vel VAAKH> geˑvɛl ˡvɑːx] feminine noun
PLURAL gefeiliau bach
<ge-VEIL-yai, -ye, BAAKH> [gɛˡvəɪljaɪ, -ɛ, ˡbɑːx]

nippers = small pincers

ETYMOLOGY: (gefel = tongs) + soft mutation + (bach = small)


gefel fain
<GEE-vel VAIN> geˑvɛl ˡvaɪn] feminine noun
PLURAL gefeiliau main / gefeiliau meinion
<ge-VEIL-yai, -ye, MAIN, MEIN-yon> [gɛˡvəɪljaɪ, -ɛ, ˡmaɪn, ˡməɪnjɔn]
( Surgery) forceps

ETYMOLOGY: (gefel = tongs) + soft mutation + (main = slender)


gefel gnau
<GEE-vel GNAI> geˑvɛl ˡgnaɪ] feminine noun
PLURAL gefeiliau cnau
<ge-veil ye knai>
nutcrackers = device, type of lever, for cracking the shells of nuts
yr efel gnau the nutcracker
Cyfres yr Efel Gnau The Nutcracker Suite

ETYMOLOGY: (gefel = tongs) + soft mutation + (cnau = nuts, plural of cneuen = nut)


gefell, gefelliaid
<GE-velh, ge-VELH-yaid, -yed> [ˡgɛvɛɬ, gɛˡvɛɬjaɪd, -ɛd] (masculine noun)
twin (twin brother)

2 gefeilliaid (plural form) twins;
(the plural form is often yr efelliaid, with soft mutation of the initial g, as well as the expected form y gefeilliaid

The soft mutation was formerly used in dual plurals that is, to indicate that a plural form was referring to two only; no more than two y gefeilliaid > yr efeilliaid

gefeilliaid syn cael eu gwahanu or crud twins who are parted at birth (parted from the cradle)

3 Cymdeithas Gefelliaid ac Aml-Enedigaethau
TAMBA - Twins and Multiple Birth Association

4 On a slate gravestone in Llandre, Ceredigion:

Er coffadwriaeth / am / DAVID a JOHN / gefeilliaid plant Thomas a / Sarah Jones

Gwarcwnbach plwyf / Llancynfelin DAVID a fu farw / Mehefin y 9ed 1858 yn un flwydd / ac

wyth mis oed. JOHN a fu / farw Ebrill y 4ydd 1860 yn / ddwy flwydd a / naw mis oed

In memory of DAVID and JOHN, twins, the children of Thomas and Sarah Jones

Gwar-cwn-bach (in the) parish (of) Llancynfelin. DAVID who died June the 9th 1858 aged one year and eight months, and JOHN who died April the 4th 1860 aged two years and nine months Gwefan Llandre / Llandre Website

5 The word occurs in the 1620 Bible when it referes to Rebekah, who becomes mother of twins Jacob and Esau

Genesis 25:24 A phan gyflawnwyd ei dyddiau hi i esgor, wele, gefeilliaid oedd yn ei chroth hi.
Genesis 25:24 And when her days to be delivered were fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her womb

6 gefeilliaid Siamaidd Siamese twins


gefeilles, gefeillesau
<ge-VEI-lhes, ge-ve-LHEI-sai, -e> [gɛˡvəɪɬɛs, gɛvɛˡɬəɪsaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
twin (twin sister)
yr efelles = the twin sister


gefn d
ydd golau <GEVN / GEE-ven diidh GOO-lai, -e> gɛvn / ˡgeˑvɛn diː ˡgoˑlaɪ, -ɛ] adverb
in broad daylight
Bu yn eglw
ys Cerrigydrudion ysbryd aflan, ac ofnai'r bobl gerdded heibio i'r lle gefn dydd golau hyd yn oed
There was an evil spirit in Cerrigydrudion church, and people were afraid of walking past the place even in broad daylight

ydd golau ((the) back of a day of light, back + day + light). There is soft mutation of the initial consonant of the first word in an adverbial phrase, thus cefn > gefn


yn <GEE-vin> geˑvɪn]
masculine noun
PLURAL gefynnau
<ge--nai, -e> [gɛˡnaɪ, -ɛ]
1 shackle

2 gefynnau handcuffs; also gefynnau llaw handcuffs

Fei hebryngwyd ef i mewn i arddyrnau mewn gefynnau He was led in handcuffed / with his wrists in handcuffs

3 rhoi gefynnau ar ddw
ylo (rhywun) emmanillar (alg), engrillonar (alg) handcuff (someone), (put handcuffs on [the] hands [of someone])

rhoi (rhywun) mewn gefynnau handcuff (someone), put (someone) in handcuffs (put [someone]
in handcuffs)

ETYMOLOGY: Celtic *gem- (= get hold of)

The equivalent word in Irish is gibhinn (= bond, fetter; bondage, captivity; difficulty; distress, need)


<ge--ni> [gɛˡnɪ] verb
(verb with an object)
1 shackle
2 handcuff

ETYMOLOGY: (gefynn- (y =
<ə> [ə]) stem of gefyn (y = <i> [ɪ]) = handcuff, fetter, shackle) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)


<GEI> [gəɪ] verb
soft-mutated form of cei (= you shall have), from cael (= to have)

Occurs after the preverbal particle fe (especially southern) or mi (especially northern) (these are used in affirmative sentences) and the perverbal interrogative particle a

cadw-mi-gei (cadw = (imperative) keep) + (mi gei you shall have (at a future time)) northern Welsh expression for a piggy bank, money box


<GEIVR, GEI-vir> [gəɪvr]
1 goats; plural form of gafr. The plural colloquially is as if geifir, with an epenthetic vowel, and pronounced
<GEI-vir, GII-vir> gəɪvɪr, ˡgiˑvɪr]]

2 In Margam (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) there is Geifr Road, which would be Heol y Geifr in Welsh ((the) road (of) the goats, goat road)

3 Coed y Geifr name of a wood in the parish of Rowlston, Herefordshire, England
((the) wood (of) the goats)

ETYMOLOGY: (coed = wood) + (y = the) + (geifr = goats, plural of gafr = goat)


<GEIL-wad > [gəɪvr, ˡgəɪlwad]
PLURAL geilwaid
<GEIL-waid, -wed> [ˡ gəɪlwaɪd, ˡ gəɪlwɛd] (m)

1 caller


Geilwad yw ystyr y gair ceiliog yn y bn

Caller is the basic meaning of the word ceiliog (= cock, rooster)


<GEI-ngo> [ˡgəɪŋɔ] (verb)
(sex) to fuck (literally: to wedge)


geirfa, geirf
ydd <GEIR-va, geir-VEIDH> [ˡgəɪrva, gəɪrˡvəɪ] (feminine noun)
yr eirfa = the vocabulary


<geir-YAA-dir> [gəɪrˡjɑˑdɪr] masculine noun
PLURAL geiriaduron
<geir-ya-DII-ron> [gəɪrjaˡdiˑrɔn]
dictionary = book with words of a language in alphabetical order, with explanations and meanings given, or equivalents in another language

ych gair mewn geiriadur look up a word in a dictionary

geiriadur Cymraeg a Welsh dictionary

ETYMOLOGY: (geir-, pretonic form of gair = word) + (-i-adur noun-forming suffix, indicating a book)


<GEIR-yai, -e> [ˡgəɪrjaɪ, -ɛ] (plural noun)
words; see gair


Y Geirnos
GEIR-nos> [ə ˡgəɪrnɔs] plural
small heaps, small mounds, little mounds
Occurs in place names.

A form of Y Gurnos

See curnos and curn


<GEI-ru> [ˡgəɪrʊ] (f)
rippling water; rushing water, rapids; waterfall

yr eirw the rushing water; the waterfall

Heol yr Eirw ST0390 street by the Rhondda river in Y Porth (Eirw Road)

From the name of two local farms (Yr) Eirw Isa (lower Eirw) and (Yr) Eirw Ucha (upper Eirw) Heol yr Eirw

ETYMOLOGY: plural of the adjective garw (= rough, violent, (water) rushing)


<GEIR-wir> gəɪrwɪr] adjective
(person) truthful, who tells the truth

Mor belled ag y gwyddent, roedd James Rees yn ddyn cywir a geirwir.
As far as they knew, James Rees was an honourable and truthful man

Un gonest a geirwir
yw e
Hes an honest and truthful man

2 (explanation, account) truthful

ETYMOLOGY: true in word (geir-, penult form of gair = word) + soft mutation + (gwir = true)


<gei-WII-redh> [gəɪˡwiˑrɛ] masculine noun
truthfulness, veracity
yd un prawf arall o eirwiredd James Rees
Another proof of James Reess truthfulness was had

ETYMOLOGY: (geirwir = truthful) + (-edd suffix for forming nouns)


gele PLURAL gelod, geleod, gelenod, gelnod
<GEE-le, GEE-lod, ge-LEE-od, ge-LEE-nod, GEL-nod> [ˡgeˑlɛ, ˡgeˑlɔd, gɛˡleˑɔd, gɛˡleˑnɔd, ˡgɛlnɔd] (feminine noun)
(after the definite article y there is not the expected soft mutation, hence y gele and not *yr ele)

1 leech

2 (expressions of clinging, holding on to)

glynu fel gele wrth hang onto something like grim death (stick like a leech to...)
dal eich gafael ynddo fel gele keep a tight hold of (keep your hold in it like a leech)
bod yn sownd ynddo fel gele be holding tight to it (be tight in it like a leech)

See also gelen (gele + -en), geloden (plural form gelod + -en)


<GEE-le> [ˡgeˑlɛ]

1 river name (
county of Conwy)

Abergele town (from Aber Gele, the place where the Gele enters the sea)

Morfa Gele SH9577 Gele sea-fen, an area that once was a sea marsh but was converted into pasture land after the building of the railway in the 1800s


gelen, gelenod / gelod
<GEE-len, ge-LEE-nod, GEE-lod> [ˡgeˑlɛn, gɛˡleˑnɔd, ˡgeˑlɔd] (feminine noun)

See gele

<GE-lhukh> ɬʊx] verb
you can (< gallu to be able)

Gellwch fod yn hollol sicr y ... You may rest assured that...
Ar ei golwg hi gellwch weld You can tell by the way she looks, from the look of her, from her look


geloden, gelenod / gelod
<ge-LOO-den, ge-LEE-nod, GEE-lod> [gɛˡloˑdɛn, gɛˡleˑnɔd, ˡgeˑlɔd,] (feminine noun) (South-west)


See gele



Y Gelli <ə GE-lhi > [ə ˡgɛɬɪ] feminine noun
farm name, house name, village name

2 Town in Powys. Short form of Y Gellligandryll (qv). English name: Hay on Wye, or simply Hay.

ETYMOLOGY: (y gelli = the wood)
(y = definite article) + soft mutation + (celli = wood)

NOTE: The word " gelli " is a common name in Merioneth
for a farm or field situated in a sheltered nook. Y Cymmrodor. Vol. XXXVIII. 1927. Merioneth Notes.
By T. P. ELLIS, I.C.S. (retired), M.A., F.R.Hist.S., Author of "Welsh Tribal Law and Custom"


Y Gelliaraul
<GE-lhi AA-rail> ɬɪ ˡɑˑraɪl] feminine noun
farm in Llan-gan, south of the village (county of Bro Morgannwg)

2 Heol Gelliaraul (on maps as Gelli Arael Road) road between Gilfach-goch and Hendreforgan (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

ETYMOLOGY: (y gelli araul = the sunny wood)
(y = definite article) + soft mutation + (celli = wood) + (araul = sunny, sunlit)


<GE-lhid> [ˡgɛɬɪd] (verb)
it could be

Ni ellid dychmygu harddach merch
A more beautiful girl could not be imagined


Y Gelli-deg
<ə GE-lhi DEEG> [ə ˡgɛɬɪ ˡdeːg] settlement name
SO 0207 locality in Merth
street names
(1) Br
yn-coch (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) (Gelli Deg)
(2) Rhiwbina (county of Caer-d
ydd) (Gelli Deg)
(3) Penyrheol, (county of Caerffili) (Gelli Deg)
(4) in the district of Gelli-deg, Merth
yrtudful (Gelli-deg)
(5) Tretomas, Tonyrefail (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf) (Gelli-Deg)
(6) Pontardawe (county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) (Gellideg)

NOTE: because of the various ways in which it is spelt officially Gelli-deg (correct), Gelli Deg (debatable if a habitative name and not referring to a wood directly), Gelli-Deg (incorrect), and Gellideg (incorrect), in an English street atlas index they are to be found listed in three different sections (Gelli Deg; Gelli-deg + Gelli-Deg; Gellideg) separated from each other by other names!

ETYMOLOGY: the fair wood, the beautiful wood (y) + soft mutation + (celli = wood) + soft mutation + (teg = beautiful, fair)


Y Gellifelen
<ə GE-lhi VEE-len> [ə ˡgɛɬɪ ˡveˑlɛn] settlement name
SO 2111 locality in the district of Brycheiniog in the county of Powys

ETYMOLOGY: i gelli felen - the yellow wood; (y) + soft mutation + (celli = wood) + soft mutation + (melen, feminine form of mel
yn = yellow)


<GE-lhi-GAIR> [ˡgɛɬɪ ˡgaɪr] settlement name
ST 1396 village in the
county of Caerffili

Gelli-gaer Gelli-gaer Common

2 a parish at this place

3 Gelli-gaer Fawr (= great Gelli-gaer), Gelli-gaer Fach (= little Gelli-gaer) two farms south of Cimla (
county of Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) on the road to Cwmafan.

ETYMOLOGY: gellir gaer (gelli form with soft mutation used as a radical form, < celli = wood) + (yr = definite article) + soft mutation + (caer = fort). There was a Roman fort here. The expected form would be Cellir-gaer / Celli-gaer, and it is found as such in earlier forms.


The change c < g may be in imitation of names with celli where the soft mutated form is legitimate - after the definite article - Y Gelli-las, Y Gelli-deg, Y Gelliaraul, etc)

NOTE: In place names a linking definite article is often omitted: gellir gaer > gelli gaer

NOTE: the local form of the place in Caerffili county is Gelli-gr (rhyming with English hare, dare, wear).


Y Gelligandr
yll <ə GE-lhi GAN-drilh> [ə ˡgɛɬɪ ˡgandrɪɬ]
SO 2242 town in the county of Powys
Short name: y Gelli;
English name: Hay, or Hay on Wye
French name: La Haie Taille

a parish at this place
(1961) population: 1280; proportion of Welsh-speakers: 3%,
(1971) population: 1180; proportion of Welsh-speakers: 3%,

seat on Cyngor Sir Pow
ys (the county council)

ETYMOLOGY: the shattered wood (y) + soft mutation + (celli = wood) + soft mutation + (candr
yll = shattered; literally one hundred pieces can + dryll)


<GE-lhi GROIS> [ˡgɛɬɪ ˡgrɔɪs]
Locality south of Coed-duon, in the county of Blaenau Gwent

ETYMOLOGY: (cross wood, (the) wood (of) the cross)

gellir groes

(gelli form with soft mutation used as a radical form, < celli = wood) + (yr = definite article) + soft mutation + (croes = cross).

The expected form would be Cellir-groes / Celli-groes

NOTE: In place names a linking definite article is often omitted: cellir groes > celli groes y felin / the mill


Y Gelli-las
<ə GE-lhi LAAS> [ə ˡgɛɬɪ ˡlɑːs]
Place in Llantarnam (Torfaen)

(Mentioned in Llantarnam Burials 1813-74)
Fanny Kidner, Gellylas, Llantarnam (died) 12 Oct 1848 (aged) 50


<GE-lhir> ɬɪr] verb
it is possible; passive form (present-future tense) of gallu = to be able

a ellir... is it possible to, can (somebody) be (trusted, blamed, etc)

A ellir ymddiried yn y Rwsiaid? Can the Russians be trusted? Are the Russians to be trusted?

gellir tybio youd think, you might think, it may be thought, one might think, it might be supposed

Gellir tybio y byddair ocsiwnr wedi disodlir porthmon yn llw
yr, ond mae en paran rhan hanfodol o fasnach cefn gwlad
You might think that the auctioneer had completely ousted the cattle-dealer, but he continues to be an essential part of rural business

gellir cael (it / they) may be obtained, (it / they) can be obtained;

Gellir cael copau oddi wrth Y Deon, Cyfadran Add
ysg Coleg Prifysgol Cymru, Heol Cambrian, Aberystwyth
Copies may be obtained from The Dean, Faculty of Education of the University of Wales College, Heol (= street) Cambrian, Aberystw

y gellir ei that can be (
which it-is-able its)
Y mae camdrin plant yn rh
ywbeth y gellir ei rwystro
The mistreatment of children is something that can be avoided / prevented

lle y gellir ei ddenyfddio a usable place, a place which can be used ((a) place which it-is-able its using)

ETYMOLOGY: (gall-, stem of gallu = to be able) + (-ir, passive suffix, present-future tense); a > e is the affection of the vowel under the influence of the final i

<GE-lhi HAAV> [ˡgɛɬɪ ˡhɑːv]
ST1695 Locality in the county of Caerffili (summer wood)

ETYMOLOGY: gellir haf (gelli form with soft mutation used as a radical form, < celli = wood) + (yr = definite article) + soft mutation + (haf = summer).

The expected form would be Cellir-haf / Celli-haf

NOTE: In place names a linking definite article is often omitted: gellir haf > gelli haf


Gellir-fid <GE-lhir-VIID> [ˡgɛɬɪr ˡviːd]
Farm by Llandyfodog, in the current county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr

ETYMOLOGY: gellir fid (quickset-hedge wood, (the) wood (of) the quickset hedge)

(gelli form with soft mutation used as a radical form, < celli = wood) + (yr = definite article) + soft mutation + (bid = quickset hedge).

The expected form would be Cellir-fid / Celli-fid

NOTE: In place names a linking definite article is often omitted: gellir fid > gelli fid


yn (1) <GEE-lin> geˑlɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL gelynion
<ge-LƏN-yon> [gɛˡlənjɔn]
enemy = not a friend, hostile person

bod yn el
yn i be an enemy of
ympo i ddwylor gelyn fall into enemy hands
yn calon a bitter enemy
gelynion yr iaith Gymreg the enemies of the Welsh language
lladd ysbr
yd y gelyn lower an enemys morale
ynd r rhyfel at y gelyn carry the war into the enemys camp
ynd at ochr y gelyn go over to the enemy, defect
yn pennaf y wlad public enemy number one
syrthio i ddwylor gelyn fall into enemy hands

ei las el
yn his worst enemy (his blue / grey enemy)
eich gel
yn pennaf eich hun ones own worst enemy
ef ei hun
yw ei elyn pennaf hes his own worst enemy

enemy = armed opponent

enemy = something harmful
Yr oedd hen el
yn ieuenctid Cymru, y dicai, wedi gafael yn rhy dynn ynddo, a bu farw cyn pen blwyddyn
The old enemy of the young people of Wales, tubercolosis, had too strong a hold on him and he died within a year

enemy = rival, unwelcome contender
Er y gall adar fod yn elynion ir garddwr ar rai adegau y maent yn ffrindiau hef
Although birds can be enemies of the gardener, sometimes they are also friends

(sport) yr Hen El
yn (the old enemy, i.e. the longstanding enemy rather than the former enemy) = England

Collodd Cymru unwaith eto ar Barc yr Arfau yn erb
yn yr Hen Elyn
Wales lost yet again at the Arms Park against the Old Enemy


7 Gelyn-y-clr (street name in Y Barri, Bro Morgannwg)


(delwedd 7906)

(the) enemy (of) the flies

(gelyn = enemy) + (y = the) + (clr = flies)


Evolutionary biology of metal resistance in Silene vulgaris / Ernst, W. H. O.; Schat, H.; Verkleij, J. A. C. / Evolutionary Trends in Plants 1990 Vol. 4 No. 1 pp. 45-51 / Abstract: Using S. vulgaris as a specific example, possible mechanisms of heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn) resistance in higher plants are discussed, especially with reference to the adaptive significance and the mutual relations of resistance-dependent changes at the level of the cell, the whole plant and the population. The high concentration of metals in the leaves and stems of plants growing on metalliferous sites protects them from insects and other herbivores, except for seed predators, as the seeds are excluded from metal accumulation....

ETYMOLOGY: Made up of elements corresponding to these in modern Welsh: (gl = hate, valour) + (suffix -


yn (2) <GEE-lin> geˑlɪn]
soft-mutated form of celyn (= holly bushes)

Y Fidgel
yn farm on the road between Cilfynydd and Llanfabon (county of Caerffili)

y fid gel
yn = the hedge (of) holly, holly hedge;

(yr = definite article) + soft mutation + (bid
<BIID> [biːd] = hedge) + soft mutation + (celyn = (adjective) holly)

Cf. the common place name Llwyncel
yn holly bush


<ge-lən-YEI-this> [gɛlənˡjəɪθɪs] (adjective)

1 hostile


gem, gemau
<GEM, GE-mai, -e> [gɛm, ˡgɛmaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
gem, jewel
yr em = the jewel


gm, gmau
<GEEM, GE-mai, -e> [ˡgeːm, ˡgɛmaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)
(after the definite article y there is not the expected soft mutation, hence y gm and not *yr m)

1 game
gm neidr
game of snakes and ladders ((the) game (of) snakes)

2 (rugby, football) game; match
Pryd maer gm yn dechrau? What time does the game start?

gm gardiau, gm o gardiau
<geem GARD-yai, -e, geem o GARD-yai, -e> [geːm ˡgardjaɪ, -ɛ, geːm ɔ ˡgardjaɪ, -ɛ] game of cards, card game

gm gyfartal
<geem gə-VAR-tal> [geːm gəˡvartal] drawn match


y <GEM-di> gɛmdɪ] masculine noun
<GEM-dai> gɛmdaɪ, -ɛ]
jewellers shop or workshop

However gweithdy gemydd (workshop (of) jeweller) would be the more usual expression

ETYMOLOGY: (gem = jewel) + soft mutation + (-t
y = house)


gn, genau
<GEEN, GEE-nai, -e> [geːn, ˡgeˑnaɪ, -ɛ] (feminine noun)

asgwrn yr n the jaw bone

di-n jawless
yn di-n jawless fish


Genaur Gl
yn <ge ner GLIN> (feminine noun)
commote in the kntrev of Penweddig in the old
territory of Ceredigion; the mouth of the valley

1 sometimes a compound noun is unexpectedly different in gender


bod (m) (verbnoun = to be). Verbnouns are masculine. In compounds as abode, dwelling, home it is feminine; bod (= abode, dwelling, home), hafod (= summer place), eisteddfod (= session), preswylfod (= dwelling place), trigfod (= dwelling place) gweirglawdd > gweirglodd (f) (= hay meadow)


clawdd (m) (= ditch; hedgebank) > gweirglawdd > gweirglodd (f) (= hay meadow)

dalen (f) (= manuscript leaf) > tudalen (= page) more correctly (m) that is, y tudalen, but also (f) y dudalen through presuming that the feminine suffix en determines the gender of this word


hafoty (f) (although it can be masculine too)
dwelling at the summer place (hafod (f) = summer place) + soft mutation + (ty = house, dwelling) > hafd-dy > hafoty.


Where a final -d is followed by a d which is the result of a soft mutation of t, the result is (d+d > t).


Since is a masculine noun, one would expect the compound to be masculine too.

Hafoty-boeth SJ0749 A farm near Brynsaithmarchog (County of Dinbych) (misspelt Hafotty-boeth on the Ordnance Survey map) map


haul (m) was originally feminine, hence heulwen (= sunlight; literally white sun) (gwen is the feminine form of the adjective gwyn = white)


llys (m) (= court) was originally feminine (hence the place name Llys-wen, whitre court)


nant (f) (= stream) was originally masculine (and meant usually valley rather than stream)


nos (f) (= night) > cyfnos (m) (= dusk)


rhif (m) (= number) > canrif (f) (= century)


rhan (f) (= part) > oedran (m) (= age), canran (m) = percentage


tref (f) (= house, town) > cartref (m) (= home)


Some nouns have a different gender in the north to that in the south


North Wales) feminine noun, (South Wales) masculine noun
y ginio (north), y cinio (south) (= dinner)
CWPAN: y gwpan (north), y cwpan (south) (= cup)
TAFARN: y dafarn (north), y tafarn (south) (= tavern)


2 (
North Wales) masculine noun, (South Wales) feminine noun

CYFLOG: y cyflog (north) - y gyflog (south) (= salary)
MUNUD: y munud (north), y funud (south) (= minute)

Modern Welsh gender is sometimes different to the historical gender

In modern Welsh haul is a masculine noun, but in older Welsh it was feminine
In modern Welsh ll
ys is a masculine noun, but in older Welsh it was feminine

In modern Welsh nant is a feminine noun, meaning steram, brook, but in older Welsh it was masculine (meaning valley). The change in gender, once the emaning stream evolved, is perhaps due to the fact that afon (= river) is a feminine noun


genedigaeth, genedigaethau
<ge ne DII geth, ge ne di GEI the> (feminine noun)
yr enedigaeth = the birth

2 gwlad eich genedigaeth your country of birth, your country of origin ((the) country (of) your birth)
yng ngwlad fy ngenedigaeth in the land of my birth


<ge-ned-lei-thol> adjective
soft-mutated form (c > g) of cenedlaethol = national
Eisteddfod Genedlaethol Llanelli the National Eisteddfod at Llanelli (eisteddfod is a feminine noun; after a feminine noun a following adjective has soft mutation of the initial consonant)


Cytundebau Genefa The Geneva Conventions


<ge-neth> feminine noun
PLURAL genethod
North Wales
yr eneth = the girl
geneth fach little girl
geneth o Saesnes English girl

ETYMOLOGY: British *genetta ; cf Gaulish geneta (= girl).

From a root gn- (= procreate), seen in Welsh geni (= to be born).
Related words are Latin gigno (= procreate), Greek ggnomai (= to be born)

NOTE: colloquially (1) there is also a clipped plural nethod (loss of the first syllable), and (2) gnethod with the loss of the first vowel


<ge-ne-thedh> adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (geneth = girl) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)


<ge-nei-ol> adjective
yn geneuol oral vaccine
cyfathrach eneuol oral sex

ETYMOLOGY: (geneu- < genau = mouth) (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


<GE ni> (verb)
to be born
Ble cest di dy eni? Where were you born?
gwlad eich geni the country where you were bor, your home country

och geni from your birth, a born (writer, teacher, musician, etc)
Athrawes oi geni
yw hi Shes a born teacher, she was born to be a teacher

Nid di-fai neb a aned No-one's perfect ((it is) not without fault anyone who was born)

clinig c
yn geni ante-natal clinic

yd ef <GA nuid e> he was born

4 (Obstetrics) gefel eni forceps
(pincers (of) being born) (gefel = tongs) + soft mutation + (geni = be born)

5 Nid ddoe y ganwyd fi I wasnt born yesterday (i.e. I am not ignorant; or, I am not easily fooled)


<GEE ni> (preposition)
poor spelling (but rarely found) for the colloquial gen i (= with me), < genny i < genny fi < gennyf fi


gen i
<GE ni> (preposition)
colloquial form of gennyf fi (= with me)

NOTE: gennyf fi > genny fi > genny i > gen i

Sometimes as gen-i by writers who prefer to join the tag pronoun to the conjugated preposition


y genlli deluge, flood, torrent; see cenllif

y genlli goch the kestrel; see cenlli goch


yddoch-chi be, gennod? Do you know what, girls...?

ETYMOLOGY: a clipped form of hogennod (= girls), plural of hogen (= girl)
NOTE: often with the poor spelling genod


yt < ge-nit>
1 with you (= gan + ti)
yt ti with you

2 (North) sginti < 's gin ti < nid oes genn
y ti you dont have
sginti...? < 's gin ti...? < a oes genn
yt ti...? do you have...?

Let them see how in their spoken Welsh the accent turns a sentence of many words into a single word of one or two syllables... e.g. a oes gennyt ti? has become sgnti
T Hudson Williams (1873-1961),
University College, Bangor / Vox Populi - A Plea for the Vulgar Tongue


girls; a common misspelling of gennod, a clipped form of hogennod < hogen (= girl, literally little hog)



1 soft-mutated form of cenol a south-eastern viariant of standard Welsh canol (= middle, central)

Y Bont Genol (the middle bridge) A bridge name noted by John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911): The middle bridge" (y bont genol), across the mill-stream by the Roath mill.


y <ge-no-rui >
personal name?

y is a locality in England (Gwent-yn-Lloegr) (SO5216) 4km north-east of Trefynwy. English name: Ganarew

ETYMOLOGY: castle (of) Genorw
y (castell = castle) + (Genorwy = ?)


<GEN-wair, GEN-wer> (f)
PLURAL: genweiriau <gen-WEIR-yai, -ye>
1 fishing rod

gen- unknown element) + soft mutation + (gwair (obsolete) = bend, fold; as in the (apparent) Welsh name (Gwair) of the River Wear in County Durham, supported by the exisiting English river name (Wear) and the identification of Caer Weir (Caer-wair in modern Welsh) in the fourteenth-century Llyfr Taliesin with Durham (Roman camp on the river Gwair. The river is notable for its numerous loops as it flows down to the sea at Wearmouth. and the city is situated ona quasi-island in a hairpin bend of the river.)


NOTE: Informal spellings to indicate local pronunciations are genwer, genwar; genweirie, gwenweiria





genweirio <gen-WEIR-yo>
1 to fish; to angle, to fish with a rod

gwialen enweirio, gwialenni genweirio / gwiail genweirio fishing rod

ETYMOLOGY: (genweir-, penult stem and older form of genwair = fishing rod) + (-i-o verb ending)



genweiriwr <gen-WEIR-yur>

PLURAL: genweirwyr <gen-WEIR-wir>

1 angler, rod fisherman
ETYMOLOGY: (genweir-, stem of the verb genweirio = to fish) + (-i-wr agent suffix, < gw^r = man)


<ger> preposition

Ger eglw
ys Llanarth, Ceredigion, mae carreg phedwar twll ynddi
Near Llanarth church, in (the county of Ceredigion), there is a stone with four holes in it

Mae hin b
yw ger yr Wyddgrug
She lives near Yr W

2 in relating the position of a village to a bigger and more well-known settlement, such as a nearby town
Cafodd plw
yfolion Llanfor, ger Y Bala, gryn helynt gyda nhw
The parishoners of Llanfor, near Y Bala, had a lot of trouble with them

Symudodd yn ei blynyddoedd cynnar i Blas Uchaf, Chwitffordd ger Treffynnon
She moved in her childhood to Plas Uchaf, Chwitffordd near Treffynnon

3 Often seen in street names

Gerymynydd (place) near the upland Street in Bangor (Gwynedd) (Ger y Mynydd)


(1) ger < cer < British;
if not,

(2) (ar = before, in front of) + soft mutation + (llaw = hand) > rlaw > rllaw > *rllaw > gerllw, with subsequent dropping of the element llaw, hence ger


<geer> masculine noun
PLURAL geriau, grs, geriach
<ger-ye, geers, ger-yakh>
gear = tools, equipment

2 piece of equipment
pob gr every piece of equipment

3 gear = arrangement of toothed wheels
gr isaf = first gear
ail gr = second gear
ydd gr = third gear
gr uchaf = fourth gear
newid gr = change gear
gr dw
y sbid = two-speed gear

4 gear = harness (for a horse)

5 clothes, outfit

ETYMOLOGY: English gear < Old Norse gervi


<gee-raint> masculine noun
mans name

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh Geraint < Gereint < Latin Geronti(us) < Greek gern, geront- (= old man, senior)
From the same British root: Cornish Gerens

Related words:
..a/ Germanic: English churl (= peasant farmer, ill-bred person) (Old English ceorl), German der Kerl (= man), Scandinavian karl
..b/ Greek gern (= old man), and Welsh gerontoleg (= gerentology) < English < Greek


<GEE ralht> (masculine noun)


<ger BRON> (preposition)
before, in the presence of


gardens; plural de gardd = garden


ydd <ger-vidh> preposition
(North Wales) by = held by
dod hi gerf
ydd ei chlust bring her by her ear

2 cydio yn rh
ywun gerfydd ei goler grab someone by the collar
gafael yn rh
ywun gerfydd y gwar take someone by the scruff of the neck

3 tyw
ys rhywun gerfydd y trwyn lead someone by the nose (force someone to do what they are unwilling to do)

ETYMOLOGY: a variant of erw
ydd / herwydd (= by means of), with a prosthetic g- common in many Welsh words (gwyneb < wyneb = face, gallt < allt = hill, wood,


gerila <ge-rii-la> masculine noun
PLURAL gerilas <ge-rii-las>
1 guerrilla
rhyfela gerila guerrilla warfare
rhyfel gerila guerrilla war
lluoedd gerila guerrilla forces

ETYMOLOGY: English <gərlə> guerrilla < Castilian guerrilla (= little war) < guerra (= war) + -illa (diminuitive suffix)


gerio <ger-yo> verb
harness a horse

2 North Wales fit out, equip

Y mae yr ardd wedi ei gerio ar gyfer plant mewn cadeiriau olw
The garden is fitted out for children in wheelchairs

ETYMOLOGY: (gr = equipment) + (-io)


Y Gerlan GER-lan> (f)
SH6366 district of Bethesda

Postal address: Y Gerlan,
Bethesda, BANGOR, Gwynedd
Population: 1106 (1961); Proportion of Welsh-speakers: 80% (1961)

ETYMOLOGY: the slope Y Gerlan < Y Gerddlan (y definite article) + soft mtuation + (cerddlan = slope, bank)
cerddlan < (cerdd = slope) + soft mtuation + (glan = river bank, slope)


GER-lan> (f)
1 man's name

ETYMOLOGY: From the place name


<germ> masculine noun
PLURAL germau

ETYMOLOGY: end of 1800s < English germ < French germe < Latin germen (= bud, seed)


1 spanner
Welsh 1900+; English 1600+ spanner < German < spannen (= to span)


1 These are often loan words from English

..a) Welsh sht (= sheet, leaf of paper; bedsheet) is from English sheet (= leaf of paper; bedsheet). Related to German der Schoss (= lap, upper part of the thighs of a seated person)

..b) Welsh cu (= dear, loved), German schn (= beautiful)


<germ-la-dhur> masculine noun
PLURAL germladdw
yr <germ-ladh-wir>

ETYMOLOGY: (germ = germ) + soft mutation + (lladdwr = killer)


gernsi, gernsis
<GERN si, GERN siz> (masculine noun)


gernos <GER-nos>
see gurnos


gerontoleg <ge-ron-to-leg> feminine noun
gerontology = the study of old age

ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of English gerontology;

geront- < Greek gern, geront- = old man

-oleg instead of the element in English

-o-logy < Latin -logia < Greek logos = word < legein = to speak


<ge-ron-to-lee-gol> adjective
gerontological = pertaining to the study of old age

ETYMOLOGY: (gerontoleg = gerontology) + (-ol)


<ge-ron-to-lee-gur> masculine noun
PLURAL gerontolegw
yr <ge-ron-to-le-gwir>
See gerontolegydd


ydd <ge-ron-to-lee-gidh> masculine noun
PLURAL gerontolegw
yr <ge-ron-to-le-gwir>
gerontologist = specialist in gerontology

ETYMOLOGY: (gerontoleg = gerontology) + (-
ydd, suffix indicating an agent)


y <ge-no-rui >
Castellgenorwy locality in England (Gwent-yn-Lloegr) (SO5216) 4km north-east of Trefynwy. English name: Ganarew

ETYMOLOGY: Castellgenorw
y castle (of) Genorwy

(castell = castle) + (Genorw
y = ?)


<ger WIN der> (masculine noun)
severity, harshness
yng ngherwinder gaeaf in the harshness of winter


<ger ə -nidh> feminine noun
Street in
Bangor (Gwynedd) (Ger y Mynydd)

ETYMOLOGY: ger y mynydd (place) near the upland

(ger preposition = near) + (y = definite article) + (mynydd = upland)


<ges-el> feminine noun
Gesail street name in Johnstown (county of Wrecsam)

ETYMOLOGY: the nook (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (cesail = nook)


GE-sid v

1 (indicative mood, third.-person singular present-future tense) he / she / it places, puts, sets < gosod

Apocrypha Ecclesiasticus 20:27 Y doeth a'i gesyd ei hun rhagddo trwy ymadrodd: a'r call a ryglydda fodd pendefigion.
Apocrypha Ecclesiasticus 20:27 A wise man shall promote himself to honour with his words: and he that hath understanding will please great men.

Apocrypha Ecclesiasticus 22:27 Pwy a esyd gadwraeth o flaen fy ngenau, a sl doethineb ar fy ngwefusau, fel na syrthiwyf yn ddisymwth trwyddynt, ac na'm difetho fy nhafod?

Apocrypha Ecclesiasticus 22:27 Who shall set a watch before my mouth, and a seal of wisdom upon my lips, that I fall not suddenly by them, and that my tongue destroy me not?


<ge-to> masculine noun
PLURAL getoau, getos
<ge-too-e, ge-tos>
ghetto = part of a town or city where a minority of the residents with the same origin, religion or language live together because they are not accepted by other residents in other areas or because poverty prevents them from moving into more affluent areas.

Getor Duon the Black Ghetto, ghetto where black people live (ghetto (of) the blacks)

iaith y geto the language of the ghetto, the type of non-standard language characteristic of the ghetto dwellers

2 (History) Jewry = the area of a town or city where the Jews were obliged to live

3 (History) Jewry = the area of a town or city where the majority of inhabitants are Jews


y, geudai <GEI di, GEI dai> (masculine noun)


Y Geufron
(SJ2142) locality in Sir Ddinb

ETYMOLOGY: (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (ceufron = hollowed hillside)


geulin y forw
yn <gei lin ə vor-win> masculine noun
(Thesium humifusum) bastard toadflax

ETYMOLOGY: (false flax of the Virgin
[Mary]) (geu-, penult form of gau = fals ) + soft mutation + (llin = flax)

It is found mostly in a triangle of southern English counties, the centre of the base of which is Southampton. There is some in east Anglia but otherwise there are only a few old records for T. humifusum growing farther north. It is therefore absent from Wales, Scotland and Ireland as well as most of northern and central England and Cornwall.



(obsolete) perjury

ETYMOLOGY: (false oath) (geu-, penult form of gau = fals ) + soft mutation + (llw = oath)


<geukh >
soft-mutated form of cewch you shall have, you may have, you may do

ya gewch chi, mwya fynnwch chi the more you have, the more you want
(base form: mw
yaf a gewch chi, mwyaf a fynnwch chi)


Latin vgilia > vglia > British *vigl- > *w
yghl > *wyl < gŵyl (= watch before a religious festival)


Roman-alphabet spelling for the voiced velar fricative, in earlier Welsh written as g. (It was not written as gh when this sound existed, but gh is a useful grapheme to show the development of words from the early period).

The sound no longer occurs in Welsh, but was present in early Welsh: The written symbol g which also stood for two other sounds,
<g> and <ng>, just as d was both <d> and the fricative <dh>, and b was both the plosive <b> and a bilabial fricative, which in modern Welsh is the labiodental fricative <v> ).

In the etymologies in this dictionary we use the conventional symbol gh.

.....(1) Between vowels
<gh> was lost

Latin Augustus > *Awghwst (two syllables) > Awwst (two syllables) > Awst (= August)

British brigant-in- > Welsh *breghenhin- > *breenin > brenin (= king)

Latin vgilia > vglia > British *vigl- > *w
yghl > *wyl < gwyl (= watch before a religious festival)

Latin virgo (= maid) > *gw
yrgh > gwyry, with the addition of a non-
ETYMological final
<v> to give modern Welsh gwyryf (= virgin)

(Some words have acquired a final
<v> because they have been assigned to the class of words with an underlying final <v> although
etymologically there was no final consonant)

(final v is generally omitted in spoken Welsh - gw
yryf > gwyry)

British *mag-es > Welsh *maghes > maes (= field)

Welsh Pen + garth (top + hill, hilltop) > *Pengharth > Pennarth.

See also Peniarth

Latin sagitta > *sagheth > saeth (= arrow)

British tigirn- > *tygh
yrn > teyrn (= ruler)


<gh> was lost after <a> in a syllable after the accent

Brokk-agn- > Welsh *Brogh-aghn > Brochan > Brychan (mans name)


<gh> became the semiconsonant <y>

Latin crux
<kruks> (= cross) > *krughs > crwys (= cross; nowadays regarded as a plural, crosses)

llariaidd (=
<weather> mild; <character> mild-mannered, gentle, kindly ) < llaraidd < llaryaidd (llary = pacific, mild) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives);
y < *largh- < *llarg- < llat largus (= ample, abundant, benevolent). Cf English large < French < Latin largus

British mor-gen- (sea-born) > *Morghen > Morien (= mans name)

Welsh Pen + garth (top + hill, hilltop) > *Pengharth > Peniarth (place name)

British *Sigontion > *Seghont- > Seint > Saint (= river, Caernarfon)

Compounds with gl (= strength)

..1/ arial (= passion, courage) < British

(ar = in front of) + (gl = strength) > ar-ghal > arial

..2/ Gwrial (obsolete forename) (manly strength)

(gŵr = man) + soft mutation + (gl = strength) > gwr-ghal > gwrial

Equivalent to the Irish name Feargal (Irish fear = man)

..3/ Morial (obsolete forename) (great boldness / strength)
(mawr, mor- = great) + soft mutation + (gl = strength) > mor-ghal > morial


.....(4) Before
<l, n, r>, a <g> became <gh> and later the semiconsonant <y>, spelt as e

<ag> > <agh> > <ay> ae

*dragn- > *draghn- > drayn > draen (= thorn)

<og> > <ogh> > <oy> oe
*ogn- > *oghn- > oyn > oen (= lamb)

...(5) in monosyllables after
<l, r> it became the semiconsonant <y>;

..a/ when in a final position, in the North this was later lost; in the South on the other hand it became

British berg- > early Welsh *bergh > ber
y > bera (= hayrick) (a southern word)

British bolg- > early Welsh *bolgh > > bol
y > Northern bol, Southern bola (= belly)

British kalg- > early Welsh *calgh > Northern cal, Southern cala (= penis)

British helg- > early Welsh *helgh > Northern hel, Southern hela (and hala) (= to send)

..b/ where there was w
<u> in the first syllable, the final y was altered to echo this preceding vowel

British borg- > early Welsh *bwrgh > bwr
y > bwrw (= to throw)

British lorg- > early Welsh *llwrgh > llwrw (= path, way)

.....(6) as an initial consonant - soft mutation
<g> > <gh> it was lost

gardd > (soft.mutated form) ghardd > ardd
Hence modern Welsh gardd (= garden), yr ardd (= the garden)

....(7) loss of final gh after a vowel in monosyllables
Cf the same phenomenon at a later period in English (dough, though, plough, bough)

British brig- > Welsh *bregh- > bre (= hill)

British mrog- > brog- > Welsh *brogh > bro (= district)

British dag- > Welsh *dagh > da (= good) (Cf Irish deagh = good)

ffo (= flight, running away) < *ffogh

British mag- > Welsh *magh > ma (as in the place names Machynlleth plain of Cynllaith, Mathafarn plain of the tavern; and the suffix fa (= place); cf Irish m = plain < magh

llw (= oath) < *llwgh (Cf the Irish cognate luighe = oath)

rhi (= king) < *righ (Cf the Irish cognate r = king)
Occurs in male forenames from British Rhodri, Griffri, etc

Celtic *teg-os > British *tig-os > Welsh *tigh > (= house)


<gii > masculine noun
soft-mutated form
<k> > <g> of ci (= dog)

Some examples of its occurence with soft mutation:

(a) as an address form (equivalent to English - good dog!)
'Carlo, dere ma, gi, ' ebe Dewi'n gyffrous.
'Carlo, come here, good dog, ' said Dewi excitedly

(b) as qualified element in compounds, in names of types of dogs, or for animals or fish considered to be similar to a dog

(1) corgi cattle dog. Literally small dog (cor- = (prefix) small)

(2) dyfrgi otter Lutra vulgaris. Literally water dog (dwfr = water)

(3) gweilgi ocean (but formerly wolf). Literally wolf dog (from *gwael, an obsolete word for wolf)

(4) gwenci weasel Literally greed dog (from gweinc-gi < gwanc = greed)

(5) maelgi Squatina squatina angel-fish. Literally coat-of-mail dog (mael = mail, coat of mail)

(6) morgi dogfish. Literally sea dog (mr = sea)


North Wales
the palatalisation of the initial consonant in words beginning ga- is typical of the north-west

giaffar / giaffer < gaffer <
English gaffer (= boss, chief, head, foreman)

giamocs < gamocs
(= tricks, pranks) < English gammocks (= tricks, pranks)

giang < gang
(= gang, group of people) < English gang (= group of people)

giangstar / giangster < gangster <
English gangster

gias < gas
(= gas) < English gas

giami < gami
(= unwell, unsteady) < English gammy (= unwell, unsteady)

giamster / giamster
(= expert, dab hand) < English gamester (= gambler)

ym < garidym (= rogue)

git < gt <
English gate; nowadays the pronunciation in English is
<geit>, but 500 years ago it was <gaat>, and the Welsh word preserves this older English pronunciation


gach, gachod
<GI akh, gi A khod> (feminine noun)
(after the definite article y there is not the expected soft mutation, hence y gach and not *yr ach)


< gii-e>
1 tendons, plural of giewyn (= tendon)
See: gewin



1 chapel name

Capel Gibea (Cynulleidfawyr), Brynaman Gibea Chapel (Congregationalists), Brynaman


<gii-fi> masculine noun
pet form of Gruffudd

Giffi Mulod (Gruffudd (of the) mules)

(Giffy Mulod - yr hen Gruff
ydd Jones, Ffordd y Copi, perchennog dau ful a throl oedd yn arfer cario nwyddau or stesion i fyny ir farchnad)
(Giffy Mulod old Gruff
ydd Jones, Ffordd y Copi (the Copi road), owner of two mules and cart who used to carry goods from the station up to the market)
(Llafar Gwlad, number 73, Haf (summer)
2001, in an article by Bobi Owen on nicknames in Dinbych (Denbigh in English))

ETYMOLOGY: Giffi < Griffi < (Gruff-, first syllable of Gruffudd) + (-i diminutive suffix)
(1) u > i the change in the vowel caused by the final i
(2) loss of the r (gr- > g-)


= Gwasanaeth Iechyd Gwladol
National Health Service (state health service), the NHS
Ymddiriedolaeth GIG = NHS Trust (a local NHS administration)


< gil-vakh>
soft-mutated form of cilfach (= nook)


gil-vakh dho-von>
name of a farm in Llangolman SN1126 (
county of Penfro)

ETYMOLOGY: ((the) deep nook / recess)
(y = the) + soft mutation + (cilfach = nook / recess) + soft mutation + (dofn, feminine form of dwfn = deep)

NOTE: Topographic names which are habitative names (house, farm, village, town) are written as a single word. If the final syllable is an accented monosyllabic word it is preceded by a hyphen. (Dwfn / dofn in
South Wales has two syllables <du-vun, do-von>, but historically, and in standard Welsh and in the spoken Welsh of the north is a monosyllable <duvn / dovn> )


Y Gilfach Goch
<ə gil-vakh gookh>
Place on the Ogwr Fach river above the village of Gilfach-goch, between Mynydd Maes-teg and Mynydd Pwllyrhebog

ETYMOLOGY: the red nook (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (cilfach = nook, secluded spot) + soft mutation + (coch = red)

NOTE: Names of natural features are written with the elements apart (Y) Gilfach Goch. Names of settelements are written as a single word thus (Y) Gilfach-goch


Y Gilfach-goch
<ə gil-vakh gookh>
SS9889 locality in the county of Rhondda Cynon Taf, south-east Wales

ETYMOLOGY: See Gilfach Goch
NOTE: Names of natural features are written with the elements apart (Y) Gilfach Goch. Names of settelements are written as a single word thus (Y) Gilfach-goch



SN2523 farm by Llanwinio (Caerfyrddin) (nook of the flour)

ETYMOLOGY: gilfach y blawd (gilfach form with soft mutation used as a radical form, < cilfach = nook) + (y = definite article) + (blawd = flour).

The expected form would be Cilfach-y-blawd


soft-mutated form of cilgant (qv) (= crescent)

Y Gilgant (name of a street in Corwen,
county of Dinbych) The Cresent


secluded moorland

Gilros y gilros the secluded moorland, back moor name of a house in
Bangor (Gwynedd)

ETYMOLOGY: (cil = back; nook) + soft mutation + (rhos = moorland; promontory)


ydd <GI lidh> (masculine noun)
fellow - see cil

2 gweddi iw gil
ydd suit each other
gweddi iw gil
ydd ir dim suit each other exactly, be a perfect match

3 ymysg ei gilydd among(st) themselves

4 sibrwd ym
ysg ei gilydd
whisper amongst themselves


gini, ginis
<GI ni, GI nis> (masculine or feminine noun) guinea (old coin in England)
y gini = the guinea (but even in those areas where it is a feminine noun, after the definite article y there is not the expected soft mutation, hence y gini and not *yr ini)


gitr, gitarau <gi TAAR, gi TA re> (masculine noun)


At the beginning of a word, the result of a missing element between the g and the l

reduction of (g) + (vowel) + (l)

..a/ gleuo / gleuo < goleuo (= to light, to illuminate)

..b/ Nos Glangaea / Nos Glangaea < Nos Galan Gaeaf Halloween (eve (of the) calend (of) winter)

c) Y Galedryd > Gledryd, Gledryd place name, hard ford

d) gelanedd chwerthin > gelanadd chwerthin > glana chwerthin laugh heartily (laugh (until becoming) corpses)

2 reduction of (g) + (consonantal w) + (l); (glad < gwlad, gl
yb < gwlyb)
..a/ glad / glad < gwlad = country

..b/ Gladys / Gladys < Gwladys (womans name; probably leader of a country or somesuch)
..c/ gl
yb / glyb < gwlyb = wet

reduction of (g) + (diphthong) + (l)
..a/ glabsant / glabsant < gw
ylmabsant = parish wake


glabsant / glabsant
<glab-sant> feminine noun
colloquial form of gw
ylmabsant = parish feast, parish festival, parish wake
Glabsant Trefdraeth the parish festival of Trefdraeth, county of Yn
ys Mn

2 gwel
y glabsant makeshift bed (bed (of) (a) parish wake) < gwely gwylmabsant)


<gla VOIR yo> (verb)
slobber, drivel


<gla VOIR yog> (adj)
slobbering, drivelling


<GLAIN> [glaɪn] masculine noun
PLURAL gleiniau
<GLEIN-yai, -ye> gləɪnjaɪ, -ɛ]
obsolete gem

2 bead = small spherical piece of glass or other material through which a hole has been made; with other such pieces, it may be placed on a string to form a necklace

3 bead, prayer bead = one of 55 or 165 beads forming a rosary

4 bead, globule, droplet = small globe of a liquid

5 mor iach r glain as fit as a fiddle (as healthy as the gem / bead)
yn iached r glain as fit as a fiddle (as healthy as the gem / bead)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh glain < glein < British *glan-i- < Celtic < ghel- (= to shine)


glain nadroedd
<glain NA-droidh, -drodh> [glaɪn ˡnadrɔɪ, -ɔ]
PLURAL gleiniau nadroedd
<GLEIN-yai, -ye, NA-droidh, -drodh> gləɪnjaɪ, -jɛ, ˡnadrɔɪ, -ɔ]
(folk tradition) snake-bead, adder bead, or adder stone, an amulet or charm said to bring luck and success to the owner. It is the ovum anguinum of the Druids. (According to Chambers English Dictionary, a prehistoric spindle-whorl or bead, popularly attributed to the agency of adders. Whorl = a disc on the lower part of a spindle serving as a flywheel). In Wales snake-beads were regarded as a cure for cataracts and styes on the eye. It seems they were also regarded as a cure for a snake bite.

Trysorid y glain nadroedd, fel yi gelwir gan rai, gan lawer or hen Gymr
y. A dweud y gwir, mae rhai pobl yn dal iw trysori heddiw. Dywedir mai trwy weithred dwsinau o nadroedd yn ymgordeddu yn ei gilydd ar Nos Wyl Ifan a bod gan boeri at ei gilydd, y gwneid y gleiniau hynod hyn. Yn l rhai, pethau tebyg i fwclis gwydr ydynt, ond yn l eraill, maent yn debycach i wyau bach disglair. Fodd bynnag, cyfrifir y gleiniau nadroedd yn bethau lwcus dros ben a daw llwyddiant ich rhan os ydych yn meddu un. Llafar Gwlad, Haf 1985, Rhif 9
The snake beads, as they were called by some, were treasured by many Welsh people days gone by. To tell the truth, some people continue to treasure them today. It is said that these remarkable beads were made through the action of snakes twisting together on Midsummer Eve and spitting at each other. According to some people, they are like little glass beads, but according to others, they are more like little shiny eggs. Whatever the case may be, the snake beads are extremely lucky things and success will come your way if you have one. (Source: Llafar Gwlad (oral tradition), Haf (summer) 1985, Rhif (number) 9)


glais (m)
<GLAIS> [glaɪs] (masculine noun)
(in place names) stream

Dulais black stream (du = black) + soft mutation + (glais)

Gwynlais white stream (gwyn(n)-, penult form of gwyn = white) + soft mutation + (glais)

ETYMOLOGY: British < Celtic

Irish has glas (f) (= stream), glaise (f) (= stream)

NOTE: A variant is glas (qv)

<GLAN> [glan] feminine noun
PLURAL glannau, glenn
ydd <GLA-nai, -ne, GLE-nidh> glanaɪ, -ɛ, ˡglɛnɪ]
y lan = the bank

1 river, stream side, bank;
glan y dŵr (the) bank (of) the stream

As a place name (house, village): Glan-y-dŵr, Glan-dŵr

glan y nant
(the) bank (of) the stream, brookside
As a place name (house, village): Glan-y-nant, Glan-nant

glan yr afon
(the) bank (of) the river, riverside
ar lan yr afon = at the side of the river
As a place name (house, village): Glanyrafon, Glanrafon, Glanafon

glan y rh
yd (the) side (of) the ford, ford side
As a place name (house, village): Glan-y-rhyd, Glan-rhyd

lake, marsh waters edge
glan y gors (the) edge (of) the pant

As a place name (house, village): Glan-y-gors, Glan-gors

glan y ll
yn (the) edge (of) the llac
ar lan y ll
yn = at the side of the lake
As a place name (house, village): Glan-y-llyn, Glan-llyn

Ar lan Llyn Erie y mae Cleveland Cleveland is on the shore of Lake Erie.

glan y morfa
(the) edge (of) the sea fen
as a place name (house, village): Glanymorfa, Glanmorfa

gwennol y glenn
ydd Riparia riparia = sand martin (swallow of the riverbanks)

torlan river bank (undercut bank = eroded bank on the outside bend through the action of the river current) (torr-, stem of torri = to break)
glas y dorlan Alcedo atthis = kingfisher ((the) blue (bird) (of) the (eroded) bank

5 sea side, edge; waters edge: seas edge, seashore
glan y mr (the) edge (of) the sea, seashore
ar lan y mr = at the seaside

glan y don (the) edge (of) the sea, seashore

glan yr aber (the) bank / edge (of) the estuary

as a place name (house, village): Glan-y-mr, Glan-mr; Glan-y-don, Glan-don; Glanyraber, Glanaber

morlan seaside, seas edge

7 side of a grave
glan y bedd (the) side (of) the grave, graveside

8 sea land, shore (as seen from the water); dry land, terra firma
dod ir lan (sailors, passengers in a boat) come ashore
ynd ir lan (sailors, passengers in a boat) go ashore
ynd yn sownd ar y lan be grounded on the shore, run ashore
bod ar y lan be ashore
rhoi ar y lan set ashore, put on shore
dodi ar y lan (South Wales) set ashore, put on shore
ynd am y lan (boat) make for the shore, sail shoreward
ger y lan (boat) by the coast

9 y glannau = the coast;
yliwr y glannau = coastguard
ar y glannau o Fflint ir Bermo on the coast from Fflint to Bermo
ynd gydar glannau follow the coast
pysgotar glannau inshore fishing

10 glannau district on either side of a major river (equivalent to English side)
Glannau Dyfrdw
y = Deeside
Glannau Mersw
y = Merseyside (= Liverpool / Birkenhead) England
Glannau Clud = Clydeside (= Glasgow area, Scotland)
Glannau Tafw
ys = Thameside, England
Glannau Hafren = Severnside (English and Welsh sides of the Hafren estuary)

11 rising ground, hillside, slope
Dan-y-lan street name in Abercynffig
Heol Dan-y-lan street name in Pont-t
Pen-y-lan district of Caer-d
ydd ((the) top (of) the hill)

12 obsolete cerddlan rising ground (cerdd-, stem of cerdded = walk, go);
in the north-west Y Gerlan in field names; also a village with this name (Y Gerlan < Y Gerddlan, with the loss of dd)

13 South Wales i lan up (colloquially often simply lan)
ynd i lan, mynd lan = go up

in a number of place names in the South-east, an original glan has been replaced by llan (= church)

(1) both glan and llan have the soft mutated form lan (gl > l, ll > l).

It seems in the first place that the reason for the change glan (= riverbank) > lan is a result of the frequent use of place names after certain prepositions, above all i (= to) and o (= from), both of which cause the soft mutation of the first consonant. Some Glan- names became more familiar in their soft-mutated form Lan-.


Subsequently the wrong radical form was used in conjunctionwith the soft-mutated form that is, llan (= church).

In many, but not all, of these names lan- was later taken to be Llan, and on maps (if not colloquially at first) this corrected form was used



Original glan form

soft-mutated form

present form





(county of Caerffili) ST1490




(county of Caerffili) ST1196 (spelt on maps as Llancaiach, representing a local pronunciation in Welsh)

Glan-y-dw^r, Glan-dw^r



(In Welsh as Glan-dw^r, in English as Landore)




In English, as Lanelay. ST0382 mansion and locality in County of Rhondda-Cynon-Taf, south-east Wales.




(county of Abertawe) SS5394




(county of Caer-dydd) ST2280




ST3799 south of Brynbuga / Usk (county of Mynwy) (as Llanusk Fm [Farm] on the Ordnance Survey map)




(Torfaen county) (as if church by the river, instead of riverside) ST3094






delwedd 7792


Llan followed by a river name is unusual, but not unknown. In fact, two such names are generally known because they are the names of two of the four Welsh dioceses Lla-daf (church by the river Taf) and Llanelwy (church by the river Elwy). Since most of these glan > lan > llan names are in the diocese of Llan-daf, there may possibly be the influence of this name.

15 Rhaglan SO4107 locality (town) in the
county of Mynwy (rampart with rhag = before, in front)

16 Rhuddlan SJ0775 locality in the
county of Dinbych (red bank, with rhudd = red)

17 Glan-y-don / Glan y Don edge (of) the sea, seas edge
house name
Also Glan-don / Glan Don

rising ground, hillside

Danlan Road, Danlan Park street name in Pen-bre (county of Caerfyrddin) (in Welsh these would be Heol Dan-lan, Parc Dan-lan


Dan-lan < dan y lan below the hill (dan = below) + (y definite article) + (lan = hill)
In place names, the linking definite article is often dropped: dan y lan > dan lan

..b/ Dan-y-lan street name in Abercynffig

..c/ Heol Dan-y-lan street name in Pont-tŷ-pridd

19 Glannaur Canolfor the Mediterranean (region) ((the) shores (of) the Mediterranean Sea)

..d/ Pen-y-lan district of Caer-d
ydd ((the) top (of) the hill)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh glan < glann < British *gland() < Celtic;
Cornish glann (= bank, waters edge), Breton glann (= bank, shore)


<GLAAN> [glɑːn] (adjective)

2 Mae eisiau ader
yn ln i ganu Dont accuse others of faults which you yourself have (there is need of a clean bird to sing)

3 Occurs in forenames (as glen- due to vowel affection), See Glenwyn, Glenys

4 beautiful

Barnwyr 15:2 Ai thad a lefarodd, gan ddywedyd, Tybiaswn i ti ei chasau hi; am hynny y rhoddais hi ith gyfaill di: onid yw ei chwaer ieuangaf yn lanach na hi? bydded honno i ti, atolwg, yn ei lle hi.

Judges 15:2 And her father said, I verily thought that thou hadst utterly hated her; therefore I gave her to thy companion: is not her younger sister fairer than she? take her, I pray thee, instead of her.

11:22 Fel modrwy aur yn nhrwyn hwch, yw benyw ln heb synnwyr.
11:22 As a jewel of gold in a swine's snout, so is a fair woman which is without discretion.

Glanaber <glan AA-BER> [glan ˡɑˑbɛr]
street name in Porthtywyn / Burry Port (county of Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen)

(spelt as Glan Aber)

ETYMOLOGY: glan yr aber bank / edge / side of the estuary

(glan = bank, riverbank) + (yr definite article) + (aber = estuary)

NOTE: In place names a linking definite article is often omitted: glan yr aber > glan aber


glana chwerthin
<gla-na KHWER-thin> [glana ˡxwɛrθɪn] verb
North Wales bod yn glana chwerthin be doubled up with laughter, roar with laughter, die laughing, be in fits

Roedd pawb yn glana chwerthin am ben campau gwirion yr hogia
Everybody was in fits at the mad antics of the lads

ETYMOLOGY: Although at first sight an adjective used as a quasi prefix before a verb, as in forms such as bod yn graddol ddistewi (= to gradually quieten down) (no soft mutation after the linking particle yn), it is in fact the phrase bod yn gelanedd o chwerthin (to be corpses from laughing);

glana, soft mutated form after the linking particle yn of clana < clana < celana < celane < celanedd (= corpses, plural of celain = corpse);

(1) loss of final dd (other examples of this are to be found in Welsh - see dd)

(2) final e becomes a in the north-west

(3) the loss of the vowel in a syllable beginning with
<k> [k] before a tonic syllable beginning with <l> [l] , resulting in the cluster <kl> [kl] , is common in colloquial Welsh

calandrio > clandro (= calculate),
Caletwr > Cletwr (stream name; = strong stream);
calonnau > clonna (hearts - North-west Wales),
ydd > clacwydd (= gander),
yddgi > clwddgi (= liar),
Celynnog > Clynnog (place names, = holly grove),
cylymau > clyme (= knots)

NOTE: also spelt: glana chwerthin

:___________ ____________________.

Glanafon <glan AA-VON> [glan ˡɑˑvɔn]
house name, street name

ETYMOLOGY: glan yr afon bank / edge / side (of the) river

(glan = bank, riverbank) + (yr definite article) + (afon = river)

NOTE: In place names a linking definite article is often omitted

See also Glanyrafon


Glan Alun <glan AA-lin> [glan ˡɑˑlɪn]
The bardic name of poet, writer, Methodist preacher, and supporter of Radicalism Thomas Jones (11 March 1811, died aged 55 on 29 March 1866), who lived in Wrecsam. His only published work was a volume of poetry entitled Ehediadau Byrion (short flights) (1862). A short section at the end of the book describes a joruney around central Wales and north Wales.

2 There is a country park in Wrecsam with the monstrous name of
Alyn Waters Country Park SJ3254. Apparently it was thought sufficient to give it an English name only. What waters are referred to is unclear it seems to be used as a twee equivalent of river, rather than denoting the existence of various streams in the area.

The Welsh name for such a park situated on both sides of Afon Alun would be Parc Cefn Gwlad Glan Alun, and this name has the advantage too of commemorating at the same time the above poet. map

ETYMOLOGY: glan Alun bank / edge / side (of the river) Alun

(glan = bank, riverbank) + (Alun river name)


Glanalun <glan AA-lin> [glan ˡɑˑlɪn]
street name in Yr Wyddgrug (county of Y Fflint) (spelt as Glan Alun)

ETYMOLOGY: glan Alun bank / edge / side (of the river) Alun

(glan = bank, riverbank) + (Alun river name)


y <glan-KOO-nui> [glan ˡkoˑnʊɪ]
(SH8076) See: Llansantffrid Glan Conwy


<GLAN-deg> [ˡglandɛg] (adjective)
fair, handsome, pretty

2 Landeg (soft-mutated form) (as an epithet)
Siarl Landeg Charles the Fair
Siarli Landeg Bonnie Prince Charlie

3 Landeg occurs as a surname e.g. Richard Landeg / Dick Landeg, born Aber-fan 1901, who was a boxer and booth fighter in Wales and later in the USA, after he emigrated there

ETYMOLOGY: (gln = fair, handsome, pretty) + soft mutation + (teg = fair, attractive)


<GLAN-dir> [ˡglandɪr] (m)
(obsolete) upland

ETYMOLOGY: (glan = hillside) + soft mutation + (tir = land)

<glan e-LAI> [glan ɛˡlaɪ]

1 place name, Caer-dydd / Cardiff

According to John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cern
yw) in Cardiff Records (1889-1911):
GLAN-ELY (recte Glan Elai) The bank of the Ely river. A house and grounds a little to the west of Ely and Fairwater.

{Note: Ely is the English name for Tre-lai, and Fairwater is the English name for Y Tyllgoed}

The house is remembered in the street name Clos Glaneli (or at least, in its official English form Glan Ely Close) on the north side of the river, in Y Tyllgoed / Fairwater, Caer-d

ST0382 mansion and locality in County of Rhondda-Cynon-Taf, south-east Wales. In English, Lanelay, from a colloquial form Laneli, that is, instead of standard Glaneli.

The colloquial form has the soft-mutated form lan instead of the radical form glan.
This form lan is found in a number of names in the south

...(1) Lanrhymni < Glanrhymni (Caer-d
ydd) (now Llanrhymni from confusing lan with llan = church),

...(2) Lan-dŵr < Glan-dŵr (Abertawe),

...(3) Lanbradach < Glanbradach (Caerffili) (now Llanbradach this shows confusion of lan as the soft-mutated form of the radical form llan = church).

Glaneli would be the correct form of a curious street name in Yn
ysmaerdy, near Llantrisant (County of Rhondda Cynon Taf). Instead of Glaneli the name is Glan yr Ely.

The local form of Eli
[ɛˡlaɪ] is Y Lai [əˡlaɪ] (qv), and so Glan y Lai [glan əˡlaɪ] would result colloquially.

Y Lai
[əˡlaɪ] seems to be have been made misunderstood as representing Yr Eli [ər ɛˡlaɪ] .

The resulting Glan yr Eli
[glan ər ɛˡlaɪ] . sounds very unnatural in Welsh (the definite article cannot be used with river names; however with common nouns it is normal: glan yr afon riverside, glan y nant brookside, etc.)

But to cap it all the English form of the name Ely has been substituted for the Welsh name Eli!

ETYMOLOGY: (the) bank (of the river) Eli) (glan = riverbank) + (Eli)


<glan-e-DƏDH-yon> [glanɛˡdəjɔn] .

See glanhedydd



glanfa <GLAN-va> [ˡglanva] feminine noun
PLURAL glanfydd <glan-VEIDH> [glanˡvəɪ] .
landing place, landing stage, landing; jetty; wharf
y lanfa = the wharf

Y Lanfa street in Trefechan, Aberystwyth (county of Ceredigion)

2 Glanfa Arw street name, Tal-y-cafn, Baecolw
yn (county of Conwy)
(rough landing place) (though perhaps Y Lanfa Arw would be expected; as it stands, it suggests Arws landing place, that of somebody called Arw)

3 (aeronautics) airfield, airstrip

ETYMOLOGY: (glan- stem of glannu = to land) + (-fa noun-forming suffix, indicating a place)


<glan-FRUUD> [glanˡfruːd] . (masculine noun)
the bardic name of William Thomas (1843-1890)

See Clic y Bont (a group of poets and musicians from Pont-y-pridd)


<glan-HAA-van> [glanˡhɑˑvan] .

1 street name in Solfach (Sir Benfro)

ETYMOLOGY: glan yr hafan (the) side (of) the port


<glan-HAI> [glanˡhaɪ] . (verb)

(North) llnau or cnau

(South) clau or cnau

to clean

yr adran lanhu ( local council) the cleansing department

3 (
North-east Wales) cnau afal peel an apple


ETYMOLOGY: (gln = clean) + (-hu suffix for forming verbs from adjectives)



<glan-HEE-didh> [glanˡheˑdɪ] .masculine noun
PLURAL glanedyddion
<glan-e-DƏDH-yon> [glanɛˡdəjɔn] .

1 detergent

ETYMOLOGY: (glanhd = cleaning) + (-ydd suffix for forming nouns) > glanhad-ydd > glanhedydd (a > e through vowel affection)


<GLAN-yad> [ˡglanjad] .masculine noun
PLURAL glaniadau
<glan-YAA-dai, -de> [glanˡjɑˑdaɪ, -ɛ] .

1 landing = reaching land (boat)

2 landing = coming down to earth (plane, etc)

3 bol-laniad pancake landing
(bol = belly) + soft mutation + (glaniad = landing)

ETYMOLOGY: (glan-, stem of glanio = to land) + (-iad = suffix for forming nouns)


Y Glaniad
GLAN-yad> [ə ˡglanjad] masculine noun
(Patagonian Welsh) landing of the first Welsh contingent in Patagonia 28 July 1865

2 (Patagonian Welsh) Gw
yl y Glaniad <GUIL ə GLAN-yad> [guil ə ˡglanjad] .celebration marking the anniversary of the landing of the first Welsh pioneers in Porth Madryn, Patagonia (28 July 1865) (festival (of) the landing).

In recent years, it has been celebrated also on this date in Y Bala by the Patagonian Welsh who are living in


<GLAN-yo> [ˡglanjɔ] (verb)

1 (boat) to land, come to shore;

2 (airplane) to land
llain lanio airstrip


Glan-llyn <glan-LHIN> [glanˡɬɪn]
place name

ETYMOLOGY: glan y llyn bank / edge / side of the lake; lake side

(glan = bank, riverbank) + (y definite article) + (llyn = lake)

NOTE: In place names a linking definite article is often omitted: glan y llyn > glan llyn

NOTE: See also Glan-y-llyn


Glannau Mersi
<gla-nai, -ne, MER-si> [glanaɪ, -ɛ, ˡmɛrsɪ] (feminine noun)
Merseyside, the region of


Glanrafon <glan-RAA-VON> [glan ˡrɑˑvɔn]
house name, street name

..a/ SH4370 a house and a farm by Llangaffo (Ynys Mn)

ETYMOLOGY: glan r afon < glan yr afon bank / edge / side of the river
(glan = bank, riverbank) + (yr definite article) + (afon = river)

See Glanyrafon


Glan-rhyd <glan-HRIID> [glan ˡhriːd]
house name, street name
2 name of a district of Ystradgynlais SN7808 Pont Glan-rhyd / the bridge at Glan-rhyd

ETYMOLOGY: glan y rhyd bank / edge / side of the ford, ford side

(glan = bank, riverbank) + (y definite article) + (rhyd = ford)

NOTE: In place names a linking definite article is often omitted glan y rhyd > glan rhyd


<GLAN-sarn> glansarn] (f)

PLURAL: glansarnau
<glan-SARN-ai, -e> [glanˡsarnaɪ, -ɛ]

ETYMOLOGY: Nineteenth-century coining, not in current use

landing causeway
(glan- stem of the verb glanio = to land) + (sarn = causeway)


<glan-TUIM-in> [glanˡtʊɪmin
SH8204 A village in Powys. Called Cemmaes Road by the English, from the name of a former railway station in this village.

ETYMOLOGY: glan Twymyn (the) bank (of) (the) Twymyn (stream)
(glan = bank, riverbank) + (Twymyn)


<GLAN-wedh> glanwɛ] adjective
South Wales
merch lanwedd a beautiful girl

2 pure, clean

ETYMOLOGY: (gln = beautiful; pure; clean) + soft mutation + (gwedd = aspect)


<glan-WERN> [glanˡwɛrn]
street name in Porthtywyn / Burry Port (county of Caerfyrddin / Carmarthen)
(spelt as Glanwern)

2 village between Ffynnon-taf and Nantgarw (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

ETYMOLOGY: glan y wern bank / edge / side of the boggy place / alder marsh
(glan = bank, riverbank) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (gwern = alder marsh)

NOTE: In place names a linking definite article is often omitted: glan y wern > glan wern


<glan-ə-DON> [glanəˡdɔn]
village SJ1679 in the county of Y Fflint map

(delwedd 7441)

ETYMOLOGY: glan y don shore / edge / side / brink (of) the) sea; sea side
(glan = shore / edge / side / brink; bank, riverbank) + (y definite article) + soft mutation + (ton = sea; wave)


yn <glan-ə-LHIN> [glanəˡɬɪn]
place name (lake side)

2 village between Ffynnon-taf and Nantgarw (
county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

ETYMOLOGY: glan y llyn (the) bank / edge / side (of) the lake; lake side
(glan = bank, riverbank) + (y definite article) + (llyn = lake)

NOTE: See also Glan-llyn


glan y mr
<glan ə MOOR> [glanəˡmoːr] (masculine noun)


<glan-ə-MOOR> [glanəˡmoːr] (feminine noun) place name (sea side)
Also as Glan-mr
<glan-MOOR> [glanˡmoːr] , with the loss of the linking definite article


Glanyrafon <glan-ər-AA-VON> [glan ər ˡɑˑvɔn]
house name, street name

ETYMOLOGY: glan yr afon bank / edge / side of the river
(glan = bank, riverbank) + (yr definite article) + (afon = river)

NOTE: Also as Glanrafon / Glanrafon, Glanafon


<GLAAS> [glɑːs] adjective
PLURAL gleision
<GLEI-shon> gləɪʃɔn]

1 blue = fifth colour in the rainbow

2 blue = colour of the sky; yr aw
yr las the blue sky; mor las r awyr as blue as the sky;

3 blue = colour of the sea, greyish-green; mor las r mr as blue as the sea

4 (persons skin) blue, grey = pallid from fear or cold; blue from bruising

curo rhywun nes ei fod yn las drosto
beat someone black and blue
(beat someone until he is blue all over)

5 green = the colour of foliage or green plants; mor lased r cennin (as green as the leeks)

Especially place names:

Coed Glas / Glasgoed = green wood


yn Glas green hill,

green hollow,

glasfre green hill in obsolete Maesglasfre, now Maesglasau in Gwynedd

yn green hill,

green upland, name of a forest by Trecastell, Powys (Coedwig Glasfynydd)

Mynydd-glas (Mynydd Glas). street name in Garndolbenmaen, Gwynedd

Pant Glas green hollow,

Pen Twyn Glas summit of Twyn Glas, name of one of the hills (Bannau Brycheiniog) in Powys. Twyn Glas = green hill

6 (animal) grey, greyish, whitish;
buwch las = grey cow;
yl glas grey horse
yr glas, crychydd glas grey heron

7 green = mild, snowfree;
gaeaf glas, mynwent fras = a mild winter fills the graveyards (green winter, fat graveyard)


NOTE: [ Olde Cheshire Dialecte.

grien winter : a warm winter, without much frost or snow]

8 (dawn) grey, dark, gloomy;
o fore glas tan nos = from dawn to dusk (from grey morning until night)

9 (coinage) silver = made of silver; made of an alloy but silver in colour, of a greyish-white colour;
arian gleision = silver coins, coins the colour of silver;
chwech las (before 1971) silver sixpence, sixpence the colour of silver
swllt las (before 1971) silver shilling, shilling the colour of silver

10 green = young, inexperienced, immature; glaslanc youth, adolescent; (green youth) (glas) + soft mutation + (llanc = young man, adolescent). Cf the English expression a green youth

11 (North Wales) intensifier: denotes extremity in certain expressions: eg extreme lateness, uncontrolled anger, best effort;

Maen hw
yr las Its very late (its blue late)

ceisio eich gorau glas try ones very best (try your blue best)

ynd och co las explode, flip, lose ones temper completely (go out of your blue mind)

drapit las! bugger it! damn! (swearword + blue)

cenau glas out and out scoundrel, complete rogue, incorrigible rogue

12 (county of Gwynedd) fit, tough, able to face the world

un glas ydi o hes resilient

13 blue, the colour used by the English Conservative Party to represent itself (Cf Plaid Cymru - gwyrdd / green, English Labour Party coch / red, English Liberal Democrat Party oren / orange)

Roedd en gwisgo tei las y Gymdeithas Geidwadol leol
He was wearing the blue tie of the local Conservative Association

14 (birds) blue titw tomos las = blue tit (blue Thomas tit)

15 (food, drink) fresh
yd glas (obsolete) fresh food
glasfedd (obsolete) fresh mead (medd = mead)

16 weak, feeble, faint;
glas gof vague memory, vague recollection,
glas groeso cool reception, unenthusiastic welcome

17 gwyrddlas (qv) green, greenish;
cae gwyrddlas green field
yrdd = green) + soft mutation + (glas = green)

18 glaschwerthin give a forced laugh

19 llygatlas blue-eyed
merch lygatlas blue-eyed girl

20 bod yn las gan genfigen be green with envy

21 place names:
..a/ Dalar-las street name in

.a/ Glanconw
y, Baecolwyn (county of Conwy) (Dalar Las)

.b/ Llanfachreth, Dolgellau (county of Gwynedd) (Dalar Las)
y dalar las (the green headland / cross-ridge
[in a ploughed field])
(y = definite article) + soft mutation + (talar = cross-ridge) + soft mutation + (glas = green)

..b/ Maes-glas house name, street name
y maes glas = the green field (y definite article) + (maes = field) + (glas = green)

..c/ Pant Glas (natural feature) / Pant-glas (settlement name)
y pant glas = the green hollow (y definite article) + (pant = hollow) + (glas = green)


22 corn glas (Ajuga reptans) bugle - a ground cover plant

(reptans = creeping). The flowers resemble tiny horns or bugles and are tightly ranged along stalks four inches to six inches tall.


Ajuga is the name given by the Swedish botanist Linnaeus ans means without a yoke because the sepals surrounding the buds of this plant are not connected.

blue horn (corn = horn) + (glas = blue)


Corn-glas name of a street in Y Barri (Bro Morgannwg) (spelt as Corn Glas)


(delwedd 7013)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British *glast- < Celtic
From the same British root: Breton glas, Cornish glas
From the same Celtic root: Irish glas, Scottish glas
All have the same basic meaning of both green and blue


<GLAAS> [glɑːs] masculine noun
PLURAL: gleision
<GLEI-shon> gləɪʃɔn]
blue = the colour blue; something blue in colour
glas yr aw
yr sky-blue colour
glas Prwsia Prussian blue
glas ewin top of the fingernail or toenail ((the) blue (of) (the) nail)

2 (vegetation) green = the colour green; something green in colour

3 grey = the colour grey; something grey in colour
glas y wawr the grey of dawn
glas y bore the grey light of dawn
Cyrhaeddasom yno erbyn gls y bore we reached there at dawn

blue bird; glas y dorlan (qv) Alcedo atthis kingfisher ((the) blue one (of) the (eroded) bank)
North Wales glas dwl blue tit Parus caeruleus (silly blue one, daft blue one)

5 plant with a blue flower;
glas yr heli (qv) Glaux maritima Sea-milkwort ((the) blue one (of) the brine)
glas y graean Echium vulgare Vipers-bugloss ((the) blue one (of) the gravel)
In plant names, also the diminutive form gles
yn (qv)


6 glas y llwyn (Hyacinthoides non-scripta) bluebell


(the) blue [plant] (of) the wood

(glas = blue [plant]) + (y = the) + (llwyn = wood)


There is a street in Y Barri (Bro Morgannwg) called Glas-y-llwyn (spelt Glas y Llwyn)

(delwedd 7910)


6 blue = blue uniform
Pan oeddwn yn Sain Tathan fel glaslanc yn gwisgo glas y Llu Aw
When I was in (the airbase at) Sain Tathan wearing the blue of the Air Force

7 (slang)
(a) singular: policeman; (American: a cop) (Englandic: a copper, a rozzer);
(b) plural: police (American: the cops) (Englandic: the coppers, the rozzers, the fuzz, the bill)
See: glas y dorlan

fresher or freshman, new student at a university or college;
ythnos y glas freshers week, the first week of a university year when stands of university clubs and associations offer information about themselves and special social events are organised for freshers (new students). Also ffair y glas ((the) fair (of) the fresher)

9 pallor
obsolete Y Glas = Death

10 greenery, green vegetation

11 a green, pastureland
It is found in the name of some streets in Caer-d
Glas Efail (= glas yr efail) ((the) green (of) the smithy)
Glas Canol (= y glas canol) ((the) middle green)
Glas Ifor ((the) green (of) Ifor, Ifors green)

ETYMOLOGY: see glas adjective


glas (m)
<GLAAS> [glɑːs] (masculine noun)
(in place names) stream

Dulas black stream

Also in camlas (qv) canal

ETYMOLOGY: A variant of glais (= stream)

Irish has glas (f) (= stream), glaise (f) (= stream)


gls, glasiau / glasus
<GLAS, GLAS ye / GLA sis> (masculine noun)
(colloquial) glass (for water, milk, beer, etc)


glasaid, glaseidiau
<GLA sed, gla SEID ye> (masculine noun)
lassful; glasaid o gwrw = a glass of beer


..1 glasbant
<GLA spant> (masculine noun)
green hollow
(place name) Y Glasbant

ETYMOLOGY: (glas = green; young) + soft mutation + (pant = hollow)

..2 glasbant
<gla-spant> feminine noun
colloquial form of gw
ylmabsant = parish feast, parish festival, parish wake


glasbren, glasbrennau
<GLA spren, gla SPRE ne> (masculine noun)

ETYMOLOGY: (glas = green; young, immature) + soft mutation + (pren = tree)


Y Glasbridd
The Welsh name for the Blue Earth Welsh Settlement in

(This is the name we have used to refer to the settlement in our section about the settlement in this website, by translating the English name into Welsh. There is however no evidence that it was so called by the settlers).

The English name is a translation of the Dakota name for a place in the area where blue clay was gathered. The Dakota name survives in the town name Mankato, though a n has crept into the name possibly from a misspelling on a map (Makato would have been expected)

(Find via Google, by typing in kimkat, Glasbridd, our section based on the book History of the Welsh in Minnesota, Foreston and Lime Springs, Iowa, gathered by the Old Settlers. Edited by the Reverends Thomas E. Hughes and David Edwards, and Messrs. Hugh G. Roberts and Thomas Hughes. 1895)

(delwedd 6545)

ETYMOLOGY: (glas = blue ) + soft mutation + (pridd = earth)

The word occurs as a headword in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, though no examples are given, and it is explained simply as a compound of glas and pridd.


Y Glasbwll
(SN7397) locality by Machynllaith / Machynlleth (district of Maldw
yn, county of Powys)

Apparently an old name for Plastwrtwn in Caer-d
John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cern
yw) 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911):

..a/ GLASSPOOL, "Glaspole" (probably from Welsh pwll glas, green pool.) Another name for the little manor of Plas-Turton (1438.)

..b/ PLAS-TURTON (Turton's mansion.) An ancient mansion, afterwards a farmhouse, which was the capital messuage of an inferior manor bearing that name, in the hamlet of
Canton, on the right or west bank of the river Taff (1596.) The farmhouse stood on the west side of Cathedral Road, and was demolished 1895. Plasturton Avenue perpetuates the name. One or two of the documents of the 16th century call it "Place Tiverton." In 1587 it was described as the "manor or lordship of Glaspull alias Tiverton, " and in the following century as "Placestourton otherwise Glasspoole."

ETYMOLOGY: (glas = blue ) + soft mutation + (pwll = pool)


incorrect spelling found on English-language maps for (Y) Glasgoed the green wood
(y definite article) + (glas = green) + soft mutation + (coed = wood)

(The lack of the soft mutation in the spelling is an error; the pronunciation unaffected by the influence of this poor spelling would undoubtedly have been Glasgoed in every case where this name occurs.)


<glas-dhi> adjective
bluish-black, blue-black

ETYMOLOGY: (glas = blue ) + soft mutation + (du = black)
NOTE: Also glas-ddu


< glas-dhii-o>
(South-west Wales)

1 make dark blue / blue-black

2 go dark blue / blue-black
glasdduor gydar oerfel go blue with cold

ETYMOLOGY: (glasddu = dark blue / blue-black) + (-o suffix for forming verbs)


glasfryn <GLAS-vrin> glasvrɪn] (m)
1 green hill

Y Glasfr
a) locality by Corwen (county of Dinb
ych, formerly in the now extinct county of Meirionnydd) SH9150

b) locality in the parish of Llangybi, near Pwllheli, Gwynedd
yn Glasfryn the lake at Glasfryn

ETYMOLOGY: (glas = green) + soft mutation + (br
yn = hill)


Y Glasgoed
<GLAS-goid> glasgɔɪd]
y glasgoed the green wood

..a/ SN3349 farm in Ceredigion, near Rhydlewis map (Glasgoed)

..b/ SH0073 village in Sir Ddinbych map (Glascoed)

..c/ SJ2754 village in the county of Wrecsam map (Glascoed)

..d/ SO0888 area in Powys near Mochdre map (Glascoed)

..e/ SO3301 village in the
county of Mynwy / Monmouth map (Glascoed)

ETYMOLOGY: y glasgoed (y definite article) + (glas = green) + soft mutation + (coed = wood)

NOTE: On English-language maps sometimes misspelt Glascoed

NOTE: One might expect the local pronunciation Y Glasgod
<GLAS-god> glasgɔd] in most if not all of these places. In colloquial Welsh the diphthong oe in a final syllable is reduced to the simple vowel o, a characteristic most noticeable in the plural suffix oedd / -odd


glasied / glasiad
<GLAS-yed / GLAS-yad> [ˡglasjɛd / glasjad] (masculine noun)
see glasaid


<glas-LANG-kaidh> [glasˡlaŋkaɪ] adjective
teenage, adolescent

ETYMOLOGY: (glaslanc = adolescent) + (-aidd suffix for forming adjectives)


glaslyn <GLAS-lin> glaslɪn] (m)
1 green pool

2 Afon Glaslyn SH5941 river in Gwynedd

Glaslyn SN8294 lake in Powys, near Dylife

ETYMOLOGY: (glas = blue ) + soft mutation + (llyn = pool)


<GLAS-tir> glastɪr] m
PLURAL glastiroedd
<glas-TII-roidh, -odh>