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7000_kimkat1676e.jpgI, J, K









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7000_kimkat1586e.jpgY, Z






F, f
v feminine noun
) sixth letter of the twenty-six letter Roman alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 d 5 e,
6 f, 7 g, 8 h, 9 i, 10 j, 11 k, 12 l, 13 m, 14 n, 15 o, 16 p, 17 q, 18 r, 19 s, 20 t, 21 u, 22 v, 23 w, 24 x, 25 y, 26 z
) eighth letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
...1 a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e,
8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y


The sound
v in Welsh is written as 'f'.

Origin of the consonant
v in Welsh:

It comes from two main sources

(1) It is a development of the consonants
b or m in British. (British words came from either Common Celtic, or were loans from Latin during the Roman occupation of the island.)

(2) It is found in words taken from English in later centuries.

In words from British of Common Celtic origin from an original b or m
.....(1) lam- > llawf (= hand).
Now llaw, without the final f, though this is retained in compounds:
llofnod signature (llawf = hand) + (nod = mark)
llofrudd murderer (llawf = hand) + soft mutation + (rhudd = red)

.....(2) dub- > duf > du (= black)

Some English place names of British origin have
m in modern English, but v in Welsh. This shows that they were taken into English the early Welsh period, before the change (m > v) occurred (probably circa the year 500)

(1) (tam-) Tefeidiad (river name, county of Powys), in English Teme

(2) (tam-) river names Thame, Tame in England which correspond to the name of two rivers in Wales Taf

(3) (from-) name of some rivers in England - Frome - which corresponds to the name of a river in Wales, in Mn Ffraw, anciently Ffrawf

Other names must be later borrowings, because English has
v as in Welsh
(1) British abona = river, Welsh afon
a-von; hence certain English river names Avon ei-vən, rather than *Abon

(2) River name in British Sabrina, Welsh Hafren, English Severn (the English name though preserving the initial s, which in early Welsh became h)

Similarly in words of Latin origin via British from an original b or m.

Some examples are:
....(1) elementum > elfen (= element)
....(2) forma > ffurf (= form)
....(3) firmmenta > ffyrfafen > ffurfafen (= firmament)
....(4) taberna > tafarn (= tavern)
....(5) tabulum > tafell (= slice)

From English
.....(1) Middle English vicker (modern English vicar) > ficer
.....(2) English van > fan
.....(3) English vanilla > fanila

Some words with initial
f are from south-western English, where an f in standard English was a v in this part of England. This was a characteristic until recent decades of the spoken language in the county of Somerset, for example. Thus fir trees would have been vir trees in south-east Wales (where there was much immigration from these areas of England), this is fer ver (= fir trees)

(There are also English place names here with initial v, such as Vishwell, fish well, a well with fish)

f also results from the the soft-mutation of b and m
.....(1) brn = crow, y frn = the crow
.....(2) mam = mother, y fam = the mother

Because an initial f is usually a soft-mutated consonant, there has been a tendency to assume that words taken from English beginning with f are in fact soft-mutated forms and to replace it with b or m.

(1) Thus in the past ficer was often found as bicer, though the form with f- is the standard modern form.

(2) English frog from a south-western form vrog- became froga [VROO-ga] in Welsh, and later broga (= frog).

(3) English to vex became Welsh fecso > becso (= to worry) (standard form)

(4) English venture became Welsh fenter > menter (= a business venture) (standard form)

(5) English vantage became Welsh fantais > mantais (= advantage, benefit) (standard form)

(6) English velvet became Welsh felfed > melfed (= velvet) (standard form)


The loss of an initial f-

Words with loss of initial f-, where the form without this f is now standard:

...(a) ab, ap < fab (soft mutation of mab = son) (Sin ab Elis Sin son (of) Elis, Morgan ap Llywelyn Morgan son (of) Llywelyn, etc)

...(b) e < fe (preverbal particle) fe ddaeth (= he came) < e ddaeth

...(c) ed (in the Welsh of south-east Wales = as far as) < fed < *bed

Words with loss of initial f which is not considered standard:

...(d) erch, ach, ych < ferch (soft mutation of merch = daughter)
(in old patronymics: Gwenllian ych Llywelyn, etc - Gwenllian daughter (of) Llywelyn)

...(e) i < fi (postverbal pronoun) gwela i (= I see) < gwelaf fi

...(f) y < fy < *my = my
fy mrawd = my brother, but colloquially generally 'y mrawd

...(g) ychydig (= a little bit) < fychydig (soft mutation of bychydig)



The loss of a medial -f-

Words with loss of medial -f- which is now standard (the loss took place at a very early period in some of these words):

1 loss of medial -f-
Words with loss of medial -f- which is now standard (the loss took place at a very early period in some of these words):

..1/ amod (condition) < amfod < (am intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (bod = to be)

..2/ anoddyfn (y = i ) > (loss of the [v]) anoddyn / anoddyn a-n-dhin > anoddun a-n-dhin (= very deep) (anoddyn = anoddun - same pronunciation)

as in the place name Ffos Noddun (near Capelgarmon, county of Conwy)

..3/ bual (buffalo) < bufal < Latin bbal(us)

..4/ Camarch (SN9521) (name of a river in Powys)
< Camfarch ((the) winding (river / stream called) March)
(cam = winding) + soft mutation + (March = stream name, literally horse)

..5/ codi (= rise, get up; lift) < *cy'odi < cyfodi

..6/ col (= lap) < cofl


..7/ cyfwch (= as high [as]) < cy'wch < cuwch

..8/ dilin pure, fine, refined; polished
dilin < dilyn < dilyfn
This is (di- = intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (llyfn = smooth)
Generally in the expression aur dilin fine gold

..9/ dod (= to come) < dyod < dyfod

..10/ dŵr (= water) < dwwr < dwfwr < dwfr - though retained in the plural dyfroedd (waters)


Latin abecedārium
> British *abk
> Early Welsh *afgwyddawr
> agwyddawr (loss of the consonant f [v] )

> agwyddor (aw reduced to o in the final syllable)
> egwyddor (a becomes e)

> gwyddor (e dropped)

egwyddor = principle, gwyddor (= alphabet)

..11/ lawr (= laver, type of seaweed) < lafwr < English laver < Latin

..12/ Llannor < Llanfor < Llanfawr (llan fawr = big church)

..13/ Ogwr
(= river name) < Ogfwr. This [v] comes from British m, and early Welsh mh, which is preserved in the English form of the name, Ogmore. See mh

..14/ Rhosyr (equivalent to modern Welsh Rhos Fair (the) upland / moor (of the Virgin) Mary)
Rhsyr < Rhser < Rhseir < Rhsfeir < Rhos Fir
(rhos = upland) + soft mutation + (Meir, older form of Mair = Mary).

(The name would thus be similar in meaning to Bryn Mair (the) hill (of the Virgin) Mary), in the village name Llan-bryn-mair in Powys)

(though some dispute this explanation rhos + Mair)

2 Words with loss of medial f which is not considered standard:

..1/ cas (South Wales - he, she, it got / received) < cafas
(though Standard Welsh uses cafodd; this full form cafas is now obsolete in literary Welsh)

..2/ ces (I got, I received) < cefes < cefais

..3/ ella a northern form of efallai = perhaps

..4/ gwefus = lip; gweus, a form used in some dialects

NOTE: Examples also exist in English of a loss of medial -v-:

Denshire < Devonshire

A Dialogue in the Devonshire Dialect, (in three parts) by a Lady: to which is added a Glossary. James Frederick PALMER, Mary Palmer. 1837: BEAT and BURNING-BEAT peat- or sod-burning; an agricultural operation, which appears to have originated in Devonshire, and hence is called Denshiring in many parts.

e'er < ever (poetic, jocular)

Halloween < Allhalloween < Allhalloweven (all hallows eve, eve of All Saints Day
(all) + (hallow = saint) + (even = eve, evening)

has /haz/ < /havz/ (he has a small house, etc)

had < havd (she had a rest, etc)

hawk Old English "hafoc" (the "f" was pronounced v)

..7/ head Old English "hafod" (the "f" was pronounced v)


..8/ ne'er-do-well < never do well

Intrusive medial -f- v
(a) lle (= place), lleydd (= places), now llefydd, used colloquially. The standard uses a different plural termination to give lleoedd
(b) llyu (= to lick), now llyfu in standard Welsh
(c) lwans (= allowance), now lwfans in standard Welsh


Change of medial f v > w

In certain dialects, medial f v has become w

(a) brecwast (qv) (breakfast), < *brecfast brkvast, from English breakvast, a south-west England form of breakfast

Sq[uire Turnbull]. How does thee like London ?
Miss Turn[bull]. I knaw not. It do zeem a strange place.
Sq[uire Turnbull]. A strange place!
Miss Turn[bull]. EesI do think it be.
Sq[uire Turnbull]. Thee dost?
Miss Turn[bull]. Ees.
Sq[uire Turnbull]. An' zo do Iwhereby, dost zee, I'll get out n't as vast as I cana pretty chace, as the man zaid that rode vifty miles a'ter a wild goose.London ! an' this be London, the devil take LondonCome, pack up thy ribbands an' vlappets, an' make thyzel ready.
Miss Turn[bull]. Neea, zureyou wun't go zo zoon.
Sq[uire Turnbull]. Wun't I ?an' I stay in this town to-night, I'll eat it vor breakvast tomorrow.

Duplicity; Comedy, in five Acts. As performed at the Theatre-Royal, Covent-Garden. T. Thomas Holcroft. (1811. Edinburgh. A collection of Successful Modern Plays, as acted at the Theatres Royal, London. Printed from the prompt books under the authority of the managers. Selected by Mrs. Inchbald. In ten volumes. Vol. iv.).

(b) clefri (mange, scabies) > clewri (South-west Wales)

(c) cyfarfod (meeting; to meet) > c'farfod > cwarfod (North Wales)

(d) The element faen , the soft mutation of maen (= stone). The change [v] > [w] occurs in the word llechfaen (= bakestone) > llechfen (usual reduction of a diphthong ae in a final syllable to e) > llechwen, llechwan
The place name Corwen was in centuries past Corfen, apparently corfaen (= little stone)

(e) gwefl (lip of an animal) > gwewl (South-west Wales)

(f)) gyferbyn (opposite) > g'ferbyn > gwerbyn

(g) English peevish > Welsh pifis > piwis (peevish, bad-tempered) (North Wales word)

(h) taflod (hay loft) > tawlod (South-east Wales)

(i) South Wales walle (= perhaps) < ?*ewalle < efallai. Usually with f - falle.

(j) ysgrifennu (to write) > 'sg'fennu > sgwennu (North Wales)

(k) ysgyfarnog (hare) > 'sg'farnog > sgwarnog (North Wales)


Change of f
v > ff f
(a) cannwyll frwyn (rush candle) > cannwyll ffrwyn in some dialects

Again, dialectically, fy (my) > ff

(b) fy hunan (myself) > f'unan > ff'unan

(c) fy llaw (my hand) > ff'llaw

(d) fy iechyd (my health) > ff'iechyd

(e) Bodfari (village in the north-east) > Botffari

For other examples, see the entry ff


f > dd

Change of f v > dd dh
Standard forms with dd instead of an original f:

(a) Caer-dyf > Caer-dydd = capital of Wales, Cardiff;
the Englished form is from a time before the
v became dh in this name (apparently in the 1700s); and this final v in English was replaced by its unvoiced counterpart f.

(b) Godrefi Bach > Godreddi Bach place name in Mn;
godref is 'little house'
(go diminutive prefix) + soft mutation + (tref = house, farmstead)

f > dd

Dialect forms with dd instead of an original f:
(c) Llangwyryfon > Llangwrddon (village in Ceredigion)

(d) tyfu > tyddu to grow

(e) Eifionydd > Eiddionydd district in Gwynedd

(f) rhofiad > rhoddiad spadeful (South-east Wales)

Some Points of Similarity in the Phonology of Welsh and Breton, 
T.H. Parry-Williams, 1913
In W[elsh], however, the interchange of f and dd is quite common, especially in the dial[ect]s
(Words in red added for clarification, and do occur not in the original text)
He gives the following examples of f > dd
afanc (= a beaver) > addanc 
camfa (a stile ) > camdda 
cymanfa (a congregation, convention) > cymandda
Eifionydd (a district in Carnarvonshire) > Eiddionydd 
gwefus (lip) > gweddus
gwyrf (= virgin) > gwerydd
pendefig (prince, chief) > pendeddig 
plwyf (parish) > plwydd
And for the reverse change dd > f he has:
byddigions (boneddigion, with the plur[al] -s ending of English), (= gentry) > byfigions 
eiddil (delicate, tender ) > eifil 
nwyddau (goods) > nwyfau

Cf. y fannodd for y ddannodd (toothache).


plwydd sometimes takes the place of plwyf (= parish) as in the place name Pen-isha-plwydd (qv), a farm by Y Pandy in the county of Mynwy

(This is a local form of pen isaf y plwyf the bottom part of the parish)

This change was has also been noted in Ceredigion (Y Geninen Cyfrol 32 1914 tudalennau 138-141.)


A final f
v dropped after monosyllables (early Welsh)
These changes took place early on in the language:

(a) du (black) < duf
The final consonant has been retained in the Irish equivalent dubh (black) (where 'bh' represents the sound

(b) Ffraw (river name) < Ffrawf, as in the place name Abrffraw, though the current colloquial form is a modification of this: Y Berffro

(c) llaw (hand) < llawf - occurs in the derivative llofrudd (murderer), from llawf rudd (red hand).
The final consonant has been retained in the Irish equivalent lmh (hand) (where 'mh' represents the sound

(d) rhaw (spade) < rhawf - occurs in the derivative rhofiad (spadeful).
The final consonant has been retained in the Irish equivalent rmh (oar) (where 'mh' represents the sound

(e) tu (side) < tuf.
The final consonant has been retained in the Irish equivalent taobh (side) (where 'bh' represents the sound

An example in English of a similar phenomenon is the colloquial form of "of", which becomes simply
ə: standard in "o' clock"


A final f v dropped after monosyllables (northern Welsh)
A final f is dropped after many monosyllables in Northern Welsh, but retained in the south

Standard Welsh

Northern spoken Welsh

Southern spoken Welsh

cryf (strong),



haf (summer)



saf (stand!)


saf (sa' is possible too in the south)

pryf (animal)



But sometimes the final -f is retained even in spoken Northern Welsh.

(1) Words from British (either British < Latin, or British < Celtic)
bref (bleat of a sheep, low of a cow) (retains f in standard Welsh, and both in northern spoken and southern spoken)

dof (tame)

prif (main, principal, major)

rhwyf (oar)

Taf (name of two rivers in South Wales)

(2) Words which are later incorporations into Welsh:

braf (fine). From English brave, formerly pronounced {braav} the Welsh word is a borrowing from a time before the change to the modern pronunciation in English {breiv}.



Although in the spelling of place names the standard literary form is preferred (that is, whith the inclusion of the final f [v]), there are numerous instances, especially in minor names, of this colloquial feature

..1/ CRA [kraa] < CRAF [kraav]

pant-ə- kraa street name, Tabor, Dolgellau (spelt in Tabor as Pant y Cra)
((the) hollow (of) the ramsons / wild garlic)
(pant = hollow) + (y definite article) + (cra = ramsons / ad-leaved wild garlic (Allium ursinum))

..2/ FFRAW [frauv] < FFRAW [frauv]

The northern river name possibly exhibits this feature, though the adjective was in use in the medieval period (= brisk, lively) and it occureed in the reduced form ffraw.

Also in the name of the locality on the mouth of the river, Abrffraw, a literary form respresenting an earlier stage in the development of the place name, which later became Abrffro from which todays colloquial form Y Berffro is derived

..3/ GO [goo] < GOF [goov]

.....(1) Cae-go (caer gof (the) field (of) the smith) district west of Rhos-ddu (county of Wrecsam)

.....(2) Coed-y-go (coed y gof (the) wood (of) the blacksmith)
A locality in Croesoswallt (Oswestry), in the county of Shropshire, England;
(coed = wood) + (y = the) + (gof = smith, blacksmith).
On English maps with the partially Englished spelling Coed-y-Goe

.....(3) Ffos-y-go (ffos y gof (the) ditch (of) the smith) SJ 3054 village 5km north-west of Wrecsam and 1km north-west of Gwers

....4/ Gwern-y-go SO2291 locality in Sarn, Y Drenewydd, district of Maldwyn (county of Powys)

..4/ HA [haa] < HAF [haav]
Northern speakers who use the Welsh name for the Welsh county of Somerset (Gwlad yr Haf, (the) land (of) the summer, that is, the land of summer pasture, parallelling the English name), are to heard sometimes saying Gwlad yr Ha


A final f
v dropped after polysyllables (colloquial Welsh)
A final f
v was dropped in polysyllables in spoken Welsh in the fourteenth century. At first there was a tendency to drop the final -f after -i, and later after other vowels.

Even though the loss of this final f has been usual in spoken Welsh for some six or seven hundred years, it is still retained in the standard language
Examples below of standard Welsh > spoken Welsh

..(a) cyfaddef (to confess), > cyfadde'

..(b) cartref (home), > cartre'

..(c) cyntaf (first), > cynta'


..(d) gwddf (neck) > gwddwf (intrusive vowel) > gwddw (North Wales)

In South Wales gwddw > gwddwg (South Wales), with an extraneous consonant


A final f
v dropped after polysyllables (standard Welsh)
Some words though became standard without the final f

Adda (Adam) < Addaf

Aberffraw a-BER-frau (village on the island of Mn) < Aberffrawf

(unless this is Aber + Ffraw, with the river name an example of a monosyllable showing a loss of the final [v], a common feature in northern Welsh; see Ffraw above)

cleddyf (sword), which is the name of two rivers Cleddy Wen ('white sword') and Cleddy Ddu ('black sword') in South-west Wales.

There is a variant of cleddyf, namely cleddau, as in the town name Aberdaugleddau below where the two Cleddy rivers join, at he point where they flow into the sea; (the) mouth (of) (the) Daugleddau (river)

(dau = two) + soft mutation + (Cleddau river name)

cwrw (beer) < cwrwf

cyffur (drug, medicament) < cyffurf (cy- = prefix) + (ffurf = form)

moli (to praise) < molif

Words which have entered the spoken language from the literary language retain the final f
gorsaf (station), not *gorsa

heulsaf (solstice), not *heulsa


A final f
v which is unetymological
Examples of a final f which is unetymological:

hyf (insolent).
The historical form is hy, but it has imitated the pattern of the adjective cryf which is not very dissimilar in meaning

cryf / cry' (strong); cryfed (as strong), cryfach (stronger), cryfaf (strongest)
Hence the modern literary form hyf, hyfed, hyfach, hyfaf

grof (county of Penfro) fine river sand < gro (= gravel, shingle)

cnuf < cnu (= fleece) kniiv (both forms are standard, though cnu is the preferred form)

gwyryf Latin

..a) *virgo (= maid, maiden) *virg- Welsh *gwyrgh

..b) *gwyrgh <gwirgh> → *gwyry <gwiri> (vocalisation of gh after r)

..c) *gwyry with the addition of a final v to give modern Welsh gwyryf (= virgin)


VA pronoun
he (South-east Wales)

Ble ma fa? (= ble y mae ef) Where is he?


VA suffix
Nouns formed with this suffix are feminine. Often used in forming house names.

..a/ coedfa wood, woodland, wooded place
(coed = wood) + (-fa noun-forming suffix, indicating a place)

..b/ creigfa rocky place
(creig- < craig = rock) + (-fa noun-forming suffix, indicating a place

..c/ Derwenfa place of the oak tree
(derwen = oak) + (-fa noun-forming suffix, indicating a place)
House name in Dinbych (county of Dinbych / Denbigh) (in the list of members in The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion 1961 / Part 1) (as Bro Hedd)

..d/ gwladfa colony = settlement of people far from their homeland who maintain ties with the country of origin
(gwlad = country)+ (-fa noun-forming suffix, indicating a place)

..e/ Hafanfa (house name) haven
(haven-place) (hafan = haven) + (-fa)

Exception to the gender rule:
Although fa nouns are as a rule feminine, there is an eexception:
morfa, y morfa sea marsh, the sea marsh


suffix used in creating pseudonyms
Glynfab son of Glyn (Rhondda), i.e. son of the Rhondda Valley (glyn = valley)

In the list of subscribers to the memorial volume to the poet Twynog published in 1912 (Twynog - Cyfrol Goffa y diweddar T. Twynog Jeffreys, Rhymni) there appear

(1) Mr. Ben Jones, Merthyrtudful (Merthyrfab) (son of Merthyr)

(2) Brynfab, Pont-y-pridd (son (of the) hill), possibly from Y Bryniau (the hills), the old name for the heads of the South Wales valleys. This was the pseudonym of Thomas Williams (1848-1927), born at Fforchaman, a farm in Cwmaman, Aber-dr. There is a Heol Brynfab (Brynfab Road) in Pont-y-pridd to commemorate this writer and poet, who lived most of his life at Eglwysilan, between Pont-y-pridd and Ystradmynach.

(3) Mr. James Williams, Fochriw (Pentwynfab) (son of Pentwyn a village name)

(4) Mr. David Davies, Aberaman (Eurfab) (son of gold aur = gold)

ETYMOLOGY: soft-mutated form of mab (= son)


Y Fachddeiliog
ə vaakh DHEIL yog

1 place in Y Bala

Safai yr hen Wenallt mewn pantle, rhwng y fan y saif y Wenallt presenol a'r llwyn o goed a elwir Nyrs Fachddeiliog, yn ymyl hen orsaf ffordd haiarn y Bala.
Adgofion Andronicus (= John William Jones, Y Bala, 1842-1895) Cyhoeddwyd: Caernarfon 1894 t24

The old Wenallt (farmhouse) stood in a hollow, between the place where the present Wenallt stands and a wood which was called Fachddeiliog Nursery, next to the old railway station in Y Bala

ETYMOLOGY: (leafy nook (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (bach = nook, corner, secluded spot) + soft mutation + (deiliog = leafy)


Y Fach-wen
vaakh WEN
place name - the white nook


v -dog masculine noun
soft-mutated form (m > f) of the mans name Madog, occurring as a genitive form in certain place names after a feminine main element

.....(a) Heol Fadog ((the) road (of) Madog) farm north-east of Y Pil (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

.....(b) Pontfadog pont Fadog ((the) bridge (of) Madog) village 6km west of Y Waun, county of Wrecsam, North-east Wales

.....(c) Craig Fadog ((the) crag (of) Madog)
1,5 km north-west of Fforddygyfraith (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)


Y Faenol
ə vei -nol
locality SH5369 in Y Felinheli (county of Gwynedd) fferm y Faenol

Parc y Faenol
SH5468 locality in the county of Gwynedd
English name: Vaynol Park
(the) field (of) the house of the district chief

(parc = field) + (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (maenol, northern form of maenor = house of the district chief) Parc y Faenol

2 Name of a tithing in Tywyn (county of Gwynedd)
Here there is Faenol Avenue, which would be Ffordd y Faenol (amongst other possibilities) in Welsh
Also there is a street here called Faenol Isaf

3 Faenol Avenue Name of a street in Abergele (county of Conwy)
This would be Ffordd y Faenol (amongst other possibilities) in Welsh

ETYMOLOGY: the house of the district chief
(y = definite article) + soft mutation + (maenol, northern form of maenor = house of the district chief; maenor is literally stones, < maenawr; maen (= stone) + (-awr plural suffix).


Another name with this suffix is the village of Croesor (Gwynedd) SH6344 < croesawr crosses

NOTE: The English spelling Vaynol is a good indication of the pronunciation of the word in Welsh

NOTE: In various publications the word maenol is said to be a corruption of the English word manor. This is a respelling of Middle English maner, from Old French manoir (= dwelling), a substantive use of the verb manoir (= to dwell, to remain) < Latin manēre ( = remain, stay). But despite the similarity in form of the two words, the Welsh word is not a loan word from English. Indeed, had the English word been taken into Welsh it could not have produced the form maenor / maenol.


Y Faenor
ə vei -nor
(SO0410) locality in the district of Brycheiniog (county of Powys). English spelling: Vaynor Eglwys y Faenor

2 a parish at this place
(1961) population: 3.472; proportion of Welsh-speakers: 26%
(1971) population: 3.475; proportion of Welsh-speakers: 14%

ETYMOLOGY: the house of the district chief
(y = definite article) + soft mutation + (maenor = house of the district chief)

In fact, a short name for an original
Maenorwynno ((the) tract (of) Gwynno)

(maenor = tract, administrative division) + soft mutation + (Gwynno = saints name) (The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

See maenor

NOTE: The English spelling Vaynor is a good indication of the pronunciation of the word in Welsh

Y Faenor Uchaf
ə vei nor ii-kha
(SN6182) parish in Ceredigion (Dyfed) Comins-coch

ETYMOLOGY: upper Faenor (y Faenor) + (uchaf = upper);
maenor (= house of the district chief)


Y Faerdre
ə veirdre
place name

A colloquial pronunciation is
Y Fardre (qv), and this sometines appears on maps

..a/ Y Faedre SN6901 a district of Abertawe


..b/ Y Faedre SH2530 farm in Botwnnog (Gwynedd)



..c/ Y Faedre Fawr SN4242a farm in Llandysul (Ceredigion)

(greater Faerdre)


..d/ Gwaralltyfaerdre SN4349 farm in Bwlchyfadfa, Ceredigion

(crest of the hill overlooking Y Faerdre)


..e/ Tomen y Faerdre SJ1956 mound at Llanarmon yn Il (Dinbych)

(castle mound at Y Faerdre)


..f/ Llanilltud Faerdre (ST0784) village in the county of Rhondda Cynon Taf

(the Llanilltud which is by Y Faerdre)


..g/ Y Faerdre (SH7879) locality in Degannwy (Conwy). On the Ordnance Survey map as The Vardre.




(the) trv or farmstead (of) the maer or steward

definite article ) + soft mutation + (maerdre < maerdref a stewards farmstead)

A final
f [v] in a polysyllabic word is retained in the literary language, though it has not been a feature of the spoken language for some centuries

Maerdref is (maer = steward) + soft mutation + (tref = trv, farmstead)


vag -dhi feminine noun
usually as y fagddu < afagddu (= utter darkness; hell), from Afagddu, which was the nickname of
Morfran eil Tegid, the son of Ceridwen, in medieval Welsh lore..

yn dywyll fel y fagddu pitch dark

mor dywyll r fagddu pitch dark

See Afagddu


va -gal feminine noun
1 Soft-mutatred form of magl (= trap)
y fagal (= the trap)

In Yr Hob (county of Wrecsam) there is a street called Fagl Lane (which would be Ln y Fagl in Welsh)


vain adjective
Soft mutated form (m > f) of main = slim, skinny, thin
merch fain a slim girl (there is soft mutation of the first consonant of an adjective which follows a feminine noun)

In the past there was soft mutation with an adjective after a mans name in forming epithets, and there are examples in modern Welsh

Dic Fain (slim Dick / Richard) (Example from Llafar Gwlad, number 73, Haf (summer) 2001 an article by Bobi Owen on nicknames in Dinbych (Denbigh in English))


vaint pronoun
faint? = how much? how many?
faint o bobl? how many people?
faint o athrawon? how many teachers?

(price) faint? = how much? what price?
faint ydi pris y siocled? how much is the choclate?

faint o... ac o...? = how many... and how many... ?
Faint o athrawon ac o lyfrgellwyr Cymru fyddai'n barod i wneud hyn? How many of Wales's teachers and librarians would be prepared / willing to do this?

how long (= faint o amser)
North Wales dweud faint sydd tan 'Dolig berate somebody ("say how much time there is until Christmas")

am faint mwy bydd y ffilm yn para? how much longer does the film last?

faint sydd ei angen arnoch? how much / how many do you need? ((it-is) how-much its necessity on you)

6 (clock time)
Faint or gloch yw hi? What time is it?
Faint wnaiff hi or gloch, meddwch chi? What time do you reckon it is?

7 (linear measurement) what measurement, what distance; how many inches, how many miles, etc
Faint ych chi am eich cluniau? Whats your hip size? (what measurement are you around your hips)

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh faint < (pa faint = which amount, what amount)
< (pa = which) + soft mutation + (maint = size, amount)


faint bynnag
vaint -nag
whatever (= whatever amount / sum / quantity)

2 faint bynnag foi werth whatever it may be worth

3 faint bynnag o... not matter how much..., no matter what quantity...

Chewch chi moni hi faint bynnag o arian a wariwch chi
You wont get it no matter how much money you spend

ETYMOLOGY: faint bynnag < pa faint bynnag
(pa = which, what) + soft mutation + (maint = size, quantity) + soft mutation + (pynnag = whatever)


faint gwell
vaint gwelh
how much better off
Tawn in neud hynny, faint gwell fyddwn i wedyn? If I were to do that, how much better off would I be afterwards?

Faint gwell fyddwn ni oi brynu? How much better off are we by buyng it? How will buying it benefit us?

ETYMOLOGY: (pa faint = what quantity) + (gwell = better) > pa faint gwell > faint gwell


vair feminine noun
soft-mutated form of Mair = Mary; the Virgin Mary

..1/ Celynnen Fair (Ruscus aculeatus) butcher's broom ((the) holly (of) Mary)

Y Forwyn Fair = the Virgin Mary, the Madonna

..3/ Ffynnon Fair Lady Well, ((the) well (of) Mary)

..4/ Gwyl Fair Lady Day, February the second ((the) feastday (of) Mary)

..5/ Llanfair
lhan-ver llan Fair ((the) church (dedicated to) (the Virgin) Mary, Mary Church)

..6/ ysgallen Fair ((the) thistle (of the Virgin) Mary) Silybium marianum milk thistle


'falau (fale, fala)
VA le
apples - clipped form of afalau


<VALV> [valv] feminine noun
PLURAL falfiau
<VALV-yai, ye> [ˡvalvjaɪ, -ɛ]
valve = device which allows a liquid or air to flow in one direction anly
falf ryddhu release valve ("valve (of) releasing" < rhyddhau)
falf wagio exit valve ("valve (of) emptying" < gwagio)
falf ddiogelu safety valve ("valve (of) keeping safe" < diogelu)
falf gau stop valve ("valve (of) closing" < cau)
falf bl
ball valve ("valve (of) ball" < pl)

ETYMOLOGY: English valve < Middle English < Latin valva (= folding door, door leaf)


y fall
<ə VALH> [ə vaɬ] feminine noun
evil; wickedness; the Evil One, the Devil, Satan; evil people, evil ones

Samuel-2 22:5 Canys gofidion angau am cylchynasant; afonydd y fall am dychrynasant i
Samuel-2 22:5 When the waves of death compassed me, the floods of ungodly men made me afraid

grymoedd y fall the powers of darkness

ETYMOLOGY: (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (mall = blight, plague, pestilence). See mall.


<VA-lhe> [ˡvaɬɛ] adverb
maybe, perhaps; see efallai

NOTE: falle / falle < efalle < efallai.

In colloquial Welsh, a final diphthong "ai" becomes "e" efallai > efalle;

and colloquially in Welsh a first syllable can drop away in the case of certain words a very common feature in Welsh

efalle > falle

There is in fact a further development in the south-east where the intial [v] becomes [w]

Here a final e is pronounced a (falle > falla) and so falla > walla

Another example of f > w is the place name Llansantffrid yn Elfael, in mid-Wales, colloquially yn Elwel. (final ae, like final ai, becomes e)

<WA-lha> [ˡwɑɬa] is also to be heard as wylla <-lha> [ˡwəɬa], where the a in the tonic syllable becomes the obscure vowel [ə] a feature found in other words in Welsh


<VAL-mai> [ˡvalmaɪ]
woman's name


Y Fam Ynys
VAM Ə-nis> [ə ˡvam ˡənɪs] feminine noun
nickname for Ynys Mn = 'the mother isle', from the saying Mn mam Cymru ("Mn the mother of Wales") - in former times this fertile island provided the mainland with grain. The poorer soils and the altitude of the mainland made it difficult to grow crops there

Mae trigolion y Fam Ynys yn gandryll fod y Sir wedi ei gadael oddi ar yr arian Iwro newydd
The inhabitants of the Mother Island are furious that the county has been left off the new Euro money

ETYMOLOGY: (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (Mam Ynys "mother island")


1 fan
<VAN> [van] feminine noun
PLURAL faniau
<VAN-yai, ye> [ˡvanjaɪ, -ɛ]
van = vehicle for carrying equipment, goods, people
fan fudo removal van (qv)
fan ddodrefn removal van (North)
fan gelfi removal van (South)
fan halio tow-truck
fan heddlu police van (qv)

van = vehicle for distributing goods (often defined in terms of the goods carried)
fan ddosbarthu delivery van
fan ddosrannu
delivery van
fan ddanfon delivery van
fan bost post van
fan fara bread van (qv)
fan lyfrau book van

gyrrwr fan van driver
dyn fan van driver, van man

fan ddu police van (American: paddy wagon) (Englandic: Black Maria)

fan y gard (Railroad / Railway) (American: baggage car) (Englandic: van, guard's van); final wagon in a train where the guard travels

ETYMOLOGY: English van < caravan < Italian caravana < Persian krwn


2 fan
<VAN> [van]
soft mutation of ban (= peak, mountain top)

In Bannau Brycheiniog
<BA-nai, ne, brə-KHEIN-yog> [ˡbanaɪ, -ɛ, brəˡxəɪnjɔg] ('the peaks of the region of Brycheiniog') (English: The Brecon Beacons) there are a number of names with fan

Y Fan Fawr
<ə van VAUR> [ə van ˡvaʊr] big peak
Y Fan Fraith
<ə van VRAITH> [ə van ˡvraɪθ] speckled peak
Y Fan Hir
<ə van HIIR> [ə van ˡhiːr] long peak

Here the soft mutation is to be expected (singular feminine noun after the definite article)

In other names it is unusual the non-mutated form ban would be expected. It is probably an imitation of the names above (Y Fan Fawr / Fraith / Hir)

- Fan Bwlch Chwyth
<VAN bulkh KHWIITH> [ˡvan bʊlx ˡxwiːθ] peak of the windy gap
Fan Frynych
<van VRƏ-nikh> [van ˡvrənɪx] Brynach's peak
Fan Gyhirych
<VAN gə-HII-rikh> [ˡvan gəˡhiˑrɪx]
Fan Llia <van LHII-a> [van ˡɬɪa]
Fan Nedd <van NEEDH> [van ˡneː] peak in the district of Nedd


Y Fan
VAN> [ə ˡvan]
SN5658 hill 283m by Trefilan (Ceredigion)


Below is a farm called Tal-fan SN5557 tl y fan (place) facing Y Fan (tl = forehead) + (Y Fan). The loss of the linking definite article is a common feature of place names

2 John Hobson Matthews (Mab Cernyw) in Cardiff Records (1889-1911):

March 1745.
Thomas Van was indicted for stealing boards from the floors of the Whitefriars, Cardiff, to build a slope-house in the town.

1754: Alice, wife of Thomas Van, of Cardiff, victualler, was convicted of stealing four gold guineas. She was sentenced "To be hanged by the neck," but these words at foot of the Indictment have been struck through with the pen.

(The name is likely to be Tomos y Fan, Tomos from Y Fan, a place between Caer-dydd and Caerffili)

ETYMOLOGY: The hillname Y Fan means the peak (y definite article = the) + soft mutation + (ban = peak)


3 fan
<VAN> [van]
suffix = place

(soft mutation of man = place)

canolfan centre

uchelfan high place


It also occurs in house names:

Blodfan flower place, place of flowers

Ceinfan fair place, beautiful place

Cludfan sheltered place, cosy place

Coedfan wood place, place of trees, place by a wood

Creigfan place by the rock or cliff

Eglwysfan place by the church

Goleufan sunlit place

Gwynfan fair place, beautiful place

Glasfan green place, verdant place

Golygfan viewpoint; place with a view

Harddfan fair place, beautiful place

Heddfan place of peace, peaceful place

Heulfan sunlit place

Hyfrydfan pleasant place

Llwydfan grey place; blessd place

Llwynfan wood place, place by a (small) wood

Llysfan place of the court

Morfan sea place, place by the sea

Tawelfan tranquil place

Tegfan fair place, beautiful place

Tremfan place with a view



y fan ar fan
VAN ar VAN> [ə ˡvan ar ˡvan]
such and such a place = a place indicated but not specified

yn y fan ar fan in such and such a place = in a place indicated but not specified

Aem at bobl y farchnad a dweud wrthynt fod
John Jones, Tŷ-gwyn, neu ryw berson dychmygol arall, yn ymofyn ei weled yn y fan-ar-fan
We would go up to the people in the market and say to them that John Jones, of Tŷ-gwyn, or some other imaginary person, was asking to see them in such and such a place

ETYMOLOGY: the place and the place (y = the) + soft mutation + (man = place) , (ar = and the)


<VAN-dal> [ˡvandal] (m)

PLURAL fandaliaid <van-DAL-yaid, yed> [vanˡdaljaɪd, -ɛd]

Cafodd y ceiliog alarch ei drin ar l i fandaliaid daflu poteli ato
The male swan was treated after vandals threw bottles at it

ETYMOLOGY: From English vandal < Latin Vandalus < Germanic


<van-dal-EIDH-yo> [vandalˡəɪjɔ] verb

ETYMOLOGY: imitation of English vandalise (fandal = vandal) + (-eiddio, suffix for forming verbs equivalant to the English suffix -ise, -ize)


fan fara
<van VAA-ra> [van ˡvɑˑra] feminine noun
PLURAL faniau bara
<VAN-yai, ye BAA-ra> [ˡvanjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡbɑˑra]
baker's van, bread van (for delivering bread, or selling bread)

ETYMOLOGY: (fan = van) + soft mutation + (bara = bread)


fan fudo
<van VII-do> [van ˡviˑdɔ] feminine noun
PLURAL faniau mudo
<VAN-yai, ye MII-do> [ˡvanjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡmiˑdɔ]
removals van

ETYMOLOGY: (fan = van) + soft mutation + (mudo = move)


<va-NHAD-log> [vaˡnhadlɔg] adjective
Soft mutated form (b > f) of the adjective banhadlog (= abounding in broom)

Gellifanadlog place name in Senghenydd (county of Caerffili)
y gelli fanhadlog broomy grove
(y = definite article) + soft mutation + (celli = wood, grove) + soft mutation + (banhadlog = broomy)

There is soft mutation of the first consonant of an adjective which follows a feminine noun

Soft mutated form (b > f) of the feminine noun banhadlog (= place with broom, broomy land)


fan heddlu
<van HEDH-li> [van ˡhɛlɪ] feminine noun
PLURAL faniau heddlu
<VAN-yai, ye HEDH-li> [ˡvanjaɪ, -ɛ, ˡhɛlɪ]
(USA: patrol wagon, paddy wagon) (Englandic: police van, Black Maria)

ETYMOLOGY: "van (of) police" (fan = van) + (heddlu = police)


fan hwyraf / fan hwyra
<van HUI-rav, van HUI-ra> [van ˡhʊɪrav, van ˡhʊɪra] adverb
at the latest
Bydda i nl am chwech fan hwyraf I'll be back by six at the latest

ETYMOLOGY: (man = place) + (hwyraf = latest); soft mutation of the intial consonant of the phrase to indicate that it is adverbial


<va-NII-la-> [vaˡniˑla] masculine noun
vanilla = tropical orchid of the genus Vanilla, especially Vanilla fragrans; an extract from the fruit is used as a flavouring

vanilla = the fruit or bean of this plant

vanilla = the extract from this fruit

coden fanila
vanilla pod
ffen fanila
or ffeuen fanila vanilla bean
hufen i fanila
vanilla ice cream
rhin fanila
vanilla essence

ETYMOLOGY: English vanilla < New Latin < Castilian vainilla (= little pod)
< (vain- < vaina) + (-illa diminutive suffix); vaina < Latin vgna (= sheath);

cf Welsh gwain (= sheath, vagina) < Latin vgna


fan lleiaf, fan lleia
<van LHEI-av, van LHEI-a> [van ˡɬəɪav, van ˡɬəɪa] adverb
at the very least

Bron nad oedd yr hyn a ddywedwyd yn gabledd; yr oedd fan leiaf yn gablu urddas y drefn Fethodistaidd
what had been said was almost blasphemy; at the very least it compromised the dignity of the Methodist order

ETYMOLOGY: (man = place) + (lleiaf = least); soft mutation of the intial consonant of the phrase to indicate that it is adverbial


<VAN-tol> [ˡvantɔl] feminine noun
soft-mutated form of mantol (= scales)
yn y fantol (= in the balance, at stake)


<VAA-nu> [ˡvɑˑnʊ] (substantival adjective)
female, after animal names which are feminine; cath fanw female cat

ETYMOLOGY: soft mutated form of banw, a variant of benyw (= woman)


Y Farchynys
<ə VARKH-ənis> [ə ˡvarxənɪs]
SH6617 Farm east of Y Bermo map

ETYMOLOGY: the horse-island

definite article ) + soft mutation + (marchynys = horse island)

marchynys < (march = horse) + (ynys = island)

Cf Scottish Gaelic Marginis (English: Markinch) in Fobha / Fife, said to have been an island in a lake existing in 1200.


Y Fardre
<VAR-dre> [ˡvardrɛ]

1 a colloquial form of Y Faerdre (qv)

Y Fardre SH9675 farm by Abergele (Vardre Fm = Vardre Farm on the Ordnance Survey maps)

ETYMOLOGY: y fardre < y faerdre < y faerdref

(the) trv or farmstead (of) the maer or steward

definite article ) + soft mutation + (maerdre < maerdref a stewards farmstead)


In South Wales ae > (perhaps better spelt aa) in monosyllables is a well-known feature (maen > mn / maan, etc). In certain words with r it occurs in the penult (maerdre > mardre, maerdy > mardy)

Fari Lwyd
<VAA-ri LUID> [ˡvɑˑrɪ ˡlʊɪd] (f)
see Mari Lwyd


<VAR-nais, nes> [ˡvarnaɪs, nɛs] masculine noun
1 varnish

NOTE: Colloquially farnis / farnish
<VAR-nis, nish> [ˡvarnɪs, nɪʃ]

ETYMOLOGY: farnais < English varnish < Middle English < Middle Frech vernis <
Medieval latin vernicium (= sandarac) < Medieval Greek bernk / bernk, a syncopated form of / Berenk, a city in Cyrenaica

The word was borrowed into Welsh after the sound change er > ar had occurred in this word in English

Cf other words in Welsh from English:

..a/ fferm and ffarm (= farm); the standard form fferm is a pre- er > ar form

..b/ person (= parson) is a pre- er > ar form


farnais ewinedd
<VAR-nais, nes. eu-II-nedh> [ˡvarnaɪs, -ɛs, ɛʊˡiˑnɛ] masculine noun
nail varnish

ETYMOLOGY: "varnish (of) nails" (farnais = varnish) + (ewinedd = nails)
Also: lliw ewinedd (colour [for] nails)


<var-NEIS-jo> [varnˡaɪs, -ɛs, ɛʊˡiˑnɛ] masculine noun
nail varnish

ETYMOLOGY: "varnish (of) nails" (farnais = varnish) + (ewinedd = nails)
Also: lliw ewinedd (colour [for] nails)

<var-SHAA-va> [varˡʃɑˑva] feminine noun
A Welsh spelling of an approximation of the Polish pronunciation of Warszawa <var-SHA-va> [varˡʃava], the capital of Poland

English: Warsaw
<WOO-soo> [ˡwoˑsoː]


Y Farteg
<ə VAR-teg> [ə ˡvartɛg]
1 hill name

1/ Y Farteg SN7707 hill above Ystalyfera (Powys) (Anglicised as Varteg Hill)

Penrhiwfarteg SN7707
<pen-hriu-VAR-teg> [pɛn hrɪʊ ˡvartɛg] place near here pen rhiwr farteg (the) bottom-end (of the) hillside (of) the Farteg (pen = end; top) + (rhiw = slope, hillside) + (Y Farteg hill name). The loss of the linking definite article is a common feature of place names Penrhiwfarteg

..2/ Street names in the village of Y Bryn SS8192 (Castell-nedd ac Aberafan) by Heol Maes-teg

..a/ Cwmfarteg
<kum-VAR-teg> [kʊmˡvartɛg] (Cwm Farteg) cwm y Farteg the valley below Y Farteg

..b/ Brynfarteg
<brin-VAR-teg> [brɪnˡvartɛg] (Bryn Varteg) bryn y Farteg

bryn y Farteg the hill of Y Farteg

(the linking definite article is very often omitted in place names)

(as a street name with the form of a settlement name without any element indicating road, street, avenue, etc it is best spelt as a settlement name, i.e. as a single word, Brynfarteg instead of Bryn Farteg)

..c/ Varteg Row, which would be Rhestr y Farteg in Welsh (and one would expect a local form such as Ystar Fartag) Y Bryn

3/ Y Farteg SO2605 village in Torfaen, above Abersychan and Pont-y-pw^l. On some maps with the English name Varteg Hill, on the Ordnance Survey map as Varteg.

Mynydd y Farteg Fawr greater Mynydd y Farteg

Mynydd y Farteg Fach lesser Mynydd y Farteg

mynydd y Farteg (the) uplands (of) (the spot called) Y Farteg

It seems that here the adjectives mawr / bach have soft-mutated because they are used to differentiate each part of a pair. This is also to be seen in farm names of masculine gender, where a soft mutated adjective would otherwise not be expected. Thus Y Garth Fawr, Y Garth Fach, (Greater Y Garth, lesser Y Garth) instead of Y Garth Mawr, Y Garth Bach, which would suggest big hill, little hill (garth = hill) Mynydd y Farteg Fawr Y Farteg

4/ Penfarteg
<pen-VAR-teg> [pɛn ˡvartɛg] SN5162 south of Pennant, Ceredigion, and east of Aberaeron

ETYMOLOGY: y farteg the fair place / the fair hill

(y definite article) + soft mutation + (marteg)

Marteg (qv) was originally marchdeg (march = horse; also used as an intensifying prefix) + soft mutation + (teg = fair)

The use of
march to intensify is paralleled by the use of horse in English horse mushroom, etc

NOTE: There has been a tendency to spell some Welsh place names wihich have the letter f with a letter v instead, as to non-Welsh speakers it seems absurd that the letter f in Welsh represents the sound [v]. In the case of Y Farteg, there may also be an attempt to avoid disagreeable associations, as to an Anglicised mind the correct Welsh spelling resembles the unpleasant English word fart.

(delwedd 7428)


fasa fawr i ti?
<VA-sa VAUR i ti> [ˡvasa ˡvaʊr ɪ tɪ]
1 (North-west) would you mind

Fasa fawr i ti roir platia ma ar y bwrdd?

Would you mind putting these plates on the table? Could you put these plates on the table for me?


fasa fo ddim <VA-sa-vo DHIM> [ˡvasavɔ ˡɪm]
he wouldn't (North-west)


fasa fo? <VA-sa-vo> [ˡvasavɔ]
would he? (North-west)


fasa hi ddim
VA sa hi DHIM
she wouldn't (North-west)


fasa hi?
VA sa hi
would she? (North-west)


fasach chi ddim
VA sa khi DHIM
you wouldn't (North-west)


fasach chi?
VA sa khi
would you? (North-west)


fasan nhw ddim
VA sa nu DHIM
they wouldn't (North-west)


fasan nhw?
VA sa nu
would they? (North-west)


fasan ni ddim
VA sa ni DHIM
we wouldn't (North-west)


fasan ni? VA sa ni
would we? (North-west)


fasat ti ddim
VA sa ti DHIM
you wouldn't (North-west)


fasat ti?
VA sa ti
would you? (North-west)


fase fe ddim
VA se ve DHIM
he wouldn't


fase fe? VA se ve
would he?


fase fo ddim VA se vo DHIM
he wouldn't (North-east)


fase fo? VA se vo
would he? (North-east)


fase hi ddim
VA se hi DHIM
she wouldn't (unified colloquial Welsh)


fase hi? VA se hi
would she? (unified colloquial Welsh)


fasech chi ddim
VA se khi DHIM
you wouldn't


fasen nhw ddim
VA se nu DHIM
they wouldn't (unified colloquial Welsh)


fasen nhw?
VA se nu
would they? (unified colloquial Welsh)


fasen ni ddim
VA se ni DHIM
we wouldn't (unified colloquial Welsh)


fasen ni? VA se ni
would we? (unified colloquial Welsh)


faset ti ddim
VA se ti DHIM
you wouldn't (unified colloquial Welsh)


faset ti?
VA se ti
would you? (unified colloquial Welsh)


faswn i ddim
VA sun i DHIM
I wouldn't (unified colloquial Welsh)


faswn i?
VA sun i
would I? (unified colloquial Welsh)


y fath beth
ə vaath beeth
such a thing
Maen anodd credur fath beth Its hard to believe such a thing
Duw an gwaredo rhag y fath beth God save us from such a thing!

ETYMOLOGY: (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (math = kind, sort, type) + soft mutation + (peth = thing)


v -tho masculine noun
soft-mutated form (m > f) of the mans name Matho (qv) (= Matthew) occurring as a genitive form in this place name:

Graig Fatho ((the) crag (of) Matthew) a farm east of Coedeli ST0185 (near Tonyrefail, county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)


..1 fawr
vaur adjective
Soft mutated form (m > f) of mawr = big
Y Bont Fawr the big bridge
Yr Allt Fawr the big hill (name of a hill in the district of Meirionydd, county of Gwynedd);
(in these names there is soft mutation of the first consonant of an adjective which follows a feminine noun)

In the past there was soft mutation with an adjective after a mans name in forming epithets, and there are examples in modern Welsh
Ifan Fawr (big Ifan) Example from Llafar Gwlad, number 73, Haf (summer) 2001 an article by Bobi Owen on nicknames in Dinbych (Denbigh in English)


..1 fawr o
..1 not

..2 heb fawr o without much...;
heb fawr o lwc without much luck ("without (a) great (amount) of luck")

..3 (before a plural noun) only a few, not many
does fawr o there aren't many...
eglwysi bychain o bren a chlai a godwyd, a does fawr o'r rhain erbyn hyn
small churches of clay and wood were built, and there aren't many of those today

ETYMOLOGY: soft mutation of mawr (= big)

NOTE: Also fawr ddim o


..1 fawr
vaur pronoun
not much time
does ganddo fawr i fyw he hasnt got long to live
ni fu fawr byw wedi hynny he didnt live long after that


fawr fwy vaur vui adv
1 not much more, not + little more

Fedrwn ni wneud fawr fwy nag aros ein cyfle
We can do little more than wait for our chance

ETYMOLOGY: (fawr soft-mutated form of mawr = big) + (fwy soft-mutated form of mwy = more)


fawr neb
vaur neeb pronoun
hardly anyone

Ddaeth fawr neb hardly anybody came

Fu yno fawr neb ddoe there was hardly anybody there yesterday

NOTE: Also fawr o neb

ETYMOLOGY: (fawr, soft mutation of mawr = big) + (neb = somebody, nobody)


fawr o
1 ni + fawr
o, nid + fawr o not much
Does (= nid oes) fawr o Gymreg rhyngddyn nhw Theyre not speaking to each other, Theyve fallen out, Theyre not on good terms with each other (theres not much Welsh between them)


fawr o beth
vaur o beeth
ni + fawr o beth
nid + fawr o beth

not much use

(person) useless
Dyw e fawr o beth Hes useless
Mi 'roedd gynno fo un mab; ond 'doedd hwnnw fawr o beth ar y ffarm am ei fod wedi cael ei ddandlwn gan ei fam
He had a son, but he wasnt up to much on the farm because he had been spoilt by his mother

ETYMOLOGY: not much of a thing (fawr = not much, soft mutation of mawr = big) + (o = of) + soft mutation + (peth = thing)


fawr o daro
vaur o d-ro -
North Wales
ni + bod fawr o daro ar (rywun) not be keen to do sth, not really feel like, not be really bothered about ("not + be much impact on someone)";
Doedd arna i fawr o daro mynd I wasn't too bothered about going


fawr o ddim
vaur o dhim -
not much, hardly anything ("not-big / of / something")

ni + bod fawr o ddim be not much, be hardly anything
Yr unig dref sy'n agos yw Dolgellau ac nid oes fawr o ddim yno
The only town nearby is Dolgellau and there's not much there

ni + cael fawr o ddim not + find much, find + hardly anything;
Chewch chi fawr o ddim yn y siop fach honno
You won't find much in that little shop (that has been mentioned)


erary Welsh ef eev
independent pronoun he (south-west)
Nd fe sydd ar fai / Dim fe sydd ar fai / Nage fe sydd ar fai Its not HIShis fault
(In literary Welsh: Nd ef sydd ar fai)

Fen unig a wyr Only he knows, None knows but him

Da iawn fe Good for him!


v -khan adjective
Soft mutated form
b > v of bechan, feminine form of bychan (= small, little, lesser)

Graigfechan (the) little rock (village in the county of Dinbych);

Nedd Fechan (the) lesser Nedd, a tributary of the Nedd river in south-east Wales
(in these names there is soft mutation of the first consonant of an adjective which follows a feminine noun)

Llanfair Fechan (Llanfairfechan) village name, little Llanfair

soft mutation of medal
y fedal ddrama
VE dal DHRA ma the drama medal (eisteddfod)
y fedal lenyddiaeth
VE dal le NƏDH yeth the literature medal (eisteddfod)


veedh masculine noun
soft-mutated form of bedd = grave
cadw cyfrinach hyd dy fedd keep a secret until your dying day, take a secret with you to the grave

soft-mutated form of medd (= he possesses), from the verb meddu (= to possess)
a fedd... (= which has...)
(the relative pronoun a is often dropped, though the mutation remanins)

Y fi yw y pregethwr mwyaf fedd Sir Fynwy
(Cofiant a Phregethau y Diweddar Barch. David James Llaneurwg. Thomas Rees, D.D, a D. M. Phillips. 1896. t15)
Im the greatest preacher that the county of Mynwy has


fe ddichon
vee dh -khon adverb
maybe, perhaps
Thomas Morgan, a Thomas Evans, yr wyf yn meddwl, neu fe ddichon John Williams, fuodd yn gweithio yno y noson honno
Thomas Morgan, and Thomas Evans, I think, or maybe (it was) John Williams, were working there that night

ETYMOLOGY: (fe preverbal particle) + soft mutation + (dichon = can)


fedra i ddim
ve-drai- dhim verb
I can't
Fedra i ddim gweld dim byd I cant see a thing
Cofio ei rhif ffn hi? Fedra i ddim hyd yn oed cofio yn rhif ffn innau!
Remember her phone number? I dont even remember MY OWN phone number!

ETYMOLOGY: Literary Welsh ni fedraf (gofio)
(ni = no) + soft mutation + (medraf = puc) + soft mutation + (cofio = remember) > colloquial Welsh fedra i ddim (cofio)
(1) loss of the negator ni
(2) addition of the pronoun i = I
(3) addition of the negator ddim
(4) no mutation after ddim


fedra i mo
ve-drai mo verb
I can't
Fedra i moi aros o (North) I cant stand him

ETYMOLOGY: ni fedraf fi ddim o ei (+ gerund) (+ pronoun tag) (ni negative particle) + soft mutation + (medraf = I can) + (fi = I) + (ddim = not) + (ei = his)


Y Fedwenarian
ə ved-wen ar-yan
(Y Fedwen Arian) street name in Penymynydd (SJ3062) (county of Y Fflint)

ETYMOLOGY: the silver birch (Betula pendula) (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (bedwen arian = golden birch)


ve-gan masculine noun
PLURAL feganiaid
vegan = strict vegetarian, one who doesn't eat meat, eggs or milk products


preverbal particle fe + third-person direct object determiner ei.

When ei is used independently it is followed by a mutation.

Ei = his, its (referring to nouns of masculine gender) - soft mutation
desg (= desk), roedd papurau Sin ar ei ddesg Sins papers were on his desk

Ei = her, its (referring to nouns of feminine gender) - spirant mutation
car (= car), gadodd Sin ei hallweddau yn ei char Sin left her keys in her car

However, there is no mutation after fei
Fei gwelais I saw him, I saw her, I saw it
Fei gwelais ef I saw him, I saw it (with the addition of the tag pronoun)
Fei gwelais hi I saw her, I saw it (with the addition of the tag pronoun)

Often found used in conjunction with verbs in the passive voice
Fe'i penodwyd yn brifathro ar ysgol gynradd yng Ngheredigion
He was appointed headmaster of a primary school in Ceredigion
Fe'i cymerwyd yn garcharor gan y Japaneiaid yn Singapore
He was taken prisoner by the Japanese in Singapore

Fei lladda i e! Ill kill him!


veib -yon
soft-mutated form of meibion (= sons), plural of mab (= son)

Two examples from South Wales: (in the south, the suffix ion becomes -on, hence meibion > meibon; and ei > ii, hence miibon)

(1) John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911), notes a meadow called Gwaun Feibion Sin
"Gwayne Veibon Shone: (the meadow of the sons of John.) A tenement in the parish of Pentyrch and lordship of Miscyn (1666).

The spelling Gwayne Veibon Shone is the local form of the name, and probably represents Gweun Fibon Shn.

(2) Llangatwg Feibion Afel village in the county of Mynwy ((the) Llangatwg (of the) sons (of) Abel) .

The local form would have been Llangatwg Feibon Afal / Llangatwg Fibon Afal.

The English form is an approximation of the local form in mostly English spelling Llangattock Vibon Avel

..1/ in south Wales, the semi-consonant [j] at the head of a final syllable in most cases is absent ion > -on

..2/ again, especially in South Wales, the diphthong ei in a penult syllable is reduced to a half-long simple vowel [i] feib- > fib-

..3/ in south-east Wales, in the traditional dialect of the region (Y Wenhwyseg), an e in a final syllable is replaced by a Afel > Afal

..4/ In south-east Wales b, d, g at the head of a final syllable are devoiced to p, t, c

Thus Llangadog > Llangatog (> Llangatwg)

..5/ An o in a final syllable in the south-east is not usually replaced by w, but a few other instances of this in other words occur


Fei caiff hi!
vei kaif hii
Hes in for it! Hell cop it! (said of somebody who does something risky or disapproved of or illegal which is bound to result in failure or punishment)

ETYMOLOGY: (fe = affirmative particle ) + (i = of her, of it) + (caiff = he-she-it will get) + (hi = it)


cei di hi! vei kei dii hii
youll catch it!

ETYMOLOGY: (fe = affirmative particle ) + (i = of her, of it) + (cei di = you will get) + (hi = it)


Y Feifod
ə vei -vod
(English name: Vivod) place by Llangollen (county of Dinbych). See Meifod


vei -ti masculine noun
clipped form of defeity (= sheepcot, shelter for sheep).

There is a Moel Feity ("hill of the sheepcot") SN8524 by Llyn y Fan Fawr ("lake of the great peak") on Mynydd Du ("black hills / black mountain") in the southern part of the county of Powys


similes which begin with fel (see below; they are grouped


veel feminine noun
PLURAL feliau, fls
vel -ye
veil = cloth covering the head and face
Yr oedd hi yn gwisgo fl dywyll She was wearing a dark veil

ETYMOLOGY: 19th century; English veil < Norman veile < Latin vla (= sails) < vlum (= sail, cloth)


fel ag i
vel aag i
to, so as to, in order to
gwneud rhywbeth fel ag i dynnu sylw pawb do something to draw everyones attention

ETYMOLOGY: (fel = as, like) + (ag, pre-vowel form of = with ) + (i = to)


Y Felallt
vel -alht
(SJ5458) Welsh name for the village of Beeston, Cheshire, England; 4km south of Tarporley

(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)

ETYMOLOGY: (the honey hill)

(y = definite article) + soft mutation + (melallt honey hill):
(ml = honey) + (allt = hill)


fel angen pigyn yn y clust
vel a-ngen p-gin ən ə klist
Mae arna i i angen fel angen pigyn yn y clust I need it like a hole in the head (i.e. I dont need it at all, it would not be pleasant to have it)

(I need it like a pain in the ear, (it) is on me its need like (a) need (of) (a) pain in the ear)

ETYMOLOGY: (fel = like) + (angen = need) + (pigyn = pain) + (yn = dins) + (y = definite article) + (clust = ear)


fel arall
otherwise = differently
tybio fel arall think otherwise
meddwl fel arall think otherwise
gwneud fel arall do otherwise
fel arall y clywais i I heard differently
weithiau fel hyn, weithiau fel arall sometimes like this, and sometimes differently


fel arian
vel ar-yan -
sgleinio fel arian = shine like silver
gloyw fel arian as bright as silver, silver-bright, sparkling bright
cododd e bedol oddi ar yr heol, un loyw fel arian
he picked up a horseshoe from the road, one as bright as silver


fel baw
vel a-skurn
rhad fel asgwrn as cheap as dirt, dirt-cheap


fel asgwrn
vel a-skurn
sych fel asgwrn dry as a bone


fel bol buwch
vel bol biukh -
(said of a dark place) bod fel bol buwch be pitch-black ("be like (a) belly (of a) cow")


fel bwcram
vel bu -kram
stiff fel bwcram (stiff like buckram) (buckram = a stiff fabric made from cotton )


fel bwyren
vel bui -ren
See: fel pabwyren


fel cadno
vel kad no
(South Wales) cyfrwys fel cadno as sly as a fox, as cunning as a fox, as artful as a monkey (in the north: fel llwynog = like a fox)

ETYMOLOGY: cadno = southern word for fox


fel cannwyll corff
vel ka-nuill korf -
said of somebody who appears to be on the point of death ("like a corpse candle", literally 'death candle')
Mae o fel cannwyll corff He's got one foot in the grave ("he's like a corpse candle")


fel cath am laeth
vel kaath am laith
(like (a) cat for milk) said of somebody who drinks too much beer, etc

ETYMOLOGY: : (fel = like) + (cath = cat) + (am = for) + soft mutation + (llaeth = milk)


fel cefn eich llaw
vel ke-ven əkh llau
adnabod rhywbeth fel cefn eich llaw know something like the back of your hand

ETYMOLOGY: (fel = like) + (cefn = back) + (eich = your) + (llaw = hand)


fel ci ai gynffon rhwng ei afl
vel kii ai gən-fon hrung i a-fal
dejected, miserable, unhappy, crestfallen, with its tail between its legs, cowed

ETYMOLOGY: (like a dog with its tail in its crotch / between its legs)
(fel = like) + (ci = dog) + (i = with its) + soft mutation + (cynffon = tail) + (rhwng = between) + (ei = its, his) + soft mutation + (gafl = crotch)


fel ci ar gadwyn
vel kii ar gad-win
fel ci ar gadwyn like a dog straining at the leash (like (a) dog on (a) chain)
very eager to do something


fel ci ar hwch
vel kii ar huukh
bod fel ci a'r hwch
(be like a dog and the sow) (of a couple who are always arguing) be like cat and mouse; live a cat and dog life

ETYMOLOGY: (fel = like) + (ci = dog) + (ar = and the) + (hwch = sow)


fel ci wrth yr asgwrn
vel kii urth ər a-skurn
(like a dog attached to / busy with the bone) not giving something up easily, not allowing something to be taken away; hanging onto something for dear life


fel ci yn y preseb
vel kii ən ə pre-seb -
like a dog in the manger; said of somebody who has something which is of no use to him or her but prevents another person who needs it or cold put it to good use from having it (from the image of a dog in a cowhouse lying on the hay in a hayrack and so preventing the cows from eating it)


fel clap y felin
vel clak ə v-lin
(said of a talkative person) like (the) clack (of) the mill
Also fel clap melin like (the) clack (of) (a) mill

(fel = like) + (clap = clack) + (y = the) + soft mutation + (melin = mill)
(fel = like) + (clap = clack) + (melin = mill)


fel crisial
kri -shal
clir fel crisial crystal clear (clear like crystal)


fel cŵn a chathod
vel kuun aa kh-thod
ymladd fel cŵn a chathod (many people) fight like cat and dog
Roedd y Taffis ar Padis yn ymladd fel cŵn a chathod yn ardaloedd glo Amrica
The Taffies and the Paddies fought like cats and dogs in the coalmining areas of America

ETYMOLOGY: (fel = like) + (cŵn = dogs, plural of ci = dog) + (a = and) + aspirate mutation (cathod = cats, plural of cath = cat)


fel cwningen
vel ku- ni -ngen
like a rabbit
ei wneud e do it = have sex
Mae hin ei wneud e fel cwningen She fucks like a bunny rabbit (she does it like a rabbit)


fel dail y coed
vel dail ə koid
bod fel dail y coed be ten a penny, be very common (be like the leaves of the tree)

ETYMOLOGY: (fel = like) + (dail = leaves, plural of deilen = leaf) + (y definite article) + (coed = trees, plural of coeden = tree)


fel dau dincer
vel dau ding -ker
(North Wales) (said of a quarrelsome couple) like two tinkers

ETYMOLOGY: (fel = like) + (dau = two) + soft mutation + (tincer = tinker, repairer of damaged or broken objects)


fel delw
vel de -lu
fel delw stock still (like a statue)
mynd fel delw stand stock still (go like / become like a statue)
Mi aeth fel delw he stood stock still (with fright)
sefyll fel delw stand stock still (stand like a statue)

ETYMOLOGY: (fel = like) + (delwedd = statue, idol)


fel diawl dan garreg
vel diaul dan ga-reg
(North-west Wales) said of a constant complainer

ETYMOLOGY: literally: like a devil under a stone
(fel = like) + (diawl = devil) + (dan = under) + soft mutation + (carreg = stone)


fel dŵr
vel duur adverb
like water expresses ease

hawdd fel dŵr
plain sailing, easy as pie ("easy like water")

(ei wneud do it = have sex) Mae hin ei wneud fel dŵr She fucks like a bunny rabbit (she does it like water)


fel dyfrgi
vel dəvr-gi adverb
bod fel dyfrgi (person) be soaking wet ("be like an otter")


Soft mutated form (m > f) of melen, feminine form of melyn = yellow
(in these examples below there is soft mutation of the first consonant of an adjective which follows a feminine noun)
y dwymyn felen the yellow fever

Place names:
Bronfelen (the) yellow hill; street name in Draenen Pen y Graig, Caer-dydd

Ffosfelen (the) yellow ditch; street name in Tre-gŵyr, Abertawe

Heol Felen (the) yellow way; street name in Y Garnant (county of Caerfyrddin)

Rhyd Felen / Rhydfelen (the) yellow ford; original name of Rhydyfelin, near Pont-y-pridd.
..a/ The word felen was confused with felin, from melin (= mill).
Thus rhyd felen > rhyd felin.
..b/ Then the linking definite article was restored rhyd y felin.
(In such a name as Rhydyfelin rhyd y felin (the) ford (of) the mill) it is usual in place names for the linking definite article to be dropped > Rhydfelin rhyd felin)


fel ffeiriad mewn ffair
vel feir-yad meun fair verb
sefyll allan fel ffeiriad mewn ffair
stick out like a sore thumb = be very obvious

ETYMOLOGY: stand out like a clergyman in a fair
(sefyll allan = stand out) + (fel = like) + (ffeiriad < offeiriad = clergyman) + (mewn = in) + (ffair = fair)


fel gafr ar daranau
vel ga-var ar da-ra-ne
agitated, jumpy, nervous
(adverb) agitatedly

ETYMOLOGY: (like (a) goat on thunderclaps = like a goat when there are peals of thunder)
(fel = like) + (gafr = goat) + (ar = on; on the occasion of) + soft mutation + (taranau claps of thunder, < taran = clap of thunder, thunderclap)

NOTE: also: fel gafr ar dranau

ga-var is also written informally gafar


fel gafr wanwyn
vel ga-var wan-win
(South Wales) (said of a constant moaner)
bod fel gafar wanwyn be a real moaner

(delwedd 7082)

ETYMOLOGY: like a nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus) (noted for its discordant cry) (literally goat (of) spring)
(fel = like) + (gafr = goat) + soft mutation + (gwanwyn = spring)

ga-var is also written informally gafar


fel gele
vel g -le
(expressions of clinging, holding on to)

bod yn sownd ynddo fel gele be holding onto it tight (be tight in it like a leech)

dal eich gafael ynddo fel gele keep a tight hold of it (keep your hold in it like a leech)

glynu fel gele wrth hang onto something like grim death (stick like a leech to...)

ETYMOLOGY: (fel = like) + (gele = leech)

NOTE: also: fel gelen


fel gwain am dwca
vel gwain am du-ka
ffitio fel gwain am dwca be a perfect fit, fit like a glove (fit like a sheath around a knife)


fel ir ar ben y domen
vel yaar ar ben ə do-men
(person) untidy, messy

ETYMOLOGY: (like a hen on top of the dungheap) (fel = like) + (ir = hen) + (ar ben = on top of) + (y domen = the dungheap, < tomen = dungheap)

NOTE: Also fel ir ar ben domen without the definite article


fel ir ar y glaw
vel yaar ar ə glau
miserable, unhappy, crestfallen, down in the dumps, dejected, downhearted (like a hen in the rain)

ETYMOLOGY: (like a hen in the rain)
(fel = like) + (ir = hen) + (ar = on, during) + (y = definite article) + (glaw = rain)


fel Iesu Grist bach
vel ie-si grist bakh
Mae e fel Iesu Grist bach (scornful) Hes a little goodie-goodie, hes a little angel (hes like a little Jesus Christ)


Y Felin
o v -lin
short form for names with melin (= mill) as a first element
(1) Y Felin = Y Felinheli (county of Gwynedd, north-west Wales)
(2) Y Felin = Melin-ifan-ddu (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr, south-east Wales)

ETYMOLOGY: the mill (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (melin = mill)


Y Felin-foel
ə v lin voil
village by Llanelli (county of Caerfyrddin)

In south Wales, moel is pronounced mool / mol [mo:l] that is, in words of one syllable in the south the diphthong oe [oi] becomes a long vowel [o:]

An advertisement in the Llanelly Guardian (Thursday 28th July 1864) has an anglicised spelling of the name which indicates the local pronunciation::
Carmarthenshire / Alltygove House Velinvole Llanelly / Sale of Whole of the Household Furniture China, Glass Books etc.

ETYMOLOGY: the bare mill (y = definite article) + soft mutation + (melin = mill) + soft mutation + (moel = bare, barren)

(In north Wales, moel refers to a building with no land attached. Is this the meaning here? Or situated in a barren spot? Or is this not the adjective moel in earlier forms of the name?)


Y Felinheli
ə ve lin HE li
place name, Gwynedd


fel lladd nadroedd
vel lhaadh na -drodh
frantically (of work done at great speed)
bod wrthi fel lladd nadroedd be working away frantically

ETYMOLOGY: (like killing snakes) (fel = like) + (lladd = to kill, killing) + (nadroedd = snakes, plural of neidr = snake)


fel llaid ar farch gwyn
vel lhaid ar varkh gwin
sefyll allan fel llaid ar farch gwyn
stick out like a sore thumb = be very obvious

ETYMOLOGY: stand out like mud on a white horse (sefyll allan = stand out) + (fel = like) + (llaid = mud) + (ar = on)
+ soft mutation + (march gwyn = white horse)


fel llew
vel lheu
dal fel llew yn rhywbeth hang onto something like grim death (hold on like a lion)

said of somebody roaring: rhuo fel llew roaring like a lion

said of a man with a strong singing voice
Mae ganddo lais fel llew He has a powerful voice (hes got a voice like a lion)


fel llwynog
vel lhui-nog
(North Wales) cyfrwys fel llwynog as sly as a fox, as cunning as a fox, as artful as a monkey (in the south: fel cadno = like a fox)

ETYMOLOGY: llwynog = northern word for fox


fel llygoden eglwys
vel lhə-g-den e-gluis
poor (like a church mouse)
Mi fydd gen i arian pan fydda i'n fawr fydda i ddim fel llygoden eglwys
Ill have money when I grow up I wont be like a church mouse

ETYMOLOGY: mouse (of) church (llygoden = mouse) + (eglwys = church)


velh-tith adjective
soft mutation of melltith curse

damned, bloody, goddam
y ddynes felltith that bloody woman
yr ast felltith that goddam bitch


VE lhi

nid felly thats not how...
Nid felly y gwelaf ir peth That isnt how I see the matter, Thats not how I see the matter


fel maneg
vel ma -neg
ffitio fel maneg fit like a glove


fel matsien
vel ma-chen
easily inflamed
Mae o fel matsien He flies off the handle at the least thing, Hes on a short fuse

ETYMOLOGY: like a match (matsien = match)


fel mochyn
vel m -khin
chwyrnu fel mochyn snore like a pig


fel mul
vel miil adverb
pengaled fel mul as stubborn / headstrong as a mule

castiog fel mul tricky to deal with (tricky like a mule)
bod yn gastiog fel mul be a slippery customer


vel -na adverb
with the verb bod (= to be)
bod felna be like that, be that way
Felna mae merched Thats the way women are

with other verbs
like that, in that way
Nid felna mae siarad Thats no way to talk, its very rude to talk like that

felna'n union exactly like that, just like that

ETYMOLOGY: felna < fel yna (fel = like) + (yna = that)

NOTE: Also spelt felna, fel na
In the northeast felne / felne / fel ne


vel -ne adverb
(North-east Wales) = felna like that

ETYMOLOGY: felne < fel yne (fel = like) + (yne, northeastern form of yne = that)


fel nyth cythraul
vel niith -threl adverb
said of an untidy house ("like a devil's nest")


fel pabwyren
vel pa- bui -ren
(Colloquially fel bwyren)
yn syth fel bwyren as straight as a die (as straight as a wick)


fel petin farw
vel pe-tain va-ru
gadael (rhywun) fel petin farw leave somebody for dead (leave somebody as if he were dead)


fel pn mewn papur
vel pin meun pa -pir
(house) spick and span, neat and tidy
Yr oedd yr hen Miss Jones yn cadw ei thŷ fel pin mewn papur.
Old Mrs. Jones kept her house spick and span

Ma'r lle ma fel pin mewn papur gynnoch chi Youve really mad it look neat and tidy (This place is really neat and tidy with you)

(person's appearance) smart, all spruced up, all dolled up, dressed up to the nines
Fe welodd Sin Shencyn yn troi or tŷ fel pin mewn papur
He saw Sin Shencyn leave the house all dolled up

ETYMOLOGY: like a pin in paper (fel = like) + (pn = pin) + (mewn = in) + (papur = paper)


fel pla
vel plaa
bod fel pla be a nuisance (be like a plague)
Mae e fel pla Hes a damn nuisance


fel plwm
vel plum
suddo fel plwm sink like a stone (sink like lead / like a lead weight)

ETYMOLOGY: (fel = like) + (plwm = lead / a lead weight)


fel pren
vel pren
stiff fel pren (stiff like wood)


fel procer
vel pro -ker
stiff fel procer (eg the back after lifting heavy objects) (as) stiff as a poker (stiff like (a) poker)


fel rhuban
vel hr -ban
mynd fel rhuban go at great speed, whizz along

ETYMOLOGY: (mynd = go) + (fel = like) + (rhuban = ribbon)


fel sachabwndi
vel sa-kha-bun-di
(South Wales) bod fel sachabwndi be scruffy

ETYMOLOGY: like a bundle
(fel = like) + (sachabwndi = bundle, apparently based on sach = sack, and pwn = bundle)


fel sach o datws
vel saakh o da-tus
(like a potato sack) (woman) frumpy, shapeless, unattractive


fel saeth
vel saith
(like an arrow) as swift as an arrow
yn syth fel saeth as straight as an arrow, as straight as a ramrod (as straight as an arrow)


fel siswrn
vel si-surn
(intelligence) Mae hi fel siswrn Shes as sharp as a knife (like (a pair of) scissors)


fel styllen
vel stə-lhen < fel ystyllen
comparisons: slimness
fel ystyllen, colloquially fel styllen (like a board) as thin as a board, as thin as a rake
bod fel styllen be as thin as a rake
bod yn fain fel styllen be as thin as a rake


fel swllt
vel sulht adverb
gloyw fel swllt as shiny as a shilling
Fe rwbiodd ei sgidiau chlwtyn nes roeddynt yn loyw fel swllt
He rubbed his shoes with a cloth till they were as shiny as a shilling


fel swllt newydd
vel sulht neu-idh
(like a new shilling) as fresh as paint


fel tn at y carth
vel taan at ə karth
easily inflamed
Mae o fel tn at y carth He flies off the handle at the least thing

ETYMOLOGY: like fire to the tow (tn = fire) + (at y = to the) + (carth = tow, prepared fibres of flax or hemp)


fel troed hwyaden
vel troid hui- -den
oer fel troed hwyaden (cold like foot (of) duck, as cold as a ducks foot)


fel twrci
vel tur-ki
cochi fel twrci go as red as a beetroot / lobster ("turn red like a turkey")


fel tywod y mr
vel -wod ə moor
as the sand of the sea, as numerous as the grains of sand in the sea

Genesis 41:49 A Joseff a gynullodd ŷd fel tywod y mr, yn dra lluosog, hyd oni pheidiodd a'i rifo: oblegid yr ydoedd heb rifedi.
Genesis 41:49 And Joseph gathered corn as the sand of the sea, very much, until he left numbering; for it was without number.

ETYMOLOGY: (fel = like) + (tywod = sand) + (y definite article) + (mr = sea)


fel wy
vel ui
moel fel wy (bald like an egg) as bald as a coot


fel y bo
vel ə boo
as the case may be
Fei hychwanegir un neu ddwy neu dair, fel y bo, o lwyaid o halen
One or two or three spoonfuls of salt, as the case may be, are added

Rhaid llunior wadn fel y bor troed
You must tailor your wants to your possibilities, one should live within ones income (it is necessary to cut the sole as the foot may be)

ETYMOLOGY: as it may be (fel = as) + (y preverbal particle) + (bo it may be, < bod = to be)


fel y canlyn
vel ə kan-lin
as follows
Ysgrifenna y diweddar Mr. R.O. Rees fel y canlyn - "Yn yr hyn yr oedd yn esiampl brydferth i'w hoffi a'i hefelychu..."
The late Mr. R. O. Rees writes as follows - "In this respect he was a wonderful example to cherish and imitate..."

ETYMOLOGY: (fel = as) + (y particle introducing a verb) + (canlyn it follows, from the verb canlyn = to follow)


fel ych
vel iikh
yfed fel ych drink like a fish (drink like an ox)
yfed cwrw fel ych drink beer like theres no tomorrow (drink beer like an ox)


fel y dur
vel ə diir
(person) rock-solid (regarding principles, opinion)
cariad fel y dur love as solid as a rock, rock-solid love

ETYMOLOGY: like steel (fel = like) + (y = definite article) + (dur = steel)


fel y fam y bydd y ferch
vel ə vam ə biidh ə verkh -
the daughter will come to resemble her mother

Pa ddihareb neu ddywediad sydd bellach oddi wrth y gwir?
Fel y fam y bydd y ferch. Gobeithio! (Cymro 02 03 94)
What proverb or saying is furthest from the truth?
The daughter will be like the mother. I hope (it's furthest from the truth)!

ETYMOLOGY: (fel = as, like) + (y fam = the mother) + (y bydd = that (she) will be) + (y ferch = the daughter)


fel y gro
vel ə groo
gwneud arian fel y gro make money by the bucketload, make a mint
("make money like gravel / pebbles")


fel y'i gelwir
fel oi gel-wir
as it is called, so-called
also: fel yi gelwir ef, fel yi gelwir hi

past tense: fel yi gelwid as it was called
Pont-ty-pridd, neu Newbridge fel y'i gelwid unwaith
Pont-ty-pridd, or Newbridge as it was once called


fel y mae hi ryfeddaf
vel ə mai hii rə- v -dhav
curiously enough, strange to say (as it is strangest)


fel yr awgrymwyd or blaen vel ər au-grə-muid oor blain
as was previously suggested, as we have already mentioned
Fel yr awgrymwyd or blaen, nid oedd yn meddwl llai na gwella drwy y misoedd y bu yn glaf.
As we have already mentioned, he always believed he would get better during the months he was ill

NOTE: (fel = as) + (yr preverbal linker) + (awgrymwyd it has been / it was suggested, awgrymu = to suggest + -wyd, preterite passive terminiation) + (or blaen = previously, before )


fel yr ewig
vel ər e-wig

1 comparisons: speed
rhedeg fel yr ewig run like the wind (run like the hind)


fel ystyllen
vel ə-stə-lhen (colloquial form: fel styllen, with the loss of the pretonic syllable)
comparisons: slimness
fel ystyllen, colloquially fel styllen (like a board) as thin as a board, as thin as a rake
bod fel styllen be as thin as a rake
bod yn fain fel styllen be as thin as a rake


<VEE-nai> [ˡveˑnaɪ] feminine noun
soft-mutated form of Menai (qv) (SH5167) strait in Gwynedd, between Mn and Arfon
Afon Fenai the Menai strait
Y Fenai the Menai strait
Rhydyfenai (Rhyd y Fenai) ((the) ford (of) the Menai) Street name in Y Felinheli (county of Gwynedd)


<VEN-das> [ˡvɛndas] masculine noun
PLURAL fendieisiaid
<ven-DEIS-yaid, -yed> [vɛnˡdəɪsjaɪd, -jɛd]
(Coregonus albula) vendace, fish of lakes in northern England and Scotland

ETYMOLOGY: New Latin vandsius (1700s) < French < Celtic


<ven-DE-ta> [vɛnˡdɛta] feminine noun
PLURAL fendetas
<ven-DE-tas> [vɛnˡdɛtas]
vendetta = quarrel between families in Sicily or Corsica where the relatives of a murder victim avenge the death by killing the murderer or someone in the murderer's family

vendetta = a prolonged dispute; a campaign where a person is a the object of constant criticism or vexation
Mae ganddo ryw fendeta yn f'erbyn
He's got some sort of vendetta against me

ETYMOLOGY: English < Sicilian < Latin vindicta < vindicre = to avenge


<VEN-sun> [ˡvɛnsʊn] masculine noun
venison = deer meat

ETYMOLOGY: English venison (= deer meat, any game meat); < Old French venaison < Latin vnti (= hunting) < vnar (= to hunt)


..1 fer
<VER> [vɛr] adjective
Soft mutated form (b > f) of ber, feminine form of byr = short
...1/ Ffordd Fer (the) short road street name in
........a/ Caergybi (county of Ynys Mn)
........b/ Mynyddisa (county of Y Fflint)
........c/ Treffynnon (county of Y Fflint)

...2/ Heol Fer, (the) short street (name of a street in Penyrheol, in the town of Caerffili);
...3/ stori fer (a) short story
(in these names there is soft mutation of the first consonant of an adjective which follows a feminine noun)


<VER> [vɛr]
1 fir tree
y fer the fir tree
pren fer fir tree; fir (= material)
ferren a fir tree (fer + -en, diminutive suffix)
coed fer fir wood

Place names:
..1/ Pant-y-fer Llansadwrn (county of Caerfyrddin) ((the) hollow (of) the fir)

..2/ Rhiw-fer +++rhiw y fer - ((the) hill / slope / rise (of) the fir) - street name in Ffosygerddinen (county of Caerffili)

..3/ Rhiw Fer between the villages of Nant-y-moel and Pontycymer (county of Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr)

..4/ Pen-rhiw-fer pen +++rhiw y fer - ((the) end (of) the hill / slope / rise (of) the fir) - street name in Ffosygerddinen (county of Caerffili)

..5/ Heol Pen-rhiw-fer - street name in Tonyrefail (county of Rhondda Cynon Taf)

NOTE: This word does not appear in most Welsh dictionaries, and is unknown outside the south. Even there it is generally unknown nowadays, and consequently names with rhiw fer are often explained as short slope. Byr is short; the feminine form is ber; after a feminine noun there is soft mutation of the consonant b > f, resulting in fer.

The fact that such names are not found outside the south no short slopes are found in mid-Wales or the north or in the other Celtic languages - indicates that short slope is an unlikely translation. And the fact that often there are still fir trees on these slopes further confirms this!

<VER> [vɛr]

< fyr <VIR> [vɪr]

< south-western English <vir-> [vɪr]

< English firre <fir-> [fɪr]

< Old English fyrh (= fir tree).

(1) Related to Icelandic fura (= fir), Latin quercus (= oak)

(2) In the south-western form of English an initial
<f> [f] was pronounced as <v> [v], still evident among some older speakers in Somerset, for example.


fersiwn, fersiynau
<VER-shun, ver-SHƏƏ-nai, e> [ˡvɛrʃʊn, vɛrˡʃəˑnaɪ, -nɛ]


frtebra, fertebru <VER-te-bra, ver-te-BRAI> [ˡvɛrtɛbra, vɛrtɛˡbraɪ]


festri, festrioedd <VE-stri, ve-STRII-oidh, -odh> [ˡvɛstrɪ, vɛˡstiˑɪɔɪ, -ɔ]


fesul dipyn <VE-sil DI-pin> [ˡvɛsɪl ˡdɪpɪn] (adverb)


fesul un <VE-sil IIN> [ˡvɛsɪl ˡiː n] (adverb)
one by one, in ones, individually
Dyn nhw ddim yn eu gwerthu fesul un rhaid prynu pecyn dwbl They dont sell them in ones - you have to buy a twin pack


fteran, feteraniaid <VE-te-ran, ve-te-RAN-yaid, -yed> [ˡvɛtɛran, vɛtɛˡranjaɪd, -jɛd]


-fydd <VEIDH> [vəɪ]
1 plural suffix in words with the singular suffix -fa
porfa (= pasture), porfydd (= pastures)
rheg (= swear word), rhegfydd (= swear words)

(The acute accent here is to clarify the accentuation of the word. There is no acute accent on feydd in the standard spelling)



A double [v] resulting from soft mutation of b or m is spelt and pronounced as a single f [v]

hafod (= summer place)

< haf-fod (haf = summer) + soft mutation + (bod = dwelling, dwelling place)

prifardd (= principal poet) < prif-fardd (prif = main, principal, leading) + soft mutation + (bardd = poet)


FF, ff
f feminine noun
) ninth letter of the twenty-nine letter Welsh alphabet
a, 2 b, 3 c, 4 ch, 5 d, 6 dd 7 e,
8 f, 9 ff, 10 g, 11 ng, 12 h, 13 i, 14 j, 15 l, 16 ll, 17 m, 18 n, 19 o, 20 p, 21 ph, 22 r, 23 rh, 24 s, 25 t, 26 th, 27 u, 28 w, 29 y


ff < f in some words after n (that is, [v] has become [f] after [n])


One colloquial form of Y Bont-faen SS9974 (the stone bridge), a town in Bro Morgannwg county was Bom-ffn (from an underlying form Bon-faan)



cefnfro > cenfro > cenffro / cenffro (part of beach above high water for leaving boats)

(cefn = back, ridge) + soft mutation + (bro = low-lying land, coastal land)

Llansanffrid < *Llan San Fraid
vraid < Braid (female saint, Bride, as in Irish Brd)


Pont-llan-fraith ST1795 in Caerffili county is usually pronounced as Pont-llan-ffraith in English locally. This is an area where Welsh was eradicated a century ago, so the ff could in fact be a misreading of the Welsh letter f, rather than a survival of a pronunciation in the Welsh of this area.

The name in fact in 1492 was tre penybont llynvraith, that is, Tre Pen-y-bont y Llyn Fraith, the trv or farm at the place called Pen-y-bont by the pool in the river called Y Llyn Fraith

Pen-y-bont = the bridge end, the entrance to the bridge

Y Llyn Fraith is The Dappled Pool

This was later reduced to Pont-llyn-fraith (1713 Pontllynfraith), and then there was confusion with the element llan (= church) which then ousted the original llyn (= pool) > Pont-llan-fraith


In Hyn o Fyd (Kate Roberts) a character called Doli Dinfain (= thin arse) is also known as Dynffen


Ynɥsgynwraidd SO4520 the English name of this place in the county of Mynwɥ is Skenfrith, which probably represents a local Welsh form *Sgenffridd sken-fridh (Welsh was finally eliminated from this area over a century ago) from *Sgynfridd skən-vridh.

Other examples of ff < f
f < v

..1/ cyffredin (= general, common) < cyfredin < cyfr- (prefix, = complete) + rhed- (= to run) + -in (suffix fro forming adjectives)

..2/ diffodd (= to switch off), historically difodd (di- = intensifying prefix) + (bodd-, root of boddi = to drown)

..3/ gorffod colloquial form of gorfod to be obliged



1 Form of fy (possessive determiner)

Some Points of Similarity in the Phonology of Welsh and Breton

T. H. Parry-Williams, Rhyd-ddu, Carnarvon. Paris, 1913. Page 50.

A curious example of the provection of an initial consonant, due to the loss of a vowel and the influence of the following initial consonant, is found in the case of the possessive pronoun fy, which becomes often in the colloquial language f, and before h, ll or i becomes ff. In some dialectical texts this ff is written, e.g. fi ffunan (for fi fy hunan), ffllaw (= fy llaw), ffiechyd (= fy iechyd), Cf. cannw(y)ll ffrwyn the colloquial pronunciation of cannwyll frwyn

ffa 1
faa feminine noun
4 in tonic sol-fa


ffa 2
faa plural noun
beans; plural of ffeuen


fa-bəl feminine noun
PLURAL ffablau
obsolete fable
area of Maldwyn in the county of Powys ffabls = decorations, frills

ETYMOLOGY: English fable < Latin fbula (= fable, story) < fr (= to speak)


fak--sen feminine noun
PLURAL ffacbys
(a) lentil plant Lens culinaris; (b) vetch = Vicia sativa, member of the Papilionaceae family; some species cultivated as fodder plants

Eseia 28:27 Canys nid ag og y dyrnir ffacbys, ac ni throir olwyn men ar gwmin; eithr dyrnir facbys ffon, a chwmin a gwialen
Isaiah 28:27 For the fitches are not threshed with a threshing instrument, neither is a cart wheel turned about on the cummin; but the fitches are beaten out with a staff, and the cummin with a rod

Samuel-2 23:11 A'r Philistiaid a ymgynullasent yn dorf; ac yr oedd yno ran o'r maes yn llawn o ffacbys
Samuel-2 23:11 And the Philistines were gathered together into a troop, where was a piece of ground full of lentiles

(a) lentil; (b) vetch seed (vetch seeds are often used as bird food)

Genesis 25:34 A Jacob a roddes i Esau fara a chawl ffacbys
Genesis 25:34 Then Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage of lentiles

ETYMOLOGY: (ffac) + soft mutation + (pys = peas); ffac < English fatch, variant of vetch < Anglo-Norman veche (cf French vesce) < Latin vicia; cf Catalan vea < Latin vicia

NOTE: variant: county of Ceredigion ffatshbys


faks masculine noun
PLURAL ffacsus

peiriant ffacs fax machine

gyrru ffacs at North Wales send a fax to
hala ffacs at South Wales send a fax to

ETYMOLOGY: English fax = clipped form of facsimile


fak -sa plural noun
South-east Wales crowds
Ma nhw'n dod o'r cwrdd yn ffacsa
They're coming from the chapel service in crowds.

This is a metathesised form of ffasga (local pronunciation of ffasgau), plural of ffasg (= bundle)






fak-si-mi-li masculine noun
PLURAL ffacsimilau
copi ffacsmili facsimile

ETYMOLOGY: English <faksməli> facsimile < modern Latin fac (= make) + simile (neuter of similis = similar)


faks-yo verb
fax, send (a letter, document) by fax

ETYMOLOGY: ffacs (= fax) + (-io, verbal suffix)


ffactri, ffactrioedd
FAK tri, fak TRI odh feminine noun
factory (South Wales)


fail feminine noun
PLURAL ffaelion

obsolete defect, failing, fault, error

adjective di-ffael unfailing

adverb yn ddi-ffael without fail

ETYMOLOGY: English fail < French faillir < Latin fallere (= disappoint)


fei-ledh masculine noun
PLURAL ffaeleddau
defect, failing, fault

ETYMOLOGY: (ffael-, stem of ffaelu = to fail) + (-edd)


fei-le- di-gruidh masculine noun

ETYMOLOGY: (ffaeledig = failed) + (-rwydd suffix for forming abstract nouns)


fei-li verb
South Wales
fail = not achieve what was attempted, not achieve an aim

ETYMOLOGY: (ffael = defect) + (-u suffix for forming verbs)

NOTE: sometimes, in dialect writing, ffeili, ffili


FEI en feminine noun
bean; see ffeuen


cultivated (land)


fa-gal feminine noun
See ffagl


fa-gal feminine noun
PLURAL ffaglau
mor ddi-bara ffagal o redyn
like a flash in the pan ("as short-lived as a blaze of bracken");

Ffagal cropyn eithin yw e; gyda'ch bod chi'n dechre teimlo gwres, dyna fe'n darfod
He's a flash in the pan ("he's a blaze of a crop of gorse"); as soon as you start to feel the heat, he finishes (said of a minister whose sermon was found disappointing)

torch = wooden stick dipped in tallow and set alight

gorymdaith ffaglau torchlit procession ("procession with torches")

torch = origin of a conflagration;
Hwnnw fu'n ffagl i'r helynt i gyd
He was the one who sparked off all the trouble ("he was the torch to all the trouble")

cludwr ffagl torchbearer ("carrier (of) torch")

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh ffagl < British < Latin facla < fcula, diminutive form of fax = torch

(a) there is also a diminutive form ffaglen
(b) The formal spelling is ffagl; the usual colloquial pronunciation is represented by the informal spelling ffagal


Ffagl yr Arth
fa-gal ər arth feminine noun
South-west Wales
the Northern Lights ("(the) torch / blaze (by) the Bear (star)" - i.e. the Pole Star)


fag-len feminine noun
PLURAL ffaglennau
torch; see ffagl


fa-glo verb
South Wales
verb with an object to torch, to set fire to (something)
verb without an object to set grass or furze on fire


fair feminine noun
PLURAL ffeiriau
feir -ye
fair (= traditional market held on specific dates, with stands for the buying and selling goods, and often with sideshows)

ar ddiwrnod ffair on fair day, on the day when a fair is held

Fe fyddwn nin mitsho or ysgol ar ddiwrnod ffair
We would play truant from school on the day when a fair was held

bod ddiwrnod ar l y ffair be too late, arrive too late (be a day after the fair)
Occurs with village names;

Ffair y Borth The Porthaethwy Fair (county of Mn)
English name: Menai Bridge Fair

Ffair yr Ynys (formerly) Ynys-y-bŵl Fair (Rhondda Cynon Taf)

fte, bazaar (= event to raise money for a charity, for a church, a school, etc; a cross between a fair and a bazaar)
ffair ysgol feithrin Welsh-language nursery school fair

fair = travelling collection of shows and amusements
ffair deithiol travelling fair

funfair, amusement park
y ffigyr-eit yn ffair y Barri the (Englandic: big dipper, switchback) (USA: roller-coaster) in Barri funfair

fair, trade show; a grand exhibition of products to promote trade

bod fel ffair be swarming with people, be packed, be packed out, be very busy, be choc-a-bloc ("be like a fair")


ffeirio = to exchange
ffair benben (North-west Wales) = fair exchange (pronounced as ffair bemban)

specialised market; occurs with name of product or main item of trade; meeting for trade in a named product, animal, etc;
ffair ddefaid sheep fair
ffair foch pig fair
ffair geffylau horse fair
ffair wartheg cattle fair
ffair wyddau goose fair

pen ffair a fair, a great fair
ar ben ffair (county of Penfro) at the fair
pen ffair / pen-ffair (adjective) fair, fairground

mynd i ben y ffair
go to the fair

sefyll allan fel ffeiriad mewn ffair stick out like a sore thumb = be very obvious
stand out like mud on a white horse
(sefyll allan = stand out) + (fel = com) + (ffeirad < ffeiriad < offeiriad = clergyman) + (mewn = in) + (ffair = fair)

13 ffair aeaf winter fair
mynd ir ffair aeaf to go to the winter fair
Ffair Aeaf Llanelwedd Llanelwedd Winter Fair
Ffair Aeaf Ynys Mn Ynys Mn (Isle of Anglesey) Winter Fair

ETYMOLOGY: 1300+ < Middle English faire (= fair)
< Old French feire < Late Latin fria (= feastday) < friae (= rest days).

Compare Breton: foar < French foire

E: In South Wales the plural form ffeiriau > ffeire > ffiire (South-east ffiira)


ffair aeaf
fair gei -a feminine noun
PLURAL ffeiriau gaeaf
feir-ye gei -a
winter fair, cattle fair held in winter

Mae'n argoeli fod y ffair aeaf yn Llanelwedd yn mynd i fod yn llwyddiant mawr
All the signs are that the winter fair in Llanelwedd is going to be a big success

ETYMOLOGY: (ffair = fair) + soft mutation + (gaeaf = winter)


ffair bleser
fair ble-ser feminine noun
PLURAL ffeiriau pleser
feir-ye ple-ser

ETYMOLOGY: "fair (of) pleasure") (ffair = fair) + soft mutation + (pleser = pleasure)


ffair Galan Mai
fair g-lan mai feminine noun
PLURAL ffeiriau Calan Mai
feir-ye k-lan mai
May fair, spring fair, fair held on the first of May. The colloquial form is ffair Glame (qv)

ETYMOLOGY: (ffair = fair) + soft mutation + (Calan Mai (qv), the first of May)


ffair Glame
fair gla -me feminine noun
PLURAL ffeiriau Clame
feir-ye kla-me
May fair, spring fair, fair held on the first of May

ETYMOLOGY: (ffair = fair) + soft mutation + (Clame, colloquial form of Calan Mai, the first of May)


ffair gyflogi, ffeiriau cyflogi
fair gəv LO gi, feir ye kəv LO gi feminine noun
hiring fair (where farm labourers and maidservants would go in the hope of being taken on for a year by a farmer)


ffair sborion
fair spor-yon, feminine noun
PLURAL ffeiriau sborion
feir-ye spor-yon
(USA: rummage sale) (Englandic: jumble sale, flea market)

ETYMOLOGY: "fair (of) odds and ends" (ffair = fair) + (sborion = odds and ends)


ffair wyddau
fair ui-dhe feminine noun
PLURAL ffeiriau gwyddau
feir-ye gui-dhe
goose fair

ETYMOLOGY: "fair (of) geese" (ffair = fair) + soft mutation + (gwyddau = geese, < gwydd = goose)


ffair y glas
fair ə glaas feminine noun
freshers' week, the first week of a university year when stands of university clubs and associations offer information about themselves and special social events are organised for 'freshers' (new students). Also wythnos y glas

ETYMOLOGY: ("(the) fair (of) the novice / fresher")
(ffair = fair) + (y = definite article) + (glas = fresher, novice; literally "green person, inexperienced person")


ffaith, ffeithiau
FAITH, FEITH ye feminine noun
ni ellir celur ffaith fod... theres no disguising the fact that


ffals FALS (adj)
false, sly, deceiving, deceitful

mor ffalsed 'r cadno as sly as a fox

Yr oedd ei gw^r yr un mor ffals hithau Her husband was as deceiving as she herself was


2 false = untrue ENG-Z
Ffals yw honiadau'r Toriaid nad y blaid gas ydyn n hw erbyn hyn

The Tories assertion that they are no longer the nasty party are false


dan glo oherwydd cyffesiadiau ffals

in prison because of false confessions

3 false = deceptive, not real, not realistic
hyder ffals false confidence

rhoi gobaith ffals i rywun give somebody false hope




1) Welsh ffals < British < Latin falsus (Cornish has fals, likewise Breton fals)


2) from English false [fals]


The Breton fals is also possibly Old French fals (modern French has faux)

ffaalsedd FAL-sedh (m)
falsehood, deceit

2 cunning


ffalsgi, ffalsgwn FALS-gi, FALS-gun (m)
deceitful person
2 flatterer = one who flatters to deceive

ETYMOLOGY: (ffals = false) + soft mutation + (ci = dog)

NOTE: In the English dialect of Llanidloes:
FALSGI, a sly, deceitful person. Theres an owl falsgi (Parochial Account of Llanidloes / Edward Hamer / Chapter X / Folk-lore. Page 290 Collections Historical and Archeological Relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders / 1877)

[i.e. theres an old ffalsgi]

ffalsio FALS-yo (v)
South Wales: ffalso
1 falsify


2 (North Wales) flatter
Paid ffalsio Stop putting on the flattery

3 be hypocritical, be deceitful

Ffalsio roeddwn i... a gofyn am rywbeth nad oeddwn i'n bwriadu talu amdano.

I was being deceitful and asking for something I had no intention of paying for



ffan, ffaniau
fan (for creating a draught of air)

ETYMOLOGY: English fan

fa na TI kedh adjective


fa na TIK yeth feminine noun


ffanatig, ffanaticiaid
fa NA tig, fa na TIK yed


fan -fer feminine noun
PLURAL ffanfferau
fan- f -re
1 fanfare = a short series of notes on a trumpet

2 fanfare = ostentation and ceremony
Ail-agorwyd y Neuadd Goffa gyda chryn ffanfer
The Memorial Hall was reopened with considerable fanfare

ETYMOLOGY: English fanfare < French < fanfarer (= to blow a fanfare)
< Castilian fanfarrn < Arabic farfar (= talkative)


ffanio FAN yo
to fan


ffansi FAN si


ffntasi, ffantasau FAN ta si, fan ta SI e


ffarier far -yer masculine noun
PLURAL ffariers, ffarieriaid
far -yers, far-yer-yed
vet (for horses and other farm animals), horse-doctor (= vet); (standard Welsh: milfeddyg)
obsolete shoeing smith

ETYMOLOGY: English farrier < French ferrier < Latin ferrrius (= smith) < ferrum (= iron). In modern French ferreur (= smith). Compare Catalan ferrer (= smith), which is also a Catalonian surname Ferrer (sometimes misspelt Ferr).


ffarm, ffermydd
FARM, FER midh feminine noun


far-ma-ko-leg feminine noun
pharmacology = science of drugs and medicines - characteristics, action, uses

ETYMOLOGY: adaptation of English pharmacology;
(ffarmacol-) + (-eg suffix to indicate a science)


to farm


ffarmwr, ffarmwyr
FAR mur, FARM wir masculine noun


far WEL yo
to say farewell to


fa- saad masculine noun
PLURAL ffasadau
fa- s -de
faade = face of a building

ETYMOLOGY: English facade < French < Italian facciata < faccia (= face) < Latin *facia< facis (= form), which is related to facere (= to make)


FA skaedh


ffasgiad, ffasgiaid
FASK yad, FASK yed masculine noun
fascist (person)


FASK yeth feminine noun


ffasgydd, ffasgwyr
FAS kidh, FASK wir masculine noun
fascist (person)


ffasiwn, ffasiynau
FA shun, fa SHƏ ne


ffasiwn newydd
fa-shun neu-idh adjective
new-fashioned, of a new type
Gwahoddwyd David Thomas gan gwmni o America i fynd yno i adeiladur ffwrneisiau ffasiwn-newydd ym Mhennsylfania
David Thomas was invited by an American company to go to America to set up the new type of furnace in Pennsylvania

ETYMOLOGY: (ffasiwn = fashion) + (newydd = new)


fa SHƏ nol


ffatri, ffatroedd
FA tri, fa TRI odh feminine noun
ffatri deganau, ffatroedd teganau
FA tri de GA ne, fa TRI odh te GA ne toy factory
ffatri laeth, ffatroedd llaeth
fa tri LAITH, fa TRI odh LHAITH dairy
ffatri wln, ffatroedd gwln
fa tri WLAAN, fa TRI odh GWLAAN woollen mill


fi feminine noun
PLURAL ffeuau
den, lair; resting place for an animal

Eseia 11:7 Y fuwch hefyd a'r arth a borant ynghyd; eu llydnod a gydorweddant; y llew, fel yr ych, a bawr wellt (11:8) A'r plentyn sugno a chwery wrth dwll yr asb; ac ar ffau y wiber yr estyn yr hwn a ddiddyfnwyd ei law
Isaiah 11:7 And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. (11:8) And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice' den.

ffeuaid earthful, denful
ffeuaid o lwynogod an earthful of foxes

ffau llewod a lion's den
ffaur llewod the lions den
The 1620 Bible has ffau y llewod

Daniel 6:12 Yna y nesasant, ac y dywedasant o flaen y brenin am orchymyn y brenin; Oni seliaist ti orchymyn, mai i ffau y llewod y bwrid pa ddyn bynnag a ofynnai gan un Duw na dyn ddim dros ddeng niwrnod ar hugain, ond gennyt ti, O frenin? Atebodd y brenin, a dywedodd, Y mae peth yn wir, yn 1 cyfraith y Mediaid ar Persiaid, yr hon ni newidir.
Daniel 6:12 Then they came near, and spake before the king concerning the king's decree; Hast thou not signed a decree, that every man that shall ask a petition of any God or man within thirty days, save of thee, O king, shall be cast into the den of lions? The king answered and said, The thing is true, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not.

mentro i ffau'r llewod venture into the lion's den = undertake a risky confrontation

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh ffau < ffeu < ffou < British < Latin < fouia < fouea (= pit; trap for animals)


ffawd, ffodion


fau - ə -dhen feminine noun
PLURAL ffawydd
fa -uidh

(Fagus sylvatica) = beech

ffawydden felen (district of Arfon, county of Gwynedd) = yellow pine ('yellow beech')
ffawydden goprog = copper beech
llwyn ffawydd beech grove

2 In Genesis, mention is made of ffawydd, whereas the English version has chestnut tree. The tree in question is probably the Oriental plane tree (Platanus orientalis), called 'armon in Hebrew, that is, "naked". Mentioned in the story of Jacobs whose wage from Laban is to be the marked cattle, so he causes cattle with the right marks to be born.

It is probably the Oriental plane tree (Platanus orientalis) that is intended. It sheds its outer bark each year, and so becomes "naked."

Genesis 30:37 A Jacob a gymerth iddo wiail gleision o boplys, a chyll, a ffawydd; ac a ddirisglodd ynddynt ddirisgliadau gwynion, gan ddatguddior gwyn yr hwn ydoedd yn y gwiail.

Genesis 30:37 And Jacob took him rods of green poplar, and of the hazel and chestnut tree; and pilled white streaks in them, and made the white appear which was in the rods.

The Oriental plane is mentioned along with other trees, and cedars and firs, as being inferior to the beauty of the Assyrian empire.

Eseciel 31:8 Y cedrwydd yng ngardd Duw ni allent ei chuddio hi: y ffynidwydd nid oeddynt debyg i'w cheinciau hi, a'r ffawydd nid oeddynt fel ei changhennau hi; ac un pren yng ngardd yr Arglwydd nid ydoedd debyg iddi hi yn ei thegwch.

Ezekiel 31:8 The cedars in the garden of God could not hide him: the fir trees were not like his boughs, and the chestnut trees were not like his branches; nor any tree in the garden of God was like unto him in his beauty.

(delwedd 7018)

3 Pantyffawydden farm near Caerffili (the) hollow (of) the beech tree

ETYMOLOGY: (ffaw) + soft mutation + (gwydden = tree).
ffaw < *ffawgh- British *fg- < Latin fg(us) (= beech tree)


Y Ffawydden
fau-Ə-dhen feminine noun
1 farm SO2525 in Patrisio / Partrishow, Brycheiniog, Powys map


fau-Ə-dhog feminine noun

1 place of beech trees

Y Ffawyddog farm by Pont-y-rhyl, Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr

ETYMOLOGY: (ffawydd) + (-og adjectival suffix) > fawyddog (adjective, = abounding in beech trees) > (noun, = place abounding in beech trees)

abbreviation = ffurfiad formation


abbreviation = ffurfdro (Grammar) inflexion


ffederasiwn, ffederasiynau fe de RA shun, fe de ra SHƏN ne


ffedog f -dog feminine noun
PLURAL ffedogau fe- d -ge
llinyn ffedog apron string
bod ynghlwm wrth linyn ffedog ei fam be tied to his mothers apron strings

(South Wales) diaphragm = membrane in animal; flead = thin skin holding intestines of a pig in place

flead; this, cut into squares, used to wrap around faggots

ETYMOLOGY: (arffed = lap) + (-og suffix for forming adjectives or nouns ) > arffedog > ffedog (loss of the pretonic syllable)



ffg FEG (m)
1 long,, coarse grass

NOTE: In the English dialect of Llanidloes:
FEG, long coarse grass (Parochial Account of Llanidloes / Edward Hamer / Chapter X / Folk-lore. Page 290 Collections Historical and Archeological Relating to Montgomeryshire and its Borders / 1877)

ETYMOLOGY: dialect English FEG


ffeil, ffeiliau


nice (South)


to find


ffeirad < ffeirad
feir -ad masculine noun
clergyman, vicar, priest; see: offeiriad


ffeiriad < ffeiriad
feir -yad masculine noun
clergyman, vicar, priest; see: offeiriad


fairs - plural of ffair




facts - plural of ffaith

Daeth rhyw Sais meddw yn chwilio am ffeit at y ford lle yr oedden ni i gyd n eistedd

Some drunken Englishman looking for a fight came to the table where we were sitting

facts - plural of ffaith


f-nast feminine noun
1 Colloquial form of ffenestr (= window) in north-west and south-east Wales.
The rest of the country has final e - ffenest


Ffenast y Ps
f-nast ə pas feminine noun
See ffenestr (= window)


ffender, ffenderi
FEN der, fen DE ri

ffender wartheg PLURAL ffenderi gwartheg cowcatcher = device on the front of a locomotive metal frame set at an angle to clear obstructions from the track (fender (of) cattle)


f-nest feminine noun
Colloquial form of ffenestr (= window) in south-west, central and north-east Wales. The north-west and south-east have a final a - ffenast


f-nest feminine noun
PLURAL ffenestri
window = opening in the wall of a building, or in the body of a vehicle
ffenestr do = skylight
pwyso allan o ffenest lean out of a window

shop window = window behind which there is a display of goods for sale

window = window pane

Computers window

Photography viewfinder

Meteorology 'weather window', clear patch of sky in a pass between two mountains and under a layer of cloud. If the 'window' is light, fine weather is indicated; if it darkens and disappears, rain is on its way.

Ffenast y Ps - name of such a clear patch as seen from Llanberis, Gwynedd ("{the} window {of} the mountain pass")

bocs ffenestr window-box, trough with plants on an outside window-sill

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Latin fenestra = window;
Compare German das Fenster, French fentre, Catalan finestra, all from the same Latin word

NOTE: The colloquial form is usually ffenest
f-nest, and in the districts with 'a' in the final syllable it is ffenast f-nast. The final 'r' is pronounced in formal Welsh: ffenestr f-nestr


ffenestr fwa
fe -nest bu- a feminine noun
PLURAL ffenestri bwa
fe-ne-stri bu-a
bow window, bay window = segmentally curved window

ETYMOLOGY: (ffenestr = window) + soft mutation + (bwa = bow)


ffenestr godi
FE nest GO di
guillotine window


fens feminine noun
PLURAL ffensus, ffensiau
fen -sis, fens -ye
fence = barrier round a field of posts and wire, to prevent entry, keep animals in, or mark the boundary of a property

garden fence = similar structure (eg round a garden), or with similar functions

ETYMOLOGY: English fence, clipped form of defence (= defensive structure) < Latin dfensum, past participle of dfendere (= to defend)


ffens eira
fens EI ra
snow fence - roadside fence to keep snow from covering a road


fens -yo verb
to fence (= enclose a field, etc)

ETYMOLOGY: (ffens = fence) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)


ffr, ferrau / fferi
FEER, FEE re / FEE ri
ankle (North)


FER dod masculine noun
1 coldness
fferdod rhywiol frigidity, sexual frigidity


fferi, fferis
FE ri, FE ris


Y Fferi-isaf
ə fe-ri i-sa feminine noun
town in the county of Y Fflint, 9km west of Chester, on the south bank of the river Dyfrdwy (English name: Queensferry)

ETYMOLOGY: a translation of the English name 'Lower Ferry', which was the original name of Queensferry; the English name 'Lower Ferry' could possibly be from an original Welsh name 'Y Fferi Isaf'


ferm feminine noun
PLURAL ffermydd
farm, land (usually around a house and buildings) for cultivation of crops or rearing livestock;
fferm fynydd hill farm

land or water used to produce a specific type of crop or animal
fferm bysgod = fish farm,
fferm ieir = chicken farm,
fferm foch = pig farm,
ffferm laeth = dairy farm,
fferm faco tobacco farm

farm + name of the farm
ar ganol beili fferm Pen-y-graig Ucha
in the middle of the forecourt / yard of Pen-y-graig Ucha farm

in place names in the county of Mn, as fferam
Wmffra Elis, y Fferam Wmffra Elis, of (the farm called) Y Fferam

ar y fferm on the farm;
Arferai fy nhaid adael i'r Sipsiwn aros ysbaid ar ddarn o dir ar y fferm
My grandfather would allow the Gypsies to stay for a while on a piece of land on the farm

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh fferm < Middle English ferm (modern English farm) < Late Latin firma (= lease, fixed payment - made by a farmer to rent the land) < firmus = firm

NOTE: in the north-west, also fferam; also in Welsh ffarm, which represents a later loan from English (originally in English it was pronounced with 'er', and afterwards 'ar'; there are similar examples in the English of the USA, where the earlier form with 'er' persists (though the original 'e' is now pronounced as an obscure vowel) in 'clerk, Derby', but has become 'ar' in England, and sometimes written as such, as in the surnames Clark, Darbyshire). Sometimes fferam is written fferem, a more literary form.


ffermdy, ffermdai
FERM di, FERM dai


fferm loynnod byw, ffermydd gloynnod byw
ferm lo Ə nod BIU, FER midh glo Ə nod BIU
butterfly farm


ffermwr, ffermwyr
FER mur, FERM wir masculine noun


f -rilh masculine noun
PLURAL fferyllion, fferylliaid
fe-rəlh-yon, fe-rəlh-yed
(obsolete) apothecary, alchemist, magician
(obsolete) druggist, chemist. The modern form is fferyllydd, with the suffix -ydd

ETYMOLOGY: from the name Fferyll = Virgil, Publius Vergilius Maro (70-19 BC, Latin poet). In the Middle Ages it was believed that Vergilius was a magician


fe--lheg feminine noun
pharmaceutics = science of preparing medicines

ETYMOLOGY: (fferyll = druggist, chemist) + (-eg suffix for forming nouns with the sense of science)


fe- rəlh -va feminine noun
PLURAL fferyllfydd
pharmacy, chemist's shop; shop where medicines are sold

ETYMOLOGY: (fferyll = druggist, chemist) + (-eg suffix for forming nouns with the sense of place)


fe- rəlh -yeth feminine noun
pharmacy = collecting, preparing and dispensing of medicines
pharmacy = art of preparing and mixing medicines

ETYMOLOGY: (fferyll = druggist, chemist) + (-i-aeth suffix for forming abstract nouns)


fe- -lhol adjective

ETYMOLOGY: (fferyll = druggist, chemist) + (-ol suffix for forming adjectives)


fe- -lhidh masculine noun
PLURAL feryllwyr, fferyllyddion
fe- rəlh -wir fe-rə-lhədh-yon
pharmacist, chemist, druggist = person who keeps a chemist's shop (American: druggist)

ETYMOLOGY: (fferyll = druggist, chemist) + (-ydd suffix to indicate an agent). See fferyll < Fferyll = Virgil (70-19 BC), Latin poet


ffesant, ffesantod
FE sant, fe SAN tod


FE stin
man's name (obsolete)


fes- stin -yog feminine noun
SH7041 locality in the county of Gwynedd;
Also: Llan Ffestiniog ("the village (with the parish church) of Ffestiniog")

Local forms: Stiniog, Llan Stiniog, Y Llan

Roedd yn ddisgybl yn yr Ysgol Sir ym Mlaenau Ffestiniog. Gan ei fod yn byw yn y Llan, roedd yn rhaid mynd a dwad i'r ysgol ar y trn
He was a pupil in the County School in Blaenau Ffestiniog. Since he lived in the Llan, he had to go by train to and from school

a parish at this place

SH7045 Blaenau Ffestiniog
BLEI-nai, e, fe-STIN-yog locality in Gwynedd "the upland of the parish of Ffestiniog"

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh Ffestiniog (Ffestin = man's name) + (-i-og = suffix with the sense of 'territory of')


ffeuen, ffa
FEI en, FAA feminine noun
ffeuen Ffrengig, ffa Ffrengig
FEI en FRE ngig, faa FRE ngig French bean


fii feminine noun
PLURAL ffau, ffoedd, ffis
f -, f-odh, fiis
fee = money paid to a professional person or technician for her / his services
ffi sefydlog fixed fee

fee = money paid to a performer for her / his services

fee = money paid by a student for a course
Maent wedi addo dileu ffioedd myfyrwyr
They've promised to abolish students' fees

ETYMOLOGY: English fee (= price) < fee (= goods) < fee (= cattle) < Middle English < French of England fie < Old French fie < fief < Germanic;

C the related words
..1/ Old English feoh (= cattle, property);
..2/ Dutch vee / rundvee (= cattle)
..3/ Latin pec (= flock of sheep), pecus (= cattle), pecnia (= wealth)
..4/ Greek pokos (= fleece)


ffidil, ffidlau
FII-dil, FID le


fi-eidh-beth masculine noun
repulsive thing, abomination

Lefiticus 7:18 Ac os bwyteir dim o gig offrwm ei ebyrth hedd ef o fewn y trydydd dydd, ni byddir bodlon ir hwn ai hoffrymo ef, ac nis cyfrifir iddo, ffieiddbeth fydd; ar dyn a fwyty ohono, a ddwg ei anwiredd.
Leviticus 7:18 And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings be eaten at all on the third day, it shall not be accepted, neither shall it be imputed unto him that offereth it: it shall be an abomination, and the soul that eateth of it shall bear his iniquity.

ETYMOLOGY: (ffiaidd = repulsive) + soft mutation + (peth = thing)


1 abbreviation = ffigurol


ffigsen, ffigs


fi-GII-rol adjective
Abbreviation: ffig.


ffigysen, ffigys
fi GƏ sen, FI gis


man's name


ffilm, ffilmiau


ffin, ffiniau
FIIN, FIN ye (f)
boundary, limit


FII-neg (f)


FI-nant[ˡfɪnant]feminine noun
PLURAL ffnentydd
fi-NENT-idh [fɪˡnɛntɪ]
boundary stream

2 Ffinnant Isaf SN9731 (Finnant-isaf)

A farm near Y Trallwng, Brycheiniog, Powys

ETYMOLOGY: (ffin = boundary) + (nant = stream)


f -ol feminine noun
PLURAL ffiolau
phial = small medicine bottle

South-west Wales bowl

wooden bowl for porridge, soup

(counties of Ceredigion, Penfro) ffiol gardod begging bowl;
(county of Penfro) bowl for measuring flour given to the poor

ffiol wallt pudding basin for cutting the hair (placed over the hair, and protruding hair trimmed)

ffiol laeth skimmer = wooden implement in form of a thin saucer for skimming cream off the surface of milk

Barnwyr 5:25 Dwfr a geisiodd efe, llaeth a roddes hithau; mewn ffiol ardderchog y dug hi ymenyn
Judges 5:25 He asked water, and she gave him milk; she brought forth butter in a lordly dish

Mae'ch ffiol yn llawn "One's cup is full", one's joy is complete, one has more than the usual amount of happiness

Salmau 23:5 Ti arlwyi ford ger fy mron yng ngwydd fy ngwrthwynebwyr: iraist fy mhen ag olew; fy ffiol sydd lawn
Psalms 23:5 Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies; thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over

Dim ond wythnos yn l roedd ffiol Gwyn yn llawn. Roedd Mair wedi cytuno i'w briodi, roedd ganddo well swydd...
Just a week ago Gwyn's cup was full. Mair had ageed to marry him, he had a better job...

ffiol gwsg soporific cup
Sechareia 12:2 Wele fi yn gwneuthur Jerwsalem yn ffiol gwsg i'r bobloedd oll o amgylch, pan fyddont yn y gwarchae yn erbyn Jwda, ac yn erbyn Jerwsalem
Zechariah 12:2 Behold, I will make Jerusalem a cup of trembling unto all the people round about, when they shall be in the siege both against Judah and against Jerusalem

obsolete ffiol yr ymennydd brain pan = the part of the skull enclosing the brain

ETYMOLOGY: Middle English fiole (= phial) < French fiole < Latin phiala < Greek phial (= broad shallow bowl).
Modern French fiole (= phial)

NOTE: Also ffiolen
fi--len, with the diminutive suffix -en:


f -on masculine noun
PLURAL ffionau
obsolete rose
formerly, in Brynaman, ffion y gaeaf Helleborus niger Christmas rose

Ffion girl's name = Rose

foxglove Digitalis purpurea

ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < British < Celtic; cf Latin spinia (= kind of grapevine)

NOTE: also ffionen


abbreviation = Ffiseg physics


FI seg feminine noun

Abbreviation (as a field label in a dictionary): Ffis.


ffisig fi -sig masculine noun
(North Wales)
1 medicine
ffisig parod patent medicine
cael blas och ffisig eich hun have / get a taste of your own medicine
trio blas och ffisig eich hun have / get a taste of your own medicine
rhoi ichi flas och ffisig eich hun give you a taste your own medicine

ETYMOLOGY: ffisig < English physic (= medicine) < Old French physique < Latin physicus (= natural) < Greek phusik < phusis (= nature)


ffit, ffitiau
FIT, FIT-ye feminine noun
fit, bout
cael ffit have a fit
Fe gaiff ffit pan glyw amdano Hell have a fit when he finds out


FIT yo verb
to fit

ffitio fel gwain am dwca be a perfect fit, fit like a glove (fit like a sheath round a knife)

ffitio fel maneg fit like a glove


fiuug feminine noun
PLURAL ffiwgau
fiuu -ge
ffiwg driphlyg triple fugue

ETYMOLOGY: English fugue < French < Italian fuga < Latin fuga (= flight, escaping)


ffiws, ffiwsiau / ffiwsus
FIUS, FIUS ye / FIU sis



1 abbreviation < Fflint (= Sir y Fflint county of Y Fflint)


fla-bach feminine noun
(South Wales) cunt, vagina



to flash


fflam, fflamau

gwenfflam blazing, ablaze
(gwen feminine form of gwyn = white) + (fflam = flame)
gyrru (rhywun) yn wenfflam = send someone into a towering rage
mynd yn wenfflam go up in flames, burst into flames


fflamio FLAM-yo
(fire) flare up

fflamion las flare up with a blue flame.


Cofiant Matthews, Ewenni, John James Morgan, 1922, p397
Cymhellid gwin ysgaw arno ym Mynydd Cynffig.
A oes alcol ynddo?
Nac oes, fi gwnaeth e.
Taflodd yntau lwyaid ohono ir tn, a fflamiodd yn las.
Dyna i chi, meddai; ped yfwn ddigon o hwn fe feddwn fel tincer.

Some elderberry wine was foisted on him in Mynyddcynffig.
Is there alcohol in it?
No, I myself made it.
He threw a teaspoonful of it into the fire, and it flared up with a blue flame.
Well now, he said, If I were to drink enough of this I get as drunk as a tinker (I would get drunk like a tinker)



fflan FLAN 

1 flan



fflangell, fflangellau FLA ngelh, fla NGHE lhai -lhe 

1 whip



fflap cath flap kaath masculine noun

1 cat flap = small door within a large door to allow a cat to enter and leave


ETYMOLOGY: "flap (of) cat"; (fflap = flap) + (cath = cat), translation of English cat flap




fflat, fflatiau FLAT, FLAT ye 

1 flat, apartment




fflem  flem  f

1 phlegm 

fflem lysnafeddog slimy phlegm 


2 phlegm = one of the four supposed humours of the body, phlegm being responsible for laziness 


ETYMOLOGY: English phlegm < French fleume < Latin phlegma < Greek phlegma (= inflammation) < phlegein = to burn)



Fflemeg FLE meg

1 Flemish




fflint flint  feminine noun

PLURAL fflintiau flint -ye


1 flint = hard stone which gives off sparks when struck with steel 

carreg fflint flint, flintstone

cloddfa fflint flint mine 


2 flint = piece of flint used to provide fire. Also: fflinten


ETYMOLOGY: English flint < Old English. Related to Latin splendre (= to shine) 




Y Fflint ə flint  

1 (SJ2473) main town in the county of Y Fflint 

English name: Flint 

French name (found in certain medieval documents): Le Caillou 


In modern French, caillou is (1) pebble, stone; (2) boulder, rock; (3) precious stone, jewel; (4) a slang term for the head  bonce, nut, 


2 Y Fflint a parish at this place


3 Sir y Fflint the county of Y Fflint 

Abbreviation (e.g. in a dictionary entry) Ffl. 


Sir Fflint colloquial form (probably imitating place names where the linking y is dropped  Pen-y-cae > Pen-cae, etc.)


4 Nant y Fflint ((the) stream (of) Y Fflint) 

(SJ2473) Stream running into the river Dyfrdwy by Y Fflint 


Mynydd y Fflint the upland of Flint, Englished as Flint Mountain


Mynydd-y-fflint the village here Flint Mountain


Mountain is an unfortunate translation from Welsh as mynydd is also upland, moorland, unenclosed land, common land. As the caption of the photographer in the following photograph states: Flint Mountain is the name of the village, it's actually on a small hill.

 Eglwys Sant Tomas / Saint Thomas Church


(The Geograph British Isles project aims to collect geographically representative photographs and information for every square kilometre of Great Britain and Ireland)


ETYMOLOGY: From Flint, the English name for this place. As a common noun, flint in modern English refers to a specific form of silica, though originally it probably referred to any kind of hard rock




ffliw FLIU 

1 flu

brechiad gwrth-ffliw (m), brechiadau... anti-flu injection 

(less correctly) brechiad ffliw anti-flu injection


brechlyn gwrth-ffliw (m), brechlynnau gwrth-ffliw anti-flu vaccine


Maer ffliw arno Hes got flu (the flu is on him)




ffliw  fliu  feminine noun

PLURAL ffliwau  fliu -e

(South Wales)


1 Also ffliwen smack, slap

rhoi ffliwen i rywun hit somebody, give someone a smack


2 bod ar y ffliw fowr (county of Penfro) be very drunk 


ETYMOLOGY: Unknown origin - probably an English word




ffliwen  fliu -en 

1 see ffliw (= punch, smack, blow)




ffliwt fliut feminine noun

PLURAL ffliwtiau fliut-ye

1 flute 


canur ffliwt play the flute (make the flute sing)


dawnsio ar l pob ffliwt 

dance to every fiddle, change ones opinion to agee with whatever is being said 


ETYMOLOGY: English flute fliuut < French flahute < (Old) Occitan < Vulgar Latin *flabeolum (in the Occitan word there is influence of the word laut = lute). Compare modern Catalan flauta 


NOTE: Also with a diminutive suffix ffliwten fliut-en 




Y Fflos FLOOS m? f? 

1 SO2198 marshy ground in Ffordun, Powys

 Y Fflos. Map.


ETYMOLOGY: Welsh < English


Cf the words flush and flosh in Scottish place names (= boggy ground with water on the surface)




fflwar flu -ar masculine noun

PLURAL fflwars flu -ars

North Wales


1 Englishism flower

pot fflwars flower pot


2 Englishism flour


ETYMOLOGY: fflwar < fflwer < English flower, flour (These are in fact the same word, but modern English differentiates the two meanings with different spellings) . The present pronunciation in English is flau but six hundred years ago it was fluər / fluur. Cf the Welsh word fflwr (= flour)




fflŵr FLUUR 

1 flour (South-west Wales)




fflyd, fflydoedd FLIID, FLƏ-dodh 

1 fleet


fflyd o gychod pysgota fishing fleet 




ffo FOO ar FOO 


1 flight (= escape)


2 ar ffo ar FOO (adverb) fleeing




ffoadur, ffoaduriaid fo A dir, fo a DIR yed 

1 refugee


ffoaduriaid a chwilwyr lloches refugees and asylum seekers


gwersyll ffoaduriaid (m) gwersylloedd ffoaduriaid refugee camp

dalfa ffoaduriaid (f) dalfydd ffoaduriaid refugees detention centre




ffocstrot foks-trot feminine noun

PLURAL ffocstrotiau, ffocstrots focs- trot-ye, foks-trots

1 foxtrot = type of ballroom dance

ffocstrot araf slow foxtrot


ETYMOLOGY: English foxtrot = (fox + trot)




ffocstrotio focs- trot-yo verb

1 to foxtrot, to do the foxtrot


ETYMOLOGY: (ffocstrot foxtrot = a type of dance) + (-io suffix for forming verbs)




ffodus FOO dis 

1 fortunate




ffes fis feminine noun

1 variant of the word ffos (= ditch)


2 Ffoes Las Fach [fois laas vaakh] little green ditch. A lost place name in Caer-dydd. 


According to John Hobson Mathews (Mab Cernyw) in 'Cardiff Records' (1889-1911): 


A meadow in the parish of Llanedern (1702) 


The local form would have been Ffois Ls Fch [fois l:s v:kh], and the spelling lase indicates this local pronunciation, though it is not extended to the spelling of vach, probably because there was no easy way to indicate the sound, unless the unusual spelling vech were to be used.


It might also be conveniently written as Ffois Ls Fch, to indicate the length and the  quality of the long a in south-east Wales.